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flame

flame

flame Sentence Examples

  • Kindle in all hearts the flame of virtue.

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  • The warmth grew into a flame and she tossed her head defiantly.

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  • His red shock of hair stood up like a flame as he glared down at her.

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  • It burns with a pale blue flame to form carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.

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  • Samantha didn't take her eyes off the flame, That's not necessarily true.

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  • A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and nitric oxide burns with a very intense blue-coloured flame, which is very rich in the violet or actinic rays.

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  • When he lighted the oil a hundred tongues of flame shot up, and the effect was really imposing.

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  • Flame collectors blow out in high winds, whilst water-droppers are apt to get frozen in winter.

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  • While Fred was outside picking a boutonniere for the occasion, his now marginally wealthy flame of fame—locally at least— called a second time.

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  • Cupping his hands around the flame, he sucked life into the cigarette and then shook the flame from the match before tossing it into an ashtray.

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  • One sort of imamba, named by the natives " indhlondhlo," is crested, and its body is of a bright flame colour.

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  • One sort of imamba, named by the natives " indhlondhlo," is crested, and its body is of a bright flame colour.

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  • such enthusiastic devotees of Yahweh, in days when religion meant patriotism, did much to keep alive the flame of Israel's hope and courage in the dark period of national disaster.

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  • Tongues of flame here and there broke through that cloud.

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  • It burns with a pale blue flame, forming sulphur dioxide and water.

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  • The advisors of the Princess did not like this test; but she commanded them to step into the flame and one by one they did so, and were scorched so badly that the air was soon filled with an odor like that of baked potatoes.

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  • It is sufficient to look at wire gauze backed by the sky or by a flame, through a piece of blackened cardboard, pierced by a needle and held close to the eye.

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  • Like that of Natal the Transvaal coal burns with a clear flame and leaves little ash.

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  • The " flame tree " is a most conspicuous feature of an Illawarra landscape, the largest racemes of crimson red suggesting the name.

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  • Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.

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  • Distraught, she lay down on the bed and stared at the flame in the lantern.

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  • Occasionally curly tongues of flame rose from under the roofs of the houses.

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  • In his Sylva sylvarum (1627), Francis Bacon states that " the original concretion of bitumen is a mixture of a fiery and watery substance," and observes that flame " attracts " the naphtha of Babylon " afar off."

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  • The flame coloration may give information as to which elements are present.

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  • Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.

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  • Below them was a vast space, at the bottom of which was a black sea with rolling billows, through which little tongues of flame constantly shot up.

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  • "His temper exceeding fiery, as I have known, but the flame of it,.

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  • This apparatus has an oil-cup consisting of a cylindrical brass or gunmetal vessel, the cover of which is provided with three rectangular holes which may be closed and opened by means of a perforated slide moving in grooves; the movement of the slide causes a small oscillating colzaor rape-oil lamp to be tilted so that the flame (of specified size) is brought just below the surface of the lid.

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  • The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.

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  • Heat the substance on a piece of charcoal in the reducing flame of the blowpipe.

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  • If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.

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  • The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.

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  • Heat the substance on a piece of charcoal in the reducing flame of the blowpipe.

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  • But neither the French nor the Russians made that effort, and the flame of battle burned slowly out.

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  • It burns with a purple flame, forming carbon dioxide and nitrogen; and may be condensed (by cooling to - 25° C.) to a colourless liquid, and further to a solid, which melts at - 34.4° C. (M.

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  • This mixture burns with a green flame forming boron trioxide; whilst boron is deposited on passing the gas mixture through a hot tube, or on depressing a cold surface in the gas flame.

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  • Cadmium salts can be recognized by the brown incrustation which is formed when they are heated on charcoal in the oxidizing flame of the blowpipe; and also by the yellow precipitate formed when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed though their acidified solutions.

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  • rend., 1903, 1 37, p. 547), burning with a characteristic blue flame and forming much sulphur dioxide, recognized by its pungent odour.

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  • Rarely the nephridium does not communicate with the coelom; in such cases the nephridium ends in a single cell, like the "flame cell" of a Platyhelminth worm, in which there is a lumen blocked at the coelomic end by a tuft of fine cilia projecting into the lumen.

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  • 2) there are many of these flame cells to a single nephridium which are specialized in form, and have been termed "solenocytes" (Goodrich).

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  • This mixture burns with a green flame forming boron trioxide; whilst boron is deposited on passing the gas mixture through a hot tube, or on depressing a cold surface in the gas flame.

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  • If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.

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  • These reactions are practised in the following manner: A thread of asbestos is moistened and then dipped in the substance to be tested; it is then placed in the luminous point of the Bunsen flame, and a small porcelain basin containing cold water placed immediately over the asbestos.

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  • These reactions are practised in the following manner: A thread of asbestos is moistened and then dipped in the substance to be tested; it is then placed in the luminous point of the Bunsen flame, and a small porcelain basin containing cold water placed immediately over the asbestos.

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  • Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.

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  • Once more something whistled, but this time quite close, swooping downwards like a little bird; a flame flashed in the middle of the street, something exploded, and the street was shrouded in smoke.

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  • At the same instant he was dazzled by a great flash of flame, and immediately a deafening roar, crackling, and whistling made his ears tingle.

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  • Of flame collectors the two best known are Lord Kelvin's portable electrometer with a fuse, or F.

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  • It fuses easily in the electric arc. It oxidizes superficially when heated, but fairly rapidly when ignited in an oxidizing blowpipe flame, forming a black smoke of the oxide.

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  • Of flame collectors the two best known are Lord Kelvin's portable electrometer with a fuse, or F.

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  • Beilstein determines their presence by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum wire in the Bunsen flame; a green coloration is observed if halogens be present.

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  • It burns with a pale-blue flame forming silicon fluoride, silicofluoric acid and silicic acid.

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  • In the oxyhydrogen flame silver boils, forming a blue vapour, while platinum volatilizes slowly, and osmium, though infusible, very readily.

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  • The arc is produced by leading a current of about 5000 volts equatorially between the poles of an electromagnet; this produces what is practically a disk of flame, 62 ft.

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  • Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.

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  • Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.

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  • Potassium gives a blue-violet flame which may be masked by the colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements.

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  • If the worldpowers were hard as flint in their dealings with Israel, the people of God were steeled to such moral endurance that each clash of their successive onsets kindled some new flame of devotion.

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  • The dressed ore is introduced through a "hopper" at the top, and exposed to a moderate oxidizing flame until a certain proportion of ore is oxidized, openings at the side enabling the workmen to stir up the ore so as to constantly renew the surface exposed to the air.

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  • When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.

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  • Analysis.-A borax bead dissolves uranium oxides in the reducing flame with a green, in the oxidizing flame with a yellow, colour.

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  • It may be solidified to rhombic crystals which melt at 5.4° C. (Mansfield obtained perfectly pure benzene by freezing a carefully fractionated sample.) It boils at 80 4°, and the vapour is highly inflammable, the flame being extremely smoky.

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  • If the worldpowers were hard as flint in their dealings with Israel, the people of God were steeled to such moral endurance that each clash of their successive onsets kindled some new flame of devotion.

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  • Analysis.-A borax bead dissolves uranium oxides in the reducing flame with a green, in the oxidizing flame with a yellow, colour.

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  • The platinum is maintained at a bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen.

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  • The platinum is maintained at a bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen.

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  • The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.

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  • This outbreak was partially suppressed, but afterwards it again burst into flame with great vigour.

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  • As a matter of fact, he hadn't said that since he spent half the night with his old flame.

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  • The blush was developing into a burning flame.

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  • It was like watching a spark grow into a flame.

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  • Striking a match, she dropped it into the middle and gently blew on the flame.

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  • The electroscope was used in conjunction with an oil lamp or gas flame.

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  • Kyaukpyu contains numerous "mud volcanoes," from which marsh gas is frequently discharged, with occasional issue of flame.

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  • He further expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame.

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  • Heat the substance with a bead of microcosmic salt or borax on a platinum wire in the oxidizing flame.

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  • Hold a small portion of the substance moistened with hydrochloric acid on a clean platinum wire in the fusion zone' of the Bunsen burner, and note any colour imparted to the flame.

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  • The operation is repeated with the thread in the oxidizing flame.

