Fiume sentence example
He advocated the creation of a Hungarian port at Fiume.
In 1557, however, a great flood caused the Tiber to change its course, so that it no longer flowed under the walls of the castle, but some half a mile farther west; and its old bed (Fiume Morto) has ever since then served as a breeding ground for the malarial mosquito (Anopheles claviger).
With Venetian aid he wrested from Hungary the entire Adriatic littoral between Fiume and Cattaro, except the city of Zara; thus adding Dalmatia to his kingdom at the moment when Servia was lost through the Ottoman victory of Kossovo (1389).
It is regularly visited by steamers from Trieste, Fiume, Brindisi, and other Austro-Hungarian and Italian ports, as well as by many small Greek and Turkish coasters.
The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights.Advertisement
In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.
With but a short stretch of sea-coast, and possessing only one important seaport, Fiume, the mercantile marine of Hungary is not very developed.
In 1868 Transylvania was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume declared autonomous.
There are also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.
Owing to the amount spent on railways, the Fiume harbour works and other causes, the Hungarian budgets after 1867 showed big annual deficits, until in 1888 great reforms were introduced and the finances of the country were established on a more solid basis.Advertisement
Among special schools the principal mining schools are at Selmeczbanya, Nagyag and Felsobanya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvar; and there are a school of forestry at Selmeczbanya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Deva and Zagrab, and a naval school at Fiume.
The session was interrupted by the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War, but not before a 2 Transylvania, Croatio-Slavonia with Fiume and the Temes Banat were separated from the kingdom and provided with local governments.
The prime movers in this action were Dr. Trumbic, a leading Dalmatian advocate and mayor of Spalato, and Mr. Supilo, also a Dalmatian, the editor of the Novi List at Fiume.
Ten days later 26 Serb deputies from the various provinces of the monarchy, met at Zara, indorsed the principles embodied in the Resolution of Fiume and declared in favour of joint political action between Croats and Serbs.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.Advertisement
The frontier was to follow the watershed of the Julian Alps from Tarvis as far east as the Snjeznik (Schneeberg) and to reach the sea just east of Volosca, Fiume being expressly reserved to Croatia.
As early as the 23rd a Croat regiment stationed in Fiume disarmed the Magyar militia and took possession of the town.
On the 28th (the same day on which the Czechoslovak Republic was born in Prague) the military command in Zagreb handed over its authority to the National Council, and next day the diet proclaimed the independence of Croatia from Hungary, and assumed control of Fiume.
The first Serbian troops entered Fiume on Nov.
Clemenceau and Lloyd George found themselves between two irreconcilable standpoints - between Sonnino, who claimed the liberal fulfilment of their treaty pledges, with the addition of the port of Fiume, and President Wilson, 'who refused all cognizance of the secret treaties and regarded them as expressly abrogated by the Allies when they accepted his successive notes as the basis of the Armistice.Advertisement
Fiume, he declared, must be the outlet, not of Italy, but " of Hungary, Bohemia, Rumania and Yugoslavia."
Tardieu suggested a compromise by which the port and district of Fiume with most of eastern Istria and a total population of over 200,000 (mainly Yugosla y s) would form a small buffer state between Italy and Yugoslavia, under the guarantee of the League of Nations.
During the final stages of the German treaty the Adriatic problem was once more shelved, until on June 29 and July 6 armed conflicts took place in the streets of Fiume between Italian and French soldiers, resulting in several deaths.
The Italian claim of territorial continuity with Fiume was definitely rejected.
As however Trumbic rallied the Yugoslav delegation to refuse the Franco-British project, Clemenceau the very next day introduced the important modification that Fiume should be an independent state under the League.Advertisement
Thus the advocates of an unscrupulous " deal " on the lines of " Skutari for Fiume " failed to assert themselves, and Yugoslavia pronounced in favour of an independent Albania, merely reserving her right to share the spoils if it came to a general partition.
This was due in the first place to the lack of adequate railway communication with the interior of Austria, to the loss of part of the Levant trade through the development of the Oriental railway system, to the diversion of traffic towards the Italian and German ports, and finally to the growing rivalry of the neighbouring port of Fiume, whose interests were vigorously promoted by the Hungarian government.
He was zealous, too, for the promotion of trade and industry, and, besides the East India Company which he established at Ostend, he encouraged the development of Trieste and Fiume as sea-ports and centres of trade with the Levant.
At the same time special privileges were granted to articles imported by sea, so as to foster the trade of Trieste and Fiume; as in Germany a subvention was granted to the great shipping companies, the Austrian Lloyd and Adria; the area of the Customs Union was enlarged so as to include Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Its northern boundary stretches from the Kilia mouth of the Danube to the Adriatic Sea near Fiume, and is generally regarded as marked by the courses of the rivers Danube, Save and Kulpa.Advertisement
The city and territories of Fiume, the sole important harbour on this coast, are included in Hungary proper, and controlled by the Budapest government.
