The forests are chiefly composed of oak, fir, pine, ash and alder.
The lower parts of the Riesengebirge are clad with forests of oak, beech, pine and fir; above 1600 ft.
The hills are generally richly wooded, chiefly with fir, beech and oak.
The Siberian larch predominates also in the alpine tracts fringing the plateau on the north, intermingled with the fir, stone-pine, aspen and birch.
The silver fir does not extend over Russia, and the oak does not cross the Urals.
Some of these are: Jack pine (Pinus Banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine (Pinus flexilis), black pine (Pinus Murrayana), white spruce (Picea alba), black spruce (Picea nigra), Engelman's spruce (Picea Engelmanni), mountain balsam (Abies subalpina), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), mountain larch (Larix Lyallis).
Lemstrbm believed atmospheric electricity to play an important part in the natural growth of vegetation, and he assigned a special role to the needles of fir and pine trees.
Far in the distance in that birch and fir forest to the right of the road, the cross and belfry of the Kolocha Monastery gleamed in the sun.
Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii).
In the drier parts the Scotch fir (Pinus sylvestris) makes its appearance.
The coarse evergreen color of the small fir trees scattered here and there among the birches was an unpleasant reminder of winter.
The final leg of the journey was a long dirt road that climbed first through a grove of fir followed by an unbroken forest of hardwood just beginning to bud.
Fir trees and branches from the neighbouring forest are collected and planted in front of the houses, so that for a few hours Hasselt has the appearance of being restored to its primitive condition as a wood.
It was at the end of a village that stretched along the highroad in the midst of a young copse in which were a few fir trees.
Silver Fir (Abies pectinate).
Introduced into Britain at the beginning of the 17th century, the silver fir has become common there as a planted tree, though, like the Norway spruce, it rarely comes up from seed scattered naturally.
From an equally loose application of the word "fir" by our older herbalists, it is difficult to decide upon the date of introduction of this tree into Britain; but it was commonly planted for ornamental purposes in the beginning of the 17th century.
It grows upon old trees, especially the oak, ash, fir and cherry.
The poles are of red fir, creosoted, this method of preservation being the only one now used for this purpose in the United Kingdom.
"On the fir and larch grows what is called stelis in Euboea and hyphear in Arcadia."
It is a small bitter species common in upland pastures and fir plantations early in the season.
The fir appears in the Siberian varieties Picea obovata and P. ayanensis.
The third zone is characterized by the predominance, up to 6000 ft., of the fir, pine and other conifers.
East of the Ain, forests of fir and oak abound on the mountains, the lower slopes of which give excellent pasture for sheep and cattle, and much cheese is produced.
Similar preparations are in use wherever the spruce fir abounds.
Bogucharovo lay in a flat uninteresting part of the country among fields and forests of fir and birch, which were partly cut down.
Spruce Fir (Picea excelsa B, Cone and foliage.
A large area is under forests, the oak, beech, fir, birch and hornbeam being the principal trees.
In these the predominant trees are the fir and pine, but many others, such as the chestnut, are well represented.
See also the publications of the Gesellschaft fir pommersche Geschichte and Altertumskunde.
The quantity obtained from each fir is very variable, depending on the vigour of the tree, and greatly lessens after it has been subjected to the operation for some years.
The extraordinary malformations known as Witches Brooms, caused by the repeated branching and tufting of twigs in which the mycelium of Exoascus (on birch) or Aecidium (on silver fir) are living, may be borne in considerable ntimbers for years without any very extensive apparent injury to the tree.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
Another group of Hymenoptera occasionally causes much harm in fir plantations, namely, the Siricidae or wood-wasps, whose larvae burrow into the trunks of the trees and thus kill them.
The spruce bears the smoke of great cities better than most of the Abietineae; but in suburban localities after a certain age it soon loses its healthy appearance, and is apt to be affected with blight (Eriosoma), though not so much as the Scotch fir and most of the pines.
Gundlach, Hesse and die Mainzer Stiftsfehde (Marburg, 1899); Walther, Literarisches Handbuch fir Geschichte and Landeskunde von Hesse (Darmstadt, 1841; Supplement, 1850-1869); K.
Generalstabsbureau fir Kriegsgesch.), Osterreichs Kampfe 1866 (Vienna, 1867; French translation, Les Luttes d'Autriche, Brussels, 1867); Friedjung, Der Kampf urn die Vorherrschaft in Deutschld.
Light portable boats are sometimes made of very thin boards of fir, sewn together with cord thus manufactured from the roots of the tree.
The silver fir flourishes in a deep loamy soil, and will grow even upon stiff clay, when well drained - a situation in which few conifers will succeed.
Farther south, in central Bosnia, the oak rarely mounts beyond the foothills, being superseded by the beech, elm, ash, fir and pine, up to 5000 ft.
The evidence of the peat bogs shows that the Scots fir, which is now extinct, was abundant in Denmark in the Roman period.