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  • It boils at 83-85° C. and burns with a green coloured flame.

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  • The best object for examination is a grating of fine wires, about fifty to the inch, backed by a sodium flame.

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  • The fractured edge is smoothed by the impact of a gas flame.

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  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 33° C. It fumes in air and burns with a green flame.

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  • It crystallizes in octahedra which melt at 120.5° C. and boil at 290° C. Its vapour burns with a red flame.

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  • The charging operation being completed, the temperature is raised, and as a consequence an evolution of carbon monoxide soon begins, and becomes visible by the gas bursting out into the characteristic blue flame.

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  • After a time the flame becomes dazzling white, showing that zinc vapour is beginning to escape.

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  • The oxide is fusible only in the oxy-hydrogen flame.

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  • Titanium oxide when fused with microcosmic salt in the oxidizing flame yields a bead which is yellowish in the heat but colourless after cooling.

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  • In the reducing flame the bead becomes violet, more readily on the addition of tin; in the presence of iron it becomes blood-red.

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  • Strontium salts may be recognized by the characteristic crimson colour they impart to the flame of the Bunsen burner and by the precipitation of the insoluble sulphate.

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  • Within the period of Japans written history several eruptions are recorded the last having been in 1707, when the whole summit burst into flame, rocks were shattered, ashes fell to a depth of several inches even in Yedo (TOkyO), 60 m.

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  • In 1561, however, the enmity against him was fanned into flame by his adoption of Protestantism.

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  • William endeavoured to oppose this, and used Louis's recognition of James Edward the "Old Pretender" as king of England (September 1701) to set the English people in a flame.

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  • It readily inflames, burning with a blue smokeless flame, and producing water and carbon dioxide, with the evolution of great.

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  • In the last case it becomes coated with a greyish-black layer of an oxide (dioxide (?)), at a red heat the layer consists of the trioxide (B1203), and is yellow or green in the case of pure bismuth, and violet or blue if impure; at a bright red heat it burns with a bluish flame to the trioxide.

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  • and sent up a burst of flame.

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  • This class of c coal burns with a very small amount of flame, produc ing intense local heat and no smoke.

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  • Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.

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  • Coals richer in hydrogen, on the other hand, are more useful for burning in open fires - smiths' forges and furnaces - where a long flame is required.

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  • release of stored-up masses in the coal, which, overpowering the ventilation, produce magazines of explosive material ready for ignition when brought in contact with the flame of a lamp or the blast of a shot.

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  • Fire-damp when mixed with from four to twelve times its volume of atmospheric air is explosive; but when the proportion is above or below these limits it burns quietly with a pale blue flame.

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  • There is no probability of a dangerous explosion being produced by the ignition of coal dust by a naked light or ordinary flame.

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  • blue lines (of wave length 4555 and 4593) in their flame spectrum, but these are not present in the spark spectrum.

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  • a, l by the action of water upon calcium carbide, prepared}' p fire as they reach the surface, and if a jet of acetylene be passed up into a bottle of chlorine it takes fire and burns with a heavy red flame, depositing its carbon in the form of soot.

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  • Heated in contact with air to a temperature of 480° C., acetylene ignites and burns with a flame, the appearance of which varies with the way in which it is brought in contact with the air.

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  • With the gas in excess a heavy lurid flame emitting dense volumes of smoke results, whilst if it be driven out in a sufficiently thin sheet, it burns with a flame of intense brilliancy and almost perfect whiteness, by the light of which colours can be judged as well as they can by daylight.

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  • This is well shown by taking a cylinder one-half full of acetylene and one-half of air; on applying a light to the mixture a lurid flame runs down the cylinder and a cloud of soot is thrown up, the cylinder also being thickly coated with it, and often containing a ball of carbon.

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  • It is probable that when a flame is smoking badly, distinct traces of carbon monoxide are being produced, but when an acetylene flame burns properly the products are as harmless as those of coal gas, and, light for light, less in amount.

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  • Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were: - first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced.

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  • When acetylene is burnt from a 000 union jet burner, at all ordinary pressures a smoky flame is obtained, but on the pressure being increased to 4 inches a magnificent flame results, free from smoke, and developing an illuminating value of 240 candles per 5 cubic feet of gas consumed.

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  • When acetylene was first introduced as a commercial illuminant in England, very small union jet nipples were utilized for its consumption, but after burning for a short time these nipples began to carbonize, the flame being distorted, and then smoking occurred with the formation of a heavy deposit of soot.

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  • While these troubles were being experienced in England, attempts had been made in America to use acetylene diluted with a certain proportion of air which permitted it to be burnt in ordinary flat flame nipples; but the danger of such admixture being recognized, nipples of the same class as those used in England were employed, and the same troubles ensued.

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  • Ragot and others made burners in which two jets of acetylene, coming from two tubes placed some little distance apart, impinged and splayed each other out into a butterfly flame.

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  • Billwiller introduced the idea of sucking air into the flame at or just below the burner tip, and at this juncture the Naphey or Dolan burner was introduced in America, the principle employed being to use two small and widely separated jets instead of the two openings of the union jet burner, and to make each a minute bunsen, the acetylene dragging in from the base of the nipple enough air to surround and protect it while burning from contact with the steatite.

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  • This class of burner forms a basis on which all the later constructions of burner have been founded, but had the drawback that if the flame was turned low, insufficient air to prevent carbonization of the burner tips was drawn in, owing to the reduced flow of gas.

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  • The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.

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  • comburere, to burn up), in chemistry, the process of burning or, more scientifically, the oxidation of a substance, generally with the production of flame and the evolution of heat.

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  • The term is more customarily given to productions of flame such as we have in the burning of oils, gas, fuel, &c., but it is conveniently extended to other cases of oxidation, such as are met with when metals are heated for a long time in air or oxygen.

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  • The explanation of the phenomena of combustion was at tempted at very early times, and the early theories were generally bound up in the explanation of the nature of fire or flame.

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  • OXYHYDROGEN FLAME, the flame attending the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen, and characterized by a very high temperature.

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  • This heat-disturbance is quite independent of the mode in which the process is conducted; but the temperature of the flame is dependent on the circumstances under which the process takes place.

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  • The powdery metal burns readily in air; the crystalline metal requires to be heated in an oxyhydrogen flame before it catches fire.

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  • In 1614, at the instance of the Arminian party, an edict was passed by the states-general, in which toleration of the opinions of both parties was declared and further controversy forbidden; but this act only served, by rousing the jealousy of the Calvinists, to fan the controversial flame into greater fury.

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  • Or it may be revealed by placing a sensitive flame of the kind described below with its nozzle at the focus.

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  • The flame jumps down at every tick.

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  • f is a flame FIG.

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  • The membrane vibrates, and alternately checks and increases the gas supply, and the flame jumps up and down with the frequency of the source.

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  • The flame then appears toothed as shown.

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  • If several notes are present the flame is jagged by each.

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  • The flame there is much H K' L affected by the nodal pressure changes, while the other two vibrate only slightly.

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  • Then the middle point is a loop, and the middle flame is only slightly affected, while the other two, now being at nodes, vibrate strongly.

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  • The supply is regulated so that when the gas is lighted the flame is half or three-quarters of an inch high.

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  • A " sounding tube," say an inch in diameter, and somewhat more than twice the length of the jet tube, is then lowered over the flame, as in the figure.

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  • When the flame is at a certain distance within the tube the air is set in vibration, and the sounding tube gives out its fundamental note continuously.

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  • The flame appears to lengthen, but if the reflection is viewed in a vertical mirror revolving about a vertical axis or in Koenig's cube of mirrors, it is seen that the flame is really intermittent, jumping up and down once with each vibration, sometimes apparently going within the jet tube at its lowest point.

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  • If Flame.

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  • When a flame is just not flaring, any one of a certain range of notes sounded near it may make it flare while the note is sounding.

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  • The flame rises up from the burner in a long thin column, but when an appropriate note is sounded it suddenly drops down and thickens.

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  • Barrett further showed by using smoke jets that the flame is not essential.

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  • The flame may be 16 in.

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  • Placing the sensitive flame at different parts of this train, he found that it was excited, not at the nodes where the pressure varied, but at the loops where the motion was the greatest and where there was little pressure change.