Near Fiume, the Recina, Rjeka or Fiumara falls into, the Adriatic after a brief course.
The sheltered bays near Fiume enjoy an equable climate; but in all other districts the temperature in mid-winter falls regularly below zero, and the summer heats are excessive.
Near Fiume the orange, lemon, pomegranate, fig and olive bear well; mulberries are planted on many estates for silkworms; and the heather-clad uplands of the central region favour the keeping of bees.
Timber is exported from Fiume and down the Danube.Advertisement
Apart from the distilleries and breweries scattered throughout the country, the rude flour-mills which lie moored in the rivers, and a few glass-works, saw-mills, silk-mills and tobacco factories, the chief industrial establishments of Croatia-Slavonia are at Agram, Fiume, Semlin, Buccari and Porto Re.
Goods in transit to and from Hungary figure largely in the official returns for Fiume' and Semlin, which are the centres of the foreign trade.
In 1900 there were also 19 real-gymnasia, teaching science, art and modern languages, as well as classics and mathematics; 1400 elementary schools; and a few special institutions, such as the naval and military academies of Fiume, ecclesiastical seminaries and commercial colleges.
In 1776 the Croatian seaboard, which had previously been under the same administration as the rest of the Austrian coast, was annexed to Croatia, but three years later Fiume was declared an integral part of Hungary.
The constitution of 1849 proclaimed Croatia and Slavonia separated from Hungary and united as a single Austrian crownland, to which was annexed the Croatian littoral, including Fiume.Advertisement
In May 1870 Fiume was annexed to Hungary, but in 1873 the Croats received as compensation an increase of their guaranteed revenue to £350,000, an addition of seven to the number of their representatives at Budapest, and a promise that the military frontier should be incorporated in the existing civil provinces.
The Gulf of Trieste on the west, and the Gulf of Fiume or Quarnero on the east, include between them the peninsula of Istria, which has many sheltered bays.
Geographically, Fiume belongs to Croatia; politically the town, with its territory of some 7 sq.
Fiume also possesses a theatre and a music-hall; palaces for the governor and the Austrian emperor; a high court of justice for commerce and marine; a chamber of commerce; an asylum for lunatics and the aged poor; an industrial home for boys; and several large schools, including the marine academy (1856) and the school of seamanship (1903).
Fiume is the only seaport of Hungary, with which country it was connected, in 1809, by the Maria Louisa road, through Karlstadt.Advertisement
A steady stream of Croatian and Hungarian emigrants, officially numbered in 1902 at 7500, passes through Fiume.
Altogether 11,550 vessels, of 1,963,000 tons, entered at Fiume in 1902; and 11,535, of 1,956,000, cleared.
Steamboats ply daily from Fiume to the Istrian health-resort of Abbazia, the Croatian port of Buccari, and the islands of Veglia and Cherso.
Fiume is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Liburnian town Tersatica; later it received the name of Vitopolis, and eventually that of Fanum Sancti Viti ad Flumen, from which its present name is derived.
From this date till 1776 Fiume was ruled by imperial governors.Advertisement
In 1809 Fiume was occupied by the French; but it was retaken by the British in 1813, and restored to Austria in the following year.
Hungary proper .is divided into sixty-three rural, and - including Fiume - twenty-six urban municipalities (see section on Administrative Divisions).
It is worthy of note that the Resolution of Fiume anticipated the modern doctrine of self-determination by the very explicit assertion that " every nation has the right to decide freely and independently concerning its existence and its fate."
Its two foremost leaders were Doctor Trumbic and Mr. Supilo (two of the makers of the Resolution of Fiume) and it also included Doctor Hinkovic (known as the chief advocate in the Zagreb treason trial), Ivan Mestrovic the sculptor, the Slovene deputies Gregorin and Trinajstic, the Bosnian Serb deputies Stojanovic, SrSkic and Vasiljevic, publicists of repute such as Marjanovic and Banjanin, and prominent representatives of the Yugoslav colonies in North and South America, such as the scientist Pupin and the shipping magnate Baburica.
Italy in her reply (Dec. io) insisted on continuity (the real if unavowed motive of which was to control the port of Fiume in the interests of Trieste and Venice, and so retain some hold over Yugoslavia's commercial development), demanded the island of Cherso and the neutralization of the Yugoslav coast, and suggested a triple division - the corpus separatum of Fiume to Italy, the port to the League of Nations, and the rest of the buffer state to Yugoslavia.
In originating this impromptu scheme, Lloyd George was influenced by secret indications that the Serbian reactionaries, if promised Skutari in return for Fiume, might throw over Trumbic and abandon the Wilson Line and American principles generally.
Austria being thus involved in war with Turkey, the Venetian Admiral Giovanni Bembo blockaded Trieste and Fiume, whither the pirates forwarded their booty for sale.