His wife joined him at Thorn in December, but in April 1712 a peremptory ukaz ordered him off to the army in Pomerania, and in the autumn of the same year he was forced to accompany his father on a tour of inspection through Finland.
Immediately on his return from Finland Alexius was despatched by his father to Staraya Rusya and Ladoga to see to the building of new ships.
For the episcopal churches of Sweden and Finland the first constitution or " Church order " was formed in 1571.
The period of study is eighteen months in Denmark or Norway, and two in Austria, Finland, Germany, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, three in Belgium, France, Greece and Italy, four to six in Holland, and five in Spain.
He travelled in Finland and Lapland in 1873-4, and in 1875 made a special study of archaeology and ethnology in the Balkan States.
Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.
In places where the low ground is marshy, roads and railways often follow the ridge-lines of hills, or, as in Finland, the old glacial eskers, which run parallel to the shore.
Although the name is thus correctly applied, both in English and Russian, to the whole area of the Russian empire, its application is often limited, no less correctly, to European Russia, or even to European Russia exclusive of Finland and Poland.
The Baltic, with the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, limits it on the N.W.; and two sinuous lines of land frontier separate it respectively from Sweden and Norway on the N.W.
Russia and Finland, or of marshy prairies in W.
to the lacustrine region of Finland and N.W.
In the early part of the Palaeozoic era only the gneissic region of Finland and Olonets and probably the Archean mass of S.
The Archean rocks have a broad extension in Finland, N.
The Finland rappa-kivi, the Serdobol gneiss, and the Pargas and Rustiala marble (with the so-called Eozoon canadense) yield good building stone; while iron, copper and zinc-ore are common in Finland and in the Urals.
Rocks regarded as representing the Huronian system appear also in Finland, in N.W.
The Ordovician and Silurian systems are widely developed, and it is most probable that, with the exception of the Archean continents of Finland and the S, the sea covered the whole of Russia.
The former presents an intimate mixture of boulders brought from Finland and Olonets (with an addition of local boulders) with small gravel, coarse sand and the finest glacial mud, - the whole bearing no trace of ever having been washed up and sorted by water in motion, except in subordinate layers of glacial sand and gravel; the size of the boulders decreases on the whole from N.
The deposits of the Post-Glacial period are represented throughout Russia, Poland and Finland, as also throughout Siberia and Central Asia, by very thick lacustrine deposits, which show that, after the melting of the ice-sheet, the country was covered with immense lakes, connected by broad channels (the fjarden of the Swedes), which later on gave rise to the actual rivers.
Finland and the N.W.
Russia, which is going on from Esthonia and Finland to the Kola peninsula and Novaya Zemlya, at an average rate of about two feet per century.
This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.
The population of the empire, which was estimated at 74,000,000 in 1859, was found to be over 129,200,000 at the census of 1897, taken over all the empire except Finland.
The average number of women to every 100 men in the Russian governments proper was 102.9; in Poland, 98.6; in Finland, 102.2; in Caucasia, 88.9; in Siberia, 93'7; and in Turkestan and Transcaspia, 83 o.
Of the rest 8 governments are in Finland, ro in Poland.
In 1906 there were governors-general in Finland, Warsaw, Vilna, Kiev, Moscow and Riga.
One good feature of the Russian primary school system, however, is that in many villages there are school gardens or fields; in nearly moo schools, bee-keeping, and in 300 silkworm culture is taught; while in some 900 schools the children receive instruction in various trades; and in 300 schools in slojd (a system of manual training originated in Finland).
Finland has a university of its own at Helsingfors.
The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
- The administrative boundaries of European Russia, apart from Finland, coincide broadly with the natural limits of the East-European plains.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
above sea-level, deeply cut into by river valleys, and bounded on all sides by broad swellings or low mountain-ranges: the lake plateaus of Finland.
Europe; the elevated grounds of Finland would then represent a continuation of the Scanian plateaus of S.
Sweden, and the northern mountains of Finland a continuation of Kjolen (the Keel) which separate Sweden from Norway, while the other great line of upheaval of the old continent, which runs N.W.
By their means the plains of the central plateau - the very heart of Russia, whose natural outlet was the Caspian - were brought into water-communication with the Baltic, and the Volga basin was connected with the Gulf of Finland.
The Neva (40 m.) flows from Lake Ladoga into the Gulf of Finland.