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  • When the velocity of the jet is gradually increased there is a certain range of velocity for which the jet is unstable, so that any deviation from the straight rush-out tends to increase as the jet moves up. If then the jet is just on the point of instability, and is subjected as its base to alternations of motion, the sinuosities impressed on the jet become larger and larger as it flows out, and the flame is as it were folded on itself.

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  • If a tube be placed over such a flame it makes an excellent singing tube.

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  • The flame of an incandescent gas mantle if turned low is frequently sensitive to a certain range of notes.

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  • Such a flame may jump down, for instance, to each tick of a neighbouring clock.

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  • When the flames are viewed in a revolving mirror and the pipes are blown, each image of one flame lies between two images of the other.

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  • and Mrs Fitzherbert; and this incident, trumpery as it was, added fuel to the disloyal flame then raging.

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  • Detection and Estimation.-Most calcium compounds, especially when moistened with hydrochloric acid, impart an orange-red colour to a Bunsen flame, which when viewed through green glass appears to be finch-green; this distinguishes it in the presence of strontium, whose crimson coloration is apt to mask the orange-red calcium flame (when viewed through green glass the strontium flame appears to be a very faint yellow).

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  • It does not support combustion; and it does not burn readily unless mixed with oxygen, when it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame.

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  • The flame burst forth, not in Bohemia alone, where Huss's death gave the signal for a general rising, but also in England among the Lollards, and in Germany among those of Huss's persuasion, who had many points of agreement with the remnant of the Waldenses.

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  • Here was the beginning, and in some measure doubtless the cause, of a long suite of murderous conflicts, bearing havoc and flame to generations yet unborn" (Parkman).

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  • Exposed to moist air it rapidly oxidizes to the hydroxide; and it burns on heating in air with a yellow flame, yielding the monoxide and dioxide.

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  • Sodium is most distinctly recognized by the yellow coloration which volatile salts impart to a Bunsen flame, or, better, by its emission spectrum which has a line (double), the Fraunhofer D, line, in the yellow (the wave-lengths are 5896 and 5890).

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  • Charcoal burns when heated in air, usually without the formation of flame, although a flame is apparent if the temperature be raised.

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  • It burns with a characteristic pale blue flame to form carbon dioxide.

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  • It Is A Colourless, Odourless Gas, Which Burns With A Blue Flame And Is Decomposed By Heat.

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  • Then, by the use of another piece of platinum as anode, mercury is electrolytically deposited upon the platinum, which may also be amalgamated by making it white hot in a Bunsen flame and plunging it in mercury.

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  • A pellet of potassium when thrown on water at once bursts out into a violet flame and the burning metal fizzes about on the surface, its extremely high temperature precluding absolute contact with the liquid, exce p t at the very end, when the last remnant, through loss of temperature, is wetted by the water and bursts with explosive violence.

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  • The reaction may be written 2K+ 211 2 0= 2K0H+H2, and the flame is due to the combustion of the hydrogen, the violet colour being occasioned by the potassium vapour.

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  • Analysis, &c. - All volatile potassium compounds impart a violet coloration to the Bunsen flame, which is masked, however, if sodium be present.

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  • The finest of the captives was thrown down and fire kindled on his breast by the wooden drill of the priest; then the victim's heart was torn out, and his body flung on the pile kindled with the new flame.

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  • The people watching from their flat housetops all the country round saw with joy the flame on the sacred hill, and hailed it with a thank-offering of drops of blood drawn from their ears.

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  • A pair of coiled nephridial tubes (n) formed of a file of perforated `' drain-pipe "cells, with ciliated tag-like" flame "cells (f), open into a contractile bladder (bl), FIG.

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  • 5, which was the effect noticed by Becquerel with the sodium flame.

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  • The free acid is a colourless liquid with a smell resembling bitter almonds; it boils at 26.1° C., and may be solidified, in which condition it melts at -14° C. It burns with a blue flame,.

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  • In Vedic poetry Agni, the fire-god, is footless; and the ancients themselves attributed this lameness to the crooked appearance of flame (Servius on Aen.

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  • BLOWPIPE, in the arts and chemistry, a tube for directing a jet of air into a fire or into the flame of a lamp or gas jet, for the purpose of producing a high temperature by accelerating the combustion.

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  • in length, curved at the small end into a right angle, and terminating in a small round orifice, which is applied to the flame, while the larger end is applied to the mouth.

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  • To obtain a good oxidizing flame, the blowpipe is held with its nozzle inserted in the edge of the flame close over the level of the wick, and blown into gently and evenly.

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  • (a) in the free flame, blue and well defined; the latter corresponding to (d), pale blue and vague.

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  • To obtain a good reducing flame (in which the combustible matter, very hot, but not yet burned, is disposed to take oxygen from any compound containing it), the nozzle, with smaller orifice, should just touch the flame at a point higher above the wick, and a somewhat weaker current of air should be blown.

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  • The flame then appears as a long, narrow, luminous cone, the end being enveloped by a dimly visible portion of flame corresponding to that which surrounds the free flame, while there is also a dark nucleus about the wick.

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  • Various materials are used as supports for substances in the blowpipe flame; the principal are charcoal, platinum and glass or porcelain.

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  • In this a shallow hole is made for receiving the substance to be held in the flame.

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  • Gas-carbon is sometimes used, since it is more permanent in the flame than wood charcoal.

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  • Platinum is employed in oxidizing processes, and in the fusion of substances with fluxes; also in observing the colouring effect of substances on the blowpipe flame (which effect is apt to be somewhat masked by charcoal).

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  • The mouth blowpipe is unsuitable for the production of a large flame, and cannot be used for any lengthy operations; hence recourse must be made to types in which the air-blast is occasioned by mechanical means.

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  • Fletcher, in which the blast is heated by passing through a copper coil heated by a separate burner, is only of service when a pointed flame of a fairly high temperature is required.

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  • The metal as obtained in this process is lustrous and takes a polish, does not melt in the oxyhydrogen flame, but liquefies in the electric arc, and is not affected by air at ordinary temperatures.

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  • The fibre and nibs have to be cleaned off by means of a gassing machine so constructed that the end of silk (silk yarn) is frictioned to throw off the nibs, and at the same time is run very rapidly through a gas flame a sufficient number of times to burn off the hairy and fibrous matter without injuring the main thread.

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  • In the ordinary laboratory the Bunsen flame has become universal, and a number of substances, such as the salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths, show characteristic spectra when suitably placed in it.

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  • More information may be gained with the help of the oxyhydrogen flame, which with its higher temperature has not been used as frequently as it might have been, but W.

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  • Hartley has employed it with great success, and in cyanite (a silicate of aluminium) has found a material which is infusible at the temperature of this flame, and is therefore suitable to hold the substance which it is desired to examine.

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  • Count Gramont 5 has been able to obtain spectro scopic evidence of the metalloids in a mineral by employing powerful condensers and heating the electrodes in an oxyhydro gen flame when these (as is often the case) are not sufficiently conducting.

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  • We might define temperature in the case of a flame or vacuum tube by the temperature which a small totally reflecting body would tend to take up if placed at the spot, but this definition would fail in the case of a spark discharge.

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  • Chemical action has frequently been suggested as being a necessary factor in the luminosity of flame, not only in the sense that it causes a sufficient rise of temperature but as furnishing some special and peculiar though undefined stimulus.

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  • An important experiment by C. Gunther 2 seems however to show that the radiation of metallic salts in a flame has an intensity equal to that belonging to it in virtue of its temperature.

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  • When now a small bead of a salt of sodium or lithium is placed in the flame the spectrum of the white hot platinum is traversed by the dark absorption of the D lines.

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  • This is consistent with Kirchhoff's law and shows that the sodium in a flame possesses the same relative radiation and absorption as sodium vapour heated thermally to the temperature of the flames.

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  • According to independent experiments by Paschen the radiation of the D line sent out by the sodium flame of sufficient density is nearly equal to that of a black body at 'the same temperature.

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  • The definition of temperature given above, though difficult in the case of a flame and perhaps still admissible in the case of an electric arc, becomes precarious when applied to the disruptive phenomena of a spark discharge.

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  • sodium chloride, introduced into a flame, was dissociated or not, as in either case the spectrum observed would be that of sodium.

