How to use Flanders in a sentence
The most powerful and flourishing of all were those of Flanders - Ghent, Bruges and Ypres.
Mustache was Alfred Nota, from Boston, and tic-face was Homer Flanders, from Philadelphia.
During the Protestant revolt, 1568 - 1648, churches throughout Flanders had been ransacked by iconoclastic mobs.
Dean was sure it was Nota and Homer Flanders, looking for information on where Vinnie Baratto was hidden, but there was nothing in the house to tell them.
Homer Flanders, Tic-Face to some of his friends, was found resting in a quiet corner of the Parkside bus terminal, his throat slit like a second grin.Advertisement
We picked him up a few days after the Colombians did in his buddy Flanders, only we didn't let the world know about it.
The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.
For the production of wheat, in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.
On the death of William Longsword, duke of Normandy, who had been assassinated by Arnulf, count of Flanders, in December 942, Louis endeavoured to obtain possession of the person of Richard, the young son and heir of the late duke.
He escaped from Brecknock Castle to Flanders, avoided Buckingham's fate, and devoted his energies during the next two years to creating a party in England and abroad in the interests of the earl of Richmond.Advertisement
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
Chief among these states were the duchy of Brabant, the counties of Flanders, Hainault, Holland, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg, and the bishoprics of Utrecht and Liege.
In 1915, the tradition of wearing a red poppy, which signified the blood shed by soldiers during battle, on Memorial Day began, inspired by the poem In Flanders Field.
This collection of 17th century masterpieces contains work by Rubens and other artists from the region of Flanders, which was a region comprised of portions of modern-day Holland, France, and Belgium.
I checked out Nota and Flanders.Advertisement
The Feds busted a gang of Colombians in Philadelphia and one of them is implicated in slitting the throat of that fellow Homer Flanders.
That was Nota and Flanders.
The so-called Latin crusade of 1203 placed the imperial crown of Constantinople on the head of Baldwin of Flanders.
Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.Advertisement
It was precisely at this time that Flanders, and gradually the other feudal states of the Netherlands, by marriage, purchase, treachery or force, fell under the dominion of the house of Burgundy.
The foundation of the Burgundian r ule in the Netherlands was laid by the succession of Y Philip the Bold to the counties of Flanders and Artois in 1384 in right of his wife Margaret de Male.
He inherited Flanders and Artois, purchased the county of Namur (1427) and compelled his cousin Jacqueline, the heiress of Holland, Zeeland, Hainault and Friesland, to surrender her possessions to him, 1428.
The nobility and clergy were on the side of the ducal authority; its opponents were the municipalities, especially those of Flanders.
Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the 3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the 4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.Advertisement
The plot was, however, discovered; and Bedmar, protected by his position from arrest, left Venice and went to Flanders as president of the council.
The dispute was fought out in Flanders; but Spanish Lombardy felt the shock, as usual, of the French and Austrian dynasties.
On the left bank of the Lys is the Oudeburg (s'Gravenstein, Château des Contes), the former castle of the first counts of Flanders, dating from 1180 and now restored.
This was the centre of the life of the medieval city, the scene of all great public functions, such as the homage of the burghers to 1 Bavo, or Allowin (c. 589-c. 653), patron saint of Ghent, was a nobleman converted by St Amandus, the apostle of Flanders.
The history of the city is closely associated with that of the countship of Flanders (q.v.), of which it was the seat.Advertisement
It is mentioned so early as the 7th century and in 868 Baldwin of the Iron Arm, first count of Flanders, who had been entrusted by Charles the Bald with the defence of the northern marches, built a castle here against the Normans raiding up the Scheldt.
Of these risings the most notable was that, in the earlier half of the 14th century, against Louis de Crecy, count of Flanders, under the leadership of Jacob van Artevelde (q.v.).
The earliest charter to the citizens of Ghent was that granted by Count Philip of Flanders between 1169 and 1191.
He soon became prior of the abbey of Anchin, near Pecquencourt, and passed much of his time in the valuable library of the abbey, studying ecclesiastical history, especially that of Flanders.
The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.Advertisement
He served in the army of Flanders, and then was sent to London in February 1792, to induce England to remain neutral in the war which was about to break out between France and "the king of Bohemia and Hungary."
Many towns shut their gates upon them; but, in spite of discouragement, they spread from Poland to the Rhine, and penetrated as far as Holland and Flanders.
Charles's ambition aimed at wider fields, and when Margaret, countess of Flanders, asked help of the French court against the German king William of Holland, by whom she had been defeated, he gladly accepted her offer of the county of; Hainaut in exchange for his assistance (1253); this arrangement was, however, rescinded by Louis of France, who returned from captivity in 1254, and Charles gave up Hainaut for an immense sum of money.
But Baldwin of Flanders was elected emperor over his head; and his irritation was not wholly allayed by the grant of Macedonia, the north of Thessaly, and Crete (which he afterwards sold to Venice).
Harwich has always had a considerable trade; in the 14th century merchants came even from Spain, and there was much trade in wheat and wool with Flanders.Advertisement
Honiton is famous for its lace industry, established by refugees from Flanders under Queen Elizabeth.
Gaveston then retired to Flanders, but returned secretly to England at the end of 1311.
Sir Richard Weston's Discourse on the Husbandry of Brabant and Flanders was published by Hartlib in 1645, and its title indicates the source to which England owed much of its subsequent agricultural advancement.
Edward himself landed in Flanders to procure allies for his approaching campaign.
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.Advertisement
Peter, grandson of King Louis VI., obtained that dignity in 1217 as brother-in-law of the two previous emperors, Baldwin, count of Flanders, and his brother Henry.
Already in 1087 and 1088 he had appealed to Baldwin of Flanders, verbally and by letter,' for troops; and Baldwin had answered the appeal.
Like the First Crusade, the Fourth Crusade also - in its personnel, but not its direction - was a French enterprise; and its leading members were French feudatories like Theobald of Champagne (who was chosen leader of the Crusade), Baldwin of Flanders (the future emperor of Constantinople), and the count of Blois.
In April Constantinople was captured; in May Baldwin of Flanders became the first Latin emperor of Constantinople.
The great route was that which led from Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route became the long red line of municipal development, along which - in Lombardy, Germany and Flanders - the great towns of the middle ages sprang to life.Advertisement
His pupils were drawn not only from France and Normandy, but also from Gascony, Flanders, Germany and Italy.
