The dairy wasn't simply a financial endeavor, as Mums had thought.
I was thinking about buying a new vehicle and wondered if we had the money, so I looked at his financial information on the computer.
I can only imagine other uses you might have embraced, for personal financial enhancement.
Carmen had shown little interest in their financial status.
Using the path he had given her, she found his financial folder.
I'm sick and tired of you guys butting into my financial affairs.
"Oh," Gerald said, "by the way, thanks for that financial advice.
They dated in college, parted ways mutually, and ended up working for the same financial planning firm in Virginia.
I'm here to protect my family's financial investment.
Second, monarchs themselves often have only a financial risk in war.
I knew I'd have to talk to you about it sooner or later, but I didn't want to hold the financial burden of an unplanned pregnancy over your head like a club.
The Dean's ages—both forty—and the financial limitations of their new business would make obtaining court approval difficult.
He was built from the same mold—large and muscular, the kind of man more fitted to military special forces or UFC prizefighting than financial planning.
Dean's multiplication table of 44, the number of rented apartments, wasn't perfect, but that number times even a reasonable monthly rental lessened any sympathy he might have felt for the woman's financial plight.
About the same time the curia undertook financial duties, and in.
Alex had invited her to look at his financial files any time she wanted, and yet it seemed an intrusion on his privacy.
Probably because she wasn't in a financial situation to do anything about it anyway.
All that time and he was unable to solve his financial problem.
With their financial health intact, she made arrangements to proceed with the work on the house.
How could a man with four million in the bank be in financial danger?
How did having a son become a financial issue?
And with a Frenchman's easy and naive frankness the captain told Pierre the story of his ancestors, his childhood, youth, and manhood, and all about his relations and his financial and family affairs, "ma pauvre mere" playing of course an important part in the story.
In any case, Alex hadn't actually concealed his financial status.
One day I'm a boring financial planner, and the next day, I can't go out in sunlight and I see the future.
The baby was half his and he should be sharing equally in its financial needs.
I suppose – though I don't think I'd mind getting used to financial security.
It was one thing to discuss financial plans, but would the desire be there for the intimacy they once shared?
She'd always wanted to be a financial planner, and the thought of becoming a socialite with no real responsibilities made her gut sink.
In fact, he had repeatedly encouraged her to browse his financial records.
He was educated in Coventry, became a successful merchant, traveled widely throughout Europe and for several years was the financial agent of Charles I.
In the meantime, I've got to run out this morning to meet with my financial manager to adjust my plan now that I'm happily unemployed.
Intertwined worldwide financial systems.
No matter what she said, getting him back meant financial security - a roof over her head and everything that went along with it.
But the king's French advisers were aware that Spain required a thorough financial and administrative reform.
"There are occasions in life when financial caution gets tossed out the window," he added, "son. That's all water under the bridge.
That's one way to find out your financial status.
He never offered financial support, and though he claimed to want to see his daughter, visits never came to fruition.
The pope was accused of having exaggerated the conspiracy of the cardinals for purposes of financial gain, but most of such accusations appear to be unsubstantiated.
If you wanted to know about our financial status, why didn't you just ask me?
The second governorship of Clive was marked by the transfer of the diwani or financial administration from the Mogul emperor to the Company, and by the enforcement of stringent regulations against the besetting sin of peculation.
Macaulay imputes this reduction to Hastings as a characteristic act of financial immorality; but in truth it had been expressly enjoined by the court of directors, in a despatch dated six months before he took up office.
The impossibility of reconciling the financial requirements of the national party with the demands of the British and French controllers of the public debt, compelled him to resign in the following February.
He really wasn't a man of detail, which was why she was so surprised to see him working as a financial planner.
Keeping that one comes at a large financial price: Learn proficiency at two languages or remain separate from the world economy.
In the past, war could increase your financial position, both as a nation (through spoils) and a soldier (through plunder).
Since the poorest nations will improve their financial conditions indefinitely, this is a long-term trend toward peace.
Fleeming Jenkin was educated at first in Scotland, but in 1846 the family went to live abroad, owing to financial straits, and he studied at Genoa University, where he took a first-class degree in physical science.
As archbishop of Toledo he exerted himself to protect the clergy from the obligation to pay the excises or octroi duties known as "the millions" and thereby helped to perpetuate the financial embarrassments of the government.
I have no intention of marrying a man for support - financial or any other.
Cindy, our baby wouldn't be a burden to me even if my financial status was shaky - and it isn't.
This pattern suggests freedom from financial want would be bad.
What a shame his father saw only a deformed arm and a financial burden.
The city is a dynamic metropolitan area, and major financial center.
But let's adopt the cynic's view for a moment and assume people in these corporations are chiefly concerned about their financial benefit, not about human suffering, when it comes to war.
His financial affairs he had entrusted to the care of the abbe Picot, and as his literary and scientific representative he adopted Mersenne.
If Alex wanted her to know the financial details, he would have told her, and it wasn't any of Katie's business.
Having covered the financial and political factors, let's look at thirteen ways communication and information will help bring about war's demise.
They will take advantage of the freedom from financial want that the modern age gives them and will focus on improving themselves and the world they live in.
If the farm of the future plugs into the national grid, it will become part of the national food strategy and can be optimized for financial yield for the owners.
It was a huge shift in public opinion in which no group benefited financially; if anything, financial interests were aligned against this change, just as with tobacco.
The only danger I'm in is financial.
In some cities the mayor has received an absolute power of appointment; the departments, especially the boards of health, have large ordinance-making powers; statutes passed by the state legislature determine (excepting the states where cities can make their own charters) the principal lines of municipal policy, and the real control over appropriations and taxes is occasionally found vested in a board of estimate, consisting of the mayor, comptroller (the chief financial officer), and a few other administrative officials.
The financial bills are discussed, as fully as the pressure of work permits, in committee of the whole House.
Thus it comes that comparatively slight use is made of the experience of the permanent financial officials in the framing of revenue-raising and appropriation bills.
The crisis of 1837, and the financial difficulties ensuing, created indebtedness, fluctuating in amount, which at the beginning of the war with Mexico was about 16 millions.
The financial crisis of that year caused an increase, which continued until the imminence of the Civil War, when it rose from 65 millions in 186o to 91 millions in 1861, to 514 in 1862, to 1120 in 1863, to 1816 in 1864, to 2681 in June, and its maximum (2846 millions) in August 1865.
Though the whole financial system rests on the maintenance of the gold standard, gold coin plays a much smaller part in daily business than in England, France or Germany.
Fleming, The Intercolonial (1876); John Davidson, " Financial Relations of Canada and the Provinces " (Economic Journal, June 1905); Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, passim, for valuable papers by H.
Meanwhile Howe, convinced of the impossibility of effecting separation, and fearing disloyal tendencies which had manifested themselves in some of its advocates, entered into negotiations with Dr Tupper in London, and later with the Dominion government, for better financial terms than those originally arranged for Nova Scotia in the federal system.
The island had become involved in heavy railway expenditure, and financial necessities led the electors to take a broader view of the question.
Though not for many years a financial success, the Inter-Colonial railway, which was opened in 1876, has in a marked way fulfilled its object by binding together socially and industrially widely separated portions of the Dominion.
The government endeavoured to bring about an amalgamation of these rival companies, believing that the united energies and financial ability of the whole country were required for so vast an undertaking.
He was M.P. for Berks from 1865 to 1885, and was financial secretary to the War Office in 1877-1880.
1 Besides this, his work included the reconstruction of the military frontier of the Netherlands, and the conduct of the financial negotiations with Messrs Baring, by which the French government was able to pay off the indemnities due from it, and thus render it possible for the powers to reduce the period of armed occupation from five years to three.
The conduct of the final arrangements with Messrs Baring and Hope, which made a definitive financial settlement between France and the allies possible, was left entirely to him.
The embarrassed financial condition in which Gregory left the States of the Church makes it doubtful how far his lavish expenditure in architectural and engineering works, and his magnificent patronage of learning in the hands of Mai, Mezzofanti, Gaetano, Moroni and others, were for the real benefit of his subjects.
In the Constituent Assembly, where he sat as deputy for Dourdan, he professed liberal views, and was the proposer of various financial laws.
He was helped over his financial difficulties by the queen and his friends.
A considerable business is done on the exchange, chiefly in local industrial shares, and the financial institutions number some fifty banks, among them branches of the Reichs Bank and of the Deutsche Bank.
When in 1814 he re-entered the public service, it was only as chief commissioner of woods and forests, but his influence was from this time very great in the commercial and financial legislation of the country.
" The ever-increasing financial burdens," the Note went on, " strike at the root of public prosperity.
reorganized in 1907 the colonial office consists of three chief departments: (I) the Dominions Department, dealing with the affairs of the self-governing over-sea dominions of the British crown, and of certain other possessions geographically connected with those dominions; (2) the Colonial Department, dealing with the affairs of crown colonies and protectorates; (3) the General Department, dealing with legal, financial and other general business.
