Finance sentence example

finance
  • You could finance the entire government and its (hopefully) noble agenda, by this method alone.
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  • The administration of finance was as chaotic as the condition of parliament.
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  • Information regarding Australian state finance will be found under the heading of each state.
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  • In this cabinet he at first held the ministry of finance.
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  • The banking institutions are supervised by an inspector of finance, who reports annually to the General Assembly.
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  • In the new Tirard ministry formed to combat the Boulangist agitation he was minister of finance.
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  • During the war against Austria in the year named, Isaac Pesaro Marogonato was finance minister in Venice.
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  • The high commissioner is aided in the administration by a cabinet of three members, styled " councillors " (utµ ovXoe), who superintend the departments of justice, finance, education, public security and the interior.
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  • He specially devoted himself to finance, being for a short time president of the customs commission before his appointment as minister of agriculture and commerce in March 1879 in the Waddington cabinet.
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  • The Finance Department was, like the harbour department, separated in 1866 from the marine department.
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  • For the introduction of improvements something, however, was done by the creation in 1892 of a special ministry of agriculture, to which is attached the department of mines and forests, formerly under the minister of finance.
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  • The revenues produced by the customs duties for the five years1905-1906to1909-1910are as follows: Finance Preliminary Sketch.-From the outset of their history the Osmanli Turks adapted to their own needs most of the political, economic and administrative institutions which existed before them.
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  • At this time (1657-1681) the brilliant administration of the two Kuprilis restored temporary order to Ottoman finance.
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  • During the finance ministry of Agop Pasha (1889 to 1894) a good deal was done to set matters in order, but most of the ground then gained has since been lost."
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  • This is really an accretion of undetermined liabilities which has been indefinitely, and probably alternately, advancing and receding for a great number of years, and which no previous minister of finance, or Turkish government, had the courage to face.
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  • The principal increase is due to the war departments, according to the budget speech of the minister of finance (April 23, 1910), although he states that some 1 On the 25th of June 1910 the chamber finally passed the budget for 1910-1911.
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  • On the other hand, the minister of finance reckoned that the revenue would probably show an increase of £TI,Soo,000, while about £T2,000,000 of expenditure would remain undisbursed, which, with a reserve of £T2,000,000 from 1909, would reduce the deficit to roughly £T5,000,000.
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  • The demands of the various departments of state had been much cut down, and according to the minister of finance's own statement much of the reduction was merely unavoidable expenditure deferred; the fact that some of this expenditure, which had been jealously scrutinized, was to be undertaken at once, meant that demands on future years would be relatively re- duced.
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  • As before stated reorganization was quickly followed by a marked increase of revenue, and it seemed probable that the forecast of the minister of finance that within a comparatively short time that increase would amount to £T5,000,000 Was not excessive.
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  • It was intended to assign to the war department £T3,804,918, to the grand master of ordnance £T358,108, to the admiralty £T93,912, and to the ministry of finance £T2,443,202 for the payment of the war indemnities in Thessaly and other urgent liabilities, the estimated aggregate extraordinary expenditure thus amounting to £T6,700,140.
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  • Ready buyers were not found for the state lands, and the sale of the ex-sultan's securities was disputed by the German Reichsbank with which they were deposited, while the government did not consider it good policy to sell the Anatolian railway shares, which it seized at Yildiz, so that only £T450,000 were encashed by the ministry of finance from these sources.
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  • To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
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  • The public debt council consented with good grace, although the minister of finance, by omitting to consult that council during the progress of negotiations, lost sight of the fact that a sum of £T87,823 was due to the public debt administration on account of arrears of the Eastern Rumelian annuity up to December 1887, and that a further sum of £T430,741 was due by the Bulgarian to the Turkish government itself in compensation Tor the Rustchuk-Varna railway under the Treaty of Berlin.
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  • These were successful in France, the Imperial Ottoman Bank group agreeing to undertake 30% of the finance without, however, any countenance from the French government - the " Glarus Syndicate " being formed for apportioning interests.
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  • A commission (the successor of many) was instituted at the ministry of finance in 1910, to draw up proposals for setting this confusion in order.
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  • In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
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  • The defterdar was practically the minister of finance.
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  • For the financial reforms see the section Finance, above.