Vast areas in Russia are quite unfit for cultivation, 19% of the aggregate surface of European Russia (apart from Poland and Finland) being occupied by lakes, marshes, sand, &c., 39% by forests, 16% by prairies, and only 26% being under cultivation.
Everywhere the rainfall is small: if Finland and Poland on the one hand and Caucasia with the Caspian depression on the other be excluded, the average yearly rainfall varies between 16 and 28 in.
Russia; thus the isotherm of 39° runs from St Petersburg to Orenburg, and that of 35° from Tornea in Finland to Uralsk.
in Finland and on the Arctic Circle about Archangel, 68° N.
as St Petersburg and South Finland (Q.
Finland, but in W.
in Finland, and as far as 58° in the E.
of the Gulf of Finland.
Russia, even then were subdivided into Ugrians, Permyaks, Bulgarians and Finns proper, who drove back the previous Lapp population from what is now Finland, and about the 7th century penetrated to the S.
of the Gulf of Finland, in the region of the Livs and Kurs, where they fused to some extent with the Lithuanians and the Letts.
Finns; the Tavasts, in central Finland; the Kvaens, in N.W.
Finland; the Karelians, in the E., who also occupy the lake regions of Olonets and Archangel, and have settlements in Novgorod and Tver; the Izhores, on the Neva and the S.E.
coast of the Gulf of Finland; the Esths, in Esthonia and the N.
Finland and on the Kola peninsula, and the Samoyedes in Archangel and W.
Finland ponies are exported in large numbers.
Notwithstanding the wealth of the country in minerals and metals of all kinds, and the endeavours made by government to encourage mining, including the imposition of protective Mining tariffs even against Finland (in 1885), this and the related and re- industries are still at a low stage of development.
The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
By that treaty Peter acquired not only Ingria and Karelia, as originally contemplated, but also Livonia, Esthonia and part of Finland.
In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
In accordance with this declaration, the policy of Russification in Finland was steadily maintained, and caused much disappointment, not only to the Finlanders, but also to the other nationalities who desired the preservation of their ancient rights.
The " Cadets " refused to accept this action and, in imitation of the famous meeting in the tennis-court at Versailles, adjourned to Vyborg in Finland, where, under the ex- The president of the Duma, M.
Even the remnant of the " Cadets " had by this time renounced their sympathy with Polish aspirations, and in the matter of Finland the Duma proved itself even more imperial than the emperor himself.
Germany 36,066 Austria-Hungary,including Bosnia and Herzegovina 25,853 GreatBritain and Ireland 23,108 France 29,717 EuropeanRussia, includ ing Finland 36,280 Italy..
Large ore-bodies of granular and compact magnetite occur as beds and lenticular masses in Archean gneiss and crystalline schists, in various parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Urals; as also in the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan, as well as in Canada.
This enterprise and the acquisition of Finland from Sweden, which Napoleon also dangled before the eyes of the tsar, formed the bait which brought that potentate into Napoleon's Continental System.
Alexander had succeeded in pacifying Finland, and his troops held the Danubian provinces of Turkey - a pledge, as it seemed, for the future conquest of Constantinople.
Napoleon on his side succeeded in adjourning the question of the partition of Turkey; but he awarded the Danubian provinces and Finland to his ally and agreed to withdraw the French garrisons from the Prussian' fortresses on the Oder.
NEVA, a river of Russia, which carries off into the Gulf of Finland the waters of Lakes Ladoga, Onega, Ilmen and many smaller basins.
Certain governments-Moscow, Kief, Volhynia, Bessarabia, the Crimea, &c.-have been published on a scale of 1: 24,000, while Finland, as far as 61° N., was re-surveyed in 1870-1895, and a map on a scale of 1:42,000 is approaching completion.
She journeyed slowly through Russia and Finland to Sweden, making some stay at St Petersburg, spent the winter in Stockholm, and-then set out for England.
KOTKA, a seaport of Finland, in the province of Viborg, 35 m.
It is the chief port for exports from and imports to east Finland and a centre of the timber trade.
On the 23rd of January 1743, direct negotiations between the two powers were opened at Abo, and on the 7th of August 1743 Sweden ceded to Russia all the southern part of Finland east of the river Kymmene, which thus became the boundary between the two states, including the fortresses of Villmanstrand and Fredrikshamn.