There is nothing to prevent their contributing to political committees, and the financial methods and the amounts expended by such committees are not made public. But behind all these causes that have led to more honest elections lies the still greater one of a healthier public spirit.
As a matter of fact he does commonly contribute to the party treasury, though in the case of certain candidates, particularly those for the presidency and for judicial offices, financial contributions are not general.
In consequence of financial embarrassments, that family had to sell both (the lordship in 1699, the county in 1713) to the Liechtenstein family, which had since the 12th century owned two castles of that name (both now ruined), one in Styria and the other a little S.W.
During this critical fortnight the duke had apparently acquiesced in Mr Balfour's compromise, and had co-operated in reconstituting the ministry; his nephew and heir had been made financial secretary to the treasury, while Mr Alfred Lyttelton was appointed colonial secretary, Mr Austen Chamberlain chancellor of the exchequer, Mr Brodrick secretary for India, Mr H.
It was, however, as a writer on financial and political questions that Price became widely known.
He was the intimate friend of Franklin; he corresponded with Turgot; and in the winter of 1778 he was invited by Congress to go to America and assist in the financial administration of the states.
The Financial District Meeting of which they were members was created in 1819 and the financial business of each district soon came under its control.
Not only was the result of the crusade extremely favourable to the extension of the Roman power, but throughout the middle ages the papacy never ceased to derive almost incalculable political and financial advantages from the agitation produced by the preachers and the crusading expeditions.
In spite of his instincts for dominion and the ardour of his temperament, he made no attempt to shake off the French yoke, and did not decide on hostilities with France until Philip the Fair and his legists attempted to change the character of the kingship, emphasized its lay tendencies, and exerted themselves to gratify the desire for political and financial independence which was shared by the French nation and many other European peoples.
especially, never ceased theoretically to urge the Christian world to the crusade, they were actuated by the desire of remaining faithful to tradition, and more particularly by the political and financial advantages accruing to the Holy See from the preaching and the crusading expeditions.
and his successors the great moral and religious sovereignty of former times became a purely bureaucratic monarchy, in which the main preoccupation of the governors appeared to be the financial exploitation of Christendom.
Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still found time to write some of his earliest works.
The sheriff "was the king's representative in all matters judicial, military and financial in the shire.
This change was largely due to the heavy financial burdens which the Roman government laid on the municipal senates.
But, in contrast with Congregationalism, when they elect and "call" a minister their action has to be sustained by the presbytery, which judges of his fitness for that particular sphere, of the measure of the congregation's unanimity, and of the adequacy of financial support.
Efforts to hasten this development have created some serious financial and industrial crises, and have burdened the country with heavy debts and taxes.
In 1889 the public debt of the republic amounted to about £24,000,000, but the financial difficulties which immediately followed that year, and the continuance of excessive expenditures, forced the debt up to approximately £128,000,000 during the next ten years.
His period of office was marked by the rapid advance of Buenos Aires in population and prosperity, and by an expansion of trade that was unfortunately accompanied by financial extravagance.
Much satisfaction was shown in Europe at the fall of President Celman, for investors had suffered heavily by the way in which the resources of Argentina had been dissipated by that the uprising of public opinion against his financial methods signified a more honest conduct of the national affairs in the future.
But the economic and financial situation was one of almost hopeless embarrassment and confusion, and Pellegrini proved himself incapable of grappling with it.
Instead of facing the difficulties, the president preferred to put off the day of reckoning by flooding the country with inconvertible notes, with the result that the financial crisis became more and more aggravated.
Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.
In January 1895 a special session of congress was summoned to take into consideration the financial proposals of the government, which included an increase in the naval and military estimates.
Uriburu found in 1897 the financial position so far improved that he was able to resume cash payments on the entire foreign debt.
But demands for more lines were constantly arising, and the existing companies, in view of their financial position, were disinclined to undertake their construction.
Then there was a change in the financial situation, and it became difficult to find the money required.
At the head of the financial organization of France, and exercising a general jurisdiction, is the minister of finance, who co-ordinates in one general budget the separate budgets prepared by his colleagues and assigns to each ministerial department the sums necessary for its expenses.
The financial year in France begins on the 1st of January, and the budget of each financial year must be laid on the table Budget of the Chamber of Deputies in the course of the ordinary session of the preceding year in time for the discussion upon it to begin in October and be concluded before the 31st of December.
An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.
Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
Salem was founded in 1766 by Friedrich Wilhelm von Marschall (1721-1802), a friend of Zinzendorf, and the financial manager of the board controlling the Moravian purchase made in North Carolina in 1753, consisting of 100,000 acres, and called Wachovia.
Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.
The effects of the crisis were mainly felt in the three eastern states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia being affected chiefly by reason of the fact of their intimate financial connexion with the eastern states.
The building societies and financial institutions in receipt of deposits, or so many of them as were on an unsound footing, failed at an early period of the depression, so also did the weaker banks.
The constitution was accepted by Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania by popular acclamation, but in New South Wales very great opposition was shown, the main points of objection being the financial provisions, equal representation in the Senate, and the difficulty in the way of the larger states securing an amendment of the constitution in the event of a conflict with the smaller states.
The chief external interest, however, of the new financial policy of the Commonwealth lay in its relation towards the empire as a whole.
The first was the appointment of a grand council with supreme judicial and financial functions P 7 ?
At the same time John Casimir, brother of the elector palatine, at the invitation of the Calvinist party and with the secret financial aid of Queen Elizabeth, entered the country at the head of a body of German mercenaries from the east.
As governor, Seward favoured a continuance of works of internal improvement at public expense, although this policy had already plunged the state into financial embarrassment.
He also largely employed Jews and Ishmaelites,' the financial specialists of the day, whom he rewarded with lands and titles.
Watson continued to exert his pen with vigour, and in general to good purpose, denouncing the slave trade, advocating the union with Ireland, and offering financial suggestions to Pitt, who seems to have frequently consulted him.
There are several reasons for the unsatisfactory financial results apart from the high price paid for the acquisition of the telegraphs.
The following table shows the financial results of the business in the year immediately following the purchase of the telegraphs by the state, in the two years preceding and the two years following the introduction of the 6d.
tariff, and in the seven financial years from 1900-1907: the British ship " Agamemnon," both being war-ships lent for the purpose by their respective governments.
Hanbury, Financial Secretary to the Treasury and representative in the House of Commons of the PostmasterGeneral, advocated the granting of licences to local authorities.
The state (law of the 15th of April 1896) imposed this condition in order to determine exactly the aims of the societies, and, while allowing them to give help to their sick, old or feeble members, or aid the families of deceased members, to forbid them to pay old-age pensions, lest they assumed burdens beyond their financial strength.
The taking over of the main lines by the state has of course produced a considerable change in the financial situation of the railways.
The law is, however, imperfectly enforced for financial reasons.
The inquiries made by this body revealed an unsatisfactory condition in tile national defences, traceable in the main to financial exigencies, and as regards recruiting a new law was brought into force in 1 9071908.
Ordinary and extraordinary military expenditure for the financial year 1898-1899 amounted to nearly 1/210,000,000, an increase of 1/24,000,000 as compared with 1871.
During the financial year ending on the 30th of June 1901 these figures were slightly exceeded.
The financial year 1862 closed with a deficit of more thai 16,000,000, which increased in 1866 to 28,840,000 on account 0 the preparations for the war against Austria.
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
The revenue in the Italian financial year 1905-1906 (July I, 1905 to June 30, 1906) was 102,486,108, and the expenditure 99,945,253, or, subtracting the partite di giro, 99,684,121 and 97,143,266, leaving a surplus of 2,54o,855.f The surplus was made up by contributions from every branch of the effective revenue, except the contributions and repayments from local authorities.
Taxable revenue corresponds to two-thirds of actual income from factories and to three-fourths of actual income from houses; it is ascertained by the agents of the financial administration.
The price of Italian consolidated 5% (gross, 4% net, allowing for the 20% income tax) stock, which is the security most largely negotiated abroad, and used in settling differences between large financial institutions, has steadily risen during recent years.
The acts of communal administration requiring the sanction of the provincial administrative junta are chiefly financial.
The latter introduced a sounder financial policy, which was maintained until the fall of the Right in 1876.
Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.
Sella, uncertain of the loyalty of the Right, challenged a vote on the immediate discussion of further financial reforms, and on the 23rd of June was overthrown by a coalition of the Left under Depretis with a part of the Right under Minghetti and the Tuscan Centre under Correnti.
It had completed national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church.