While merely a prior of Bec he led the opposition to the uncanonical marriage of Duke William with Matilda of Flanders (1053) and carried matters so far that he incurred a sentence of exile.
In company, therefore, with the earl of Norfolk he refused to render foreign service in Gascony, on the plea that they were only bound to serve with the king, who was himself bound for Flanders.
Francois de Beauvillier, comte de Saint Aignan, after having been through the campaigns in Germany (1634-1635), Franche-Comte (1636), and Flanders (1637), was sent to the Bastille in consequence of his having lost the battle of Thionville in 1640.
From 1741 to 1747 he lived with Lord Blantyre and Mr Hay of Drummelzier at Utrecht, and made excursions in Flanders, France and Germany.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
Dunkirk is said to have originated in a chapel founded by St Eloi in the 7th century, round which a small village speedily sprang up. In the 10th century it was fortified by Baldwin III., count of Flanders; together with that province it passed successively to Burgundy, Austria and Spain.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
Alarmed at the close connexion of Normandy with Flanders, Henry I.
William Fitz Osbern, earl of Hereford, who had been his right-hand man in Normandy, fell in the civil wars of Flanders (1071).
In 1037, however, when Harold Harefoot became sole king, she was banished; she went to Flanders, returning to England with Hardicanute in 1040.
An accident prevented his sailing with his regiment to Brazil, and after a visit to Flanders, where an uncle offered to secure a commission for him, he went to England, picked up the language, and in 1752 became tutor in a Shropshire family.
Much of the material was obtained from the destroyed houses of the unfortunate Jews, but the stone for the bulwarks was obtained from Caen, and the small bricks or tiles from Flanders.
From the 9th to the 12th century Artois belonged to the counts of Flanders.
His son, Robert II., took part in the wars in Navarre, Sicily, Guienne and Flanders, and was killed at the battle of Courtrai in 1302.
Schuermans has, however, discovered the names of more than twenty Italians who found their way into Spain, in some cases by way of Flanders, either from Altare or from Venice.
Pop. (1906) 4499 The town has a belfry, the finest in French Flanders, dating from the middle of the 16th century and restored in the 19th century.
The Gothland association received in 1237 trading rights in England, and shortly after the middle of the century it also secured privileges in Flanders.
In Flanders, also, the German merchants from the West had long been trading, but here had later to endure not only the rivalry but the pre-eminence of those from the East.
In 1252 the first treaty privileges for German trade in Flanders show two men of Lubeck and Hamburg heading the "Merchants of the Roman Empire," and in the later organization of the counter at Bruges four or five of the six aldermen were chosen from towns east of the Elbe, with Lubeck steadily predominant.
Flanders became a battle-field in the great struggle between France and England, and the war of trade prohibitions led to infractions of the German privileges in Bruges.
An embargo on trade with Flanders, voted in 1358 by a general assembly, resulted by 1360 in the full restoration of German privileges in Flanders, but reduced the counter at Bruges to an executive organ of a united town policy.
The fatal result of conflict between town autonomy and territorial power had been taught in Flanders.
Having offended the influential iElfgifu, he was outlawed and compelled to flee to Flanders.
It was first improved by Baldwin IV., count of Flanders, in 997, and afterwards, in 1224, was regularly fortified by Philip Hurepel, count of Boulogne.
For the decoration of the palace and other monuments built by them, eminent artists were gathered from northern France and Flanders, and during this period the town became one of the great intellectual centres of France.
These were The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders, The Journal of the Plague Year, and The History of Colonel Jack.
Moll Flanders and The Fortunate Mistress (Roxana), which followed in 1724, have subjects of a rather more than questionable character, but both display the remarkable art with which Defoe handles such subjects.
The art of both stories is great, and that of the episode of the daughter Susannah in Roxana is consummate; but the transitions of the later plot are less natural than those in Moll Flanders.
Lord Macaulay's description of Roxana, Moll Flanders and Colonel Jack as "utterly nauseous and wretched" must be set aside as a freak of criticism.
The French evacuated Dutch territory early in 1674, but continued to hold places on the Rhine and in Flanders.
In November 1677 he married Mary, eldest daughter of James, duke of York, afterwards King James II., and undertook negotiations with England in the following year which forced Louis to make terms and sign the treaty of Nijmwegen in August 1678, which gave Franche Comte and other places in Spanish Flanders to France.
After absorbing Strassburg (1681), Louis invaded Spanish Flanders and took Luxemburg (1684).(1684).
As king of England he concluded treaties of alliance with the members of the League of Augsburg and sent a large army to oppose the French in Flanders.
The next year six deputies, two appointed by each of the three allied counts of Flanders, Champagne and Blois, were despatched to Venice to negotiate for ships.
With his old regiment, the 12th, Wolfe served in the Flanders campaigns of the duke of Cumberland, and at Val (Lauffeld) won by his valour the commendation of the duke.
In Flanders, Lincoln joined Lord Lovell, who had headed an unsuccessful Yorkist rising in 1486, and in May 1487 the two lords proceeded to Dublin, where they landed a few days before the coronation of Lambert Simnel.
The English commander put to sea, and found the enemy anchored on the coast of Flanders, in three divisions.
Luxemburg was left in charge in Flanders, and the prince took command of the remnant of Turenne's old army and of the fugitives of Crequi's.
He went to the West in 1236, visited Rome, France and Flanders, trying to raise money and men to recover the lost territory of his realm.
Philip was summoned in 1548 to Flanders, where he went unwillingly, and was ill regarded.
In 1554, when Charles was meditating his abdication, and wished to secure the position of his son, he summoned Philip to Flanders again, and arranged the marriage with Mary, queen of England, who was the daughter of his sister Catherine, in order to form a union of Spain, the Netherlands and England, before which France would be powerless.
In 1257 the twelve peers were the chiefs of the great feudal provinces, the dukes of Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse, Champagne and Flanders, and six spiritual peers, the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Laon, Chalons-sur-Marne, Beauvais, Langres and Noyon.
He was successful in restoring the authority of Maximilian in Holland, Flanders and Brabant, but failed to obtain any repayment of the large sums of money which he had spent in these campaigns.
In the middle ages Aire belonged to the counts of Flanders, from whom in 1188 it received a charter, which is still extant.