Quite contrary is the course of the January isotherms. That of 14° F., which passes in Europe through Uleaborg in Finland only touches the southern part of West Siberia in the Altai Mountains.
Of the reformed Churches of the continent of Europe only the Lutheran Churches of Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland preserve the episcopal system in anything of its historical sense; and of these only the two last can lay claim to the possession of bishops in the unbroken line of episcopal succession.
The succession to the daughter church of Finland, now independent, stands or falls with that of Sweden.
At the peace congress of Abo (January - August 1743) he insisted that the whole of Finland should be ceded to Russia, by way of completing the testament of Peter the Great.
The Swedes, at the desire of Elizabeth, accepted Adolphus Frederick, duke of Holstein, as their future king, and, in return, received back Finland, with the exception of a small strip of land up to the river Kymmene.
When the war with Russia broke out, in 1788, Fersen accompanied his regiment to Finland, but in the autumn of the same year was sent to France, where the political horizon was already darkening.
In Finland Suomi (1841), written in Swedish, is still published.
The independence of Lithuania de facto was recognized by Sweden, Norway, England, Esthonia, Finland, France and Poland; de jure by Germany on March 23 1918, by Soviet Russia on July 12 1920, by Latvia and Esthonia in Feb.
of the capital, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland.
It is, however, still borne by the Lutheran bishop of Upsala, who is metropolitan of Sweden, and by the Lutheran bishop of tkbo in Finland.
He made his headquarters at Wittenberg until the death of Melanchthon in 1560, although during that period, as well as throughout the rest of his life, he travelled extensively in France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Sweden, and even Finland and Lapland.
In Scotland and Ireland its remains are less abundant, and in Scandinavia and Finland they appear to be unknown; but they have been found in vast numbers at various localities throughout the greater part of central Europe (as far south as Santander and Rome), northern Asia, and the northern part of the American continent.
This council was nominated by the governments of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Holland and Belgium, with headquarters in Copenhagen and a central laboratory at Christiania, and its aim was to furnish data for the improvement of the fisheries of the North Sea and surrounding waters.
The level of the Gulf of Finland at Kronstadt and of the Gulf of Bothnia at Haparanda should similarly be 15 in.
a temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
The fresher enclosed seas include the Malay and the East Asiatic fringing seas with 30 to 34.5 per mille, the Gulf of St Lawrence with 30 to 31, the North Sea with 35 north of the Dogger Bank diminishing to 32 further south, and the Baltic, which freshens rapidly from between 25 to 31 in the Skagerrak to 7 or 8 eastward of Bornholm and to practically fresh water at the heads of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.
In 1249 he led an expedition to Finland, built the fortress of Tavastthus, and thus laid the foundations of Sweden's oversea empire.
Plehve carried out the "russification" of the alien provinces within the Russian Empire, and earned bitter hatred in Poland, in Lithuania and especially in Finland.
Speranski's labours also bore fruit in the constitutions granted by Alexander to Finland and Poland.
The example of Sweden was followed in the next year by Finland, and twenty years later, by Norway, where the parish register was an existing institution, as in the neighbouring state.
The typical bottom moraine, with erratics from Finland, extends all over the country.
His brother Mikhail (1674-1730) was a celebrated soldier, who is best known for his governorship of Finland (1714-1721), where his admirable qualities earned the remembrance of the people whom he had conquered.
It was a populous place as early as the 11th century, and carried on a lively trade with Narva on the Gulf of Finland.
When, on the outbreak of the Swedish war of 1809, the emperor ordered the army to take advantage of an unusually severe frost and cross the ice of the Gulf of Finland, it was only the presence of Arakcheev that compelled an unwilling general and a semi-mutinous army to begin a campaign which ended in the conquest of Finland.
Sweden, who had sacrificed Finland to Russia, obtained Norway.
In 1871 he explored the glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden for the Russian Geographical Society, and while engaged in this work was offered the secretaryship of that society.
An army of io,000 men was immediately sent by Eric to John's duchy of Finland, and John and his consort were seized, brought over to Sweden and detained as prisoners of state in Gripsholm Castle.
Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
It is situated on the island of Kotlin, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, 20 m.
ARVID BERNHARD HORN, Count (1664-1742), Swedish statesman, was born at Vuorentaka in Finland on the 6th of April 1664, of a noble but indigent family.