Conservatives, acceptance of the railway redemption contracts, consolidation of the financial equilibrium, abolition 01 the !QrCe~
The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.
both army and navy, but advocated cordial relations with Berlin and Vienna as a guarantee against French domineering, and as a pledge that Italy would be vouchsafed time to effect her armaments without disturbing financial equilibrium.
Italy in consequence drew nearer to Great Britain, and at the London conference on the Egyptian financial question sided with Great Britain against Austria and Germany.
Intimately bound up with the forced currency, the railway conventions and public works was the financial question in general.
In their anxiety to remain in office Depretis and the finance minister, Magliani, never hesitated to mortgage the financial future of their country.
As most of these credits were spread over a series of years, succeeding administrations found their financial liberty of action destroyed, and were obliged to cover deficit by constant issues of consolidated stock.
Thus the deficit of 940,000 for the financial year 1885-1886 rose to nearly 2,920,000 in~ 1887-1888, and in 1888-1889 attained the terrible level of 9,400,000.
On the I4th of April 1892 dissensions between ministers concerning the financial programme led to a cabinet crisis, and though Rudini succeeded in reconstructing his administration, he was defeated in the Chamber on the 5th of May and obliged to resign.
The financial situation inspired serious misgivings.
When the Crispi cabinet fell in March 1896 Sonnino had the satisfaction of seeing revenue increased by ~3, 400,000, expenditure diminished by 2,800,000, the gold premium reduced from 16 to 5%, consolidated stock at 95 instead of 72, and, notwithstanding the expenditure necessitated by the Abyssinian War, financial equilibrium practically restored.
The premiers programme was not well received by the Chamber, although the treasury ministers financial statement was again satisfactory.
The acceptance by the powers of the Murzsteg programme and the appointment of Austrian and Russian financial agents in Macedonia was an advantage for Austria and a set-back for Italy; hut the latter scored a success in the appointment of General de Giorgis as commander of the international Macedonian gendarmerie; she also obtained, with the support of Great Britain, France and Russia, the assignment of the partly Albanian district of Monastir to the Italian officers of that corps.
The company was by no means a financial success, and many of its proceedings were wholly unscrupulous and indefensible; its great object, however, was attained, and New Zealand became the Britain of the south.
In this body he served in 1789-1796, supported Hamilton's financial measures, Washington's neutrality proclamation and the Jay Treaty, and became one of the recognized leaders of the Federalist party.
All these schemes, however, fell through either on the financial question, or on the unwillingness of the Turkish government to sanction any line not connected directly with Constantinople.
In spite of his inferior education, the contemporaries of Boniface trusted his prudence and moral character; yet when in financial straits he sold offices, and in 1399 transformed the annates into a permanent tax.
In 1837-1839, as a Union Democrat, he was a member of the national House of Representatives, and there ably opposed Van Buren's financial policy in spite of the enthusiasm in South Carolina for the sub-treasury project.
After the declaration of independence the history of Uruguay becomes a record of intrigues, financial ruin, and political folly and crime.
Manufacturing industry in the modern sense can hardly be said to have existed in Russia ' See Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, in English (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1901).
To accomplish such a feat it was necessary, of course, to expend large sums of money; and as the country could ill bear an increase of taxation, the whole financial system had to be improved and the natural resources of the country had to be developed.
At the same time the military and financial requirements dislocated the local and central administration, and consequently a series of radical administrative reforms had to be undertaken.
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.
Dewsnup (ed.), Railway Organization and Working (Chicago, 1906); Interstate Commerce Commission; Rate Regulation Hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee (Washington, 5 vols., 1905); and on current matters, The Official Railway Guide (monthly, New York, the Railroad Age Gazette (weekly, New York) and the Commercial and Financial Chronicle (weekly, New York).
A.) Financial Organization The methods of financing railway enterprises, both new projects and existing lines, have been influenced very largely by the attitude of the state and of municipal authorities.
They expressed the opinion that an improvement could be effected enabling the construction of many much-needed lines by an amendment of some of the provisions of the Light Railways Act, and by a reconsideration of the conditions under which financial or other assistance should be granted to such lines by the state and by local authorities.
After conspicuous success in the financial world he resigned in 1903.
Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.
In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.
In other parts of the same continent, in Egypt and in South Africa, many Jews have settled, participating in all industrial and financial pursuits.
In 1904 the financial and legal administration was put into the hands of the British High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. The native king is assisted by a legislative assembly consisting, in equal numbers, of hereditary nobles and popular (elected) representatives.
Elected to the Reichstag of 1840, he was in 1848 appointed to a financial post in the Hungarian government, and was transferred in like capacity to Vienna under Esterhazy.
The chamber exercises a complete financial control, and no taxes can be imposed without its consent.
200,000 Indirect taxes 1,715,000 Financial adminis tration..
In 1894 the Porte, at the instance of the powers, nominated a Christian, Karatheodory Pasha, to the governorship, and the Christians, mollified by the concession, agreed to take part in the assembly which soon afterwards was convoked; no steps, however, were taken to remedy the financial situation, which became the immediate cause of the disorders that followed.
The Pact of Halepa was restored, the troops were withdrawn from the interior, financial aid was promised to the island, a Christian governor-general was appointed, the assembly was summoned, and an imperial commissioner was despatched to negotiate an arrangement.
Venezelo and his followers, having obtained an amnesty, laid down their arms. A commission appointed by the powers to report on the administrative and financial situation drew up a series of recommendations in January 1906, and a constituent assembly for the revision of the constitution met at Canea in the following June.
Besides, he obtained a controlling interest in the Western Union Telegraph Company, and after 1881 in the elevated railways in New York City, and was intimately connected with many of the largest railway financial operations in the United States for the twenty years following 1868.
The early financial history of the state is not very creditable.
As the Union Bank was founded in the midst of a financial panic and was mismanaged, its failure was a foregone conclusion.
The hard times which followed the financial panic of 1893 made it possible for them, in alliance with the Republicans, to carry the state in the election of 1894.
The companies gradually undertook the financial control of the districts where they traded and were recognized by the natives as political powers.
One of the functions of this official was to subsidize political pamphleteers, and Mirabeau had hoped to be so employed, but he ruined his chances by a series of writings on financial questions.
He had offered himself as a candidate for the office of secretary to the Assembly of Notables which the king had just convened, and to bring his name before the public published another financial work, the Denonciation de 'agiotage, which abounded in such violent diatribes that he not only lost his election, but was obliged to retire to Tongres; and he further injured his prospects by publishing the reports he had sent in during his secret mission at Berlin.
Mirabeau tried for a time, too, to act with Necker, and obtained the sanction of the Assembly to Necker's financial scheme, not because it was good, but because, as he said, "no other plan was before them, and something must be done."
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
Dumont was a Genevese exile, and an old friend of Romilly's, who willingly prepared for him those famous addresses which Mirabeau used to make the Assembly pass by sudden bursts'of eloquent declamation; Claviere helped him in finance, and not only worked out his figures, but even wrote his financial discourses; Lamourette wrote the speeches on the civil constitution of the clergy; Reybaz not only wrote for him his famous speeches on the assignats, the organization of the national guard, and others, which Mirabeau read word for word at the tribune, but even the posthumous speech on succession to the estates of intestates, which Talleyrand read in the Assembly as the last work of his dead friend.
In 1769 he wrote his Memoire sur les prrts a interet, on the occasion of a scandalous financial crisis at Angouleme, the peculiar interest of which is that in it the question of lending money at interest was for the first time treated scientifically, and not merely from the ecclesiastical point of view.
1 For an account of Turgot's financial administration, see Ch.
He was appointed a member of an ecclesiastical commission for reforming the church in 1787, in which capacity he was virtually minister of public worship. In 1791-1792 he became a leading member of the financial and general committees of the riksdag.
This proved to be the last case in the 19th century of what at one time had been a veritable scourge to cattle-owners and a source of heavy financial loss.
was compelled by financial necessities, created in part by the heavy war-indemnity exacted by Rome, to pursue an unambitious policy, and was assassinated by his minister Heliodorus.
His chastisement of the city, including as it did the spoliation of the temple, served the additional purpose of relieving his financial necessities.
The absence of conviction in regard to British commercial policy naturally had its counterpart in the attitude of many men to the financial system of the country.
Again, however, the financial situation was improved by conquest.
The partition of Turkey had to be postponed; the financial collapse of England could not be expected now that she framed an alliance with the Spanish patriots and had their markets and those of their colonies opened to her; and the discussions with the tsar Alexander, which had not gone quite smoothly, now took a decidedly unfavourable turn.
Shortly before starting for the Russian expedition Napoleon vainly tried to reassure the merchants and financiers of France then face to face with a sharp financial crisis.
Howe, and for association with Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller; the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feebleminded children (1839); and the Massachusetts charitable eye and ear infirmary (1824), all receive financial aid from the commonwealth, which has representation in their management.