Extensive woods of this fir exist on the southern Alps, where the tree grows up to nearly 4000 ft.; in the Rhine countries it forms great part of the extensive forest of the Hochwald, and occurs in the Black Forest and in the Vosges; it is plentiful likewise on the Pyrenees and Apennines.
serie, viii., 1884), "Un Fragment des Metriques d'Heron" (Zeitschrift fir Math.
The eastern portion of the northern plain is covered with forests of fir.
The park is full of towering cedar, hemlock and fir trees that give park-goers a tranquil surrounding.
Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower.
The chestnut is of great value for its wood and ~ is furnished by the oak and beech, and pine and fir forests ~ S~ of the Alps and Apennines.
These bodies had long been known as "fossil fir cones" and "bezoar stones."
The berosh, or beroth, of the Hebrew Scriptures, translated "fir" in the authorized version, in I Kings v.
The principal trees are the oak, the valonia oak, the beech, ash, elm, plane, celtis, poplar and walnut, which give way in the higher regions to the pine and fir.
Abies - Silver Fir.
The younger and smaller trees are remarkably durable, especially when the bark is allowed to remain on them; and most of the poles imported into Britain for scaffolding, ladders, mining-timber and similar uses are furnished by this fir.
The silver fir (Abies sibirica, Pinus pectinata) and the stone-pine (P. Cembra) are quite common; they reach the higher summits, where the last-named is represented by a recumbent species (Cembra pumila).
Hopkinson pointed out that the greatest dissipation of energy which can be caused by a to-and-fro reversal is approximately represented by Coercive force X maximum induction fir.
Cerris and the hop-hornbeam (Ostrya); of the second class the rare Cilician silver fir (Abies cilicica) may be noticed.
The trees principally represented are oak and beech, with some newer plantations of Scotch fir.
The mountains themselves are mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones: that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the Scottish fir to 1000 ft.
Marx (Neue Jahrbiicher fir das klassische Altertum, 1904, p. 6 7368 5), Philoctetes did not appear in the original legend of Troy.
The props used are preferably of small oak or English larch, but large quantities of fir props, cut to the right length, are also imported from the north of Europe.
The guides or conductors in the pit may be constructed of wood, in which case rectangular fir beams, about 3 by 4 in., are used, attached at intervals of a few feet to buntons or cross-beams built into the lining of the pit.
Schwartz, Stammtafel des preussischen Konigshauses (Breslau 1898); Hohenzollernsche Forschungen, Jahrbuch fir die Geschichte der Hohenzollern, edited by C. Meyer (Berlin, 1891-1902); Hohenzollern Jahrbuch, Forschungen and Abbildungen zur Geschichte der Hohenzollern in Brandenburg-Preussen, edited by Seidel (Leipzig, 18 971903), and T.
This page gives an overview of all articles in the 1911 Brittanica which are alphabetized under Fes to Fir.
Denoting the constant ratio by fir, the area of a circle is ira 2, where a is the radius, and ir=3.14159 approximately.
From 1839 to his death Hug was a regular and important contributor to the Freiburger Zeitschrift fir kathol.
The Puget Sound Basin and the neighbouring slopes of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains are noted for their forests, consisting mainly of giant Douglas fir or Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), but containing also some cedar, spruce and hemlock, a smaller representation of a few other species and a dense undergrowth.
slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
slope of the Cascades and most of the Okanogan Highlands are clothed with light forests consisting chiefly of yellow pine, but containing also Douglas fir, cedar, larch, tamarack and a very small amount of oak.
Other species include - western red cedar, Engelmann spruce, alpine fir, whitebark pine, limber pine, alpine larch and occassionally western white pine.
More than one-half of the product is yellow pine and the remainder is principally red fir and tamarack.
Collections which may be consulted are: Codex diplomaticus Saxoniae regiae (Leipzig, 1862-1879); the Archiv fir die sachsische Geschichte, edited by K.
The implements found in the relic bed under it were axe-heads of stone, with their haftings of stag's horn and wood; a flint saw, set in a handle of fir wood and fastened with asphalt; flint flakes and arrow-heads; harpoons of stag's horn with barbs; awls, needles, chisels, fish-hooks and other implements of bone; a comb of yew wood 5 in.
Some species characteristic of the more northerly regions - for example, the mountain ash, balsam fir, tamarack and black and white spruce - find here their southern or south-western limits.
Archilochus described Thasos as "an ass's backbone crowned with wild wood," and the description still suits the mountainous island with its forests of fir.
The mines and marble quarries are no longer worked; and the chief exports are now fir timber for shipbuilding, olive oil, honey and wax.
See Wilke, Greiz and seine Umgebung (1875), and Jahresberichte des Vereins fir Greizer Geschichte (1894, seq.)
of the mountainous country near the coast are covered with forests of various species of oak, pine, fir, cedar, elm, ash, maple, olive, many of them of gigantic size, and other trees; and on the slopes of the mountains up to 3800 ft.
oak, ash, elm, &c.; the articles FIR and Pine treat of two large groups of conifers; general information is provided by the articles Plants and Gymnosperms; tree cultivation will be found under Forests And Forestry and Horticulture; and the various types of tree whose wood is useful for practical purposes under Timber.