GUSTAF MAURITZ ARMFELT, Count (1757-1814), son of Charles II.'s general, Carl Gustaf Armfelt, was born in Finland on the 31st of March 1757.
For numbers they can be compared only with those of Finland and Scandinavia in Europe, and for size with those of eastern Africa; but for the great extent of lake-filled country there is no comparison.
HANGO, a port and sea-bathing resort situated on the promontory of HangOudd, to the extreme south-west of Finland.
Hango owes its commercial importance to the fact that it is practically the only winter ice-free port in Finland, and is thus of value both to the Finnish and the Russian sea-borne trade.
Poland is another case of the difficulty of managing a population which speaks a language not that of the governing majority, and Russia, in trying to solve one problem by absorbing Finland into the national system, is burdening herself with another which may work out in centuries of unrest, if not in domestic violence.
Thus while in the one case homogeneity of language within state boundaries seems to be one of the conditions making for peace, the avoidance of interference with a well-marked homogeneous area like Finland would seem to contribute equally to the same end.
BORGA (Finnish Porvoo), a seaport in the province of Nyland, grand duchy of Finland, situated at the entrance of the river Borga into the Gulf of Finland, about 33 m.
In 1809, when the estates of Finland were summoned to a special diet to decide the future of the country, Borga was the place of meeting, and it was in the cathedral that the emperor Alexander I.
pledged himself as grand duke of Finland to maintain the constitutions and liberties of the grand duchy.
The club was suppressed by the dominant "Caps," who also sought to ruin Sprengtporten financially by inciting his tenants in Finland to bring actions against him for alleged extortion, not in the ordinary courts but in the riksdag itself, where Sprengtporten's political adversaries would be his judges.
It was to begin in Finland where Sprengtporten's regiment, the Nyland dragoons, was stationed.
The submission of the whole grand duchy would be the natural consequence of such a success, and, Finland once secured, Sprengtporten proposed at the head of his Finns to embark for Sweden, meet the king and his friends near Stockholm, and surprise the capital by a night attack.
A week later all Finland lay at the feet of the intrepid colonel of the Borg, dragoons.
He was also appointed the president of a commission for strengthening the defences of Finland.
His first quarrel with Gustavus happened in 1774 when he refused to accept the post of commander-in-chief in Finland on the eve of threatened war with Russia.
from the mouth of the Torne river, on the frontier with Finland, opposite the town of Tornea in Finland.
There are also important ore beds in the Urals, near the border of Finland, and at the south of Moscow.
There is a special trade with Finland.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Russia (including Finland, but excluding Siberia).
In 1595 the Riksdag of Soderkoping elected Charles regent, and his attempt to force Klas Flemming, governor of Finland, to submit to his authority, rather than to that of the king, provoked a civil war.
By his first wife Marie, daughter of the elector palatine Louis VI., he had six children, of whom only one daughter, Catherine, survived; by his second wife, Christina, daughter of Adolphus, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he had five children, including Gustavus Adolphus and Charles Philip, duke of Finland.
The former inhabits Finland, Poland and the greater part of Russia, though not found east of the Ural Mountains.
He experimented in the outlying provinces of his empire; and the Russians noted with open murmurs that, not content with governing through foreign instruments, he was conferring on Poland, Finland and the Baltic provinces benefits denied to themselves.
He would divide with Alexander the empire of the world; as a first step he would leave him in possession of the Danubian principalities and give him a free hand to deal with Finland; and, afterwards, the emperors of the East and West, when the time should be ripe, would drive the Turks from Europe and march across Asia to the conquest of India.
He used it, in the first instance, to remove " the geographical enemy " from the gates of St Petersburg by wresting Finland from the Swedes (1809); and he hoped by means of it to make the Danube the southern frontier of Russia.
It is spread over the whole of Great Britain (exclusive of the Orkneys), while on the continent of Europe its range extends from Finland to North Italy and from France and Spain to Russia.
coast of the gulf of Finland, 230 m.
There is considerable trade with Finland.
The mythical saga of Ragnar Lodbrog is undoubtedly concerned with the Viking Age, though it is impossible now to identify most of the expeditions attributed to this northern hero, stories of conquest in Sweden, in Finland, in Russia and in England, which belong to quite a different age from this one.
