The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
Dutch and Flemish historians.
Into England silk manufacture was introduced during the reign of Henry VI.; but the first serious impulse to manufactures of that class was due to the immigration in 1585 of a large body of skilled Flemish weavers who fled from the Low Countries in consequence of the struggle with Spain then devastating their land.
is said to have granted letters of protection to John Kemp, a Flemish weaver who settled in the town; and, although the coarse cloth known to Shakespeare as "Kendal green" is no longer made, its place is more than supplied by active manufactures of tweeds, railway rugs, horse clothing, knitted woollen caps and jackets, worsted and woollen yarns, and similar goods.
In 1337 the industry received an impulse from the settlement of a party of Flemish clothiers, and extended so greatly that when it was found necessary in 1566 to appoint by act of parliament deputies to assist the aulnegers, Bolton is named as one of the places where these deputies were to be employed.
It was translated at the end of the next century into Flemish by J.
The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.
The Flemish coal-basin, employing over 100,000 hands, produces 60% of the coal mined in France.
But the growth and development of the northern communal movement, though strong and instinct with life, was slower and less tempestuous than the Flemish.
He was quite aware that the industrial wealth of the great Flemish communes was financially the mainstay of his power, but their very prosperity made them the chief obstacle to his schemes of unifying into a solid dominion the loose aggregate of states over which he was the ruler.
A permanent memorial of it remains in the famous Order of the Golden Fleece, which was instituted by the duke at Bruges in 1430 on the occasion of his marriage with Isabel of Portugal, a descendant of John of Gaunt, and was so named from the English wool, the raw material used in the Flemish looms, for which Bruges was the chief mart.
The peace of Arras with France (March 1483) freed him to deal with the discords in the Netherland provinces, and more especially with the turbulent opposition in the Flemish cities.
by a Flemish mother, and like the other women of the House a strong and capable ruler.
The primatial see was placed at Malines (Mechlin), having under it Antwerp, Hertogenbosch, Roermond, Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres constituting the Flemish province; the second archbishopric was at Cambray, with Tournay, Arras, St Omer, and Namur, - the Walloon province; the third at Utrecht, with Haarlem, Middleburg, Leeuwarden, Groningen and Deventer, - the northern (Dutch) province.
TOURNAI '(Flemish Doornik), a city of Belgium, in the province of Hainaut, situated on the Scheldt.
After 1815 Ghent was for a time the centre of Catholic opposition to Dutch rule, as it is now that of the Flemish movement in Belgium.
The old town is composed of winding streets and culs-de-sac bordered by old houses in the Flemish style.
This quality is nowhere better exemplified than in his letters to Gaspar Baertz (Barzaeus), the Flemish Jesuit whom he sent to Hormuz, or in his suggestions for the establishment of a Portuguese staple in Japan.
The lace manufacture was introduced by Flemish refugees, and was flourishing in the reign of Charles I.
- Flemish Mitre, embroidered in gold thread, and the panels in colours, with figures of the Virgin and St Augustine.
Auguste Marie Raymond, prince d'Arenberg, known as the Comte de la Marck, was a Flemish nobleman who had been proprietary colonel of a German regiment in the service of France; he was a close friend of the queen, and had been elected a member of the states-general.
In 1173 Bishop Hugh de Puiset allowed French and Flemish troops to land at Hartlepool to aid the Scots.
He derived his surname from the fact that his ancestors were burgraves or chatelains of the town; his parents, who belonged to illustrious Flemish families, were probably the Jean Chastellain and his wife Marie de Masmines mentioned in the town records in 1425 and 1432.
The largest and heaviest of all is the Flemish giant, with iron-grey fur above and white below.
The wealth of the town was increased in 1 189 by the destruction of the flourishing trading centre of Bardowieck by Henry the Lion; from this time it began to be much frequented by Flemish merchants.
The interior contains some good pictures by Umbrian artists, a fine episcopal throne in carved wood, and a fine Flemish cope given by Pope Marcellus II.