Alyu '17 7 7rOALSOi K060p77piv77 fir' iiKpov povs 'UlkXo13 Kai ivTI)PLypiyf OuTE 71-E[o]Ely SbvaraL 015TE Kpu17vac.
The bark is red, like that of the Scots fir, deeply furrowed, with the ridges often much curved and twisted.
The Pacific coast Transition zone is noted for its forests of giant conifers, principally Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Pacific cedar and Western hemlock, Here, too, mosses and ferns grow in profusion, and the sadal (Gaultheria shailon), thimble berry (Rubus nootkamus), salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis) and devils club, (Fatsia horr-ida) are characteristic shrubs.
On the westward slopes, especially of the Selkirks and Coast Ranges, vegetation is almost tropical in its density and luxuriance, the giant cedar and the Douglas fir sometimes having diameters of 10 ft.
with luxuriant woods of oak and beech, and above these again and up to an elevation of 4000 ft., surrounding the hills with a dense dark belt, are the forests of fir which have given the name to the district.
It is remarkably tough, resisting a rending strain better than any of the fir or pine woods in common use, though not as elastic as some; properly seasoned, it is as little liable to shrink as to split; the boughs being small compared to the trunk, the timber is more free from large knots, and the small knots remain firm and undecayed.
The larch is said not to succeed on arable land, especially where corn has been grown, but experience does not seem to support this view; that against the previous occupation of the ground by Scotch fir or Norway spruce is probably better founded, and, where timber is the object, it should not be planted with other conifers.
In very dry and bleak localities, the Scotch fir will probably be more successful up to 900 ft.
The higher elevations are covered by dense forests of fir and larch, and the lower slopes with deciduous trees.
For the development of Rhabdocoelida see (7) Bresslau, Zeitschrift fir wissenschaftliche Zoologie (1904), vol.
in Mitteilungen des Instituts fir iisterreichische Geschichtsforschung (1898); Baluzius, Vitae pap. Avenion.
Kirchenstaat (1878); Geymiiller, Entwiirfe fur St Peter (1875-1880); Schulte, Maximilian als Candidat fir den pcipstlichen Stuhl (1906).
For Solomon's palace and temple Hiram contributed cedar and fir trees as well as workmen, receiving in exchange large annual payments of oil and wine, supplies which Phoenicia must have drawn regularly from Israelite districts (1 Kings v.
About four-fifths of the park is covered with dense forests of black pine (Pinus Murrayana), balsam, fir, spruce, cedar and poplar.
In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.
The Siberian fir is found scattered at intervals throughout the Alps but is not common.
above the sea, but on the south side they commonly attain 7000 ft., while the larch, Siberian fir and mughus often extend above that elevation.
Picea - Spruce Fir.
ALARIC (Ala-reiks, " All-ruler"), (c. 370-410), Gothic conqueror, the first Teutonic leader who stood as a conqueror in the city of Rome, was probably born about 370 in an island named Peucb (the Fir) at the mouth of the Danube.
Chamois feed in summer on mountain-herbs and flowers, and in winter chiefly on the young shoots and buds of fir and pine trees.
So also in fir cones (fig.
- Diagram of a phyllotaxis); and the fourth in those of the silver fir.
the Scotch fir; birches are also Lippe abundant.
Neolithic Age (in south Germany till C. 2000 B.C.).Neolithic man lived under the same climatic conditions as prevail to-day, but amidst forests of fir.
For a fuller description of these social reforms, see the Jahrbuch fir Gesetzgebung (Leipzig, 1886, 1888 and 1894); also the annual summary of new laws in the Zeitschrift fur Staatswissenschaft (Stuttgart).
C. i is on the earliest dwellings of man; C. 2 on systems of Thales, Heraclitus, Democritus, &c.; c. 3 on bricks; c. 4 on sand; c. 5 on lime; c. 6 on pozzolana; c. 7 on kinds of stone for building; c. 8 on methods of constructing walls in stone, brick, concrete and marble, and on the materials for stucco; c. 9 on timber, time for felling it, seasoning, &c.; and c. to on the fir trees of the Apennines.
It generally makes its nest in a hollow branch, plastering up the opening with clay, leaving only a circular hole just large enough to afford entrance and exit; and the interior contains a bed of dry leaves or the filmy flakes of the inner bark of a fir or cedar, on which the eggs are laid.
Extensive fir woods have been laid out in the neighbourhood.
But again, abundant traces of ancient extensive forests of fir and pine are found in the numerous.
the Mexican " oyamel," or fir (Abies religiose) becomes the principal species, interspersed with evergreen oak, arbutus and elder.
Krause, Geschichte des Institutes der missi dominici in the Mittheilungen des Instituts fir osterreichische Geschichtsforschung, Band XI.
The Ayan spruce (Abies ayanensis), the Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalensis) and the Daurian larch are the chief trees; on the upper parts of the mountains are the Siberian rampant cedar (Cembra pumila) and the Kurilian bamboo (Arundinaria kurilense).
The modern plantations consist mostly of Scots fir with a sprinkling of larch.