TAMMERFORS (Finnish Tampere), the chief industrial city of Finland, capital of the province of Tavastehus, on the rapids connecting Lakes Nisi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, 125 m.
Viborg, Finland >>
Lubeck trades principally with Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the eastern provinces of Prussia, Great Britain and the United States.
He also prevented the Swedes (in 1256) from settling in South Finland.
He sought to increase the influence of his archbishopric, sent missionaries to Finland, Greenland and the Orkney Islands, and aimed at making Bremen a patriarchal see for northern Europe, with twelve suffragan bishoprics.
thick; they reach from the Gulf of Finland towards Lake Ladoga.
from the coast of Sweden, and 15 from that of Finland.
These islands form a continuation of a dangerous granite reef extending along the south coast of Finland.
There are several excellent harbours (notably that of Ytternas), which were at one time of great importance to Russia from the fact that they are frozen up for a much briefer period than those on the coast of Finland.
When, by the 4th article of the treaty of Fredrikshavn (Friedrichshamn), 5/17 September 1809, the islands were ceded to Russia, together with the territories forming the grand-duchy of Finland on the mainland, the Swedes were unable to secure a provision that the islands should not be fortified.
Some attention was attracted to this arrangement when in 1906 it was asserted that Russia, under pretext of stopping the smuggling of arms into Finland, was massing considerable naval and military forces at the islands.
As regards correspondence with the standard distribution, it will be noted that Finland, the next country to Sweden geographically, comes after Japan, far detached from northern Europe by both race and distance, and is followed by Portugal, where the conditions are also very dissimilar.
So steady, indeed, has been the prolificity of Ireland, that from being ninth on the list at the earlier period mentioned, it is now inferior only to Holland and perhaps Finland in this respect.
In Finland the death-rate at the earlier period taken for the comparison was abnormally swollen by epidemic disease, and if it be set on one side the decline appears to have been in harmony with that in its Scandinavian neighbours.
2 Finland from 1850-1891, decrease 20.4.
Sweden falls below its geographical neighbours owing to its low birth-rate, and Finland because of its higher mortality.
In the case of two of the Australasian states, of Holland, Finland, Spain and Italy, the order is in accord with that given by the test applied above, and the difference between the two in Austria, Ireland and France is not large.
FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa), a grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland.
It is situated between the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, and includes, moreover, a large.
Finland includes in the south-west the Aland archipelago - its frontier approaching within .8 m.
from the Swedish coast - as well as the islands of the Gulf of Finland, Hogland, Tytars, &c. Its utmost limits are: 59° 48'-70° 6' N., and 19° 2'-32° 50' E.
The area of Finland, in square miles, is as follows (Alias de Finlande, 1899): - Orography.
- A line drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the plateau of the Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea.
At the head-waters of the Tornea, Finland penetrates as a narrow strip into the heart of the highlands of Kjolen (the Keel), where the Haldefjall (Lappish, Halditjokko) reaches 4115 ft.
Quite different is the character of the pentagonal space comprised between the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, Lake Ladoga, and the above-mentioned line traced through the lakes Ulea and Piellis.
A notable feature of Finland are the asar or narrow ridges of morainic deposits, more or less reassorted on their surfaces.
Some of them are relics of the longitudinal moraines of the ice-sheet, and they run north-west to south-east, parallel to the striation of the rocks and to the countless parallel troughs excavated by the ice in the hard rocks in the same direction; while the Lojo As, which runs from HangOudd to Vesi-jarvi, and is continued farther east under the name of Salpausellia, parallel to the shore of the Gulf of Finland, are remainders of the frontal moraines, formed at a period when the ice-sheet remained for some time stationary during its retreat.
A labyrinth of lakes, covering 11% of the aggregate territory, and connected by short and rapid streams Warden), covers the surface of South Finland, offering great facilities for internal navigation, while the connecting streams supply an enormous amount of motive-power.
The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo-elf, flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf; and Enare, belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean.
Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and also along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean (probably Devonian), and in the Kjolen.
The remainder of Finland is built up of the oldest known crystalline rocks belonging to the Archaeozoic or Algonkian period.
The most ancient of these seem to be the granites of East Finland.
Then the country came once more under the sea, and the debris of the previous formations, mixed with fragments from the volcanoes then situated in West Finland, formed the so-called Bothnian series.
