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flagellum

flagellum

flagellum Sentence Examples

  • The multiplication of thongs for purposes of flogging is found in the old Roman flagellum, a scourge, which had sometimes three thongs with bone or bronze knots fastened to them.

  • The result of cleavage in all cases is a typical blastula, which when set free becomes oval and develops a flagellum to each cell, but when not set free, it remains spherical in form and has no flagella.

  • 6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.

  • B, Anterior end of Euglena showing the flagellum with its swelling just in the hollow of the eye-spot.

  • The head of an ant carries a pair of elbowed feelers, each consisting of a minute basal and an elongate second segment, forming the stalk or "scape," while from eight to eleven short segments make up the terminal "flagellum."

  • Flagellum.

  • Besides the works already noticed, he wrote De arte critica (1597); De Antichristo (1605); Pro auctoritate ecclesiae in decidendis fidei controversiis libellus; Scaliger hypololymaeus (1607), a virulent attack on Scaliger; and latterly the anti-jesuitical works, Flagellum Jesuiticum (1632); Mysteria patrum jesuitorum (1633); and Arcana societatis Jesu (1635).

  • (Original drawing by Pocock.) freely movable; claw free or fused; basal segments of 4th and 5th pairs widely separated by the sternal area; appendages of 3rd pair with all the segments except the proximal three, forming a manyjointed flagellum.

  • Each of these limbs was twobranched, the external branch consisting of a slender fringed flagellum possibly respiratory in function, and the inner of a normal jointed ambulatory leg.

  • Its length (inclusive of the flagellum) varies from 40-60 while its greatest width (including the undulating-membrane) is from 8-30, u; in the very wide individuals breadth is gained more or less at the expense of length.

  • One flagellum is entirely free and directed forwards; the other at once turns backwards and is attached to the convex or dorsal side of the body for the greater part of its length.

  • In all other Trypanosomes there is only one flagellum, which is invariably attached to the body in the same manner as the posterior one of biflagellate forms. This flagellum, however, is most probably not to be considered homologous in all cases.

  • 3, E), which is to be derived from a Herpetomonadine type, the single, anterior flagellum of the ancestral parasite has been drawn backwards along one side of the body and now originates in the posterior half.

  • Hence in this genus the end bearing the free part of the flagellum is the anterior one.

  • The genus Trypanosoma, in which are included at present the great majority of Trypanosomes, is rather to be regarded as derived from a Heteromastigine ancestor, such as Trypanoplasma, by the loss of the anterior flagellum.

  • Hence in this type the single flagellum represents the posteriorly-directed one of Trypanoplasma, and the end at which it becomes free is the hinder end.

  • This always begins at the place where the attached flagellum emerges from the body; and its free edge is really constituted by the latter, which forms a flageIlar border.

  • The duplication of the flagellum begins at its proximal end, that which is in relation with the kinetonucleus.

  • Until recently the process has been considered as an actual longitudinal splitting of the flagellum, following upon the separation of the two daughter-kinetonuclei.

  • brucei), have found, however, that the new flagellum is developed quite independently and laid down alongside the old one.

  • H If the flagellar border splits, the membrane doubtless divides also; but where the flagellum is a new formation the membrane will be too.

  • These young individuals can themselves multiply by equal binary fission, giving Anterior flagellum; Posterior flagellum; Longitudinal striations nemes); Cytoplasmic vacuole.

  • E - H shows the formation of the myonemes and the flagellar border (flagellum) of the undulating membrane, by means of a greatly elongated nuclear-spindle.

  • - Haemoflagellates derived from a uniflagellate, Herpetomonadine form, in which the point of insertion of the single (anterior) flagellum into the body has travelled backwards from the anterior end for a greater or less distance, the flagellum itself having become, concurrently, attached to the body for a portion of its length by means of an undulating membrane.

  • - Flagellates, in the great majority of instances haemal parasites, derived from a biflagellate, Bodo-like type, in which the posteriorly-directed (trailing) flagellum is always present and attached to the body by an undulating membrane, of which it constitutes the thickened edge.

  • The other, the anterior flagellum, may or may not persist.

  • - The anterior flagellum is present.

  • 4, F and G) from the rudd and minnow, the anterior flagellum is well-developed, and the free parts of both are of about equal length.

  • 4, H) from carp, the anterior flagellum is much shorter than the free part of the posterior one, and evidently tending to disappear.

  • The anterior flagellum is longer than the free part of the posterior one.