Many reforms in ecclesiastical, educational, financial and administrative matters were introduced, and in general the grand-duchy may be said to have passed largely under the influence of Prussia, which, by an arrangement made in 1896, controls the Hessian railway system.
The Liberals only retained the confidence of the king by postponing the realization of almost all their democratic and reforming programme, and limiting their efforts to financial reorganization and treaties of commerce.
Financial assistance and assurances as to sales and prices have been given liberally by the association where they are needed; ginning and buying centres have been established; experts have been engaged to distribute seed and afford instruction; and some land has been acquired for working under the direct management of the association.
The need of financial retrenchment led to his opposing the proposal that war veterans should receive a cash bonus.
Foreign policy was largely determined by Hughes, financial by Mellon, and the problem of unemployment was thrown upon Hoover.
While the body of the noblesse formed the high court, the court of the burgesses was composed of twelve legists (probably named by the king) under the presidency of the vicomte - a knight also named by the king, who was a great financial as well as a judicial officer.
The court was part of the general immunity which made these quarters imperia in imperio: their exemptions from tolls and from financial contributions is parallel to their judicial privileges.
Perhaps the supreme defect of the kingdom of Jerusalem was its want of any financial basis.
It fell because it had not the financial or political strength to survive.
A scheme of taxation - the Saladin tithe - was imposed on all who did not take the cross; and this taxation, while on the one hand it drove many to take the cross in order to escape its incidence, on the other hand provided a necessary financial basis for military operations.'
Along with this advocacy of internationalism goes a plea for the disendowment of the Church, in order to provide an adequate financial basis for the future Crusade.
The military development which sprang from the Crusades is thus largely a matter of borrowing; the financial development is independent and indigenous in the West.
Judicially it was under the authority of the parlement of Bordeaux; for financial purposes it was part of the generalite of Montauban.
Thus Hull district inaugurated a bold policy of chapel-buildings; Norwich that of a foreign mission; Sunderland and Manchester the ideal of a bettereducated ministry, Sunderland institute being opened in 1868; Nottingham district founded a middle-class school; Leeds promoted a union of Sunday-schools, and the placing of chapel property on a better financial footing.
himself in public affairs, although no longer an active participant, and in all financial questions, especially in regard to the bank charter, the resumption of specie payments, and the panic of 1837, he exerted a powerful influence.
- A still greater danger grew out of the widespread financial distress, which was steadily driving many of the agricultural population into slavery and threatened the entire state with ruin.
Hadrian displayed his special fondness for the city by raising new buildings and relieving financial distress.
Its political leaders in the House of Delegates are restive under the control exercised by the Executive Council, but an attempt to hold up necessary appropriations resulted in the passage in July 1909 of an act continuing the appropriations of the previous year, whenever for any cause the lower house fails to pass the necessary financial legislation.
In recognition of the city's financial strength, Atlanta has been designated by the secretary of the treasury as one of the cities whose bonds will be accepted as security for Federal deposits.
His interests lay chiefly in financial questions and in 1849 he became minister of commerce and agriculture in the cabinet of Odilon Barrot.
According to Madvig, the original tribuni aerarii were not officials at all, but private individuals of considerable means, quite distinct from the curatores tribuum, who undertook certain financial work connected with their own tribes.
By the union of great moral qualities with high, though not the highest, intellectual faculties, he carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, and, what was perhaps a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war, established a more liberal policy and a sounder financial system, and left the people more contented than they were before.
The reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation.
In 1905 the powers agreed on the establishment of a financial commission on which the representatives of Great Britain, France, Germany and Ita]y would sit as colleagues of the civil agents.
Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.
The financial administration was entrusted to separate officials; we hear of such in Lydia (Arr.
Higher financial controllers seem to have been over groups of provinces (Philoxenus over Asia Minor, Arr.
Of the financial organization of the Macedonian kingdoms we know practically nothing, except in the case of Egypt.
Whatever the financial system 1 For Ptolemaic Egypt, see Ptolemies and Egypt.
How far the financial administration was removed from the competence of the provincial governors, as it seems to have been in Alexander's system, we cannot say.
4474) Of course, financial straits might drive the kings to lay hands on temple-treasures, as Antiochus III.
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
The purpose of this was doubtless to resist by a strong internal consolidation the shock of the invasions, to secure public order, to enforce industrious habits, and to guarantee the financial resources of the state.
The college received insufficient financial support and suffered from the attacks of religious sectaries - he himself was charged with insincerity because, previously a Unitarian, he joined the Christian Connexion, by which the college was founded - but he earned the love of his students, and by his many addresses exerted a beneficial influence upon education in the Middle West.
Early in 1776 he was sent to France by Congress, in a semi-official capacity, as a secret agent to induce the French government to lend its financial aid to the colonies.
The financial strait of the French government in 1789 was extreme.
To some of these the state gave financial aid ($1,613,898) before 1845.
Its powers are extensive, including, in addition to ordinary legislative powers, control of financial affairs, foreign affairs, the power to declare war and approve treaties of peace, amnesties, electoral legislation for the provinces and municipalities, control of the electoral vote for president and vice-president, and designation of an acting president in case of the death or incapacity of these officers.
It may be said to be an absolutely autocthonous enterprise, no recourse having been had to foreign capital to find the means requisite for construction and equipment, which were provided by means of a " national subscription " - not entirely voluntary - and from other sources which, although the financial methods were not strictly orthodox, were strictly Turkish.
races which they conquered; and from this point of view a careful study of the financial history of Turkey will afford most valuable insight into the Eastern Question.
But the entire financial authority resided in the sultan as keeper, by right, of the fortune of his subjects.
This vicious system, grafted as it was upon an inefficient administration, and added to the weight of a continually depreciated currenc y, debased both by ill-advised fiscal measures and by public cupidity, formed one of the principal causes of the financial embarrassments which assailed the treasury with ever increasing force in the latter part of the 16th and during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Apart from unimportant modifications, the form of the budget must have remained unchanged until the organic reforms of Selim III., while its complete transformation into European shape dates only from the year 1278 (1862), when Fuad Pasha attached a regular budget to his report on the financial situation of the empire.
From the time of Eyubi Effendi until the end of the grand vizierate of Ibrahim Pasha (1730), the empire experienced periodical relief from excessive financial distress under the series of remarkable grand viziers who directed the affairs of state during that time, but the recovery was not permanent.
These endeavours were continued with scarcely better result by each of the succeeding sultans up to the time of the Crimean War, and during the whole of the period the financial embarrassment of the empire was extreme.
Seeing the rapid increase of the financial burdens of the state, a commission of experts, British, French and Austrian, was charged, (1860) with setting the affairs in order, and with their assistance Fuad Pasha drew up the budget accompanying his celebrated report to the sultan in 1862.
(The Turkish financial year is from the 1st of March to the 28th of February o.s.).
This was summarily considered by the council of ministers and then referred to the budget commission, which was to be composed not only of State functionaries, but of private persons " worthy of confidence, and well versed in financial matters, " and which was invested with the fullest powers of investigation and inquiry.
The Budget is now published in full detail and that for the year 1326 (1910-1911), with the explanatory memorandum which prefaces it, is an admirable work, mercilessly exposing the financial shortcomings and sins of the previous system, or rather want of system, while unshrinkingly facing the difficulties which the present government has inherited.
By financial expedients of this kind payments were effected by the treasury ill fifteen years (1881-1896) amounting to £T11,666,000 or at the rate of nearly £T800,000 per annum.
" It has hitherto been considered necessary owing to financial embarrassment, to commence financial years with unbalanced budgets.
For these reasons, during the last two or three months of the financial year, the vilayets have not a para to remit to the central administration, and it has been considered imperatively necessary to draw on the revenues of the following year.
Laurent, the financial adviser to the Turkish government, stated in a lecture on Turkish Finance, delivered in Paris on the 22nd of April 1910, that the Ministry of Finance has now been largely reorganized.
The agents of the finance ministry, instead of being mere clerks, are now employed in " the assessment and collection of taxes, the control of expenditure, the preparation and execution of the budget, the estimates of the necessary cash required at different points of the empire - all that, in fine, constitutes the real financial administration of a great empire."
The tithes were originally based on one-tenth of the agricultural produce of the country, but this proportion was gradually raised under the euphemistic pretence of " public instruction," but really, under financial pressure, to 12% and again in 1900 for military " equipments " (Tejhizat-i-'Askeriyeh) by a further 2% to 122%.
In 1905 financial resources had to be found for the special administration of the three European vilayets as insisted upon by the powers, and to this end the Porte initiated negotiations with the latter to increase the import duties by 3%.