We have next to consider the works of Albert Girard, a Flemish mathematician.
During the following night and day London was given over to plunder and slaughter, the victims being chiefly Flemish merchants, lawyers and personal adherents of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster.
He was highly esteemed in devout circles as the author of De la aficiOn y amor de Jesus (1630), and De la aficion y amor de Maria (1630), both of which were translated into Arabic, Flemish, French, German, Italian and Latin.
Owing to theAfashion of Dutch and Flemish painters introducing glass vases and drinking-glasses into their paintings of still life, interiors and scenes of conviviality, Holland and Belgium at the present day possess more accurate records of the products of their ancient glass factories than any other countries.
TIRLEMONT (Flemish Thienen), a town of Belgium in the province of Brabant, II m.
contains a valuable and extensive collection of pictures by the earlier masters, the chief treasures being the early German and Flemish works and the unusually numerous examples of Rubens.
Among Flemish serials may be mentioned the Nederduitsche Letteroefeningen (1834); the Belgisch Museum (1836-1846), edited by Willems; the Broederhand, which did not appear after 1846; the Taalverbund of Antwerp; the Kunsten Letterblad (1840-1843); and the Vlaemsche Rederyker (1844).
Current Flemish periodicals include: Onze kunst geillustreed maandschrift voor beeldende kunst (1900); Averbode's weekblad Godsdienst huisgezin moedertaal (1907); De Raadselbode tolk van den vlamschen raadselliefhebber (1901); Rechtskundig tijdschrift voor vlamsch Belgie (1901).
AGUILLON (AGUILONIUS), FRANCOIS D' (1566-1617), Flemish mathematician.
(d) The later middle ages saw many minor migratory movements, such as those accompanying the crusades, the pushing of German colonization among the Sla y s, and the introduction of Flemish weavers into England.
Contributing causes were Philip's support of the Scots and Edward's alliance with the Flemish cities, which were then on bad terms with their French overlord, and the revival of Edward's claim, first made in 1328, to the French crown.
In 1339 and 1340 Edward endeavoured to invade France from the north with the help of his German and Flemish allies, but the only result of his campaigns was to reduce him to bankruptcy.
OUDENARDE (Flemish Oudenaerde), a town of Belgium in the province of East Flanders, 18 m.
The former contains several fine pictures by Craeyer and other old Flemish masters.
The alliance of Brandenburg and the Mainz electorate had already been secured, and Spain, justly fearing for the safety of her Flemish possessions, soon joined them.
But the religious agitation was affecting his own Flemish possessions, and when Philip went back to Spain, in August 1559, he was committed to a lifelong struggle in which he could not prove victorious except by the conquest of France and England.
A closer investigation of the numerous long, narrow banks which lie off the Flemish coast and the Thames estuary shows that they are composed of fragments of rock abraded and transported by tidal currents and storms in the same way that the chalk and limestone worn off from the eastern continuation of the island of Heligoland during the last two centuries has been reduced to the coarse gravel of the off-lying Dune.
COURTRAI (Flemish, Kortryk), an important and once famous town of West Flanders, Belgium, situated on the Lys.
But considerable as is the prosperity of modern Courtrai it is but a shadow of what it was in the middle ages during the halcyon period of the Flemish communes.
He planted Flemish and Dutch settlers in the land between the Elbe and the Oder, fostered the growth and trade of Lubeck, and in other ways encouraged trade and agriculture.
frequently refer to wool, and Flemish weavers settled in the Weald in the time of Edward III.
The Hanseatic and Flemish merchants largely increased its prosperity, but on the withdrawal of the Hanseatic League about 1470 and the break-up of the gild system Boston's prosperity began to wane, and for some centuries it remained almost without trade.
YPRES (Flemish Yperen), a town of Belgium, in the province of West Flanders, of which it was formerly considered the capital.
The woollen trade was established here through the agency of Flemish immigrants in Edward III.'s reign, and in Elizabeth's time this industry was of such importance that an aulneger was appointed to measure and stamp the woollen cloth.