He entered the army in 1741 and saw service in Flanders and in the campaign of Culloden, becoming lieutenant-colonel in the 44th foot in March 1751.
Douai, the site of which was occupied by a castle (Castrum Duacense) as early as the 7th century, belonged in the middle ages to the counts of Flanders, passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, and so in 1477 with the rest of the Netherlands to Spain.
The treuga Dei was decreed for Flanders at the Synod of Therouanne (1063) and was instituted in southern Italy in 1089, probably through Norman influence.
Then, with the assistance of her sister, she projected a more ambitious work, The Lives of the Queens of England, from Matilda of Flanders to Queen Anne.
Turning to mints in British Dominions beyond the Seas, Ruding enumerates twenty-six mints in France and Flanders used by British monarchs between 1186 and 1513, and Anglo-Hanoverian coins were struck at Clausthal, Zellerfeld and Hanover in the period 1714-1837.
Perhaps the Pont de Broel, with its towers at either end of the bridge, is as characteristic and complete as any monument of ancient Flanders that has come down to modern times.
The chapel of the counts attached to the church dates from 1373, and contained mural paintings of the counts and countesses of Flanders down to the merging of the title in the house of Burgundy.
He entered the army in 1789, and served in Flanders, the West Indies and the Peninsula.
Cherries are said to have been imported from Flanders and first planted in Kent by Henry VIII., and from this period the culture of fruits (especially apples and cherries) and of hops spread rapidly over the county.
Lord Beaverbrook became one of the chief proprietors of the London Daily Express, and in 1916-7 published Canada in Flanders.
In the rue de la Regence are the new picture gallery, a fine building with an exceedingly good collection of pictures, the palace of the count of Flanders, and the garden of the Petit Sablon, which contains statues of Egmont and Horn, and a large number of statuettes representing the various gilds and handicrafts.
Manufactories of it were afterwards established in Germany, Holland and Flanders.
In November 1340 Edward III., humiliated, impecunious and angry, returned suddenly to England from Flanders and vented his wrath upon the archbishop's brother, the chancellor, Robert de Stratford.
In 55 B.C. certain German tribes, the Usipetes and Tencteri, crossed the lower Rhine, and invaded the modern Flanders.
He made himself conspicuous by issuing a pamphlet in justification of the iconoclasts who devastated Flanders in 1566, and on Alva's arrival next year had to fly the country.
Her husband found campaigning in Flanders under Alva a welcome relief from domestic life; and, after having lost all he possessed by a forfeited security and tried without success the trade of tavern-keeping in the village of Elmendingen, he finally, in 1589, deserted his family.
The office originated in Flanders.
After completing his studies at Abo, he entered the army and served for several years in the Netherlands, in Hungary under Prince Eugene, and in Flanders under Waldeck (1690-1695).
The next pope, Paul V., created him archbishop of Rhodes in 1607, and appointed him as nuncio to Flanders and afterwards to France; on his return to Rome in 1621 he was created cardinal and entrusted by Louis XIII.
He had inherited his desire for the humiliation of the house of Austria in both its branches, his desire to push the French frontier to the Rhine and maintain a counterpoise of German states against Austria, his alliances with the Netherlands and with Sweden, and his four theatres of war - on the Rhine, in Flanders, in Italy and in Catalonia.
By it Spain recovered Franche Comte, but ceded to France Roussillon, and much of French Flanders; and, what was of greater ultimate importance to Europe, Louis XIV.
At fourteen he was taken through Flanders, along the Rhine, and through the Black Forest to Switzerland, where he first imbibed his dominant passion for the Alps.
In the 14th century it promised to become one of the principal communes in Flanders; but having incurred the resentment of Ypres on a matter of trade rivalry it was attacked and captured by the citizens of that place, who reduced it to a very subordinate position.
On two occasions he was obliged to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and of Cardinal Richelieu; and after waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc, he took refuge in Flanders.
He then took service in the French army, fought under Marshal Luxembourg in Flanders, and took part in the battles of Steinkirk and Neerwinden, at the latter of which he was taken prisoner.
Four different sources have been suggested; the classical myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts for the golden fleece, the scriptural story of Gideon, the staple trade of Flanders in wool, and the fleece of golden hair of Marie de Rambrugge, the duke's mistress.
The greatest losses were in the Channel where the Flanders flotilla worked, and the blow they would have received by the blocking of Zeebrugge and Ostend was well worth the risk.
After the assassination of Canute in 1086, his widow took refuge in Flanders, taking with her her son.
Charles was brought up by his mother and grandfather, Robert the Frisian, on whose death he did great services to his uncle, Robert II., and his cousin, Baldwin VII., counts of Flanders.
In July 1577, and contrary to the king's orders, he came to Spain from Flanders, where Don John was then governor.
The duke of Anjou was solemnly inaugurated as duke of Brabant (February 1582), and shortly afterwards as duke of Gelderland, count of Flanders and lord of Friesland.
To make head, however, against the victorious advance of Parma, before whose arms all the chief towns of Brabant and Flanders, Bruges, Ghent, Brussels and lastly - after a valiant defence - Antwerp itself had fallen, it was necessary to look for the protection of a foreign ruler.
The StatesGeneral were but the delegates of a number of sovereign provinces, and amongst these Holland by its size and wealth (after the occupation by the Spaniards of Brabant and Flanders) was predominant.
By a bold march across Flanders, Maurice reached Nieuport on the 1st of July, and proceeded to invest it.
That portion of Flanders which skirts the south bank of the Scheldt thus passed into the possession of the States, and with it the complete control of all the waterways to the sea.
The French captured all the barrier towns, and in 1747 entered Dutch Flanders and made an easy conquest.
By the conquest of Dutch Flanders Zeeland was threatened, and the states of that province, in which there were always many Orange partisans, elected (April 1747) William stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Zeeland.
Opposed to them is the coalition of the orthodox Protestant conservatives, styled antirevolutionaries, supported by the Calvinistic peasantry, and the Catholics, who represent about one-third of the population and have their headquarters in Dutch Brabant, Dutch Flanders and Limburg.
The Histoire de la Thoison d'Or (Paris, 1516) by Guillaume Fillastre (1400-1473), written about 1440-1450, is an historical compilation dealing with the exploits of the trks chretiennes maisons of France, Burgundy and Flanders.