As regards the first of these, it is curious to observe that the budget decree of 1880 stringently limited the peace strength of the Ottoman army to 100,000 men, " including officers and generals," in order to put a stop to the rapidly increasing military expenditure; but this was merely the expression of a pious wish, at a time when European financial good will was indispensable, that expenditure might be kept down.
In March 1897 the floating debt was calculated by a financial authority in the Fortnightly Review to amount to upwards of £TJ5,000,000, which might be compressed to £T25,000,000 since a large proportion was certainly composed of salaries in arrear and other items of a similar kind which the government would never, under any circumstances, make good.
Thus, in the financial year1900-1901the total amount of the fund had risen from £T159,500 to £T231,500.
It came into force on the 13th of July 1907, and produced during the remainder of the financial year U544,987; 2 5% of this revenue is ceded to the public debt; the remainder reverts to the government.
Since that time various other concessions have been granted to French and German financial groups, principally the Imperial Ottoman Bank group of Paris and the Deutsche Bank group of Berlin.
The financial advantages, however, granted by the Turkish government were singularly favourable to thq concessionnaires and onerous to itself.
On the 2nd of June 1908 a fresh convention was signed between the government and the Bagdad Railway Company providing, on the same financial basis, for the extension of the line from Bulgurlu to Helif and of the construction of a branch from Tel-Habesh to Aleppo, covering a total aggregate length of approximately 840 kilometres, The principle of equal sections of 200 kilometres was thus set on one side.
For the financial reforms see the section Finance, above.
Financial and military advisers were procured from Germany.
In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.
The financial straits of Turkey after the war became so acute that the sultan was compelled to consent to a measure Public of foreign control over the finances of the country; the administration of the public debt being established in December 1881.
But the achievements of the two civil agents were less noteworthy; and in 1905 it was agreed that, in view of the financial necessities of the provinces, the other great powers should each appoint delegates to a financial commission with extensive powers of control in fiscal matters.
This was regarded as an expression of confidence in the reformed parliament, which had laid the foundation of the important financial and administrative reforms already described.
Laurent had already been nominated financial adviser to the empire (Sept.
The financial arrangement as finally agreed upon was that German financiers should control 40% of the capital of the line; French (through the Imperial Ottoman Bank), 30%; Austrian, Swiss, Italian and Turkish, 20%; and the Anatolian Railway Company, io %.
The state was admitted to the Union with its present boundaries on the 12th of May 1858, and the federal census of 1860 showed that the population had increased to 172,023, despite the fact that the financial panic of 18J7 had severely checked the state's growth.
For a period of five years after the financial panic of 1873 the growth was comparatively slow, but in the succeeding two years the recuperation was rapid.
Marie Antoinette then obtained that ascendancy over her husband which was partly responsible for the extravagance of the ministry of Calonne, and brought on the Revolution by the resulting financial embarrassment.'
He became financial secretary to the Treasury in 1907, president of the Board of Education in 1908, and was president of the Board of Agriculture from 1911 to 1914.
The conseil du roi first divided the total sum among the various generalites (the higher financial divisions), again dividing the amount due from each generalite among the elections of which it was composed.
These soon acquired extensive political and financial powers, which continued in operation till 1789.
As Lord Stanley the latter had been member of parliament for the West Houghton division of Lancashire from 1892 to 1906; he was financial secretary to the War Office from 1900 to 1903, and postmaster-general from 1903 to 1905.
At this memorable riksdag Wallqvist exhibited, moreover, financial ability of the highest order, and, as president of the ecclesiastical commission, assisted to equilibrate the budget and find the funds necessary for resuming the war with Russia.
He followed the fortunes of the dauphin, afterwards Charles V'II., acting in the triple capacity of clerk, notary and financial secretary.
Although the equites were selected from the 'wealthiest citizens, service in the cavalry was so expensive that the state gave financial assistance.
Thus, at the time of the Gracchi, these equites-publicani formed a close financial corporation of about 30,000 members, holding an intermediate position between the nobility and the lower classes, keenly alive to their own interests, and ready to stand by one another when attacked.
After the reign of Marcus Aurelius (according to Mommsen) the equites were divided into: (a) viri eminentissimi, the prefects of the praetorian guard; (b) viri perfectissimi, the other prefects and the heads of the financial and secretarial departments; (c) viri egregii, first mentioned in the reign of Antoninus Pius, a title by right of the procurators generally.
In 1864 he was appointed, by Sella, secretary-general of finance, and after being created senator in 1865, acquired considerable fame as a financial authority.
In 1879 he succeeded in postponing the total abolition of the grist tax, and was throughout a fierce opponent of Magliani's loose financial administration.
In 1886 Wekerle was elected to the House of Deputies, became in the same year financial secretary of state, and in 1889 succeeded Tisza as minister of finance.
He immediately addressed himself to the task of improving the financial position of the country, carried out the conversion of the State loans, and succeeded, for the first time in the history of the Hungarian budget, in avoiding a deficit.
His extraordinary financial abilities and pronounced political capacity soon found ample scope in public life.
But the financial difficulties of Frederick II.
The simplicity and smallness of the Mithraic temples are to be accounted for by structural and financial reasons; an underground temple was difficult to construct on a large scale, and the worshippers of Mithras were usually from the humbler classes.
The Mithraic community of worshippers, besides being a spiritual fraternity, was a legal corporation enjoying the right of holding property, with temporal officials at its head, like any other sodalitas: there were the decuriones and decem primi, governing councils resembling assembly and senate in cities; magistri, annually elected presidents; curatores, financial agents; defensores, advocates; and patroni, protectors among the influential.
The scheme came into operation in June 1898, and not only was a complete suspension of payments avoided but the financial situation was greatly improved.
These measures would have put the financial affairs of the nation on a solid footing in a very few years had the government been able to keep its expenditure within its income.
The judicial and financial functions in each province were vested in the Ouvidor, whose authority in the college of finance was second only to that of the governor.
But home difficulties and financial necessities prevented the West India Company from sending adequate reinforcements from Holland.
Thus the government of the prince regent began its career in the new world with dangerous errors in the financial system; yet the increased activity which a multitude of new customers and the increase of circulating medium gave to the trade of Rio, added a new stimulus to the industry of the whole nation.
Financial embarrassments increased to an alarming extent; the emperor was compelled by the British government to make peace with Buenos Aires and to renounce the Banda Oriental; and to fill the sum of disasters Dom Miguel had treacherously usurped the crown of Portugal.
Large deficits in the financial budgets of the state resulted, involving increased taxation and the contracting of loans from foreign countries.
He had to face opposition from sectional interests and from the jealousy of interference with their rights on the part of provincial administrations, but he was able to achieve a considerable measure of success and to lay the foundation of a sounder system under which the financial position of the republic has made steady progress.
During the remainder of the term of this president internal and financial progress were undisturbed save by an outbreak in 1904 in the Cunani district, the very portion of disputed territory which had been assigned to Brazil by the arbitration with France.
Much of his attention must have been engrossed by the work of administration, carried on without the help of those elaborate institutions, judicial and financial, which were perfected by Henry I.
Some particulars follow as to the financial position of Natal previous to the establishment of the 15nion.
Moor, who in his election campaign had criticized the Smythe ministry for their financial proposals and for the " theatrical " manner in which they had conducted their conflict with the home government.
The Ishmaelites, the financial experts of the day, were the official mint-masters, treasurers and bankers.
The following nine years mark the financial and commercial rehabilitation of Hungary, the establishment of a vast and original railway system which won the admiration of Europe, the liberation and expansion of her over-sea trade, the conversion of her national debt under the most favourable conditions and the consequent equilibrium of her finances.
Wekerle, essentially a business man, had taken office for the express purpose of equilibrating the finances, but the religious question aroused by the encroachments of the Catholic clergy, and notably their insistence on the baptism of the children of mixed marriages, had by this time (1893-1894) excluded all others, and the government were forced to postpone their financial programme to its consideration.
The majority he obtained on this occasion enabled him, however, to carry through the Army Education Bill, which tended to magyarize the Hungarian portion of the joint army; and another period of comparative calm ensued, during which Banffy attempted to adjust various outstanding financial and economical differences with Austria.
His successor, Kalman Szell, obtained an immense but artificial Szell, majority by a fresh fusion of parties, and the minority pledged itself to grant an indemnity for the extra parliamentary financial decrees rendered necessary by Hungary's understanding with Austria, as well as to cease from obstruction.
A trial of strength took place between him and Mr de Justh, the champion of the extreme demands in the matter of Hungarian financial and economic autonomy; on the 7th of November rival banquets were held, one at Mako, Justh's constituency, over which he presided, one at Budapest with Kossuth in the chair; the attendance at each foreshadowed the outcome of the general meeting of the party held at Budapest on the 11th, when Kossuth found himself in a minority of 46.