The hotel de ville contains a library and a museum which possesses a collection of paintings of the Flemish school and some interesting souvenirs of Napoleon I.
"DIXMUDE, or in Flemish Dixmuyde, a town in the province of West Flanders, Belgium, on the right bank of the Yser, with a pop. which had risen from 3,278 in 1909 to 3,460 in 1914.
LOUIS DE BLOIS (1506-1566), Flemish mystical writer, generally known under the name of Blosius, was born in October 1506 at the château of Donstienne, near Liege, of an illustrious family to which several crowned heads were allied.
PHILIPPE ANTOINE MERLIN, Count (1754-1838), French politician and lawyer, known as Merlin "of Douai," was born at Arleux (Nord) on the 30th of October 1754, and was called to the Flemish bar in 1775.
It is in the museum, and contains about 2500 pictures, being especially rich in specimens of the Italian, Dutch and Flemish schools.
The town was built by a colony of Flemish immigrants in 1153.
encouraged Flemish settlers in the manufacture of baize ("bays and says"), which attained great importance, so that a charter of Charles I.
ADRIAN SARAVIA (1531-1613), theologian, was born at Hesdin, Pas-de-Calais, of a Spanish father and Flemish mother, both Protestants.
Did not the Lamb of God, suspended at each knight's heart, symbolize at once the woollen fabrics to which so much of Flemish wealth and Burgundian power was owing, and the gentle humility of Christ which was ever to characterize the order?
It was translated into Dutch and Flemish with almost equal success.
A Flemish translation appeared at Haarlem in 1495.
Doubtless this coincidence gave a ready handle to the scoffing wits of the time, and among the numerous popular names given to the Beghards - bons garcons, boni pueri, boni valeti and the like - we find also that of Lollards (from Flemish liillen, " to stammer").
The Beguines wear the old Flemish head-dress and a dark costume, and are conspicuous for their kindness among the poor and their sick nursing.
The earliest Flemish Beghard communities were associations mainly of artisans who earned ' In the year 1287 the council of Liege decreed that "all Beguinae desiring to enjoy the Beguine privileges shall enter a Beguinage, and we order that all who remain outside the Beguinage shall wear a dress to distinguish them from the Beguinae."
Then the Flemish cities rose against the French royal officers, and utterly defeated the French army at Courtrai in 1302.
The great bulk of the population is of Teutonic stock, and about a quarter of a million are of Flemish blood.
Among the provinces Walloon Belgium is better instructed than Flemish, Luxemburg coming first, followed by Namur, Liege and Brabant in their order.
Farnese first won by promises and blandishments the confidence of the Walloons, always jealous of the predominance of the " Flemish " provinces, and then proceeded to make himself master of Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. In succession Ypres, Mechlin, Ghent, Brussels, and finally Antwerp (17th of August 1585) fell into his hands.
That the fierce opposition which this attempt aroused in the Flemish-speaking provinces was ill recent years there has been a patriotic movement in these same provinces which has been successful in forcing the Belgian government to adopt Flemish (i.e.
This Flemish movement is all in favour of establishing close relations with the sister people of the north.
They increased their power considerably by reducing the voting qualification for electors to provincial councils to 20 frs., and to communal councils to 10 frs., and also by recognizing the importance of what was styled " the Flemish Movement."
The use of Flemish in public documents, in judicial procedure and in official correspondence was hereafter required in the Flemish provinces, and Belgium became officially bi-lingual.
Socialism of a German type had taken deep root among the working men of the Flemish towns, especially at Ghent and Brussels; socialism of a French revolutionary type among the Walloon miners and factory hands.
E.) Literature Belgian literature, taken in the widest sense of the term, falls into three groups, consisting of works written respectively in Flemish, Walloon and French.
The earlier Flemish authors are treated under DUTCH Literature; the revival of Flemish Literature since the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands in 1830, and Walloon Literature, are each separately noticed.