The age at which the northern pine and Norway fir arrive at maturity is between seventy and one hundred years.
Many of the soft woods, such as pine and fir, are sold by the standard.
The northern pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a number of othe r names and may be referred to under any of the following: Scotch fir, red deal, red fir, yellow deal, yellow fir, Baltic pine, Baltic fir.
It grows in Sweden, Norway, Russia, Germany and Great Britain, and often gets a name from the port of shipment, such as Memel fir, Danzig fir, Riga fir, and so on.
The white fir, or Norway spruce (Abies excelsa), is exported fro Russia, Sweden and Norway, where it grows in enormous quantit It is the tallest and straightest of European firs, growing with a slender trunk to a height of from 80 to 100 ft.
Like the northe pine, it is called by several names, such as "spruce," "while deal," "white wood," "Norway fir."
Reimarus and seine Schutzschrift fir die verniinftigen Verehrer Gottes (1862, 2nd ed.
The species of timber almost exclusively planted are the red fir (Picea excelsa) and the mountain pine (Pinus montana).
Among the ruins on the south bank stand the fragments of a temple called Kasr Fir`aun of late Roman date; just beyond this rises a rocky height which is usually regarded as the acropolis.
Three main wood belts cover the flanks of the Sierra: the lower or main pine belt, the silver fir belt, and the upper pine belt.
The white silver fir (abies coucola) and the silver or red fir (ab.
cut in 1903, 4 6 5,4 60, 000 were of redwood, and 264,890,000 of yellow pine; fir and sugar pines contributing another 104,600,000, and spruce and cedar 17,670,000 ft.
White fir is found above the foot hill zone, and heavy growths of cottonwood along the streams in the Bighorn region.
fir Instrumentenkunde, 1907, 2 7, 145.) The method of recording the variations in H is exactly the same as that adopted in the case of the declination, and the sensitiveness generally adopted is such that I mm.
Large districts on the southern slopes of the Taurus chain are covered with forests of oak and fir, and there are numerous yailas or grassy "alps," with abundant water, to which villagers and nomads move with their flocks during the summer months.
The mountains on the north coast are clothed with dense forests of pine, fir, cedar, oak, beech, &c. On the Taurus range the forests are smaller, and there is a larger proportion of pine.
The surface of the islands is generally sandy, the soil thin and the climate keen; yet Scotch fir, spruce and birch are grown; and rye, barley, flax and vegetables are produced in sufficient quantity for the wants of the people.
fir Anthropologie (1892-99); Zeit.
Goschler, 1870); Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie fir Protestantische Theologie and Kirche (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896-1909), Protestant, but containing articles of universally recognized scientific authority on many aspects of the Roman Catholic Church; the Catholic Encyclopaedia (London and New York, 1907 ff.), invaluable as an authoritative account of Roman Catholicism in all its phases, by eminent Catholics of all nations.
New Mexico has such a great range of elevations that all four of the zones of vegetation into which the South-West has been divided according to altitude are found within its limits; namely, the zone of cactus, yucca and agave (3000-3500 ft.), where grass is scanty; the zone of greasewood and sage-brush (3500-4900 ft.), where there is little grass, and the cactus species are less numerous; the zone of the cedar (4900-6800 ft.); and the zone of the pine and fir (6800 - 10,800 ft.), in which grass is more abundant.
The chief varieties of timber are the red fir, Engelmann's spruce and yellow pine.
i in fir; u in Med.
Aryan e became i, as in Irish fir, Welsh gwir, " true," cognate with Latin ver-us.
Lindner, "Papst Urban VI.," in Zeitschrift fir Kirchengeschichte, iii.
The fir (Pinus sylvestris) and pine (Pinus abies) are the predominating trees Spruce is common, and even predominates in the higher parts (between the great valleys and immediately below the birch-belt) in the north of Norrland.
South of the southern limit indicated, in the midland district of the great lakes, the oak (Quercus pedunculata) appears as well as pine and fir; and, as much of this area is under cultivation, many other trees have been introduced, as the ash, maple, elm and lime.
In the great fir forests of the north the limit set in respect of cutting down living trees for sawing and export is a diameter of the trunk, without bark, of 84 in.
- Scotch Fir (Pinus sylvestris).
Nowhere more abundant than in the Scandinavian peninsula, this tree is the true fir (fur, fura) of the old Norsemen, and still retains the name among their descendants in Britain, though botanically now classed as a pine.
In Britain natural forests of Scotch fir of any extent are only now found in the Highlands, chiefly on the declivities of the Grampians.
The Scotch fir is a very variable tree, and certain varieties have acquired a higher reputation for the qualities of their timber than others; among those most prized by foresters is the one called the Braemar pine, the remaining fragments of the great wood in the Braemar district being chiefly composed of this kind; it is mainly distinguished by its shorter and more glaucous leaves and ovoid cones with blunt recurved spines, and especially by the early horizontal growth of its ultimately drooping boughs; of all varieties this is the most picturesque.