Edward was in Flanders when the news of this successful revolt reached him.
His reign is also marked by the creation of numerous monasteries and by renewed missionary activity in Flanders and among the Basques.
Edward won over the counts of Bar and of Flanders, but they were defeated and he was obliged to make peace in 1297.
The reign closed with the French position unimproved in Flanders, except for the transfer to Philip by Count Robert of Lille, Douai and Bethune, and their dependencies.
The western portion of Belgium, consisting of the two Flanders, Antwerp and parts of Brabant and Hainaut, is flat, being little above the level of the sea; and indeed at one point near Furnes it is 7 ft.
The canals of Belgium are scarcely less numerous or important than those of Holland, especially in Flanders, where they give a distinctive character to the country.
Ghent is the capital of the textile industry, and all the towns of Flanders are actively engaged in producing woollen and cotton materials and in lace manufacture.
By the signing of the league of Arras (5th of January) the Walloon " Malcontents " declared their adherence to the cause of Catholicism and their loyalty to the Spanish king, and broke away definitely from the northern provinces, who bound 1 See for earlier history Netherlands, Flanders, Brabant, Liege, &C.
Brabant and Flanders were still indeed under the control of the prince of Orange, and through his influence accepted in 1582 the duke of Anjou as their sovereign.
The French prince was actually inaugurated duke of Brabant at Antwerp (February 1582) and count of Flanders at Bruges (July), but his misconduct speedily led to his withdrawal from the Netherlands, and even before the assassination of Orange (July 1584) the authority of Philip had been practically restored throughout the two provinces.
Farnese first won by promises and blandishments the confidence of the Walloons, always jealous of the predominance of the " Flemish " provinces, and then proceeded to make himself master of Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. In succession Ypres, Mechlin, Ghent, Brussels, and finally Antwerp (17th of August 1585) fell into his hands.
By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) Artois (except St Omer and Aire) and a number of towns in Flanders, Hainaut, and Luxemburg were ceded to France.
In Flanders over 80% of the children attended the Catholic schools.
The count of Flanders, brother of the king, died on the 17th of November 1905, leaving his son Albert heir to the throne.
It communicates with the canal system of Flanders and with the Somme canal by way of the St Quentin canal (Crozat branch) which unites with it at Chauny.
Early in life Feltham visited Flanders, and published observations in 1652 under the title of A Brief Character of the Low Countries.
It is also the starting point of several light railways along the coast and to the southern towns of Flanders.
He administered his estates wisely; promoted commerce and industry, particularly in Flanders; and left his son a welllined treasury.
As the chief town of the province of Artois, Arras passed to Baldwin I., count of Flanders, in 863, and about 880 was ravaged by the Normans.
When Philip Augustus, king of France, married Isabella, niece of Philip, count of Flanders, Arras came under the rule of the French king, who confirmed its privileges in 1194.
At once the rulers of Brabant, of Limburg and of Flanders, with the archbishops of Cologne and Trier, were in arms. In the east of Germany Ottakar I.
They were disturbed by democratic movements in many of the cities and they were threatened by the changing politics of the three northern kingdoms, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and by their union in 1397; their trading successes had raised up powerful enemies and had embroiled them with England and with Flanders, and the Teutonic Order and neighboring princes were not slow to take advantage of their other difficulties.
Dandolo was one of the candidates, but Count Baldwin of Flanders was elected and crowned on the 23rd of May.
He served with distinction in Flanders in 1683, and against the wish of the king went to Hungary, where he assisted the Imperialists to defeat the Turks at Gran in 1683.
In 1 794 he was sent with 7000 men to Ostend to reinforce the duke of York and the allies in Flanders.
In 1563 he was again arrested, but managed to escape to Flanders, where he became a pensioner of Philip II.
Victory declared itself also on the other wing, where the French at last routed the Flemish cavalry and captured Count Ferdinand of Flanders, one of the leaders of the coalition.
From Flanders to Rome his distinction was acknowledged, and artists of less invention, among them some of the foremost on both sides of the Alps, were not ashamed to borrow from his work this or that striking combination or expressive type.
The great cities of Flanders also, with their world-wide commerce and longestablished eminence in the arts, presented aspects of more splendid civic pomp and luxury.
In 1204 Constantinople was captured by the Latins of the Fourth Crusade, and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned emperor; the Venetians acquired several maritime towns and islands, and Frankish feudal dynasties were established in Salonica, Athens, Achaea and elsewhere.
The Lancastrians were defeated in 1464 near Hexham, and legend says that it was in the woods round the town that Queen Margaret and her son hid until their escape to Flanders.
Later on Hermann Schyn claimed descent for the peaceful Baptists from the Waldensians, who certainly, as the records of the Flemish inquisition, collected by P. Fredericq, prove, were wide-spread during the 15th century over north France and Flanders.
It is divided by the river Lys, leaving one part on French (department of Nord), the other on Belgian territory (province of West Flanders).
The fief became for the first time a dependency of the French crown in 1185, when Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders, ceded it to Philip Augustus.
There is no proof for the legend that Bernard Saisset earned Philip IV.'s hatred in 1300-1301 by boldly sustaining the pope's demand for the liberation of the count of Flanders, and by publicly proclaiming the doctrine of papal supremacy.
He left in Italian a personal narrative of the war in Flanders, which has been repeatedly published in a Latin translation (Bellum Belgicum, Antwerp, 1609).
In 988 he had married Rosala, or Susanna, widow of Arnold II., count of Flanders.
Owing to family quarrels, he could not prevent the kingdom of Burgundy, or Arles, from passing into the hands of the emperor Conrad II., and no serious results followed his interference in Flanders or in Lorraine.
An excellent harbour, sheltered against pirates, it became almost at once a competitor for the commerce of the Baltic. Its foundation coincided with the beginning of the advance of the Low German tribes of Flanders, Friesland and Westphalia along the southern shores of the Baltic - the second great emigration of the colonizing Saxon element.
Four years later, as Charles came to the Bourbonnais, Louis, fearing for his life, fled to Flanders to the court of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, leaving Dauphine to be definitely annexed to the crown of France.