Many of its most distinguished exponents are Flemings by birth, and their writings reflect the characteristic Flemish scenery; they have the sensuousness, the colour and the realism of Flemish art; and on the other hand the tendency to mysticism, to abstraction, is far removed from the lucidity and definiteness associated with French literature properly so-called.
He produced some Parisian and purely imitative work; but the best part of his production is the outcome of a passionate idealism of the quiet Flemish towns in which he had passed his childhood and early youth.
Baron Kervyn de Lettenhove (1817-1891) wrote a Histoire de Flandre (7 vols., 1847-1855), and a number of monographs on separate points in Flemish and English history.
OSTEND (Flemish and French Ostende), a town of Belgium in the province of West Flanders.
Philip proved a faithful ally of the king, aiding him in re-entering Paris and preparing an expedition against Calais, which, however, failed through the ill-will of his Flemish subjects (1436).
Philip was frequently disturbed by the insubordination of the Flemish communes.
The most interesting quarter lies in the east of the town, where the lofty houses which border the spacious squares known as the Grande and the Petite Place are in the Flemish style.
MONS (Flemish Bergen), a town of Belgium situated on a small river called the Trouille in the province of Hainaut of which it is the capital.
Victory declared itself also on the other wing, where the French at last routed the Flemish cavalry and captured Count Ferdinand of Flanders, one of the leaders of the coalition.
Later on Hermann Schyn claimed descent for the peaceful Baptists from the Waldensians, who certainly, as the records of the Flemish inquisition, collected by P. Fredericq, prove, were wide-spread during the 15th century over north France and Flanders.
The rise of the towns in Gelderland began in the 13th century, river commerce and markets being the chief cause of their prosperity, but they never attained to the importance of the larger cities in Holland and Utrecht, much less to that of the great Flemish municipalities.
They differed also from the Flemish cities in the nature of their privileges and immunities, as they did not possess the rights of communes, but only those of "free cities" of the Rhenish type.
He favoured trade by encouraging Flemish emigrants to settle in the country, by improving the roads, regulating the coinage and establishing the first posts.
People of Slav origin being considered unfree, all intermarriage with them tainted the blood; hence nearly all surnames point to Saxon, especially Westphalian, and even Flemish descent.
The exterior is simple, but the buildings which surround the main courtyard have high-pitched roofs surmounted by numerous dormer windows with decorated gables, recalling the Flemish style of architecture.
ANTOINETTE BOURIGNON (1616-1680), Flemish mystic, was born at Lille on the 13th of January 1616.
An exceptional position among the cities of France is taken up by those of Flanders, more particularly the three "Great Towns," Bruges, Ghent and Ypres, whose population was Flemish, i.e.
TERMONDE (Flemish Dendermonde), a town of Belgium in the province of East Flanders, situated 25 m.
The Flemish Jesuit Bolland brought the light of criticism to bear on the legends of the saints (see Bollandists).
But the most effective protest against them was a movement which began when Michel de Bay, a professor at the Flemish university of Louvain, put forward certain theories on grace and free-will in the latter part of the 16th century.
It was left for the Poussins and Claude Lorraine in the next century, acting under mingled Italian and Flemish influences, to embody the still active spirit of the classical revival.
But, compared with Italian, French, Spanish, German and Flemish work of a like period, it is both timid and dry.
The actual founder of hagiologic criticism was the Flemish Jesuit, Heribert Rosweyde (d.
The Museo Civic°, formed in 1903, contains collections of antiquities (though many of the Roman antiquities of Piacenza have passed to the museum of Parma), some good Flemish tapestries and a few pictures.
A fierce engagement took place wherein the Norman and Flemish troops were utterly routed, and the victorious Cymry slew thousands of their fugitives at the fords of the Teifi close to the town of Cardigan.
He went to Paris in 1839, and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse; but his, independent spirit did not allow him to remain there long, as he preferred to work out his own way by the study of Spanish, Flemish and French painters.
' Another painting of the same subject in the Doria Palace in Rome (usually attributed to Darer) is given to Schongauer by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Flemish Painters (London, 1872), p. 359; but the execution is not equal to Schongauer's wonderful touch.