  • - (Principal synonyms: Undulina, Lank., 1871; Herpetomonas, Kent, 1880,1880, only in part; Paramoecioides, Grassi, 1881; Haematomonas, Mitrophan, 1883.) There is no anterior flagellum.

  • The point of insertion of the attached (posterior) flagellum into the body, and, consequently, the commencement of the undulating membrane may be almost anywhere in the anterior half of the body, but is usually near the extremity.

  • These forms were elongated and spindle-like; and to one end of the body, near which the smaller nuclear element was situated, a well-developed flagellum was attached.

  • Since then many other workers have obtained similar stages [see Leishman and Statham (38), Christophers (7)]; but however slender and Trypanosomelike the flagelliform parasites may appear, up till now no indications of an undulating membrane have been seen, and the kinetonuclear element is never far from the insertion of the flagellum.

  • At the anterior end of the test is the apical plate from the centre of which projects a long flagellum as in many other Lamellibranch larvae.

  • In Nucula delphinodonta the test is uniformly covered with short cilia, and there is no flagellum.

  • a cell with an internal cavity containing a vibrating filament or flagellum.

  • 2, a) are divided into "scape" and "flagellum" as in the ants, and the mandibles vary greatly in size and sharpness in different genera.

  • The uncleanliness of the city was comparable to that of oriental cities at the present day, and, according to contemporary testimony (Garencieres, Angliae flagellum, London, 16 47, p. 85), little improved since Erasmus wrote his well-known description.

  • anthracis, have no cilia; others have only one flagellum at one pole (Monotrichous), e.g.

  • Sporogenous rodlets cylindric, not altered in shape: - Bacillus (Cohn), non-motile; Bactrinium (Fischer), motile, with one polar flagellum (monotrichous); Bactrillum (Fischer), motile, with a terminal tuft of cilia (lophotrichous); Bactridium (Fischer), motile, with cilia all over the surface (peritrichous) .

  • When the eye-stalk is removed from a living lobster or prawn, it is found that under certain conditions a many-jointed appendage like the flagellum of an antennule or antenna may grow in its place.

  • In the Malacostraca they are chiefly sensory, the endopodite forming a long flagellum, while the exopodite may form a lamellar " scale," probably useful as a balancer in swimming, or may disappear altogether.

  • Thelyphonus and its allies, however, have a long tactile caudal flagellum, the homologue of the scorpion's sting; but its exact use is unknown.

  • The body is bounded by a firm pellicle, often supplemented by an armour (" lorica ") of cuticular cellulose plates, with usually a marked longitudinal groove from which the anterior flagellum springs, and an oblique or spiral transverse groove for the second flagellum.

  • 2, 9) there are eight transverse grooves each with its flagellum.

  • Prorocentraceae (Schutt) (=the Adinida of Bergh); body surrounded by a firm shell of two valves without a girdle band; transverse groove absent; transverse flagellum coiled round base of longitudinal.

  • (Schutt); body with a shell of plates, a girdle band along the transverse groove, in which the transverse flagellum lies.

  • V. cholerae builds only one flagellum per cell, suggesting that there must be a close coupling between flagellum biogenesis and cell division.

  • centriole cylinder, is at the base of each cilium or flagellum.

  • Gymnodinium: note the large chromatophore containing carotene and the flagellum, which is best seen in the second picture (arrowed ).

  • This indicates a common ancestry, although no TTSS sequence homologues for the genes encoding the flagellum are found.

  • Research Title: How does Vibrio cholerae build a flagellum at its old cell pole?

  • The bacterial flagellum is driven by a proton motive force resulting from a gradient of protons.

  • Polarity is clearly seen in Vibrio cholerae, a highly motile pathogen that swims by rapidly rotating a single polar flagellum.

  • The phylum Chytridiomycota has traditionally been characterized on the basis of motile cells with a single posterior flagellum.

  • V. cholerae builds only one flagellum per cell, suggesting that there must be a close coupling between flagellum biogenesis and cell division.

  • flagellum function is essential to the survival of bloodstream trypanosomes.

  • The E coli flagellum has about 40 different kinds of proteins to make it work.

  • flagellum small cells of the colony possess two flagella and a small eyespot.

  • zoospore plasma membrane is continuous with the flagellar membrane (F) but only part of the flagellum is seen in this section.

  • The multiplication of thongs for purposes of flogging is found in the old Roman flagellum, a scourge, which had sometimes three thongs with bone or bronze knots fastened to them.