He refused to follow the financial policy of his party in 1862, and delivered a notable speech against the passage of the Legal Tender Act, which made a certain class of treasury notes receivable for all public and private debts.
The financial authority estimates what additional amount beyond revenue is required for the expenses of administration, and levies a rate to meet it.
He issued an important constitution on the 18th of July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Roman see and a share in the financial management, and thereby paved the way for that independence of the college of cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.
At one time the Turkish script was altered, with the result that officers were unable to read their reports or orders; then the Enverie, a highly unpractical head-covering, reminiscent of a child's paper hat, was invented and introduced; in March 1914 he demanded and obtained the hand of Princess Nadjie, the Sultan's niece, made himself general of a division, and began, moreover, to take thought for his financial future.
to make one more effort towards conciliation, the financial houses of Johannesburg offered to lend the Transvaal government 600,000 wherewith to buy out the dynamite company, and so terminate the scandal and bring some relief to the industry.
The financial situation in Venezuela was for a long time extremely complicated and discreditable, owing to defaults in the payment of public debts, complications arising from the guarantee of interest on railways and other public works, responsibility for damages to private property during civil wars and bad administration.
He was educated at Glasgow University and at Trinity College, Cambridge (senior optime, and classical honours); was returned to parliament for Stirling as a Liberal in 1868 (after an unsuccessful attempt at a by-election); and became financial secretary at the war office (1871-1874; 1880-1882), secretary to the admiralty (1882-1884), and chief secretary for Ireland (1884-1885).
He followed the policy of his predecessors in enforcing the royal authority over the nobles, but the machinery of a centralized government strong enough to hold nobility in check increased the royal expenditure, to meet which Charles had recourse to doubtful financial expedients.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
As representative of Japan at the Paris Exhibition of 1878, he took the opportunity afforded by his mission to study the financial systems of the great European powers.
These proposals were acted upon: the Bank of Japan was established, and the right of issuing convertible notes given to it; and within three years of the initiation of these financial reforms, the paper currency, largely reduced in quantity, was restored to its full par value with silver, and the currency as a whole placed on a solvent basis.
In this year the bill authorizing it was under his auspices submitted to the diet and passed; and with this financial achievement Matsukata saw the fulfilment of his ideas of financial reform, which were conceived during his first visit to Europe.
His name in Japanese history is indissolubly connected with the financial progress of his country at the end of the 19th century.
He published The Political and Financial Opinions of Peter Cooper, with an Autobiography of his Early Life (1877), and Ideas for a Science of Good Government, in Addresses, Letters and Articles on a Strictly National Currency, Tariff and Civil Service (1883).
With these gains Voltaire seems to have begun his long series of successful financial speculations.
With their advantages of greater speed and carrying capacity over the horsed vehicles, their introduction was a most important development, though their working at first imposed a severe financial strain on many companies.
This authority, it was advised, should consist of 40 members, of whom II should be nominated by the London County Council and 3 by the Corporation of the City (supposing these bodies to accept certain financial responsibilities proposed in the direction of river improvements), 5 by the governors of the Bank of England from the mercantile community, 2 by the London Chamber of Commerce, and I each by the Admiralty, Board of Trade and Trinity House.
The publications of the London County Council, especially the tramways accounts, the annual estimates, London Statistics, and the Financial Abstract (to years ended 31st March 1908) have much valuable information.
The revenue administration of the province is superintended by a financial commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of land records and agriculture, with a land records departmental staff.
1045) he appears as financial secretary and revenue collector of the Seljuk sultan Toghrul Beg, or rather of his brother Jaghir Beg, the emir of Khorasan, who had conquered Mery in 1037.
In Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable from the canes is lost.
The transfer of the judicial process, and of the financial and administrative sides of the government as well, into private possession, was not, however, accomplished entirely by the road of the immunity.
His right to exact military, financial and judicial duties for the state he had used to force men to become his dependants, and then he had stood between them and the state, freeing them from burdens which he threw with increased weight upon those who still stood outside his personal protection.
Under this head may be enumerated also the financial duties of the vassal, though these were not regarded by the feudal law as of the nature of the tenure, i.e.
They did not have their origin in economic considerations, but were either intended to mark the vassal's tenant relation, like the relief, or to be a part of his service, like the aid, that is, he was held to come to the aid of his lord in a case of financial as of military necessity.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
Even this slender financial provision met with opposition.
His financial position was from the outset strong, for not only had he the revenue from the accustomed papal dues but he had also the support of the powerful religious orders; e.g.
It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister.
The aim of the French Canadian opposition at this time was to obtain financial and also constitutional reforms. Matters came to a head when the legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused supplies and Papineau arranged for concerted action with William Lyon Mackenzie, the leader of the reform party in Upper Canada.
His interest and efficiency in financial legislation in the House led to his appointment on the Senate Committee of Finance, and after 1867 he was chairman of this influential committee.
When after the end of the war the question of financial readjustment came up, he vigorously opposed Secretary Hugh McCulloch's policy of retiring the legal tenders, and urged a different plan for effecting the resumption of specie payments.
During the administrations of President Grant his leadership in shaping financial policy became generally recognized.
The financial record of Peru, notwithstanding her enormous natural resources, has been one of disaster and discredit.
The government then had to readjust expenditures to largely diminished resources; but the obligation has been met intelligently and courageously, and since 1895 there has been an improvement in the financial state of the country.
1878), an honest and enlightened statesman, who did all in his power to retrieve the country from the financial difficulty into which it had been brought by the reckless policy of his predecessor, but the conditions were not capable of solution.
Mr Disraeli introduced and carried a makeshift budget, and the government tided over the session, and dissolved parliament on the fitted by an unique combination of financial, administrative and rhetorical gifts.
It was a searching analysis of the financial and moral grounds on which the impost rested, and a historical justification and eulogy of it.
War between Great Britain and Russia was declared on the 27th of March 1854, and it thus fell to the lot of the most pacific of ministers, the devotee of retrenchment, and the anxious cultivator of all industrial arts, to prepare a war budget, and to meet as well as he might the exigencies of a conflict which had so cruelly dislocated all the ingenious devices of financial optimism.
He now applied himself specially to financial criticism, and was perpetually in conflict with the chancellor of the exchequer, Sir George Cornewall Lewis.
He tore his financial scheme to ribbons.
Great as were his eloquence, his knowledge and his financial skill, Gladstone was accustomed to say of himself that the only quality in which, so far as he knew, he was distinguished from his fellow-men was his faculty of concentration.
On peace being concluded in 1391, the town had to pay 12,562 florins, and this brought it into great financial difficulties.
Resistance to the financial extortions of the government was cruelly chastised, and the "Chambre Ardente" was instituted against the Reformers.
But the nationalization scheme, though apparently the only effective method of linking together and co-ordinating an excessively subdivided system of lines, has proved a source of considerable financial embarrassment.
But from the beginning of that year, a period of extreme commercial and financial depression set in, and the treasury had to postpone all recourse to loans for whatever purpose, so that railway progress was completely checked in the field alike of the original and the acquired state lines.
By centralizing the financial administration by the creation of the Tresor de l'Epargne, and by developing the military establishments, Francis still further strengthened the royal power.
The Merchants' Magazine was united in 1871 with the Commercial and Financial Chronicle.
In order to improve his financial position, he accepted early in 1786 the post of librarian to the elector-archbishop of Mainz, who bestowed many important offices upon him and obtained his elevation to nobility from the emperor in 1791.
The bill failed to become law and in consequence of financial difficulties the project had not, up to 1910, advanced beyond the stage of consideration.
This highly organized financial system must have been gradually evolved, and no doubt reached its perfection only after the treasury was transferred to Athens.
Once again Sparta sent out a fleet, but Timotheus in spite of financial embarrassment held his ground.
The expedition which followed produced negative successes, but the absence of any positive success and the pressure of financial difficulty, coupled with the defection of Jason (probably before 37 1), and the high-handed action of Thebes in destroying Plataea (373), induced Athens to renew the peace with Sparta which Timotheus had broken.
The enthusiasm of the allies (numbering about seventy) waned rapidly before the financial exigencies of successive campaigns, and it is abundantly clear that Thebes had no interest save the extension of her power in Boeotia.
In 355 his advance temporarily ceased, but, as we learn from Isocrates and Xenophon, the financial exhaustion of the league was such that its destruction was only a matter of time.
The contracting parties were to retain their names, laws, administrative institutions, financial and military organizations.
He continued successfully in the management of this business through a financial crisis incident to a wildly speculative time, until in the spring of 1857 the house, by his advice, withdrew from Californian affairs.
The effects of this policy of blind obscurantism far outweighed any good that resulted from the king's well-meant efforts at economic and financial reform; and seven this reform was but spasmodic and partial, and awoke ultimately more discontent than it allayed.