It had been founded by Gerhard Groot, a wealthy burgher who had been won to pious living mainly through the influence of Ruysbroeck the Flemish mystic. It was at Deventer, in the midst of this mystical theology and hearty practical benevolence, that Thomas a Kempis was trained.
He wrote a chronicle of the monastery and several biographies - the life of Gerhard Groot, of Florentius Radewyn, of a Flemish lady St Louise, of Groot's original disciples; a number of tracts on the monastic life - The Monk's Alphabet, The Discipline of Cloisters, A Dialogue of Novices, The Life of the Good Monk, The Monk's Epitaph, Sermons to Novices, Sermons to Monks, The Solitary Life, On Silence, On Poverty, Humility and Patience; two tracts for young people - A Manual of Doctrine for the Young, and A Manual for Children; and books for edification - On True Compunction, The Garden of Roses, The Valley of Lilies, The Consolation of the Poor and the Sick, The Faithful Dispenser, The Soul's Soliloquy, The Hospital of the Poor.
The raw materials purchased by Flemish, German or English traders were used in the establishment of productive industries, while Portugal received a vast influx of bullion, most of which was squandered on war, luxuries or the Church.
The collection, which in 1874 contained 1300 paintings, was then enriched by the purchase by the Prussian government for £51,000 of the Suermondt collection which, rich in pictures of the Dutch and Flemish schools, contained also a few by Spanish, Italian and French masters.
Where possible, he substitutes human for divine intervention, and ignores the idea of the glorification of Rome and Augustus, which dominates the Virgilian epic. On this work were founded the Eneide or Eneit (between i180 and 1190) of Heinrich von Veldeke, written in Flemish and now only extant in a version in the Thuringian dialect, and the Eneydos, written by William Caxton in 1490.
MENIN (Flemish Meenen), a town of Belgium in the province of West Flanders situated on the Lys 7 m.
The king of Sicily's fame as an amateur of painting has led to the attribution to him of many old paintings in Anjou and Provence, in many cases simply because they bear his arms. These works are generally in the Flemish style, and were probably executed under his patronage and direction, so that he may be said to have formed a school of the fine arts in sculpture, painting, gold work and tapestry.
The help sent by the English to the Flemish cities resulted in a second Flemish campaign.
He visited most of the large cities, took into his service many Flemish artisans, and made the personal acquaintance of Quentin Matsys and Albrecht Diirer, the latter of whom painted his portrait.
Thus the plantation of Flemish weavers in East Anglia, especially at the towns of Worstead (to which is attributed the derivation of the term worsted) and Norwich, dates from the 12th century.
MALINES (Flemish, Mechelen, called in the middle ages by the Latin name Mechlinia, whence the spelling Mechlin), an ancient and important city of Belgium, and the seat since 1559 of the only archbishopric in that country.
The exterior is decorated with sculptures and tile-work, and internally it is divided, broadly speaking, into a museum of general antiquities below, and the large gallery of pictures of the Dutch and Flemish schools above.
Robert thus, in his own right and that of Dirk, was ruler of all Frisia (Zeeland), and thus became known among his Flemish countrymen as Robert the Frisian.
The Flemings, expelled by Alva's persecutions (1569), brought the manufacture of Flemish lace to Cranfield, whence it spread to surrounding districts.
The church of Cockayne Hatley, near Potton, is fitted with rich Flemish carved wood, mostly from the abbey of Alne near Charleroi, and dating from 1689, but brought here by a former rector early in the 19th century.
Before 1 335 Philippa had established a small colony of Flemish weavers at Norwich, and she showed an active interest in the weaving trade by repeated visits to the town.
BRUGES (Flemish Brugge, a name signifying the bridge or place of bridges), the capital of West Flanders, Belgium.
The city contains some of the finest monuments of the great period of the Flemish communes, while its medieval appearance is better preserved, as a whole, than in the case of any other Belgian city.