But in his eagerness to seize the whole inheritance of his rival, Louis drove his daughter and heiress, Mary of Burgundy, into marriage with Maximilian of Austria (afterwards the emperor Maximilian I.),who successfully defended Flanders after a savage raid by Antoine de Chabannes.
The Austrians were left in Flanders, a menace and a danger.
Fuentes"; and Lorenzi Pigorna writes, 4 under date 31st August 1609, that "Galileo had been appointed lecturer at Padua for life on account of a perspective like the one which was sent from Flanders to Cardinal Borghese."
He secured an ally against them, and an addition to the royal domain, by marrying, on the 28th of April 1180, Isabella or Elizabeth, daughter of Baldwin V., count of Hainaut, and of Marguerite, sister of Philip of Alsace, the reigning count of Flanders, who ceded Arras, St Omer, Aire and Hesdin, and their districts, as Isabella's dowry, a district afterwards called Artois.
On the death of Isabel of Vermandois, wife of Count Philip of Flanders, in 1182, Philip claimed Vermandois and seized Chaune and St Quentin, and forced his father-in-law, Baldwin of Hainaut, to support him by threatening to divorce Queen Isabel.
The count of Flanders was obliged to sign the treaty of Boves in July 1185, which gave the king, in addition to the expectation of Artois, his wife's dower, sixty-five castles in Vermandois and the town of Amiens.
Again a formidable coalition was formed against him, including Baldwin IX., count of Flanders and Hainaut, Renaud of Dammartin, count of Boulogne, Louis, count of Blois, and Raymond VI., count of Toulouse.
John renounced his suzerainty over Brittany and the guardianship of his nephew, Arthur; he engaged not to aid the count of Flanders or Otto IV.
Disappointed of his hopes of England, Philip turned his arms against Ferdinand, count of Flanders.
Ferdinand, son of Sancho I., king of Portugal, owed his county to Philip, who, hoping to find him a docile protege, had married him to Jeanne, heiress of Flanders, daughter of Count Baldwin IX., who became emperor of the East, using the weak Philip of Namur, her guardian, to accomplish that end.
He invaded Flanders and took the chief towns within a week; but he had part of his fleet burned by the English at Damme, and had to burn the rest to save it from falling into their hands.
A war of fire and pillage began, in which Philip and his son Louis burned their way through Flanders, and Ferdinand did the same through Artois.
Paris was to be attacked from Flanders and Guienne at the same time.
A league including his rebel vassals, Renaud of Dammartin, count of Boulogne, and Ferdinand, count of Flanders, with the emperor Otto IV.
Meanwhile Philip himself won his greatest victory at the bridge of Bouvines, among the morasses of Flanders.
An exceptional position among the cities of France is taken up by those of Flanders, more particularly the three "Great Towns," Bruges, Ghent and Ypres, whose population was Flemish, i.e.
These, however, proved far more unruly, bloody conflicts ensued, and for a considerable period the three great cities ruled the whole of Flanders with a high hand.
Their influence in the foreign relations of the country was likewise great, it being in their interest to keep up friendly relations with England, on whose wool the flourishing state of the staple industry of Flanders depended.
All this while, the minor arts of enamelling, miniature, glass-painting, goldsmith's work, jewellery, engraving, tapestry, wood-carving, pottery, &c., were cultivated with a spontaneity and freedom which proved that France, in the middle point between Flanders and Italy, was able to use both influences without a sacrifice of native taste.
During the middle ages the wealthy free towns of Flanders flourished under conditions not The dissimilar to those of the Italian republics.
It was said that he died of a broken heart, and a conversation with the king is reported in which Louis disparagingly compared the buildings of Versailles, which Colbert was superintending, with the works constructed by Louvois in Flanders.
In January 1537 he received a sharp letter of rebuke from the king's council, together with the suggestion that the differences might be discussed with royal deputies either in France or Flanders, provided that Pole would attend without being commissioned by any one.
Moreover, the fear of Henry was sufficient to make the French king refuse to allow one who was attainted by act of parliament to remain in the kingdom; so Pole passed over to Flanders, to wait for the possible arrival of any royal deputies.
Lochiel's son and successor, John, who was attainted for sharing in the rebellion of 1715, died in Flanders in 1748.
This plan, however, came to nothing; projected risings in England were betrayed, and by the capture of Dunkirk in June 1658, after the battle of the Dunes, by the French and Cromwell's Ironsides, the Spanish cause in Flanders was ruined.
He continued in parliament, combining with it military duties, making the campaign of Flanders (1747).
Aalst, a town in Belgium, in the province of East Flanders, is situated on the left bank of the Dender; the ancient capital of what was called Imperial Flanders.
Flanders in the feudal period was a fief of the king of France - the count of Flanders being the first of the twelve peers of France; but there was a small strip extending from Alost to the isles of Zeeland, designated Imperial Flanders, of which the count was the vassal of the Holy Roman emperor.
It was outside Alost that William Clito, grandson of William the Conqueror, who was then endeavouring to establish his claims as count of Flanders, was mortally wounded in 1128.
A visit to Flanders for the sake of his health brought him into close intercourse and sympathy with Dumouriez.
Consequently the Portuguese merchants sent their goods by sea to England, Flanders, or the Hanse towns.
The next day he expressed openly his dissatisfaction at her looks; "she was no better than a Flanders mare."
The gallery of paintings, on the first floor, is distributed into the separate schools of Germany, Italy, Flanders and Holland, while another of the central rooms embraces those of Spain, France and England.
Paris, Rouen, the cities of Flanders, with Amiens, Orleans, Reims and other French towns, also rose (1382) in revolt against their masters.
Thence in August 1463 she crossed to Sluys in Flanders.
Before putting this plan into execution, however, it was decided to try a "quiet way"; and Winter was sent over to Flanders to obtain the good offices of Juan de Velasco, duke of Frias and constable of Castile, who had arrived there to conduct the negotiations for a peace between England and Spain, in order to obtain the repeal of the penal laws.
Fawkes was despatched to Flanders, where he imparted the plot to Hugh Owen, a zealous Romanist intriguer.
Guy Fawkes himself was to take ship immediately for Flanders, spread the news on the continent and get supporters.
But he would do things his own way; and deeply distrusting the Danish nobles with whom he shared his powers, he sought helpers from among the wealthy and practical middle classes of Flanders.