No marine deposits younger than those just mentioned - all belonging to a pre-Cambrian epoch - are found in the central portion of Finland; and the greater part of the country has probably been dry land since Palaeozoic times.
The whole of Finland is covered with Glacial and post-Glacial deposits.
Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea (Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.
along the Gulf of Finland, and up to 260, or perhaps 330 ft., in Osterbotten.
Owing to the prevalence of moist west and south-west winds the climate of Finland is less severe than it is farther east in corresponding latitudes.
in the interior of southern Finland.
The flora of Finland has been most minutely explored, especially in the south, and the Finnish botanists were enabled to divide the country into twenty-eight different provinces, giving the numbers of phanerogam species for each province.
These numbers vary from 318 to 400 species in Lapland, from 508 to 651 in Karelia, and attain 752 species for Finland proper; while the total for all Finland attains 1132 species.
Alpine plants are not met with in Finland proper, but are represented by from 32 to 64 species in the Kola peninsula.
The population of Finland, which was 429,912 in 1751, 832,659 in 1800, 1,636,915 in 1850, and 2,520,437 in 1895, was 2,712,562 in 1904, of whom 1,370,480 were women and 1,342,082 men.
The leading cities of Finland are: Helsingfors, capital of the grand-duchy and of the province (Ian) of Nyland, principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); Abo, capital of the Abo-BjOrneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639); Tammerfors, the leading manufacturing town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672); Ulea.- borg, capital of province (1 7,737); Vasa, or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa Ian (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio, capital of province (13,519); and Tavastehus, capital of province of the same name (5545).
Railways of a lighter type began to be built since 1877, and now Finland has about 2100 m.
Finland has an extensive and well-kept system of canals, of which the sluiced canal connecting Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland is the chief one.
Telephones have an enormous extension both in the towns and between the different towns of southern Finland; the cost of the yearly subscription varies from 40 to 60 marks,' and is only Io marks in the smaller towns.
The foreign trade of Finland increases steadily, and reached in 1904 the following values: - The chief trade of Finland is with Russia, and next with Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, France and Sweden.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
From the time of its union with Russia at the Diet of Borga in 1809 till the events of 1899 (see History) Finland was practically a separate state, the emperor of Russia as grand-duke governing by means of a nominated senate and a diet elected on a very narrow franchise, and meeting at distant and irregular intervals.
The constitutional conflict of 1899-1905 brought about something like a revolution in Finland.
As a Finnish writer puts it: " just as the calamities which had befallen Finland came from Russia, so was her deliverance to come from Russia."
The budget of Finland in 1905 was £4,273,970 of " ordinary " revenue.
It was probably at the end of the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century that the Finns took possession of what is now Finland, though it was only when Christianity was introduced, about 1157, that they were brought into contact with civilized Europe.
After a time he was killed, canonized, and as St Henry became the patron saint of Finland.
As Sweden had to attend to her own affairs, Finland was gradually reverting to independence and paganism, when in 1209 another bishop and missionary, Thomas (also an Englishman), arrived and recommenced the work of St Henry.
Bishop Thomas nearly succeeded in detaching Finland from Sweden, and forming it into a province subject only to the pope.
The famous Birger Jarl undertook a crusade in Finland in 12 4 9, compelling the Tavastians, one of the subdivisions of the Finlanders proper, to accept Christianity, and building a castle at Tavestehus.
Almost continuous wars between Russia and Sweden were the result of the conquest of Finland by the latter.
The Reformed religion was introduced into Finland by Gustavus Vasa about 1528, and King John III.
His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.
Gustavus and his successor did much for Finland by founding schools and gymnasia, building churches, encouraging learning and introducing printing.
Finland has been visited at different periods since by these scourges; so late as 1848 whole villages were starved during a dreadful famine.
By the peace of Nystad in 1721 the province of Viborg, the eastern division of Finland, was finally ceded to Russia.
Nothing remarkable seems to have occurred till 1788, under Gustavus III., who began to reign in 1771, and who confirmed to Finland those " fundamental laws " which they have succeeded in maintaining against kings and tsars for over two centuries.
In 1808, under Gustavus IV., peace was again broken between the two countries, and the war ended by the cession in 1809 of the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia.
Finland, however, did not enter Russia as a conquered province, but, thanks to the bravery of her people after they had been abandoned by an incompetent monarch and treacherous generals, and not less to the wisdom and generosity of the emperor Alexander I.