There are numerous other buildings of minor antiquarian interest; the fine museum contains a representative gallery of early Flemish paintings; and of the old fortifications three gates remain.
of Spain, who spent the whole of his reign in the Flemish wars.
To alleviate the distress of the people he undertook to develop both agriculture and industry: planting colonies of Dutch and Flemish settlers to drain the marshes of Saintonge, issuing prohibitive measures against the importation of foreign goods (1597), introducing the silk industry, encouraging the manufacture of cloth, of glass-ware, of tapestries (Gobelins), and under the direction of Sully - named grand-voyer de France - improving and increasing the routes for commerce.
The royal library (1798) contains upwards of 500,000 volumes, including some early illuminated MSS., a valuable collection of coins and medals and some fine antique gems. In addition to the royal palace already mentioned, there are the palaces of the queen-dowager, of the prince of Orange (founded about 1720 by Count Unico of Wassenaar Twiekels) and of the prince von Wied, dating from 1825, and containing some good early Dutch and Flemish masters.
high, covered with paintings by Dutch and Flemish artists, chiefly of incidents in the life of Prince Frederick.
tha.t Edward was compelled to abandOn his unfruitful Flemish campaign; he patched up an unsatisfactory truce with the king of France, which left four-fifths of his lost Gascon lands in.
Seeing that he could do nothing on land while his communications with the Low Countries were endangered by the existence of this armada, Edward levied ever~,i ship that was to be found, and brought the enemy to action in the Flemish harbour of Sluys.
The weaving industry, introduced into the eastern counties by the kings invitation to Flemish settlers, was making England something more than a mere producer of raw material for export.
A large number of French and Flemish chronicles illustrate the history of the Hundred Years War, by far the most important being Froissart (best edition by Luce, though Lettenhoves is bigger).
Those burned were George van Parris (1551), Flemish surgeon; Patrick Pakingham (1555), fellmonger; Matthew Hamont (1579), ploughwright; John Lewes (1583);(1583); Peter Cole (1587), tanner; Francis Kett (5589), physician and author; Bartholomew Legate (5652), cloth-dealer, last of the Smithfield victims; and the twice-burned fanatic Edward Wightman (1612).
LIERRE (Flemish, Lier), a town in the province of Antwerp, Belgium; 9 M.
This undertaking led to the introduction of a large number of Flemish workmen, who settled in the district, and, in spite of the violent measures adopted by the English peasantry to expel them, retained their ground in sufficient numbers to affect the physical appearance and the accent of the inhabitants to this day.
A still more lengthy and unfortunate suit was the attempt of Philip the Fair and his successors to incorporate the Flemish fief like the English one (1300-1326), thus coming Philip the into conflict with proud and turbulent republics;:, composed of wool and cloth merchants, weavers, fullers and powerful counts.
Though reform originated among the educated classes it speedily found an echo among the industrial classes of the 16th century, further assisted by the influence of German and Flemish journeymen.
A victory in the Dunes by Turenne, now reinstalled in honor, and above all the conquest of the Flemish seaboard, were the results (June 1658); but when, in order to prevent the emperors intervention in the Netherlands, Mazarin attempted, on the death of Ferdinand III., to wrest the Empire from the Habsburgs, he was foiled by the gold of the Spanish envoy Peflaranda (1657).
Under the protection of the Frankish king Dagobert (622-638), the Christian missionaries Amandus (St Amand) and Eligius (St Eloi) attempted the conversion of these Flemish Frisians, and their efforts were attended with a certain measure of success; but farther north the building of a church by Dagobert at Trajectum (Utrecht) at once aroused the fierce hostility of the heathen tribesmen of the Zuider Zee.
The original authorities for the life and times of Charles the Bold are the numerous French, Burgundian and Flemish chroniclers of the latter part of the 15th century.
of rounded by Flemish favorites.
His indifference to their good, or his utter inability to see where it lay, was conspicuously shown when, on his abdication in 1556, he left his hereditary Flemish possessions to his son Philip, and not to his brother Ferdinand.
But the key to his whole policy must be sought in his relations to his Flemish subjects.