The financial statements of the various national headquarters funds are annually published, certified by public accountants, in each country.
Manson in The Salvation Army and the Public, a work which led to much public discussion of the Army's religious, social and financial operations and methods.
Prudent financial administration since 1815 had made possible the conversion of the state bonds from 5 to 4%.
At the beginning of 1914 he was promoted to the responsible post of financial secretary to the Treasury, in which capacity he was of material assistance in the financial improvisation which had to be effected in the early days of the war.
The departments of the Foreign Office are the African, American, commercial and sanitary, consular, eastern (Europe), far eastern, western (Europe), parliamentary, financial, librarian and keeper of the papers, treaties and registry.
Financial embarrassment and disgust at the Protestant controversies in which he was forced to participate caused him to seek recall from the imperial court.
After this event Hussein Kuprili, surnamed "the Wise," devoted himself to the suppression of the revolts which had broken out in Arabia, Egypt and the Crimea, to the reduction of the Janissaries, and to the institution of administrative and financial reform.
During the latest and darkest years of Domitian he deemed it prudent to withdraw from public affairs, but his financial abilities were recognized by his nomination in 94 or 95 to the praefectura aerarii militar y (ix.
In 1898 he was appointed financial secretary to the War Office, a post in which he distinguished himself during the Boer War, in particular by a brilliant defence, in the debate on.
Late in the 6th century Corinth joined the Peloponnesian league under Sparta, in which her financial resources and strategic position secured her an unusual degree of independence.
The financial position in1906-1907is indicated by the following: Public revenue £513,594 (including £51,039 carried to revenue from capital); expenditure £446,849; imports (actual), I,219,819; imports in transit, £5,876,981; exports (actual), £123,510; exports in transit £6,127,277; imports from the United Kingdom (actual), £218,461.
He unfairly blamed his chief minister, Archbishop Stratford, for his financial distress, and immediately on his return vindictively attacked him.
Taxation was in many directions reduced, and the financial exactions of the imperial officers controlled by the erection of a special court.
At the same time, these letters bring home to us his conviction that, particularly in financial affairs, it was necessary that local self-government should be carried on under the vigilant supervision of imperial officers.
His financial situation was desperate, and his life was chiefly occupied in begging at European courts.
The extremity of his financial straits reduced him soon afterwards to handing over his only son Philip to merchants as a pledge for loans of money.
At Wilmington is the Ferris industrial school for boys, a private reformatory institution to which New Castle county gives $146 for each boy; and the Delaware industrial school for girls, also at Wilmington, receives financial support from both county and state.
The first years of the king's rule were marked by the great schemes of Colbert for the financial, commercial, industrial and naval reorganization of France, and in these schemes Louis took a deep interest.
In 1850 he became vice-principal and Hebrew lecturer at St David's College, Lampeter, where he introduced muchneeded educational and financial reforms. He was appointed select preacher of Cambridge University in 1854, and preached a sermon on inspiration, afterwards published in his Rational Godliness after the Mind of Christ and the Written Voices of the Church (London, 1855).
In 1834 he entered Edinburgh University, but during 1836 and 1837, owing to financial straits, taught in a school at Ayton.
In the financial troubles between 1850 and 1860 it is said that more than half the railways north of the Ohio river and between the Hudson and the Missouri rivers were at some time his clients.
Owing to a clause in the constitution forbidding the issue of bank charters, the financial business of the state was controlled by national and private banks until 1904, when the constitution was amended and provision was made for the incorporation of state banks under a system of state supervision, regulation and control, deposits being guaranteed as in the Oklahoma banking system.
Gonge, The Fiscal History of Texas (Philadelphia, 1852), for the early financial history; O.
He spoke chiefly on financial questions; his known Liberal views did not prevent Louis XVIII.
In 1818 he saved Paris from a financial crisis by buying a large amount of stock, but next year, in consequence of his heated defence of the liberty of the press and the electoral law of 1867, the governorship of the Bank was taken from him.
In 1730 the partnership was dissolved, and Franklin, through the financial assistance of two friends, secured the sole management of the printing house.
In 1753 he and William Hunter were put in charge of the post service of the colonies, which he brought in the next ten years to a high state of efficiency and made a financial success; this position he held until 1774.
Even greater than his diplomatic difficulties were Franklin's financial straits.
Thereafter he inclined more and more to the democratic side, though for the present he concerned himself mainly with financial questions.
In the opinion of enlightened men this will mitigate the censures that must be passed on him for his laxity in matters financial.
In 1869 he was again returned, and, devoting himself with exceptional ability to financial questions, was in 1870 appointed to report the budget.
He deals, on the contrary, almost exclusively with the social, financial, educational, industrial and general moral problems of the day.
He induced these to unite in opposing the Lutheran heresy on condition that the pope would issue a decree providing for some of the most needed reforms. There was to be no more financial oppression on the part of the clergy, and no unseemly payments for performing the church services.
Doubtless the king's sore financial needs had much to do with the dissolution of the abbeys and the plundering of the shrines, but there is no reason to suppose that he was not fully convinced that the monks had long outlived their usefulness and that the shrines were centres of abject superstition and ecclesiastical deceit.
Bullock, Historical Sketch of the Finances and Financial Policy of Massachusetts (1907).
Douglas, The Financial History of Massachusetts ...
At the same time the Elswick Ordnance Company was formed to manufacture the guns under the supervision of Armstrong, who, however, had no financial interest in the concern; it was merged in the Elswick Engineering Works four years later.
In the same way banks, railway companies and financial institutions employ dragomans for facilitating their business relations with Turkish officials.
Cleveland had written a letter for publication before he became president, saying that a financial crisis of great severity must result if this coinage were continued, and expressing the hope that Congress would speedily put an end to it.
In 1792 he acted as financial agent in a daring attempt to secure the escape of the king and queen from Paris.
against the financial project for selling the reversion of the encomiendas - a project which would have involved the Indians in hopeless bondage.
In 1885 he was elected deputy for the department of the Rhone, and distinguished himself in financial questions.
After a rapid career in the financial administration he was, in 1882, appointed councillor of state and elected to parliament.
By an Act of 191() women may vote on financial questions affecting a village in which they hold property.
Hostility to free silver and " Bryanism " in the large financial and industrial centres put the state strongly in the Republican column in the elections of 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1908.
He was at once elected a member of the Prussian Lower House, and during the next three years was one of the most active members of that assembly: in several important debates he led the attack on the government, and opposed the policy of Bismarck, not only on financial but also on the Polish and Danish affairs.
Financial reform and reorganization of the customs service were found equally necessary, if only to provide means for the increased cost of the army and navy.
- The increase of wealth went on after 1879 in spite of dull times, and was only checked by the especially severe financial depression of 1893 and 1894, caused by low prices and the Australian bank panic. The estimated private wealth of colonists fell from £236 per head in 1890 to £219 in 1895.
They yielded £3,103,000, L2,765,000 and £1,550,000 respectively out of a total revenue of £9,056,000 in the financial year 1907-1908.
The amount paid in pensions in the financial year1906-1907was £325,000.
The financial collapse of 1879 left the treasury empty.
A severe property-tax and an increase of customs duties in 1879 only for a moment achieved financial equilibrium.
Atkinson's party never rallied from this defeat, and a striking change came over public life, though Ballance, until his death in April 1893, continued the prudent financial policy of his predecessor.
At this time, largely owing to the exhausting struggle with the Basutos, the Free State Boers, like their Transvaal neighbours, had drifted into financial straits.
His strong opposition to "dissenting churches" was nowhere so clearly shown as in a pamphlet published in 1816 to dissuade all Episcopalians from joining the American Bible Society, which he thought the Protestant Episcopal Church had not the numerical or the financial strength to control.
In the history of the United States the politician has been too often the man who, in connexion with some other trade or profession, has taken up politics as a tool to carve out some personal ambition or manufacture a financial profit.
In carrying out this policy of government regulation and supervision of corporations he became involved in a great struggle with the powerful financial interests whose profits were threatened, and with those legislators who sincerely believed that government should solely concern itself with protecting life and property, and should leave questions of individual and social relations in trade and finance to be settled by the operation of so-called natural economic laws.
The struggle against some of the most powerful financial and political influences of the time not unnaturally gave rise to the idea that his work as president was destructive - perhaps the necessarily destructive work of the reformer - but not essentially constructive.
The old theory was that the general prosperity of the country depends upon the development of its natural resources - a development which can best be achieved by private capital, acting under the natural incentive of financial profits.
The industrial and financial corporations had grown so powerful as to venture to contend for the first place with the authority of the government itself.
The Saxon financial period embraces a space of two years.
The second postulate was a sound financial basis, which he expected the wealth of France to supply in the shape of subsidies to be spent on armaments.