The heartwood of the finer kinds of Scotch fir is of a deep brownish-red colour, abounding in the resin to which its durability is probably due.
depends greatly on the soil and position in which the trees are grown: the dry slopes of granitic or gneissic mountains, or the deep well-drained sandy gravels of the lower country seem to answer equally well; but on clay or wet peat the tree rarely a c Scotch Fir (Pinus sylvestris).
A plantation of Scotch fir requires frequent and careful thinning as the young trees increase in size; but pruning should be avoided as much as possible, excepting for the removal of dead wood.
Large quantities of turpentine are extracted from this pine in Sweden and Russia by removing a strip of bark, terminating below in a deep notch cut in the wood, into which the turpentine runs, and from which it is scooped as it accumulates; but the product is not equal to that of the silver fir and other species.
The foliage much resembles that of the Scotch fir, but is shorter, denser and more rigid; the cones are smaller but similar in form.
The tree is of quick growth and the wood strong and resinous, but it is less durable than Scotch fir, though much employed in ship-building; according to Emerson, trunks exist in Maine 4 ft.
The soil is fertile, and the indigenous flora has been greatly enriched by the importation of such plants as the agave, the Mexican opuntia, the American maple, the Australian eucalyptus, the Scotch fir and the so-called Portuguese cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) from the Azores.
18 Oaks, juniper, pinon, cedars, yellow pine, fir and spruce grow on the mountains and over large areas of the plateau country.'
EXarn, the silver fir.
Tree vegetation, which reaches up as high as 6500 and 8150 ft., the latter limit on the north and west, consists of magnificent forests of birch, poplar, aspen, and Coniferae, such as Pinus cembra, Abies sibirica, Larix sibirica, Picea obovata, and so on, though the fir is not found above 2500 ft., while the meadows are abundantly clothed with brightlycoloured, typical assortments of herbaceous plants.
Red oak, birch, elm, ash, white cedar, hemlock, basswood, spruce, poplar, balsam, fir and several other kinds of trees are found in many sections; but a large portion of the merchantable timber, especially in the lower peninsula, has been cut.'
The balsam fir and in the south the red cedar occur in scant quantities; more widely distributed, but growing only under marked local conditions, is the yellow or Alaska cedar, a very hard and durable wood of fine grain and pleasant odour.
The commonest species of trees are such as grow in central Europe, namely, ash, fir, pine, beech, acacia, maple, birch, box, chestnut, laurel, holm-oak, poplar, elm, lime, yew, elder, willow, oak.
Danish peat-mosses again show the existence of man at a time when the Scotch fir was abundant; at a later period the firs were succeeded by oaks, which have again been almost superseded by beeches, a succession of changes which indicate a considerable lapse of time.
The higher plateaus, the Uinta and Wasatch mountains, bear forests of fir, spruce and pine, and the lower slopes are dotted with piiion, juniper, and scrub cedar.
The interior is characterized by wooded dunes, covered with pine, fir, birch and oak, with swamps and lakes, and fertile patches between.
In northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as Picea excelsa (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the Mediterranean region; Pinus sylvestris (Scottish fir), reaching from the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; Juniperus communis, &c. In north Siberia Pinus Cembra (Cembra or Arolla Pine) has a wide range; also Abies sibirica (Siberian silver fir), Larix sibirica and Juniperus Sabina (savin).
In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
In the Mediterranean region occur Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus Pinea (stone pine), species of juniper, Cedrus atlantica, C. Libani, Callitris quadrivalvis, Pinus montana, &c. Several conifers of economic importance are abundant on the Atlantic side of North America - Juniperus virginiana (red cedar, used in the manufacture of lead pencils, and extending as far south as Florida), Taxodium distichum (swamp cypress), Pinus rigida (pitch pine), P. mitis (yellow pine), P. taeda,P. palustris, &c. On the west side of the American continent conifers play a still more striking role; among them are Chamaecyparis nutkaensis, Picea sitchensis, Libocedrus decurrens, Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Douglas fir), Sequoia sempervirens, S.
trans., 1907); and Carl Mirbt's article, "Pietismus," in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie fir Prot.
From the coast to the eastern base of the Cascade Mountains the state is heavily timbered, except in small prairies and clearings in the Willamette and other valleys, and the most important tree is the great Douglas fir, pine or spruce (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), commonly called Oregon pine, which sometimes grows to a height of 300 ft., and which was formerly in great demand for masts and spars of sailing-vessels and for bridge timbers; the Douglas fir grows more commercial timber to the acre than any other American variety, and constitutes about five-sevenths of the total stand of the state.
West of the Cascades most of the trees of commercial value consist of Douglas fir.
There are small amounts of sugar pine, yellow pine, red fir and silver fir (Abies grandis and A.
of Douglas fir or spruce, 40,000,000,000 ft.
In the most heavily wooded region along the Pacific coast and the lower course of the Columbia river are forests of the Douglas fir with stands of 100,000 ft.
Upwards of 61% of the area is under tillage, 13% is occupied by pasture and meadows and 20% by forests, mostly fir.
Crude turpentine is further yielded by the Scotch fir, P. sylvestris, throughout northern Europe, and by the Corsican pine, P. Laricio, in Austria and Corsica.