Long after textile and other industries had been flourishing in the leading states of the continent, in the Netherlands, Flanders and France, England remained, as a whole, an agricultural and pastoral country, content to export her riches in wool, and to import them again, greatly enhanced in value, as clothing.
In the 9th century Charles the Bald bestowed the fief on the bishop of Liege, and after being shared between Brabant and Flanders it passed into the hands of Philip the Bold, founder of the house of Burgundy, in 1384.
In 1436 he commanded in a short invasion of Flanders.
Clement eventually succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Castile, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, and Flanders.
Early in the spring of 1708 the prince proceeded to Flanders, in order to assume the command of the German army which his diplomatic ability had been mainly instrumental in assembling, and to unite his forces with those of Marlborough.
From the king of Prussia the prince obtained everything which he had been instructed to require; and having thus fulfilled his mission, he returned into Flanders, where, excepting the capture of Douai, Bethune and Aire, the campaign of 1710 presented nothing remarkable.
He began the long strife with the counts of Flanders, as to the lordship over Walcheren Iv.
On his marriage his father including the islands of Frisia (Zeeland) west of the the g () invested him with Imperial Flanders, as an apanage Scheldt.
The issue was decided by the decisive victory of Robert at Cassel (February 1071) when Arnulf was killed and Richilde taken prisoner (see Flanders).
While Robert was thus engaged in Flanders, an effort was made to recover "the County of Holland" and other lands now held by William of Utrecht.
He had Floris IIL troubles with West Friesland and Groningen, and a war with the count of Flanders concerning their respective rights in West Zeeland, in which he was beaten.
He brought a war with Margaret of Flanders (Black Margaret) to a successful conclusion (1253).
In his reign the long-standing quarrel with Flanders, which had during a century and a half William c aused so many wars, was finally settled by the treaty ?
Y Y Y of 1323, by which the full possession of West Zeeland was granted to William, who on his part renounced all claim in Imperial Flanders.
The war with Flanders, which had begun under Philip IV.
Soon after he had come of age he disposed of his property, and in 1593 went to Flanders and enlisted in the Spanish army, assisting at the capture of Calais by the Spanish in 1596 and gaining some military reputation.
In 1604 Thomas Winter, at the instance of Catesby, in whose mind the gunpowder plot had now taken definite shape, introduced himself to Fawkes in Flanders, and as "a confident gentleman," "best able for this business," brought him on to England as assistant in the conspiracy.
When all was ready in May 1605 Fawkes was despatched to Flanders to acquaint Sir William Stanley, the betrayer of Deventer, and the intriguer Owen with the plot.
The count of Flanders, brother to the king of the Belgians, was proclaimed hospodar of the united provinces, but declined the proffered honour.
Herbert I., the earliest of its hereditary counts, was descended in direct male line from the emperor Charlemagne, and was killed in 902 by an assassin in the pay of Baldwin II., count of Flanders.
By the terms of a treaty concluded in 1185 with the king, Philip Augustus, the count of Flanders kept the countship of Vermandois until his death, in 1191.
Her mother Jeanne de Valois, visited her in 1331 and further cemented the community of interests between England and Flanders.
The house is supposed to have formed part of the residence of the counts of Flanders.
Bruges is said to have been a city in the 7th century, and the name Flanders was originally applied to it and not to the district.
Baldwin II., count of Flanders, who married Elstrud, daughter of Alfred the Great, first fortified it, and made it his chief residence.
Before the year i 180 Bruges was the recognized capital of Flanders, and the formality of proclaiming the new counts was always performed on the marche du vendredi, where the railway station is to-day.
He was in that year summoned to Flanders by Margaret, the widowed duchess of Burgundy, and sister of Edward IV., who was the main support of the Yorkist exiles, and who was the enemy of Henry VII.
He gathered beneath his banner thousands of adventurers not only from France, Brittany and Flanders, but even from distant regions such as Aragon, Apulia and Germany.
That same night he made a second attempt to escape from England and this time succeeded in getting off to Flanders.
He sent the earl of Salisbury with some of his mercenaries to join the confederates in Flanders, while he sailed with the main body of them to La Rochelle, whence he marched northwardr devastating the land before him.
Norfolk, who had been designated to lead the expedition to Guienne, declared that though he was ready to follow his master to Flanders in his capacity of marshal, he would not be drafted off to Gascony against his own will.
Harassed by these domestic troubles, the king could not carry out his intention of sailing for Flanders in the spring, and spent the greater part of the campaigning season in wrangles with his subjects.
Henceforth England was safe from coast raids, could conduct her commerce with Flanders without danger, and could strike without difficulty at any point of the French littoral.
Pressing her claims, Gloucester came to open blows with Philip in Flanders and Hainaut (1424).
But while he was sailing to Flanders his ship was intercepted by some London vessels, which were on the look-out for him, and he was deliberately murdered.
Prosperity seems to have revived early during the rule of York; Warwick had cleared the seas of pirates, and both he and King Edward were great patrons of commerce, though the earls policy was to encourage trade with France, while his master wished to knit up the old alliance with Flanders by adhering Corn- to the cause of Charles of Burgundy.
Yet there was still a large export of wool to Flanders, and the long pack-trains of the Cotswold flockmastcrs still wound eastward to the sea for the benefit of the merchants of the staple and the continental manufacturer.
It was led by Lord Lovel, Richards chamberlain and admiral; but the insurgents dispersed when Henry marched against them with a large force (1486), and Lovel took refuge in Flanders with Margaret of York, the widow of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, whose dower towns were the refuge of all English exiles, and whose coffers were always open to subsidize plots against her nieces husband.
When he declared himself to be Richard of York, he obtained some support in Ireland from the earl of Desmond and other lords; but he did not risk open rebellion till he had visited Flanders, and had been acknowledged as her undoubted nephew by Duchess Margaret.
But the pretender nevertheless sailed from Flanders in July 1495 with a following of 2000 exiles and German mercenaries.
Flanders was still the greatest customer of England, and it was therefore necessary above all things to keep on good terms with the archduke Philip, the son of Maximilian, who on coming of age had taken over the rule of the Netherlands from his father.
In 1608 he was exiled, and remained out of England for ten years, mostly in Flanders and Spain.
During his early days he took part in campaigns in Flanders, Scotland and Wales, but was quite overshadowed by his elder brother Thomas (see below).