Aragon, which was poor and tenacious of its rights, would give little; Catalonia and Valencia afforded small help. The Flemish revenue was destroyed by the revolt.
On the Flemish frontier, with the help of an English contingent and by the good generalship of Philibert of Savoy he defeated a French army at St Quentin on the foth of August 1557, and again at Gravelines on the 13th of July 1558.
King John gave great encouragement to horse-breeding: one of his earliest efforts was to import a hundred Flemish stallions, and, having thus paved the way for improving the breed of agricultural horses, he set about acquiring a valuable stud for his own use.
The real importance of Tenby dates from the 12th century, when walls, castle and church were erected for the convenience of the Flemish colonists, who were then being planted in Dyfed.
Until the 17th century the pirates used galleys, but a Flemish renegade of the name of Simon Danser taught them the advantage of using sailing ships.
In 1631 a Flemish renegade, known as Murad Reis, sacked Baltimore in Ireland, and carried away a number of captives who were seen in the slave-market of Algiers by the French historian Pierre Dan.
Its imposing front facade of red brickwork in Flemish bond with finely lined pointing even merits a mention in Pevsner.
Should a Flemish Eye be required or thought desirable, the operation can be done only manually.
Flemish school: 3. Double-manual harpsichord, Andreas I Ruckers.
Picardy Belgian and Flemish influences are apparent with this traditionally hearty cuisine.
imposing front facade of red brickwork in Flemish bond with finely lined pointing even merits a mention in Pevsner.
A group of Flemish merchants were burnt to death in their guild hall at the express orders of Edward.
In the sixteenth century Dutch and Flemish sculptors started to use lead as an ornamental material especially for garden ornamentation.
We have always adored the Dutch and Flemish master painters who pictured still life food so beautifully and so realistically.
For more information... Flemish speaking Payroll Service Owner- Urgent!
straddles a language frontier - where French meets Flemish, where south meets north.
suicide prevention project of the Flemish mental health centers.
tapestryning Room has two 16th century Flemish tapestries with hunting scenes also brought from Cotehele.
ultramarine skies recall the visionary realism of early Flemish painting.
The cottages were built in the early sixteen hundreds by Flemish weavers who won permission to build against the outside of the city wall.
It does not appear from any evidence that the keyboards - when there were more than one - of the early organs were arranged for transposition, but it is certain that the Flemish harpsichords to 1650 were made with double keyboards to accommodate it (see Hipkins' History of the Pianoforte, 1897).
In these Flemish cities the early oligarchic form of municipal government speedily gave way to a democratic. The great mass of the townsmen organized in trade gilds - weavers, fullers, dyers, smiths, leather-workers, brewers, butchers, bakers and others, of which by far the most powerful was that of the weavers - as soon as they became conscious of their strength rebelled against the exclusive privileges of the patricians and succeeded in ousting them from power.
The power of the Flemish cities rose to its height during the ascendancy of Jacques van Artevelde (1285-1345), the famous citizen-statesman of Ghent, but after his downfall the mutual jealousies of the cities undermined their strength, and with the crushing defeat of Roosebeke (1382) in which Philip van Artevelde perished, the political greatness of the municipalities had entered upon its decline.
In Brabant - Antwerp, Louvain, Brussels, Malines(Mechlin)- and in the episcopal territory of Liege - Liege, Huy, Dinant - there was a feebler repetition of the Flemish conditions.
The Great Privilege was supplemented by provincial charters, the Flemish Privilege granted (February 10), the Great Privilege of Holland and Zeeland (February 17), the Great Privilege of Namur and the Joyeuse EntrÃ©e of Brabant, both in May, thus largely curtailing the sovereign's power of interference with local liberties.
In addition to those already mentioned, Aix-la-Chapelle possesses several fine secular buildings: the Suermondt museum, containing besides other miscellaneous exhibits the fine collection of pictures by early German, Dutch and Flemish masters, presented to the town by Bartholomaus Suermondt (d.