Strassburg turpentine is obtained from the bark of the silver fir; but it is collected only in small quantities.
In the north of Europe rosin is obtained from the Scotch fir, P. sylvestris, and throughout European countries local supplies are obtained from other species of pine.
The supply of timber (pine, fir, spruce and birch) is unlimited.
Denifle in Archiv fir Literatur and Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, iii.
- Vertical section of the ovule of the Scotch Fir (Pinus sylvestris) in May of the second year, showing the enlarged embryo-sac b, full of endosperm cells, and pollen-tubes c, penetrating the summit of the nucellus after the pollen has entered the large micropyle.
The park is open to the public, and is famous for the beauty of the beech avenues and fir woods.
One party, the Fir Galeoin, landed at Inber Slangi, the mouth of the Slaney, and occupied much of Leinster.
Another, the Fir Domnand, settled in Mayo where their name survives in Irrus Domnand, the ancient name for the district of Erris.
Brian and Fiachra, sons of Eochaid Muigmed61n, conquered for themselves the country of the Ui Briuin (Roscommon, Leitrim, Cavan) and Tir Fiachrach, the territory of the Firbolg tribe the Fir Domnann in the valley of the Moy (Co.
It would seem that the Fir Galeoin who play such a prominent part in the Tain had been crushed before authentic history begins.
In the north, and in the deep valleys through which the streams descend to the plain, there are extensive forests of oak, birch and beech, and in the south, of fir and larch.
At the base are found vines and maize; on the lower slopes are green pastures, or wheat, barley and other kinds of corn; above are often forests of oak, ash, elm, &c.; and still higher the yew and the fir may be seen braving the climatic conditions.
Among other characteristic trees are the Spanish pine (Pinus hispanica), the Corsican pine (P. Li,r-icio), the Pinsapo fir (Abies Pinsapo), and the Quercus Tozza, the last belonging to the slopes of the Sierra Nevada.
The hill-sides were clothed with vine and fir, and the rich broad plain of Hermus produced large quantities of corn and saffron.
There is also a considerable cultivation of wood, especially of fir and copse, while tobacco plantations are found at Nykerk and Wageningen.
The forest, with which it is densely covered, consists of oak, beech, ash and fir, and the scenery, especially on the main side, between Gemiinden and Lohr, is impressive.
It is an agricultural district, producing cocoons and tobacco, and there are large forests of oak, beech and fir.
Porter Smith, op. cit., p. 162.) Common frankincense or thus, Abietis resina, is the term applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the Norway spruce fir, Abies excelsa, D.C.; when melted in hot water and strained it constitutes " Burgundy pitch," Pix abietina.
aw ma richts an ye ask whit fir I dinnae let ye haud them.
balsam fir; a patch test produced a positive reaction (Kappes 1948 ).
Councilor Donnell expressed concern at a potential bottleneck in the vicinity of the Fir Trees Hotel.
These woods include cedar, cherry, eucalyptus, fir, plum, plywood or spruce.
On the right you will pass a number of young Silver Fir which have coarse, flattened needles set in two ranks.
Do the curious checkered sacks beneath his chin represent fir cones or grapes?
defrocked priest wearing a black cloak decorated with fir cones.
Douglas fir log.
Walking along the bottom path, parallel to the railroad embankment, you will pass several young Douglas Fir in a line.
The majority of these have been taken down to make way fir the construction of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link.
What he can plant the fir for, God only knows, seeing that the country is already over-stocked with that rubbish.
The Didache does not fir clearly into any period of liturgy or ministry for which we have documentation.
If the robot serves you, you don't get fir enough and you become lazy.
Ash, sycamore, beech, lime, Scots pine and grand fir are among the range of trees that occur.
Siemens (1929) reported dermatitis from the foliage of silver fir; patch tests were not recorded.
My thoughts are green fir, my body is dark pine.
fir clubmoss, Huperzia selago and the wooly fringe moss, Racomitrium lanuginosum.
fir tree nestled in the corner of his living room.
fir plantations in Portugal were modeled using nine growth models.
fir forests, requires good technical ability.
In Canadian forestry high quality red alder logs are said to be approximately equal in value to that of a Douglas fir log.
silver fir was the main species, followed by beech.
A florist developed contact dermatitis from the foliage of balsam fir; a patch test produced a positive reaction (Kappes 1948 ).
The island has been famous throughout the centuries for its silver fir trees whose aromatic aroma still pervades parts of the island.
The species are larch, norway and sitka spruce, douglas fir and scots pine.
On Christmas Day morning the log was replaced by a young fir tree to represent rebirth.
On conifers in California, the pathogen causes a needle blight and dieback of young shoots of Douglas fir and coastal redwood.
Fir extra aroma add 25 ml rum to the juices.
An ye sal see hoo a King kin darg, fir his fowk an kin.
It takes you off track into a narrow taped chicane around fir trees, trying to miss stumps on the off side.
tun room containing ten wooden washbacks, made out of Douglas Fir.
A. pectinate) Silver Fir This species yields Alsatian turpentine.
Drill a hole into the top of a fir tree twig to create the trunk.