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  • Paschen proved that the emission spectra of water vapour as observed in an oxyhydrogen flame, and of carbon dioxide as observed in a hydrocarbon flame may be obtained by heating aqueous vapour and carbon dioxide respectively to a few hundred degrees above the freezing point.

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  • There is a vast amount of literature on the subject, but in spite of the difficulty of conceiving a luminous carbon vapour at the temperature of an ordinary carbon flame, the evidence seems to show that no other element is necessary for its production as it is found in the spectrum of pure carbon tetrachloride and certainly in cases where chlorine is excluded.

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  • Previous to Stark's investigation P. Lenard 2 had concluded that the carriers of certain of the lines of the flame spectra of the alkali metals are positively charged.

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  • In the light of our present knowledge we should look for the different behaviour in the peculiarity of the oxygen flame to ionize the metallic vapour.

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  • A smouldering and growing Puritan discontent with the Prayer Book, suppressed with a firm hand under Queen Elizabeth, burst out into a flame on the accession of King James I.

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  • Formerly, on the eve of a great eruption of Mauna Loa, this crater often spouted forth great columns of flame and emitted clouds of vapour, but in modern times this action has usually been followed by a fracture of the mountain side from the summit down to a point moo ft.

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  • He " received the flame as it were embracing it.

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  • He endeavoured, but in vain, to detect any change in the lines of the spectrum of a flame when the flame was acted on by a powerful magnet.

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  • The transformer working from a public supply should give about 6000 volts on open circuit, although when the electric flame is established the voltage on the platinums is only from 1600 to 2000.

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  • Two or three other deities may be mentioned here: Eshmun, the god of vital force and healing, worshipped at Sidon especially, but also at Carthage and in the colonies, identified by the Greeks with Asclepius; Melqarth, the patron deity of Tyre, identified with Heracles; Reshef or Reshuf, the " flame " or " lightning " god, especially popular in Cyprus and derived originally from Syria, whom the Greeks called Apollo.

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  • It has been found that by a particular treatment, in which the mixing of large quantities of vegetable colouring agents with the food plays an important part, the ordinary "canary yellow" may be intensified so as to verge upon a more or less brilliant flame colour.'

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  • howitzer (aft), r6 Stokes mortars, flame throwers, 16 Lewis guns, and 4 12-in.

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  • About 12:20 a terrific roar and a great sheet of flame rose high above the din.

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  • This powder, provided that it has not been too' strongly ignited, is soluble in strong acids; by ignition it becomes denser and nearly as hard as corundum; it fuses in the oxyhydrogen flame or electric arc, and on cooling it assumes a crystalline form closely resembling the mineral species.

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  • 14 below), in which the iron lies in a chamber apart from the fire-place, and is thus protected from the carburizing action of the fuel, though heated by the flame which that fuel gives out.

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  • Further, the point at which the process should be arrested is recognized by the appearance of the flame which issues from the converter's mouth, and variations in the silicon-content of the cast iron treated alter this appearance, so that the indications of the flame become confusing, and control over the process is lost.

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  • This is kept molten by a flame playing above it, and successive lots of the cast iron thus mixed are drawn off, as they are needed, for conversion into steel by the Bessemer or open-hearth process.

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  • to carbonic acid as it meets the outer air on escaping from the mouth of the converter, and generates a true flame which grows.

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  • It is by the appearance of the flame that the operator or " blower " knows when to end the process, judging by its brilliancy, colour, sound, sparks, smoke and other indications.

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  • of the flame are not so decisive as to justify them in omitting to test the steel before removing it from the converter, as a check on the accuracy of their blowing.

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  • The delay which this test causes is so unwelcome that in all other countries the blower continues the blow until decarburization is nearly complete, because of the very great accuracy with which he can then read the indications of the flame, an accuracy which leaves little to be desired.

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  • Part of the carbon of this spiegeleisen unites with the oxygen occluded in the molten iron to form carbonic oxide, and again a bright flame, greenish with manganese, escapes from the converter.

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  • The oxidation of manganese is capable of generating a very high temperature, but it has the very serious disadvantage of causing such thick clouds of smoky oxide of manganese as to hide the flame from the blower, and prevent him from recognizing the moment when the blow should be ended.

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  • The basic or dephosphorizing variety of the Bessemer process, called in Germany the " Thomas " process, differs from the acid process in four chief points: (i) that its slag is made very basic and hence dephosphorizing by adding much lime to it; (2) that the lining is basic, because an acid lining would quickly be destroyed by such a basic slag; (3) that the process is arrested not at the " drop of the flame " (§85) but at a predetermined length of time after it; and (4) that phosphorus instead of silicon is the chief source of heat.

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  • The removal of the greater part of the phosphorus takes place after the carbon has been oxidized and the flame has consequently " dropped," probably because the lime, which is charged in solid lumps, is taken up by the slag so slowly that not until late in the operation does the slag become so basic as to be retentive of phosphoric acid.

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  • The blower therefore stops the process when he has blown a predetermined quantity of air through, counting from the drop of the flame; but as a check on his forecast he usually tests the blown metal before recarburizing it.

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  • version of cast iron into steel, of course, consists in lessening its content of the several foreign elements, carbon, silicon, phosphorus, &c. The open-hearth process does this by two distinct steps: (I) by oxidizing and removing these elements by means of the flame of the furnace, usually aided by the oxygen of light charges of iron ore, and (2) by diluting them with scrap steel or its equivalent.

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  • The oxidation of the foreign elements must be very slow, lest the effervescence due to the escape of carbonic oxide from the carbon of the metal throw the charge out of the doors and ports of the furnace, which itself must be shallow in order to hold the flame down close to the charge.

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  • It is in large part because of this shallowness, which contrasts so strongly with the height and roominess of the Bessemer converter, that the process lasts hours where the Bessemer process lasts minutes, though there is the further difference that in the open-hearth process the transfer of heat from flame to charge through the intervening layer of slag is necessarily slow, whereas in the Bessemer process the heat, generated as it is in and by the metallic bath itself, raises the temperature very rapidly.

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  • As they are so hot at starting, their combustion of course yields a very much higher temperature than if they had been cold before burning, and they form an enormous flame, which fills the great working chamber.

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  • The gangue of the ore increases the quantity of slag, which separates the metal from the source of its heat, the flame, and thus delays the rise of temperature; and the purification by " oreing," i.e.

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  • The oxygenated metal is prepared by melting cast iron diluted with as much scrap steel as is available, and oxidizing it with the flame and with iron ore as it lies in a thin molten layer, on the hearth of a large open-hearth furnace; the thinness of the layer hastens the oxidation, and the large size of the furnace permits considerable frothing.

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  • Electric furnaces are at an advantage over others as regards the removal of sulphur and of iron oxide from the molten steel, because their atmosphere is free from the sulphur always present in the flame of coal-fired furnaces, and almost free from oxygen, because this element is quickly absorbed by the carbon and silicon of the steel, and in the case of arc furnaces by the carbon of the electrodes themselves, and is replaced only very slowly by leakage, whereas through the Bessemer converter and the open-hearth furnace a torrent of air is always rushing.

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  • 14), but larger, and in it the pigs of iron, lying on the bottom or hearth, are melted down by the flame from the coal which burns in the firebox.

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  • 31, has three advantages - (1) that the temperature is adjusted with absolutely no consumption of fuel; (2) that the waste of iron due to the oxidation of the outer crust of the ingot is very slight, because the little atmospheric oxygen initially in the pit is not renewed, whereas in a common heating furnace the flame brings a constant fresh supply of oxygen; and (3) that the ingot remains upright during solidification, so that its pipe is concentrated at one end and is thus removable.

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  • flexibility thus gained outweighs the cost of the fuel used and the increased loss of iron by oxidation by the Siemens gas flame.

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  • to charge a lot of them as a whole in a heating furnace, bring them as a whole to rolling temperature, and then withdraw them as a whole for rolling, is very wasteful of heat, because it is only in the first part of the heating that the outside of the ingots is cool enough to abstract thoroughly the heat from the flame.

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  • During all the latter part of the heating, when the temperature of the ingot has approached that of the flame, only an ever smaller and smaller part of the heat of that flame can be absorbed by the ingots.

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  • 32) recovers this heat by bringing the flame into contact FIG.

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  • L, The flame.