  • According to James Heath in his Flagellum, " he was more famous for his exercises in the fields than in the schools, being one of the chief match-makers and players at football, cudgels, or any other boisterous game or sport."

  • The result of cleavage in all cases is a typical blastula, which when set free becomes oval and develops a flagellum to each cell, but when not set free, it remains spherical in form and has no flagella.

  • many motile unicellular Algae and swarm spores is also probably concerned with the active response to light exhibited by these organisms. In Euglena viridis, which has been most carefully studied in this respect, the flagellum which brings about the movement bears near its base a minute spherical or oval refractive granule or swelling which is located just in the hollow of the red pigment-spot (fig.

  • 6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.

  • B, Anterior end of Euglena showing the flagellum with its swelling just in the hollow of the eye-spot.

  • - The head of an ant carries a pair of elbowed feelers, each consisting of a minute basal and an elongate second segment, forming the stalk or " scape," while from eight to eleven short segments make up the terminal " flagellum."

  • In exerior shape it resembles a helmet with spike and ear-lobes, the spike being a strong and long flagellum or a tuft of long cilia, the ear-lobes lateral ciliated appendages (fig.

  • Besides the works already noticed, he wrote De arte critica (1597); De Antichristo (1605); Pro auctoritate ecclesiae in decidendis fidei controversiis libellus; Scaliger hypololymaeus (1607), a virulent attack on Scaliger; and latterly the anti-jesuitical works, Flagellum Jesuiticum (1632); Mysteria patrum jesuitorum (1633); and Arcana societatis Jesu (1635).

  • (Original drawing by Pocock.) freely movable; claw free or fused; basal segments of 4th and 5th pairs widely separated by the sternal area; appendages of 3rd pair with all the segments except the proximal three, forming a manyjointed flagellum.

  • The feelers are generally simple in type, rarely showing serrations or prominent appendages; but one or two basal segments are frequently differentiated to form an elongate " scape," the remaining segments - carried at an elbowed angle to the scapemaking up the " flagellum "; the segments of the flagellum often bear complex sensory organs.

  • The blow snake, or spreading adder (Heterodon platyrrhinus), black snake (Bascanion constrictor), coach whip (Bascanion flagellum), and prairie bull snake (Pituophis) are common; the diamond water snake (Natrix fasciata) is found along creeks; the king snake (Lampropeltis getula), in central and southern Texas; and the pilot snake (Callopeltis obsoletus), mostly in the woods of McLennan county.

  • Each of these limbs was twobranched, the external branch consisting of a slender fringed flagellum possibly respiratory in function, and the inner of a normal jointed ambulatory leg.

  • Its length (inclusive of the flagellum) varies from 40-60 while its greatest width (including the undulating-membrane) is from 8-30, u; in the very wide individuals breadth is gained more or less at the expense of length.

  • One flagellum is entirely free and directed forwards; the other at once turns backwards and is attached to the convex or dorsal side of the body for the greater part of its length.

  • In all other Trypanosomes there is only one flagellum, which is invariably attached to the body in the same manner as the posterior one of biflagellate forms. This flagellum, however, is most probably not to be considered homologous in all cases.

  • 3, E), which is to be derived from a Herpetomonadine type, the single, anterior flagellum of the ancestral parasite has been drawn backwards along one side of the body and now originates in the posterior half.

  • Hence in this genus the end bearing the free part of the flagellum is the anterior one.

  • The genus Trypanosoma, in which are included at present the great majority of Trypanosomes, is rather to be regarded as derived from a Heteromastigine ancestor, such as Trypanoplasma, by the loss of the anterior flagellum.

  • Hence in this type the single flagellum represents the posteriorly-directed one of Trypanoplasma, and the end at which it becomes free is the hinder end.

  • The point of origin of the flagellum in Trypanosoma is usually near the anterior end, but may vary considerably (cf.

  • This always begins at the place where the attached flagellum emerges from the body; and its free edge is really constituted by the latter, which forms a flageIlar border.

  • The duplication of the flagellum begins at its proximal end, that which is in relation with the kinetonucleus.

  • Until recently the process has been considered as an actual longitudinal splitting of the flagellum, following upon the separation of the two daughter-kinetonuclei.

  • brucei), have found, however, that the new flagellum is developed quite independently and laid down alongside the old one.

  • H If the flagellar border splits, the membrane doubtless divides also; but where the flagellum is a new formation the membrane will be too.