Nippold, in Zeitschrift fir die historische Theologie (1863, 1864, 1868); A.
A good many years' data for Lippe (82) in Germany make the liability to lightning stroke as follows-the number of each species being supposed the same :-Oak 57, Fir 39, Pine 5, Beech 1.
SPRUCE spruce-fir, a coniferous tree belonging to the genus Picea, of which there are several species, such as the Norway spruce, Picea excelsa; the black spruce, Picea nigra, &c. (see FIR).
Dict.) it is clear that "spruce" a variant of "pruce," simply stood for Prussian; the form "spruce," rather than "pruce," being established partly by the German Sprossen, sprouts or young shoots (seen in Sprossen-bier, spruce beer, made of the sprouts of this fir).
This type of mycorhiza is found among the Poplars, Oaks ~nd Fir trees.
In places suited to its growth it seems to flourish nearly as well as in the woods of Norway or Switzerland; but as it needs for its successful cultivation as a timber tree soils that might be turned to agricultural account, it is not so well adapted for economic planting in Britain as the Scotch fir or larch, which come to perfection in more bleak and elevated regions, and on comparatively barren ground, though it may perhaps be grown to advantage on some moist hill-sides and mountain hollows.
Of the Abies group, the silver fir (A.
Deficient in resin, the wood is more perishable than that of the spruce fir when exposed to the air, though it is said to stand well under water.
The silver fir of Canada (A.
Others have hollow or funnel-shaped ends and are constricted at the middle like a dice cup. In some rocks small rod-like microlites are grouped together in a regular way to form growths which resemble fir branches, fern leaves, brushes or networks, in the same manner as minute needles of ice produce star-like snow crystals or the frost growths on a window pane.
Amongst the forest and other trees are the oak, which yields large quantities of galls, the beech, fir, pine, ash and alder, also the chestnut, walnut and filbert.
For further information see the prefaces to Sohm's editions; Ernst Mayer, Zur Entstehung der Lex Ribuariorum (Munich, 1886); Julius Ficker, "Die Heimat der Lex Ribuaria" in the Mitteilungen fir Osterreichische Geschichtsforschung (supplt., vol.
Busolt, "Der zweite athenische Bund" in Neue Jahrbiicher fir classische Philologie (supp. vol.
The most heavily wooded districts are in the southern and eastern parts (fir, pine, birch, aspen, alder and oak).
Shelley's "The Boat on the Serchio," 117, "woods of stunted fir" for "pine" which the rhyme requires; Prince Athanase, 250, "And sea buds burst beneath the waves serene" for "under."
From Labrador it ranges to the southern shores of Hudson's Bay and to those of the Great Bear Lake, and to the valley of the Yukon and the coast of Alaska, forming with the aspen, the larch, the balsam poplar, the banksian pine, the black and white spruces and the balsam fir, the great subarctic transcontinental forest; and southward it ranges through all the forest region of the Dominion of Canada and the northern states."
Hubrecht, Jenaische Zeitschrift fir Naturwissenschaft (1905), pp. 151-176; (6) Von Graff, Die Acoela, p. 519 (Leipzig, 1891).
The chief forest trees of Finland are the Scotch fir (Pinus sylvestris, L.), the fir (Picea excelsa, Link.); two species of birch (B.
The leaves, short and glaucous, like those of the Scotch fir, have deciduous sheaths; the cones have recurved scale-points like those of the cheer pine.
We then entered the tun room containing ten wooden washbacks, made out of Douglas Fir.
Noble Fir stays fragrant longer than most evergreen needles and has a silvery-blue hue.
You can also check out their swags, garland, and small Noble Fir Christmas trees.
Rockdale Wreaths offers a large selection of fresh Christmas wreaths made from Balsam Fir.
They use Balsam Fir, Noble Fir, Shorewood Pine, and Wild Boxwood.
If most of your cutting will involve pine or fir, you can get away with cutting back on power.
Douglas fir is the most popular wood used, but Sitka Spruce can also be used.
Less power is needed for softer wood, like pine or fir.
Mambo: Men enjoy the zesty bergamot, lime, sage and fir balsam combination, while the women's version is an intoxicating blend of mango, mandarin, orange, pink ginger and vanilla.
This region is also known for being the first to decorate a fir tree.
Italian lakes, for example, grow up to the tops of high Fir and Pine trees.
See Fir Tree for information about the cultivation and use of fir trees.
Alleghany Fir (Abies Fraseri) - Reaches 90 feet high in its own country, with smooth bark having resinous blisters.
It is allied to the Balsam Fir, but has shorter and more oval cones, and leaves with silvery undersides.
Alpine Fir (Abies Lasiocarpa) - A beautiful spire-like tree 150 feet high, with white bark and very small cones, purple, 2 to 3 inches long, and red male flowers, the foliage gracefully curved.
California Red Fir (Abies Magnifica) - A stately mountain tree of 200 to 250 feet, with brown bark (red within), and very large light purple cones, 6 to 8 inches long.
Columbia Fir (Abies Nobilis) - A mountain tree, 200 to 300 feet high, with deep glaucous foliage and brown cones 5 to 7 inches long.