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  • 19; but this would probably recover less heat than the continuous system, first, because it transfers the heat from flame to metal indirectly instead of directly; and, second, because the brickwork of the Siemens system is probably a poorer heat-catcher than the iron billets of the continuous system, because its disadvantages of low conductivity and low specific heat probably outweigh its advantages of roughness and porosity.

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  • Hydrogen burns with a pale blue non-luminous flame, but will not support the combustion of ordinary combustibles.

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  • It burns with a white flame and is soluble in water.

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  • To the bunsen flame a radium salt imparts an intense carmine-red colour (barium gives a green).

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  • In the Papacy, however, Henry had an implacable foe; and again and again When he seemed on the point of a complete triumph the smouldering embers of revolt were kindled Henry once more into flame.

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  • Although related to each other, Louis and Frederick had come to blows before this event; they represented two rival houses, those of Wittelsbach and Habsburg, and the election only served to feed the flame of their antagonism.

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  • Then the corpse is brought and laid in the midst; the pile is kindled and the roaring flame rises, mingled with weeping, till all is consumed.

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  • Its salts colour the Bunsen flame a bright green.

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  • All thallium compounds volatile or liable to dissociation at the temperature of the flame of a Bunsen lamp impart to such flame an intense green colour.

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  • The oath of abjuration of James was another cause of division, at least till it was watered down in 1719; and by 1726 a revival of the charges of heresy against Simson, with the increase of agitation against the majority of the Assembly who supported patrons, lighted a flame which burned the slight bonds that kept the extremists in union with the kirk.

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  • Oxyhydrogen Flame >>

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  • Manganese salts can be detected by the amethyst colour they impart to a borax-bead when heated in the Bunsen flame, and by the green mass formed when they are fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate.

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  • It is permanent in dry air, but tarnishes in moist air; it can be hammered and rolled; it melts at 623° C. It burns readily on heating, with a brilliant flame; and it also combines with chlorine,bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and cyanogen.

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  • Fizeau he carried on a series of investigations on the intensity of the light of the sun, as compared with that of carbon in the electric arc, and of lime in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe; on the interference of heat rays, and of light rays differing greatly in lengths of path; and on the chromatic polarization of light.

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  • The flame issuing from the furnace by (o) is always further utilized for boiling down the liquors obtained in a later stage, either in a pan (p) fired from the top and supported on pillars (qq) as shown in the drawing, or in pans heated from below.

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  • The inflammable gas is carbon monoxide, which, however, does not burn with its proper purple flame, but with a flame tinged bright yellow by the sodium present.

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  • The flame of a fixed fireplace (a) enters through an " eye " (b) in the centre of the front end of the cylinder and issues in the centre of FIG.

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  • These smouldering hatreds burst into open flame about the year 1195.

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  • He found that pressure increases luminosity, so that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which in normal circumstances gives no light, burns with a luminous flame under a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame.

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  • In that condition of affairs the flame of war was kindled between the British and the French in Europe in 1745.

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  • VULCAN (Volcanus), the Roman god of fire, and more especially of devouring flame (Virg.

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  • They may be recognized by the brownish violet colour they impart to a borax bead when heated in an oxidizing flame.

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  • The vapour of nickel carbonyl burns with a luminous flame, a cold surface depressed in the flame being covered with a black deposit of nickel.

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  • It is heated by a small cokefire or by a gas flame in C. It communicates through a passage _ t ?

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  • The vapour burns with a smoky green-edged flame.

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  • If the source be a point, such as the image formed by a lens of small focus or by a fine hole in a plate held close to a bright flame, the outline of the shadow is to be found by drawing straight lines from the luminous point so as to envelop the opaque body.

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  • For his time he was a skilful chemical analyst; he knew how to distinguish potash and soda by the different colorations they produce in flame, and how to test for iron with prussiate of potash: he was aware that sulphate of potash, gypsum and heavy spar, in spite of their different appearances, all contain sulphuric acid; and he recognized that there are different varieties of urinary calculi.

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  • The flame nasturtium with brilliant scarlet blossoms is T.

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  • Many compounds containing hydrogen are readily decomposed by the gas; for example, a piece of paper dipped in turpentine inflames in an atmosphere of chlorine, producing hydrochloric acid and a copious deposit of soot; a lighted taper burns in chlorine with a dull smoky flame.

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  • The various improvements in electric illuminants, such as the Nernst oxide lamp, the tantalum and osmium incandescent lamps, and improved forms of arc lamp, enclosed, inverted and flame arcs, are described under Lighting: Electric. Between 1890 and 1900, electric traction advanced rapidly in the United States of America but more slowly in England.

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  • This treatment, so far from extinguishing the flame, eventually converted it into a conflagration.

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  • The molten metal is sea-green in colour, and at higher temperatures (in the electric arc) it vaporizes and burns with a green flame.

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  • Compounds of copper impart a bright green coloration to the flame of a Bunsen burner.

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  • When ignited, picric acid burns quietly with a smoky flame.

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  • his head and hairs white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes as a flame of fire " (Rev. i.

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  • and x.), each of which would make it an offering acceptable to God; the rush-wick is the product of pure water, the wax is the offspring of virgin bees," the flame is sent from heaven.

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  • Durandus, in his Rationale, interprets the wax as the body of Christ, the wick as his soul, the flame as his divine nature; and the consuming candle as symbolizing his passion and death.

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  • Antimony compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate in the reducing flame give brittle beads of metallic antimony, and a white incrustation of the oxide.

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  • In its general behaviour it resembles arsine, burning with a violet flame and being decomposed by heat into its constituent elements.

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  • The primitive substance, be it remembered, is not Heraclitus's fire (though Cleanthes also called it flame of fire, 4X6) any more than it is the air or " breath " of Anaximenes or Diogenes of Apollonia.

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  • The mercury should be drawn from underneath, for which purpose an arrangement similar to a chemical wash bottle is suitable, and it may be poured into watch-glasses, previously dipped into strong sulphuric acid, rinsed in distilled water, and dried over a Bunsen flame.

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  • The bubble will contract, forcing the air out, and the current of air blown through the tube may be made to deflect the flame of a candle.

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  • That the thing made a great flame, a great noise, and struck terror into the beholder is about the sum of it all.

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  • The opium must not be burnt or made too dry, but roasted gently till it looks like burnt worsted; every now and then he takes it away from the flame and rolls it (still on the end of the dipper) on the flat surface of the bowl.

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  • It burns with a blue flame when heated in the air or in oxygen, at the same time giving a characteristic smell of rotten horseradish, a reaction which serves for the recognition of the element.

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  • It is decomposed by heat, burns with a blue flame, and behaves as a reducing agent.

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  • Lithium is detected by the faint yellow line of wave-length 6104, and the bright red line of wave-length 6708, shown in its flame spectrum.

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  • For a few hours the native troops of the British garrison awaited the turn of events; but when it became apparent that the British troops from Meerut were afraid to move, there was a general flame of revolt, and Delhi at once became the headquarters of the Mutiny.

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  • The most simple test for the value of a system of fire-proof coverings, and of partitions and furrings, is to erect a large sample of the work and to subject it alternately to the continued action of an intensely hot flame which is allowed to impinge upon it, and to a stream of cold water directed upon it from the ordinary service nozzle of a steam fire engine.

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  • It is important in all fire-proofing of columns and girders, and in all floor construction, furring and partitions, that there shall be no continuous voids, either vertical or horizontal, which may possibly serve as flues for the spread of heat or flame in case of fire.

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  • Drapier (April to Dec. 1724) soon set Ireland in a flame.

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  • 77), and at the siege of Delium (424 B.C.) a cauldron containing pitch, sulphur and burning charcoal, was placed against the walls and urged into flame by the aid of a bellows, the blast from which was conveyed through a hollow tree-trunk (Thuc. iv.

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  • It is infusible before the gas blowpipe, but in the oxyhydrogen flame fuses to a clear colourless glass, which has a hardness of 5 and specific gravity 2.2.

    0
    0
  • The element is highly inflammable, taking fire in air at 34° and burning with a bright white flame and forming dense white clouds of the pentoxide; in perfectly dry air or oxygen, however, it may be distilled unchanged, H.