At the end of September the Flanders regiment came to Versailles to reinforce the Gardes du Corps.
The officers of the Gardes du Corps entertained the officers of the Flanders regiment and of the Versailles National Guard at dinner in the palace.
In Flanders the English were defeated at Hondschoote (September 8) and the Austrians at Wattignies (October 15).
Farnese, as soon as he had obtained a secure basis of operations in Hainaut and Artois, set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell into his power.
Louis XI., who had joined his troops to those of the princes of Anjou, attached Boffille to his own person, made him his chamberlain and conferred on him the vice-royalty of Roussillon and Cerdagne (1471), together with certain important lordships, among others the countship of Castres, confiscated from James of Armagnac, duke of Nemours (1476), and the temporalities of the bishopric of Castres, confiscated from John of Armagnac. He also entrusted him with diplomatic negotiations with Flanders and England.
After 1628 Gassendi travelled in Flanders and Holland.
But vassalage could only be a cause of disintegration, not of unity, and that this disintegration did not at once spread indefinitely was due to the dozen or so great military commands Flanders, Burgundy, Aquitaine, &c.which Charles the Bald had been obliged to establish on a strong territorial basis.
They were hemmed in by the powerful duchy of Normandy, the counties of Blois, Flanders and Champagne, and the duchy of Burgundy.
There was, however, but little difference yet between a count of Flanders or of Chartres and Louis VI., the possessor of a but small and perpetually disturbed realm, who was praised by his minister, the monk Suger, for making his power felt as far as distant Bern!
His bold endeavour to, establish William Clito in Flanders ended in failure; and his want of strength was particularly humiliating in his unfortunate struggle with Henry I., king of the English and duke of Normandy, who was powerful and well served, the real master of a comparatively weak baronage.
In five years (1180-1186) he rid himself Augustus of the overshadowing power of Philip of Alsace, count (1180 of Flanders, and his own uncles, the counts of 1223).
Champagne; while the treaty of May 20th, 1186, was his first rough lesson to the feudal leagues, which he had reduced to powerlessness, and to the subjugated duke of Burgundy and count of Flanders.
In 1213, John Lackland, having been in conflict with Innocent regarding the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury, had made submission and done homage for his kingdom, and Philip wished to take vengeance for this at the expense of the rebellious vassals of the north-west, and of Renaud and Ferrand, counts of Boulogne and Flanders, thus combating English influence in those quarters.
John seized the opportunity to consolidate Coaiftion against Philip a European coalition, which included against most of the feudal lords in Flanders, Belgium and Philip Lorraine, and the emperor Otto IV.
In matters concerning the succession in Flanders, Hainaut and Navarre; in the quarrels of the princes regarding the Empire, and in those of Henry III.
Philip the Fair instituted suits against his natural enemies, the king of England and the count of Flanders, foreign princes Philip the holding possessions within his kingdom; and against the emperor, whose ancient province of Lorraine and kingdom of Arles constantly changed hands between Germany and France.
Guy de Dampierre, count of Namur, who had become count of Flanders on the death of his mother Margaret II.
The communes of Flanders, rich, hard-working, jealous of their liberties, had always been restive under the authority of their counts and the influence of their suzerain, the king of France.
To attack the English through their colonies, Guienne and Flanders, was to injure them in their most vital interests cloth and claret; for England sold her wool to Bruges in order to pay Bordeaux for her wine.
Flanders tired of it, but fortunately for Edward III.
Charles also had all towns and large villages fortified; and being a man of affairs he set about undoing the effect of the treaty of Brtigny by alliances with Flanders, whose heiress he married to his brother Philip, duke of Burgundy; with Henry, king of Castile, and Ferdinand of Portugal, who possessed fine navies; and, finally, with the emperor Charles IV.
The duke of Burgundy, heir through his wife to the countship of Flanders, wanted to crush the democratic risings among the Flemings.
He had traversed the fertile country of Flanders; he had visited the rich commercial and industrial republics of Bruges and Ghent, which had escaped the disasters of the Hundred Years War; and, finally, he had enjoyed a hospitality as princely as it was self-interested at Brussels and at Dijon, the two capitals, where he had seen the brilliancy of a court unique in Europe for the ideal of chivalric life it offered.
After having, despite so many reverses and mistakes, saved Burgundy, though not Artois nor Flanders, and joined to the crown lands the domains of the constable de Bourbon Further who had gone over to Charles V., Francis I.
This massacre had the effect of preventing the expedition into Flanders, and destroying Francis Is policy of alliance with the Protestants against the house of Austria.
But, in the 18th aentury, the monarchy, hypnotized by the classical battle-fields of Flanders and Italy, madly squandered the fruits of Colberts work as so much material for barter and exchange.
As the minister of an ambitious and magnificent king, Colbert was under the hard necessity of sacrificing everything to the wars in Flanders and the pomp of Versailles a gulf which swallowed up all the countrys wealth;and, amid a society which might be supposed submissively docile to the wishes of Louis XIV., he had to retain the most absurd financial laws, making the burden of taxation weigh heaviest on those who had no other resources than their labor, whilst landed property escaped free of charge.
Under his orders Turenne conquered Flanders (June-August 1667); and as the queen-mother of Spain would not give in, Cond occupied Franche Comt in fourteen days The tilpie (February 1668).
Spain had to cede to Louis XIV,, Franche Comt, Dunkirk and half of Flanders.
The Bavarian dream dissipated, victories gained in Flanders by Marshal Saxe, another adventurer of genius, at Fontenoy, Raucoux and Lawfeld (1745-1747), were hailed with joy as continuing those of Louis XIV.; even though they resulted in the loss of Germany and the doubling of English armaments.
The rise of the power of the Franks and the advance of their dominion northwards brought on a collision with the Frisians, who in the 7th century were still in possession of the whole of the seacoast, and apparently ruled over the greater part of modern Flanders.
He embroiled himself successively with Sigismund of Austria, to whom he refused to restore his possessions in Alsace for the stipulated sum; with the Swiss, who supported the free towns of Alsace in their revolt against the tyranny of the ducal governor, Peter von Hagenbach (who was condemned and executed by the rebels in May 1474); and finally, with Rene of Lorraine, with whom he disputed the succession of Lorraine, the possession of which had united the two principal portions of Charles's territories - Flanders and the duchy and county of Burgundy.