The estates were summoned to a free diet at Borg& and accepted Alexander as grand-duke of Finland, he on his part solemnly recognizing the Finnish constitution and undertaking to preserve the religion, laws and liberties of the country.
The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827.
Finland was on the whole prosperous and progressive, and his statue in the great square in front of the cathedral and the senate house in Helsingfors testifies to the regard in which his memory is cherished by his Finnish subjects.
One of Alexander III.'s first acts was to confirm " the constitution which was granted to the grand-duchy of Finland by His Majesty the emperor Alexander Pavlovich of most glorious memory, and developed with the consent of the estates of Finland by our dearly beloved father of blessed memory the emperor Alexander Nicolaievich."
But the Slavophil movement, with its motto, " one law, one church, one tongue," acquired great influence in official circles, and its aim was, in defiance of the pledges of successive tsars, to subject Finland to Orthodoxy and autocracy.
Politics in Finland were complicated by the rivalry between the Swedish party, which x.
13 had hitherto been dominant in Finland, and the Finnish " nationalist " party which, during the latter half of the 19th century, had been determinedly asserting itself linguistically and politically.
A new military law, practically amalgamating the Finnish with the Russian forces, followed in July 1901; Russian officials and the Russian language were forced on Finland wherever possible, and in April 1903 the Russian governor, General Bobrikov, was invested with practically dictatorial powers.
To all this the people of Finland opposed a dogged and determined resistance, which culminated in November 1905 in a " national strike."
In an imperial manifesto dated the 7th of November 1905 the demands of Finland were granted, and the status quo ante 1899 was restored.
The term Finn has a wider application than Finland, being, with its adjective Finnic or Finno-Ugric (q.v.) or Ugro-Finnic, the collective name of the westernmost branch of the Ural-Altaic family, dispersed throughout Finland, Lapland, the Baltic provinces (Esthonia, Livonia, Curland), parts of Russia proper (south of Lake Onega), both banks of middle Volga, Perm, Vologda, West Siberia (between the Ural Mountains and the Yenissei) and Hungary.
Considerable researches have been accomplished since about 1850 in the ethnology and archaeology of Finland, on a scale which has no parallel in any other country.
The study of the prehistoric population of Finland - Neolithic (no Palaeolithic finds have yet been made) - of the Age of Bronze and the Iron Age has been carried on with great zeal.
d'Archeologie, 1889, and Inscriptions de l'Orkhon, 1892.)/n==Authorities== - The general history of Finland is fully treated by Yrjo Koskinen (1869-1873) and M.
A finely illustrated book, Finland in the Nineteenth Century, by various Finnish writers, gives an excellent account of the country; also Reuter's Finlandia, a very complete work with an exhaustive bibliography.
The constitutional question was fully discussed in English in Finland and the Tsars, by J.
The Atlas de Finlande, published in 1899 by the Geographical Society of Finland, is a remarkably well executed and complete work.
The Statistical Annual for Finland - Statistisk Arsbok for Finland - published annually by the Central Statistical Bureau in Helsingfors, gives the necessary figures.
The dominion of the Swedes was very unfavourable to the development of anything like a Finnish literature, the poets of Finland preferring to write in Swedish and so secure a wider audience.
It was not until, in 1835, the national epos of Finland, the Kalewala (q.v.), was introduced to readers by the exertions of Elias Lonnrot, that the Finnish language was used for literary composition.
During the last quarter of the 19th century there was an ever-increasing literary activity in Finland, and it took the form less and less of the publication of Swedish works, but more and more that of examples of the aboriginal vernacular.
At the Paris International Exhibition of 1878 several native Finnish painters and sculptors exhibited works which would do credit to any country; and both in the fine and applied arts Finland occupied a position thoroughly creditable.
Finland is wonderfully rich in periodicals of all kinds, the publications of the Finnish Societies of Literature and of Sciences and other learned bodies being specially valuable.
In imaginative literature Finland has produced several important writers of the vernacular.
About the year 1893 he began to publish short stories, some of which, such as Enris, The Fortress of Matthias, The Old Man of Korpela and Finland's Flag, are delicate works of art, while they reveal to a very interesting degree the temper and ambitions of the contemporary Finnish population.
It has been well said that in the writings of Juhani Aho can be traced all the idiosyncrasies which have formed the curious and pathetic history of Finland in recent years.