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  • It burns with a brightly luminous flame, and is spontaneously inflammable at about too° C. When mixed with oxygen it combines explosively if the mixture be under diminished pressure, and is violently decomposed by the halogens.

    0
    0
  • It does not burn in air, but explodes, under the action of a flame or the electric spark, when mixed with half its volume of oxygen, giving the oxyfluoride, POF 3.

    0
    0
  • It is incombustible and extinguishes flame.

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  • It spontaneously inflames in air or oxygen; and when the gas is issuing from a jet into air the flame is greyish green, with a faintly luminous and yellow tip; the flame is probably one of the coldest known.

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  • A burner was constructed which gave a sheet of flame 75 o mm.

    0
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  • Light from an arc lamp was so directed that only that part reached the spectroscope which fell upon the flame of the burner at grazing incidence, and was thereby refracted.

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  • As the supply of sodium was increased, the lines, besides becoming broader, did so unsymmetrically, and a shaded wing or band appeared on one side or the other according as the beam impinged on one side or the other of the flame.

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  • He warned his hearers against the fires of concupiscence, anger, ignorance, birth, death, decay and anxiety; and taking each of the senses in order he compared all human sensations to a burning flame which seems to be something it is not, which produces pleasure and pain, but passes rapidly away, and ends only in destruction.3 Accompanied by his new disciples, the Buddha walked on to Rajagaha, the capital of King Bimbisara, who, not unmindful of their former interview, came out to welcome him.

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  • the house of Jacob shall regain their old possessions; Edom shall be burned up before them as chaff before the flame; they shall spread over all Canaan, over the mountain of Esau and the south of Judah, as well as over Gilead and the Philistine and Phoenician coast.

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  • Sulphates may be detected by heating the salt mixed with sodium carbonate on charcoal in the reducing flame of the blowpipe; sodium sulphide is thus formed, and may be identified by the black stain produced if the mass be transferred to a silver coin and then moistened.

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  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 11 -12° C., and its vapour burns with a luminous flame.

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  • Their old loyalty to the house of Plantagenet burst once more into flame; they rose in arms and called for aid to England.

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  • The strong feeling against the Roman Catholics had h been quickened into a flame, by a great imposture.

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  • Prior to 1691, however, Dr John Clayton, dean of Kildare, filled bladders with inflammable gas obtained by the distillation of coal, and showed that on pricking the bladders and applying a light to the escaping gas it burnt with a luminous flame, and in 1726 Stephen Hales published the fact that by the distillation of 158 grains of Newcastle coal, 180 cub.

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  • The hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends, are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons.

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  • The flame which Ari had kindled was fed by his successors in the 12th century.

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  • He mapped 324, chose out nine, which he designated by the letters of the alphabet, to be standards of measurement for the rest, and ascertained the coincidence in position between the double yellow ray derived from the flame of burning sodium and the pair of dark lines named by him " D " in the solar spectrum.

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  • Arsenic burns on heating in a current of oxygen, with a pale lavender-coloured flame, forming the trioxide.

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  • The arseniuretted hydrogen produced is passed through a tube containing lead acetate paper and soda-lime, and finally through a narrow glass tube, constricted at various points, and heated by a very small flame.

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  • Instead of heating the tube, the gas may be ignited at the mouth of the tube and a cold surface of porcelain or platinum placed in the flame, when a black deposit is formed on the surface.

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  • In the 4th century there was a veritable renaissance in Gaul, the Intel- last outburst of a dying flame, which yet bore witness lectual also to the general decadence.

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  • Between the two came the Flame, the Marais, the troop of trembling bourgeois, sincerely attached to the Revolution, but very moderate in the defence of their ideas; some seeking a refuge from their timidity in hard-working committees, others partaking in the violence of the Jacobins out of weakness or for reasons of state.

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  • But Napoleon little knew the flame he was kindling.

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  • Of polarimeters for the study of rotary polarization there are three principal forms. In Wild's polaristrobometer, light from a soda flame, rendered parallel by a lens, is polarized by a Nicol's prism, and after traversing the space into which the active substance is to be inserted, falls on a Savart's plate placed in front of an astronomical telescope of low power, that contains in its eyepiece a Nicol's prism, which with the plate forms a Savart's analyser.

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  • The telescope must be focussed on the edge of the quartz plate, and in order that all points of the field may be illuminated by the same part of the source, the flame must be so placed that its image is thrown by the lens on the diaphragm of the object glass of the telescope.

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  • A piece of iron or steel wire in the circuit of a galvanometer is heated in a flame to bright redness at any point.

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  • No effect is noticed so long as the flame is stationary, but if the flame be moved slowly in one direction a current is observed, which changes its direction with the direction of motion of the flame.

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  • The junctions of the magnetic and the non-magnetic steel are therefore at different temperatures if the flame is moved, and a current is produced just as if a piece of different metal with junctions at different temperatures had been introduced into the circuit.

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  • Of this region the Arabs say " the soil is like fire and the wind like a flame."

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  • Pure aniline is a basic substance of an oily consistence, colourless, melting at - 8° and boiling at 184° C. On exposure to air it absorbs oxygen and resinifies, becoming deep brown in colour; it ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame.

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  • Indium salts can be recognized by the dark blue colour they give in the flame of the Bunsen burner; and by the white beads of metal and the yellow incrustation formed when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate.

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  • Frankincense burns with a bright white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate,.

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  • By continuing the walls of the hearth above the tuyere, into a shaft or stack either of the same or some other section, we obtain a furnace of increased capacity, but with no greater power of consuming fuel, in which the material to be treated can be heated up gradually by loading it into the stack, alternately with layers of fuel, the charge descending regularly to the point of combustion, and absorbing a proportion of the heat of the flame that went to waste in the open fire.

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  • In all cases, therefore, where it is desired to do the work out of contact with the solid fuel, the operation of burning or heat-producing must be performed in a special fire-place or combustion chamber, the body of flame and heated gas being afterwards made to act upon the surface of the material exposed in a broad thin layer in the working bed or laboratory of the furnace by reverberation from the low vaulted roof covering the bed.

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  • or up-take E conveys the current of spent flame to the chimney F, which is of square section, diminishing by steps at two or three different heights, and provided at the top with a covering plate or FIG.

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  • heat of the body of flame issuing through the fire arch by a passage to which the air has free access.

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  • This is generally done by making the bed of the furnace very long in proportion to its breadth and to the fire-grate area, which may be the more easily done as a not inconsiderable amount of heat is given out during the oxidation of the ore - such increased length being often obtained by placing two or even three working beds one above the other, and allowing the flame to pass over them in_order from below upwards.

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  • A third class of furnaces is so arranged that the work is done by indirect heating; that is, the material under treatment, whether subjected to calcination, fusion or any other process, is not brought in contact either with fuel or flame, but is raised to the proper temperature by exposure in a chamber heated externally by the products of combustion.

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  • The former are used principally as casing, walls, pillars or other supporting parts of the structure, and includes ordinary red or yellow bricks, clay-slate, granite and most building stones; the latter are reserved for the parts immediately in contact with the fuel and flame, such as the lining of the fire-place, the arches, roof and flues, the lower part if not the whole of the chimney lining in reverberatory furnaces, and the whole of the internal walls of blast furnaces.

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  • In gravitating furnaces the bed is laid at a slope just within the angle of repose of the charge, which is introduced at the upper end, and is pushed down the slope by fresh material, when necessary, in the contrary direction to the flame which enters at the lower end.

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  • The hearth may either rotate on an inclined axis, so that the path of its surface is oblique to that of the flame, or the working part may be a hollow cylinder, between the fireplace and flue, with its axis horizontal or nearly so, whose inner surface represents the working bed, mounted upon friction rollers, and receiving motion from a special steam-engine by means of a central belt of spur gearing.

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  • In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.

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  • Formerly they were allowed to burn to waste at the mouth of a short chimney place above the furnace top, forming a huge body of flame, which was one of the most striking features of the Black Country landscape at night.

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  • The use of such furnaces has very considerably diminished, owing to the general introduction of coal-gas for heating purposes in laboratories, which has been rendered possible by the invention of the Bunsen burner, in which the mixture of air and gas giving the least luminous but most powerfully heating flame is effected automatically by the effluent gas.

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  • His red shock of hair stood up like a flame as he glared down at her.