These measures Nerva supplemented by others which aimed at lightening the financial burdens on the declining industry of Italy.
After a short period of German government, which was highly beneficial to the country, Galicia received after the Constitution of 1867 an exceptional position which was gradually consolidated; the German officials were removed, and the Polish members in the Reichsrat (who represented 71 votes) held the balance between the parties, which brought Galicia, without any effort, great financial advantages at the cost of the other Crown territories.
Since the State supervised the schools without maintaining them, it was able to increase its demands without being hampered by financial considerations.
This time the Poles came to the rescue of the Government in its hour of need, by getting a form of standing order approved which rendered obstruction somewhat more difficult, and in this, curiously enough, they were helped by the Czechs; for obstruction had brought even them into an impasse, since their financial requirements had not been met.
In Hungary a strong majority, which the Government could not afford to ignore, insisted on the formation of an independent Hungarian bank; on the other hand the advantages accruing to Hungary through the community of the financial and banking organization were quite obvious.
It was decided, however, by the Austrian financial authorities that the obligation of the Austro-Hungarian Bank to convert its notes into gold on demand should remain suspended as hitherto, owing to fear lest the renewal of the obligation of the bank to cash its notes in gold should lead to a rise in the rate of interest.
From the year 1902 to the financial year 1914-5 the State revenues doubled, rising from 1,730 millions of kronen to 3,460 millions of kronen, but this increase in revenue could only be achieved by placing an extraordinary strain on the taxable capacity of the country.
In the financial year 1913 the amount of estimated expenditure rose to 3,461 millions of kronen.
The Post Office Savings Bank was also made to serve the financial needs of the State.
The city is the commercial and financial centre of the state (Butte being the mining centre), and is one of the richest cities in the United States in proportion to its population, It has large railway car-shops, extensive smelters and quartz crushers (at East Helena), and various manufacturing establishments; the value of the factory product in 1905 was $1,309,746, an increase of 68.7% over that of 1900.
JOHN CHARLES HERRIES (1778-1855), English politician, son of a London merchant, began his career as a junior clerk in the treasury, and became known for his financial abilities as private secretary to successive ministers.
He was a consistent and upright Tory of the old school, who carried weight as an authority on financial subjects.
During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.
A paper currency was established in 1902, and proved a financial success.
Bowring's treaty of 1855, fixing the rates of land revenue, were abrogated in order to facilitate Siamese financial reform.
The administration was corrupt, largely because of the vast powers given to officials, who were invariably underpaid; and the financial methods of the company precipitated its ruin, large dividends being paid out of borrowed money.
Many important financial and agrarian measures were carried between 1860 and 1890.
Having made ' The Financial Secretary to the Admiralty answered in the affirmative a question asked in the House of Commons on May 4 1921 by Visct.
The country had been brought by the Austro-Hungarian war policy to the very brink of economic and financial ruin.
It was in favour of aiding Austria on a broad basis of financial and economic help, to be rendered generally to the states of central Europe by international agreement.
The economic and financial position of Czechoslovakia showed signs in 1921 of steady recovery from the chaos which succeeded the close of the war.
While suffering from the symptoms affecting central Europe generally, the republic was distinctly better off as regards its financial situation than any of its neighbours.
After the close of the war efforts were first directed to clearing the financial situation by funding the floating debt, and taking steps (never fully consummated) towards contracting the currency.
The tariff system as revised and codified in 1883 would probably have remained unchanged for many years had it not been for the turn taken by political and financial history.
The first general assembly of which we have certain notice is the zjazd walny which was summoned to Koszyce in November 1404, to relieve the financial embarrassments of Wladislaus, and granted him an extraordinary subsidy of twenty groats per hide of land to enable him to purchase Dobrzyn from the Teutonic Knights.
All financial and economical questions before the diet were henceforth to be decided by a majority of votes.
On his return to Constantinople Midhat was appointed chief director of confidential reports, and after a new financial mission in Syria was made second secretary of the grand council.
Cernuschi is best known for his publications on financial questions, more especially bimetallism.
Scarcely had these amendments been carried when the serious financial straits brought on by debt incurred through the state's promotion of internal improvements gave rise to the demand for a reduction of governmental expenses and a limitation of the power of the General Assembly to contract debts.
In 1879 an estimate made of all Federal war expenses up to that date, including pension charges, interest on loans, &c., showed a total of $6,190,000,000 (Dewey, Financial History of the United States).
For certain specified objects, financial and municipal, Mahommedans are, however, permitted to exercise the franchise.
Its duty is to deliberate upon all administrative matters, including the budget, and it possesses certain powers over the finances; (3) The Financial Delegations (created by decree in 1898), an elective body whose duty is to investigate all matters affecting taxation and to vote the budget.
It was not till the time came nearer for the introduction of the budget for 1909-1910 that opinion in financial circles showed the change which was afterwards to become so marked.
The well-established doctrine that the House of Lords could not amend, though it might reject, a money-bill, coupled with the fact that it never had gone so far as to reject a budget, was relied on by the extremists as dictating the obvious party tactics; and before the year 1909 opened, the possibility of the Lords being driven to compel a dissolution by standing on their extreme rights as regards the financial provision for the year was already canvassed in political circles, though it was hardly credited that the government would precipitate a constitutional crisis of such magnitude.
Events had now made Mr Lloyd George and his financial policy the centre of the Liberal party programme; but party tactics for the moment prevented the ministry, who remained in office, from simply sending the budget up again to the Lords and allowing them to pass it.
After this he supervised the administrative and financial duties in connexion with the French army which occupied the principal fortresses of Prussia, and was one of the chief agents through whom Napoleon pressed hard on that land.
In the financial year 1904-1905 the revenue was £503,000, the expenditure £390,000.
The financial board of the county is composed of the county judge and the justices of the peace, or of the county judge and three commissioners elected on a general ticket.
After nearly all the forty-six banks chartered by the legislature in 1818 had been wrecked in the financial panic of 1819, the legislature in 1820 passed a series of laws designed for the benefit of the debtor class, among them one making state bank notes a legal tender for all debts.
His chief financial expedient was to debase, or rather ruin, the currency by issuing copper tokens redeemable in better times; but it was no fault of his that Charles XII., during his absence, flung upon the market too enormous an amount of this copper money for Gertz to deal with.
But the financial situation was desperate; the federal revenue, mostly from customs - which were evaded by extensive smuggling - was not half the expenditure; and Indian revolts in Yucatan (1847-1850) and in the Sierra Gorda had added to the strain.
In brief, under President Diaz's rule the history of Mexico is mainly economic. In the six financial years1893-1894to1899-1900inclusive the yield of the import duties increased by upwards of 80%; the revenue from ogressic stamps over 60%, though the duties were reduced; the postal revenue from1895-1896to1899-1900rose 60%; the telegraph revenue over 75%.
The financial condition at the close of the War of Independence was alarming, and in September 1785 a mob at Exeter demanded relief through the issue of more paper currency.
In the hope of relieving his financial difficulties, the king erected a mint, where money was coined of the "worst kind of old brass, guns and the refuse of metals, melted down together," of the nominal value of £1,568,800, with which his troops were paid, and tradesmen were compelled to receive it under penalty of being hanged in case of refusal.
The Martha's Vineyard railway (from Oak Bluffs to the south-east extremity of the island, by way of Edgartown), opened in 1874, was not a financial success, and had been practically abandoned in 1909, but an electric line from Oak Bluffs to Vineyard Haven provides transit facilities for that part of the island.
The younger Mayhew, soon after removing to Martha's Vineyard, devoted himself to missionary work among the Indians, his work beginning at about the same time as that of John Eliot; he was lost at sea in 1657 while on his way to secure financial assistance in England, and his work was continued successfully by his father.
But financial difficulties, combined with civil and religious convulsions, long delayed the accomplishment of his desires.
The wealthy citizen seems always to have had to bear heavy financial burdens, and to have enjoyed in return a dignity and an actual political preponderance which made the general character of municipal constitutions distinctly timocratic.
Guatemala joined the Postal Union in 1881; but its postal and telegraphic services have suffered greatly from financial difficulties.
The first ten members are elected for four years, which is also the financial period.
Here explorations for copper immediately began, and for the first time in the United States the business of mining for the metals began to be developed on an extensive scale, with suitable appliances, and with financial success.
Nine states allow voting rights to aliens who have declared their intention to become citizens, and in some they can as taxpayers vote on financial matters submitted to a special vote.
The selectmen, who receive no regular salary, but may charge for expenses actually incurred, form a sort of directory or executive committee, which manages the ordinary administrative and financial business under such instructions as may have been given by the town meeting.
In the Southern states the county is the local administrative unit, and in addition to its original judicial and financial functions it has now also control over public schools, the care of the poor and the construction and mana,gement of roads.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.