Maries Silver Fir (Abies Mariesi) - A tall, pyramidal tree with spreading branches and dark purple cones, 4 to 5 inches long.
Mount Babor Fir (Abies Numidica) - A tree of medium height with bright green foliage.
Spanish Silver Fir (Abies Pinsapo) - A large Fir, with bright green prickly foliage, thriving in almost any soil and in chalky districts.
Saghalien Silver Fir (Abies Sachalinensis) - A tall tree with greyish-brown bark, narrow leaves, and small cones.
Veitchs Silver Fir (Abies Veitchi) - A tall tree of over 100 feet.
Webbs Fir (Abies Webbiana) - An Indian Fir, sometimes nearly 100 feet high, and one of the most distinct.
Balsam Fir (Abies Balsamea) - A slender northern forest Fir rarely attaining a height of more than 80 feet, and much smaller in high Arctic regions.
California White Fir (Abies Lowiana) - A lovely tree, often 150 feet high, long leaves, and light green cones, turning yellow at maturity.
Cephalonian Fir (Abies Cephalonica) - A vigorous Fir of about 60 feet high, hardy in this country in a variety of soils, best planted in a high position to prevent it starting into growth too early.
Crimean Fir (Abies Nordmanniana) - A beautiful dark green tree, with rigid branches and dense dark green foliage and large cones.
Hoary White Fir (Abies Concolor) - A whitish tree of medium height, with thick, grey bark.
Japanese Silver Fir (Abies Firma) - A tree of sometimes 150 feet in height, with light brown bark and foliage of a glossy green.
Jesso Silver Fir (Abies Brachyphylla) - A handsome and hardy tree, over 100 feet high, with bright green foliage and short leaves.
Mount Taurus Fir (Abies Cilicica) - A graceful tree, 40 feet to 60 feet high, with slender branches.
Puget Sound Fir (Abies Grandis) - A stately tree 200 feet high, with dark green cones 2 to 3 inches long, and dark shining leaves, white below.
Santa Lucia Fir (Abies Bracteata) - A stately tree, often 150 feet high in its native country.
Silver Fir (Abies Pectinata) - A noble tree of the mountains of Central Europe.
Spruce Fir (Picea) - Usually stately evergreen cone-bearing trees of the northern world and mountains, including among them the common Norway Spruce and the Douglas Fir, usually doing best in moist valley soils.
Douglas Fir (Picea Douglasi) - Among the noblest trees of the west American forests, this is one of the best trees ever introduced, both for ornament and timber.
They provide frames in pine, knotty alder, Douglas fir, mahogany, cherry, walnut and oak.
The Fir Maxi Dress is a black jersey maxi with an embellished empire waist band, plunging neck and cross-over back.
Make Your Own Jeans.com: Design your own jeans for the perfect figure-flattering fir from this company.
Frasier Fir is made with essential oils and captures the essence of freshly cut Frasier Fir on a crisp winter morning.
The first reference is to a fir tree erected at a guild hall for the members' children and decorated with apples, nuts, berries, and paper flowers.
One of the most popular trees in the US, this high-altitude fir tree is widely cultivated for ornamental and holiday purposes.
Alpine Farms: Pick from a variety of wreaths made from Noble Fir.
A Wreath 4 All Seasons: Choose from wreaths of fir, evergreen, and boxwood.
Norway Spruce, Scotch Pine, Aspen Silver Fir, and more are in the collection, along with coordinating garlands.
When a fir tree sprang up in its place, he determined that to be a sign of the Christian faith.
The best selling varieties over the history of the Christmas tree are Scotch Pine, Douglas Fir, Fraser Fir, Balsam Fir, and White Pine.
It can be a family event to pick out just the right pine, spruce or fir for your home.
The tree crushed all the bushes that it landed on when it fell with the exception of a tiny fir tree.
One states that he used the triangular shape of the fir tree to explain the holy trinity to converts.
A second states that he came upon people who tied a child to a fir tree and wanted to sacrifice him to the Norse god, Thor.
The President lit the 48-foot fir at 5:00 p.m. on Christmas Eve in front of a crowd of 3,000.
Christians have long associated fir trees with Jesus.
As legend tells it, a fir tree immediately sprang up from the stump of the oak tree, and St. Boniface and his followers saw this as a sign from God.
He was walking one night and was awed by the sparkle of snow on the fir trees in the moonlight.
It wasn’t until 1846, when a New York farmer hauled his fir trees to New York City and sold them on the streets, that the Christmas tree became widely accepted in the United States as an inherent part of Christmas celebrations.
Faux white fir trim and red velvet or plush material form the basis of dozens of lingerie styles, from nice to naughty.
Velvet and faux fir are perpetually popular for Christmas lingerie sets.
The main types of wood they handle are spruce, fir, pine, hemlock, and cedar.
Invigorating: Ginger, bergamot, ylang ylang, amyris, rosemary, pure peppermint, lemon, lime, grapefruit, tea tree, juniper, fir, nutmeg and ginseng root.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.