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  • As a matter of fact, he hadn't said that since he spent half the night with his old flame.

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  • The blush was developing into a burning flame.

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  • It was like watching a spark grow into a flame.

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  • One giant orange ball of flame in seconds.

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  • While Fred was outside picking a boutonniere for the occasion, his now marginally wealthy flame of fame—locally at least— called a second time.

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  • The warmth grew into a flame and she tossed her head defiantly.

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  • Elisabeth's blood was a lighter red, and for a moment the two swirled together in a dance of sorts, then all of a sudden started to bubble and burst into flame.

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  • Samantha didn't take her eyes off the flame, That's not necessarily true.

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  • Striking a match, she dropped it into the middle and gently blew on the flame.

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  • Distraught, she lay down on the bed and stared at the flame in the lantern.

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  • Cupping his hands around the flame, he sucked life into the cigarette and then shook the flame from the match before tossing it into an ashtray.

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  • Features Flame and Fortuyn – Andy Armitage examines the aftermath of the assassination of the Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn.

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  • airy comfortable lounge with electric living flame fire, sofa bed & door to garden.

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  • Not a flame but can guys really carry off tote bags?

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  • OPENING CEREMONY The Olympic flame will be ignited by a gasoline bomb thrown by a native of the city wearing the traditional balaclava.

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  • NEVER melt beeswax over an open flame or hot plate.

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  • bootleg cd " Corridor of Flame " is released in May.

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  • brominated flame retardants are a group of chemicals used to reduce the risk of items catching fire.

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  • Dead Sea bromine is the world's largest producer of elemental bromine, and makes bromine based flame retardants.

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  • burn with a brilliant clear flame, without black smoke.

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  • Carbon build-up in burner - See answers for " burner flame slowly reduces " .

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  • Back to Top Each campfire lights Anew Each campfire lights anew, the flame of friendship true.

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  • Armed with a lighted candle, the man explodes them with the flame.

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  • I saw a tallow candle on a hollow in the walls, its flame barely lighting the cavern.

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  • It burns with a brilliant blue flame - the name cesium derives from the sky-blue lines in its spectrum.

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  • chalice flame?

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  • chromatography with flame ionization detection.

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  • cigarette lighters are set to ' low ' or the flame can catch clothes or hair or burn you.

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  • coal gaseriod style fireplace with decorative frieze and jabs, marble insert and hearth, living flame coal effect gas fire.

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  • His only confidante remains night club singer Jenny, whose physical restoration fuels the flame of his spiritual redemption.

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  • The sound of his drum heralds its creation; his burning flame signals its final conflagration.

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  • see the corona around the flame, see the darkness at the base of the flame.

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  • London, which hosted the Olympic Games in 1948, today began the countdown to welcoming the flame to the capital on 26th June.

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  • devouring flame.

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  • disappear in a cloud of flame and smoke.

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  • draughtsive draft causes the wood to burn faster and can cool the flame which leads to more smoke.

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  • Flame This spicy liquid gives near total pain resistance, allowing the drinker to continue with wounds that would drop a lesser man.

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  • Penta bromo diphenyl ether used as flame retardant in upholstery etc., like PCBs interferes with thyroxin metabolism.

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  • extinguish any flame.

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  • The electric central heating throughout is complemented by a living flame gas fire in the lounge, for those cozy nights in.

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  • He'd run around criminals, throw fireballs at them, surround them with wall of flame.

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  • The focal point of the room is the new marble style feature fireplace with living flame open grate fire.

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  • flame of a candle.

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  • The most effective way to extinguish the flame of a candle is to use a candle snuffer.

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  • Caution was taken whenever this test gave flickering flames; generally, no progress was made beyond a no flame result.

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  • Think of carbs as the match needed to ignite the fat-burning flame.

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  • Never put a naked flame near a charging battery nor allow any chance of a spark in the vicinity.

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  • Here we are standing outside the stadium beneath the Olympic flame.

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  • In short, Calor's clean, quiet and controllable flame makes for a cozier home all the year round.

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  • We all gathered behind the city's eternal flame to take some group photos (Minsk is a " Hero.

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  • flame retardants in printed circuit boards, plastic cases and in some textiles.

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  • flame throwers, poison gas, aircraft.

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  • flame ionization detection.

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  • flame arresters will probably be needed (at least for dry vacuum pumps or oil sealed vacuum pumps ).

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  • flame gas fire.

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  • flame propagation was over 20 times faster at 60°, than horizontal.

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  • candles flicker flame diminished to rosy dawn flare relinquished.

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  • flicker of a flame.

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  • Fig 9. 3-D imaging of soot volume fraction in a turbulent diffusion flame.

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  • Great thoughts burn within us like fiery seeds, Swift to flame out a red fruitage of deeds.

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  • gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

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  • gazed fixedly at one flame for some time.

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  • gout of flame.

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  • greyade clashed against blade, bright flame met by mottled gray whilst all around them the struggle continue to rage.

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  • halogenated flame retardants.

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  • White Adam style fire surround on marble inset with gas living flame coal effect fire set on marble hearth.

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  • Bedroom 3. Bunk beds, pine wardrobe, shelving for storage, wicker chair, electric flame effect fire in granite hearth.

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  • We also saw our first Toco Toucan and several hummingbirds attending a Flame Tree in bloom?

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  • ignite a single flame, shadows form, let light remain.

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  • However, once ignited, the heat from the flame keeps the burning going.

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  • Even a cleaning cloth impregnated with sprayed fluid will protect the hand from the direct flame of a blow flashlight.

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  • White Adam style fire surround on marble inset with gas living flame coal effect fire set on marble hearth.

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  • SHAKIR: And He created the jinn of a flame of fire.

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  • keepers of the flame?

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  • I have just got a Sheen X300 flame gun and am using kerosene with it.

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  • By results, ' truth flashing on the soul like a flame kindled by a leaping spark ' .

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  • lambent flame that seems to encircle the mizzen-mast.

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  • A red flame licked over the metal ring; it was a beautiful thing to see.

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  • light a cigarette with a flame which spurts from her finger.

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  • Make sure cigarette lighters are set to ' low ' or the flame can catch clothes or hair or burn you.

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  • lively Internet discussions stopped just short of flame wars.

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  • Coal effect living flame gas fire with marble hearth and inset with timber mantle surround.

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  • Including a hand-carved solid maple top with flame maple veneer, the AV3 offers unparalleled features and value.

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  • White Adam style fire surround on marble inset with gas living flame coal effect fire set on marble hearth.

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  • marble style feature fireplace with living flame open grate fire.

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  • meths burner out and light the flame.

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  • methylated spirits or play a flame over the blades - a lighter will do.

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  • mighty roar, atop a flame as long as the rocket.

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  • naked flame near a charging battery nor allow any chance of a spark in the vicinity.

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  • obviate the danger of the climber's carbide lamp flame burning through the nylon lifeline.

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  • Cone The more luminous part of a flame, which is adjacent to the nozzle orifice.

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  • There is a dialysis fluid mode that produces flame photometer equivalent readings.

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  • flame propagation was over 20 times faster at 60°, than horizontal.

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  • queasy moments when you suddenly see a photograph of an old flame in the newspaper?

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  • Actors, directors, producers, all have a heat quotient based on how much attention their little flame can bring to a film.

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  • Investigations in phenol formaldehyde resins for example elucidate mechanism and provide new flame retardant materials.

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  • brominated flame retardants are a group of chemicals used to reduce the risk of items catching fire.

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  • Sweden did not want to import computers with halogenated flame retardants.

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  • Also new on Stand 6 E27 will be a halogen-free flame retardant for polyurethane foam.

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  • Heavy metals and toxic flame retardants used in the manufacture of appliances will be banned from July 2006.

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  • Optional flame retardant fabrics make sure you adhere to venue health & safety.

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  • Retardex materials can be recycled and the PP compounds containing phosphorus flame retardants retain their flame retardant properties.

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  • flame retarders in printed circuit boards are also likely to cause problems.

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  • A second later the rocket roared off the pad with a mighty roar, atop a flame as long as the rocket.

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  • Why does the Pyro have the flame rocket launcher?

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  • It appears that the flame safety lamps produced in the 1890s were not totally safe.