He is said to have belonged to an Italian family named Bonicolli, in Flemish Goethals, but the question of his name has been much discussed (see authorities below).
The two former are among the finest in the world, and are filled with masterpieces by Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, Perugino, Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, the Lippi, and many other Florentine, Umbrian, Venetian, Dutch and Flemish artists, as well as numerous admirable examples of antique, medieval and Renaissance sculpture.
But the bigotry of the Flemish clergy, and the monkish atmosphere of the university of Louvain, overrun with Dominicans and Franciscans, united for once in their enmity to the new classical learning, inclined Erasmus to seek a more congenial home in Basel.
From the middle of the 16th century the elements of Latin were generally learned from unattractive abridgments of the grammar of the Flemish scholar, van Pauteren or Despautere (d.
This is testified by George Joye in his Apology, who himself brought out a fourth edition of Tyndale's New Testament in August 1534, freed from many of the errors which, through the carelessness of the Flemish printers, had crept into the text, but with such alterations and new renderings as to arouse the indignation of Tyndale.
LOUIS DE BLOIS (1506-1566), Flemish mystical writer, generally known under the name of Blosius, was born in October 1506 at the chÃ¢teau of Donstienne, near Liege, of an illustrious family to which several crowned heads were allied.
The naming of the intermediate subdivisions making up the thirty-two points or rhumbs of the compass card is probably due to Flemish navigators; but they were recognized even in the time of Chaucer, who in 1391 wrote, "Now is thin Orisonte departed in xxiiii partiez by thi azymutz, in significacion of xxiiii partiez of the world: al be it so that ship men rikne thilke partiez in xxxii" (Treatise on the Astrolabe, ed.
Georges Eekhoud, born at Antwerp on the 27th of May 1854, was in some ways the most passionately Flemish of the whole group. He described the life of the peasants of his native Flanders with a bold realism, making himself the apologist of the vagabond and the outcast in a series of tragic stories: - Kees Doorik (1883), Kermesses (1883), Nouvelles Kermesses (1887), Le Cycle patibulaire (1892), Mes Communions (1895), Escal Vigor (1899) and La Faneuse d'amour (1900), &c. Nouvelle Carthage (1888) deals with modern Antwerp. In 1892 he produced a striking book on English literature entitled Au siÃ¨cle de Shakespeare, and has written French versions of Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster (1895) and of Marlow's Edward II.
The Museo CivicÃ‚°, formed in 1903, contains collections of antiquities (though many of the Roman antiquities of Piacenza have passed to the museum of Parma), some good Flemish tapestries and a few pictures.
In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I.
Our only existing memorials of the great work are a number of small pen-studies of fighting men and horses, three splendid studies in red chalk at Budapest for heads in the principal group, one head at Oxford copied by a contemporary of the size of the original cartoon (above life); a tiny sketch, also at Oxford, by Raphael after the principal group; an engraving done by Zacchia of Lucca in 1558 not after the original but after a copy; a 16th-century Flemish drawing of the principal group, and another, splendidly spirited, by Rubens, both copies of copies; with Edelinck's fine engraving after the Rubens drawing.
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A Flemish Eye is a length of steel wire rope cable, one end of which is formed into a loop.
It straddles a language frontier - where French meets Flemish, where south meets north.
Also, the center participates in the suicide prevention project of the Flemish mental health centers.
The Dining Room has two 16th century Flemish tapestries with hunting scenes also brought from Cotehele.
Certainly both the artist 's crystalline, glacial brushwork and intense ultramarine skies recall the visionary realism of early Flemish painting.
The Morning Room - sitting room overflowing with Spanish antiques and Flemish tapestries.
Northern French dishes are influenced by Flemish cooking styles, and rely on potatoes, pork, and beer.
Distinctive touches pervade each ship, such as the Flemish clock in the Rotterdam's atrium and baroque pipe organ aboard the Zaandam.
By 1536, King Henry accused five men of being Anne's lovers, one of them including her own brother, and forced Flemish musician Mark Smeaton to testify under torture that Anne was unfaithful.
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