Philip returned to Flanders before the close of the year.
After the subjugation of Flanders he was one of the commissioners nominated in the close of 1792 by the Convention, and sent into that country In the following year he took part in establishing the Revolutionary Tribunal.
He came to it from Flanders, where he had received his education, unable to speak the language and sur- Charles I.
The disregard which both showed for the interests of Spain and its constitutional rights led to the outbreak of the revolt of the citiesthe Comuncroswhich plunged Castile into confusion in 1519 and 1520 after the departure Revolt of the of Charles for Flanders.
As their fleets made it dangerous to send troops by sea to Flanders, Spain had to secure a safe road overland.
In Flanders the town of Breda was taken after a famous siege.
By the marriage of his brother Philip the Bold with Margaret of Flanders, Charles detached the Flemings from the English alliance, and as soon as he had restored something like order in the internal affairs of the kingdom he provoked a quarrel with the English.
His sympathies remained English, but he was now (1373) obliged to take refuge in England, and later in Flanders, while the English only retained a footing in two or three coast towns.
The first rift between them came in 1600, when Maurice was forced against his will by the states-general, under the advocate's influence, to undertake an expedition into Flanders, which was only saved from disaster by desperate efforts which ended in victory at Nieuwport.
By this he secured a sort of outpost in the direction of Flanders.
Flanders is wanted in Philly for skipping child support and he has-n't seen his parole officer in weeks, but no one's gotten around to putting out a call for him, so officially they weren't looking for him.
Dean and Andy Sackler spent the rest of the day trying in vain to chase down the final movements of the late Mr. Homer Flanders before the Colombians enlarged his grin.
At least if Cynthia Byrne's phone rang Sunday, it wouldn't be Arthur Atherton callingâ€”he was on the menu with the Wassermann twins and tic-face Home Flanders in the big barbecue down below.
Leon Berger, who plays the devil in the festival's production, is the official biographer of Michael Flanders.
The museum pays homage to John McCrae's famous poem In Flanders Fields... a must see.
A contemporary, Michael Flanders, then a budding schoolboy actor, penned a school revue GO TO IT!
It is that the party advocates secession from Belgium and the establishment of a Republic of Flanders.
Will he win the day and return to base to win the love of his wartime sweetheart Kitty Flanders?
He was martyred in Flanders and is still venerated in Bruges.
He helped to arrange the marriage between Henry's son, Arthur, and Catherine of Aragon; he went to Scotland with Richard Foxe, then bishop of Durham, in 1497; and he was partly responsible for several commercial and other treaties with Flanders, Burgundy and the German king, Maximilian I.
For their separate local histories and their dynasties, their wars and political relations with one another and with neighbouring countries, reference must be made to the separate articles Flanders, Holland, Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg, Luxemburg, Utrecht, Liege.
William seized his opportunity, and with a body of picked troops advanced into Flanders, occupied Ghent, and entered into negotiations with the leader of the states general at Brussels, for a union of all the provinces on "The the basis of exclusion of foreigners and non-interference Spanish g Fury.
On the left bank of the Lys is the Oudeburg (s'Gravenstein, ChÃ¢teau des Contes), the former castle of the first counts of Flanders, dating from 1180 and now restored.
In 1539 they refused, on the plea of their privileges, to contribute to a general tax laid on Flanders, and when Charles's sister Mary, the governess of the Netherlands, seized some merchants as bail for the payment, they retaliated by driving out the nobles and the adherents of Charles's government.
Doubtless Flanders may claim to be the pioneer of " high farming " in medieval times, other countries following her lead in many respects.
The city was sacked, and a Latin empire, with Baldwin of Flanders as emperor, was established at Constantinople (see Later Roman Empire).
At the end of July it was decided that Guy should remain king for his life, and Conrad should be his successor; but as three days afterwards Philip Augustus began his return to France (pleading ill-health, but in reality eager to gain possession of Flanders), the settlement availed little for the success of the Crusade.
A man of strict and simple life, he did not hesitate at the legatine synod of 1517 to censure the clergy, in the presence of the brilliant Wolsey himself, for their greed of gain and love of display; and in the convocation of 1523 he freely opposed the cardinal's demand for a subsidy for the war in Flanders.
He travelled through Flanders and Picardy, denouncing the vices of the clergy and the extravagant dress of the women, especially their lofty head-dresses, or hennins.
The impetus of this remarkable movement of expansion not only carried German trade to the East and North within the Baltic basin, but reanimated the older trade from the lower Rhine region to Flanders and England in the West.
The German Order in 1398 converted the Hanseatic poundage to a territorial tax for its own purposes, and one of the chief causes for Cologne's disaffection a halfcentury later was the extension from Flanders to other parts of the Netherlands of the levy made by the counter at Bruges.
In 1789, when the states-general were about to assemble, he crossed over to Flanders in the hope of being allowed to offer himself for election, but he was sternly forbidden to enter France.
But against these considerations it might be urged that a Protestant had no occasion to boast of a harmony most natural to him, while his further remark to the effect that a state church is indispensable, and that those who cannot belong to it on conscientious grounds ought to leave the country rather than show any opposition to its rites, seems rather to indicate the crypto-Catholic. The same conclusion is supported by the fact that Stevinus, a year before his death, bequeathed a pious legacy to the church of Westkerke in Flanders out of the revenues of which masses were to be said.
For ten years civil war raged in Lorraine; in Saxony much blood was shed in petty quarrels; and Henry made expeditions against his turbulent vassals in Flanders and Friesland.
The news was false, but Charles, furious at such apparent duplicity, took Louis prisoner, only releasing him, three days later, on the king signing a treaty which granted Flanders freedom from interference from the parlement of Paris, and agreeing to accompany Charles to the siege of his own ally, Liege.
Moreover, in May 1605 he gave introductions to Guy Fawkes when he went to Flanders, and to Sir Edmund Baynham when he went to Rome (see Gunpowder Plot).
A contemporary, Michael Flanders, then a budding schoolboy actor, penned a school revue GO TO IT !
North of that river the coast is low-lying and bordered by sand-lunes, to which succeed on the Strait of Dover the cliffs in the neighborhood of the port of Boulogne and the marshes and sand-dunes of Flanders, with the ports of Calais and Dunkirk, the latter the principal French port on the NOrth Sea.