  • These young individuals can themselves multiply by equal binary fission, giving Anterior flagellum; Posterior flagellum; Longitudinal striations nemes); Cytoplasmic vacuole.

  • E - H shows the formation of the myonemes and the flagellar border (flagellum) of the undulating membrane, by means of a greatly elongated nuclear-spindle.

  • - Haemoflagellates derived from a uniflagellate, Herpetomonadine form, in which the point of insertion of the single (anterior) flagellum into the body has travelled backwards from the anterior end for a greater or less distance, the flagellum itself having become, concurrently, attached to the body for a portion of its length by means of an undulating membrane.

  • - Flagellates, in the great majority of instances haemal parasites, derived from a biflagellate, Bodo-like type, in which the posteriorly-directed (trailing) flagellum is always present and attached to the body by an undulating membrane, of which it constitutes the thickened edge.

  • The other, the anterior flagellum, may or may not persist.

  • - The anterior flagellum is present.

  • 4, F and G) from the rudd and minnow, the anterior flagellum is well-developed, and the free parts of both are of about equal length.

  • 4, H) from carp, the anterior flagellum is much shorter than the free part of the posterior one, and evidently tending to disappear.

  • The anterior flagellum is longer than the free part of the posterior one.

  • - (Principal synonyms: Undulina, Lank., 1871; Herpetomonas, Kent, 1880,1880, only in part; Paramoecioides, Grassi, 1881; Haematomonas, Mitrophan, 1883.) There is no anterior flagellum.

  • The point of insertion of the attached (posterior) flagellum into the body, and, consequently, the commencement of the undulating membrane may be almost anywhere in the anterior half of the body, but is usually near the extremity.

  • and Mesnil, from soles, with a relatively small flagellum (fig.

  • These forms were elongated and spindle-like; and to one end of the body, near which the smaller nuclear element was situated, a well-developed flagellum was attached.

  • Since then many other workers have obtained similar stages [see Leishman and Statham (38), Christophers (7)]; but however slender and Trypanosomelike the flagelliform parasites may appear, up till now no indications of an undulating membrane have been seen, and the kinetonuclear element is never far from the insertion of the flagellum.

  • At the anterior end of the test is the apical plate from the centre of which projects a long flagellum as in many other Lamellibranch larvae.

  • In Nucula delphinodonta the test is uniformly covered with short cilia, and there is no flagellum.

  • a cell with an internal cavity containing a vibrating filament or flagellum.

  • 2, a) are divided into "scape" and "flagellum" as in the ants, and the mandibles vary greatly in size and sharpness in different genera.

  • The uncleanliness of the city was comparable to that of oriental cities at the present day, and, according to contemporary testimony (Garencieres, Angliae flagellum, London, 16 47, p. 85), little improved since Erasmus wrote his well-known description.

  • anthracis, have no cilia; others have only one flagellum at one pole (Monotrichous), e.g.

  • Sporogenous rodlets cylindric, not altered in shape: - Bacillus (Cohn), non-motile; Bactrinium (Fischer), motile, with one polar flagellum (monotrichous); Bactrillum (Fischer), motile, with a terminal tuft of cilia (lophotrichous); Bactridium (Fischer), motile, with cilia all over the surface (peritrichous) .

  • When the eye-stalk is removed from a living lobster or prawn, it is found that under certain conditions a many-jointed appendage like the flagellum of an antennule or antenna may grow in its place.

  • In the Malacostraca they are chiefly sensory, the endopodite forming a long flagellum, while the exopodite may form a lamellar " scale," probably useful as a balancer in swimming, or may disappear altogether.

  • Thelyphonus and its allies, however, have a long tactile caudal flagellum, the homologue of the scorpion's sting; but its exact use is unknown.

  • The body is bounded by a firm pellicle, often supplemented by an armour (" lorica ") of cuticular cellulose plates, with usually a marked longitudinal groove from which the anterior flagellum springs, and an oblique or spiral transverse groove for the second flagellum.

  • 2, 9) there are eight transverse grooves each with its flagellum.

  • Prorocentraceae (Schutt) (=the Adinida of Bergh); body surrounded by a firm shell of two valves without a girdle band; transverse groove absent; transverse flagellum coiled round base of longitudinal.

  • (Schutt); body with a shell of plates, a girdle band along the transverse groove, in which the transverse flagellum lies.

  • The zoospore plasma membrane is continuous with the flagellar membrane (F) but only part of the flagellum is seen in this section.

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