Brausewetter, Finland im Bilde seiner Dichtung and seiner Dichter (Berlin, 1899); C. J.
Baptist churches also began to be formed in Russia and Finland in the 'fifties and 'sixties.
* Not including Finland.
The death-rate is similarly treated: * Not including Finland.
Ehstland and Esshland, Esthonian Eestimaa and Meie-maa, also Viroma and Rahvama; Lettish Iggaun Senna), a Baltic province of Russia, stretching along the south coast of the Gulf of Finland, and having Lake Peipus and Livonia on the S.
The principal stream is the Narova, which issues from Lake Peipus, flows along the eastern border, and empties into the Gulf of Finland.
by Finland (Russian Empire), E.
The following are the principal rivers from north to south: The Tome, which with its tributary the Muonio, forms the boundary with Finland, has a length of 227 m., and drains lake Tome (Tornetrdsk), the area of which is 126 sq.
Excepting Finland no country is so full of lakes as Sweden.
On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea.
The other and more strongly marked centre is in the far north, extending into Norway and Finland, where the average is 3.8°.
Sixteen years before his accession to the throne, John III., then duke of Finland, had wedded Catherine Jagiellonica, the sister of Sigis somewhat of a theological expert, was largely influenced by these " middle " views.
A beginning was made by the siege and capture of Kexholm in Russian Finland (March 2, 1611); and, on the 16th of July, Great Novgorod was occupied and a convention concluded with the magistrates of that wealthy city whereby Charles IX.'s second son Philip was to be recognized as tsar, unless, in the meantime, relief came to Great Novgorod from Moscow.
27, 1617), the tsar surrendered to the Swedish king the provinces of Kexholm and Ingria, including the fortress of NOteborg (the modern Schliisselburg), the key of Finland.
Finland west of Viborg and north of Kexholm was restored to Sweden.
On the 20th of July 1741 war was formally declared against Russia; a month later the Diet was dissolved and the Hat landtmarskalk set off to Finland to take command of the army.
By the time that the " tacit truce " had come to an end the Swedish forces were so demoralized that the mere rumour of a hostile attack made them retire panic-stricken to Helsingfors; and before the end of the year all Finland was in the hands of the Russians.
A motion for an inquiry into the conduct of the war was skilfully evaded by obtaining precedence for the succession question (Queen Ulrica Leonora had lately died childless and King Frederick was old); and negotiations were thus opened with the new Russian empress, Elizabeth, who agreed to restore the greater part of Finland if her cousin, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein, were elected successor to the Swedish crown.
By the peace of Abo (May 7, 1 743) the terms of the empress were accepted; and only that small part of Finland which lay beyond the Kymmene was retained by Russia.
naturally rejected all the Conquest of proposals of Alexander to close the Baltic against Finland, the English; but took no measures to defend Finland 1808.
19, 1809) broke the spirit of the Swedish army; and peace was obtained by the sacrifice of Finland, the Aland islands, " the fore-posts of Stockholm," as Napoleon rightly described them, and Vesterbotten as far as the rivers Tornea and Muonio (treaty of Fredrikshamn, Sept.
Finland he at once gave up for lost.
But the acquisition of Norway might make up for the loss of Finland; and Bernadotte, now known as the crown prince Charles John, argued that it might be an easy matter to persuade the antiNapoleonic powers to punish Denmark for her loyalty to France by wresting Norway from her.
Too late Napoleon endeavoured to outbid Alexander by offering to Sweden Finland, all Pomerania and Mecklenburg, in return for Sweden's active co-operation against Russia.
The immorality of indemnifying Sweden at the expense of a weaker friendly power was obvious; and, while Finland was now definitively sacrificed, Norway had still to be won.
During the Crimean War Sweden remained neutral, although public opinion was decidedly anti-Russian, and sundry politicians regarded the conjuncture as favourable for regaining Finland.
See also the bibliographies attached to the articles Denmark: History; Norway: History; Finland: History; as well as the special bibliographies attached to the various biographies of Swedish sovereigns and statesmen.
Still older was the poetess Wilhelmina Nordstrom (1815-1902), long a schoolmistress in Finland.
The plays of Harald Johan Molander (1858-1900) have been popular in the theatres of Sweden and Finland since his first success with Rococo in 1880.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.