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  • shelveoom 3. Bunk beds, pine wardrobe, shelving for storage, wicker chair, electric flame effect fire in granite hearth.

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  • warm a skillet on a medium flame and add the sesame oil.

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  • heat a skillet on a medium flame and add the oil.

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  • skillet on a medium flame and add the sesame oil.

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  • Flame - Internet slang for an abusive e-mail or chatroom comment.

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  • Phenol tends to burn in air with an extremely smoky flame - full of carbon particles.

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  • soapy water not a naked flame.

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  • In short, they will burst into flame almost instantaneously, exposing the reindeer behind them and creating deafening sonic booms in their wake.

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  • They are all new and boxed Grade " AA " solid spruce top Flame Maple Back and Sides Rosewood fingerboard with 20 frets.

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  • spruce top Flame Maple Back and Sides Rosewood fingerboard with 20 frets.

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  • sulphurng molten sulfur in either air or pure oxygen leads to a reaction, which produces a pale blue colored flame.

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  • sycamore used in violins has a curl in the grain which shows up as a flame effect.

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  • Oh also, did anybody else think that Phil was rather tactless discussing David's old flame in front of Ruth.

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  • tallow candle on a hollow in the walls, its flame barely lighting the cavern.

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  • tiled hearth and fitted with a living flame gas fire.

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  • tongues of flame stabbed the sky.

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  • In London, the flame will be carried by 140 torchbearers including celebrities, Olympians and sporting stars, and extraordinary ordinary people.

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  • One houses the combustion chamber with a specially constructed air flow passage and burner head to eliminate combustion air turbulence and flame roar.

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  • turbulent diffusion flame.

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  • vestal flame, which, if it went out, was to be kindled only by a sunbeam.

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  • white-hot flame.

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  • The addition of sharp points was a step in advance; but the method hardly became a quantitative one until the sharp points were replaced by a flame (fuse, gas, lamp), or by a liquid jet breaking into drops.

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  • Exner's gold leaf electroscope in conjunction with an oil lamp or gas flame.

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  • Flame collectors blow out in high winds, whilst water-droppers are apt to get frozen in winter.

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  • Kyaukpyu contains numerous "mud volcanoes," from which marsh gas is frequently discharged, with occasional issue of flame.

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  • There not merely do they serve to nourish the organ, they also give rise to a fine ethereal flame or wind through the action of the brain upon them, and thus form the so-called " animal " spirits.

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  • It burns with a purple flame, forming carbon dioxide and nitrogen; and may be condensed (by cooling to - 25° C.) to a colourless liquid, and further to a solid, which melts at - 34.4° C. (M.

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  • The " flame tree " is a most conspicuous feature of an Illawarra landscape, the largest racemes of crimson red suggesting the name.

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  • "His temper exceeding fiery, as I have known, but the flame of it,.

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  • Cadmium salts can be recognized by the brown incrustation which is formed when they are heated on charcoal in the oxidizing flame of the blowpipe; and also by the yellow precipitate formed when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed though their acidified solutions.

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  • rend., 1903, 1 37, p. 547), burning with a characteristic blue flame and forming much sulphur dioxide, recognized by its pungent odour.

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  • It burns with a pale blue flame, forming sulphur dioxide and water.

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  • such enthusiastic devotees of Yahweh, in days when religion meant patriotism, did much to keep alive the flame of Israel's hope and courage in the dark period of national disaster.

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  • He further expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame.

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  • If 'the earl had known how to profit by this victory, he might now have successfully withstood the English power in Ireland; for in every part of Ireland - and especially in the south, where James Fitzthomas Fitzgerald with O'Neill's support was asserting his claim to the earldom of Desmond at the head of a formidable army of Geraldine clansmen - discontent broke into flame.

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  • Rarely the nephridium does not communicate with the coelom; in such cases the nephridium ends in a single cell, like the "flame cell" of a Platyhelminth worm, in which there is a lumen blocked at the coelomic end by a tuft of fine cilia projecting into the lumen.

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  • 2) there are many of these flame cells to a single nephridium which are specialized in form, and have been termed "solenocytes" (Goodrich).

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  • His best advisers urged him to turn all his forces against the panicstricken Muscovites; to go into winter-quarters amongst them and live at their expense; to fan into a flame the smouldering discontent caused by the reforms of Peter the Great, and so disable Russia for some time to come.

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  • Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.

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  • In his Sylva sylvarum (1627), Francis Bacon states that " the original concretion of bitumen is a mixture of a fiery and watery substance," and observes that flame " attracts " the naphtha of Babylon " afar off."

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  • This apparatus has an oil-cup consisting of a cylindrical brass or gunmetal vessel, the cover of which is provided with three rectangular holes which may be closed and opened by means of a perforated slide moving in grooves; the movement of the slide causes a small oscillating colzaor rape-oil lamp to be tilted so that the flame (of specified size) is brought just below the surface of the lid.

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  • From their inner ends, projecting into the lumen of the tag, hangs a bunch of cilia, which forms the flickering " flame " so well known in the excretory apparatus of the Platyhelminthes and larval Annelids (fig.

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  • It burns with a pale blue flame to form carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide.

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  • A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and nitric oxide burns with a very intense blue-coloured flame, which is very rich in the violet or actinic rays.

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  • It fuses easily in the electric arc. It oxidizes superficially when heated, but fairly rapidly when ignited in an oxidizing blowpipe flame, forming a black smoke of the oxide.

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  • Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.

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  • (() An infusible white residue may be obtained,which may denote barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium or zinc. The first three give characteristic flame colorations (see below); the last three, when moistened with cobalt nitrate and re-ignited, give coloured masses; aluminium (or silica) gives a brilliant blue; zinc gives a green; whilst magnesium phosphates or arsenate (and to a less degree the phosphates of the alkaline earths) give a violet mass.

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  • If the incrustation be white and readily volatile, arsenic is present, if more difficultly volatile and beads are present, antimony; zinc gives an incrustation yellow whilst hot, white on cooling, and volatilized with difficulty; tin gives a pale yellow incrustation, which becomes white on cooling, and does not volatilize in either the reducing or oxidizing flames; lead gives a lemon-yellow incrustation turning sulphur-yellow on cooling, together with metallic malleable beads; bismuth gives metallic globules and a dark orange-yellow incrustation, which becomes lemon-yellow on cooling; cadmium gives a reddish-brown incrustation, which is removed without leaving a gleam by heating in the reducing flame; silver gives white metallic globules and a dark-red incrustation.

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  • Heat the substance with a bead of microcosmic salt or borax on a platinum wire in the oxidizing flame.

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  • If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.

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  • Hold a small portion of the substance moistened with hydrochloric acid on a clean platinum wire in the fusion zone' of the Bunsen burner, and note any colour imparted to the flame.

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  • Potassium gives a blue-violet flame which may be masked by the colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements.

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  • By viewing the flame through an indigo prism it appears sky-blue, violet and ultimately crimson, as the thickness of the prism is increased.

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  • Sodium gives an intense and persistent yellow flame; lithium gives a carmine coloration, and may be identified in the presence of sodium by viewing through a cobalt glass or indigo prism; from potassium it may be distinguished by its redder colour; barium gives a yellowishgreen flame, which appears bluish-green when viewed through green glass; strontium gives a crimson flame which appears purple or rose when viewed through blue glass; calcium gives an orange-red colour which appears finch-green through green glass; indium gives a characteristic bluish-violet flame; copper gives an intense emerald-green coloration.

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  • The operation is repeated with the thread in the oxidizing flame.

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  • The flame coloration (see above) may give information as to which elements are present.

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  • Beilstein determines their presence by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum wire in the Bunsen flame; a green coloration is observed if halogens be present.

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  • It boils at 83-85° C. and burns with a green coloured flame.

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  • The arc is produced by leading a current of about 5000 volts equatorially between the poles of an electromagnet; this produces what is practically a disk of flame, 62 ft.

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  • If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.

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  • The dressed ore is introduced through a "hopper" at the top, and exposed to a moderate oxidizing flame until a certain proportion of ore is oxidized, openings at the side enabling the workmen to stir up the ore so as to constantly renew the surface exposed to the air.

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  • When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.

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  • The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.

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  • This outbreak was partially suppressed, but afterwards it again burst into flame with great vigour.

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