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  • On the 13th of September 1909 the Macedonian international commission of finance met for the last time; its members were reappointed to a higher finance board for the whole empire, under the presidency of Djavid Bey.
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  • Monographs: Much information on modern Turkish history and politics will be found in the works dealing primarily with topography, finance, law and defence, which have been cited above.
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  • A cry now arose in Holland for a revision of the fundamental law and for more liberal institutions; ministerial responsibility was introduced, and the royal control over finance diminished.
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  • At the same time he was being tutored in law by Savigny and in finance by a series of distinguished masters.
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  • In 1864 he was appointed, by Sella, secretary-general of finance, and after being created senator in 1865, acquired considerable fame as a financial authority.
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  • He then entered the government service, and after a period of probation was appointed to a post in the ministry of finance.
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  • In 1886 Wekerle was elected to the House of Deputies, became in the same year financial secretary of state, and in 1889 succeeded Tisza as minister of finance.
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  • In November 1892 Wekerle succeeded Count Szapary as premier, though still retaining the portfolio of finance.
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  • On the reconciliation of the king-emperor with the coalition he was therefore selected as the most suitable man to lead the new government, and on the 8th of April 1906 was appointed prime minister, taking at the same time the portfolio of finance.
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  • They formed a permanent council, and Hadrian's successors entrusted these comites with the administration of justice and finance, or placed them in military commands.
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  • The service of the national debt absorbs a very large part of the expenditure, about 45% of the estimates for 1907 being assigned to the department of finance.
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  • The judicial and financial functions in each province were vested in the Ouvidor, whose authority in the college of finance was second only to that of the governor.
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  • The executive power is vested in a responsible cabinet, consisting of ten ministers, namely, the president of the council, the minister of the interior, of national defence, of education and public worship, of finance, The franchise is " probably the most illiberal in Europe."
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  • Modern roads were made, the first railways were laid down, the regulation of the river Theiss was taken in hand, a new and better scheme of finance was inaugurated.
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  • These benefits the nation owed for the most part to Gabor Baross, Hungary's greatest finance minister, who entered the cabinet in 1886 and greatly strengthened it.
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  • In these circumstances the king sent for Dr Laszlo Lukacs, once finance - minister in the Fejervary cabinet, whose task was, acting as a.
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  • Other ministers were Mr Károly de Hieronymi (commerce), Dr Lukacs (finance), Ferencz de Szekely (justice, education, public worship), Bela Serenyi (agriculture) and General Hazay (national defence).
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  • Among the newer writers on common and commercial law may be mentioned Wenczal, Zlinsky, ZsgOd, Gustave Schwarz, Alexander Plosz, Francis Nagy and Neumann; on constitutional law, Korbuly, Boncz, Stephen Kiss, Ernest Nagy, Kmety, Arthur Balogh, Ferdinandy, Bela Grunwald, Julius Andrassy and Emeric Ha j nik; on administration, George Fesiis, Kmety and Csiky; on finance, Mariska, Exner and Laszlo.
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  • The Senate, which exercises the greater part of the executive power, is composed of eighteen members, one half of whom must have studied law or finance, while at least seven of the remainder must belong to the class of merchants.
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  • Besides law, the important departments of finance and mines were organized, and steps taken to remedy the grievances of the commercial and mining classes.
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  • Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by the " comat " or secret council, composed of the heads of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself.
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  • After the fall of Palermo, Crispi was appointed minister of the interior and of finance in the Sicilian provisional government, but was shortly afterwards obliged to resign on account of the struggle between Garibaldi and the emissaries of Cavour with regard to the question of immediate annexation.
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  • In May 1852 he became minister of finance in the reconstructed d'Azeglio cabinet, and later minister of education in that of Cavour.
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  • On the completion of the feudal revolution of 1868 he was appointed governor of the province of Tosa, and having served six years in this office, was transferred to Tokyo as assistant minister of finance.
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  • On his return home, he held for a short time in 1880 the portfolio of home affairs, and was in 1881 appointed minister of finance.
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  • Matsukata, who in 1884 was created Count, twice held the office of prime minister (1891-1892, 1896-1898), and during both his administrations he combined the portfolio of finance with the premiership; from October 1898 to October 1900 he was minister of finance only.
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  • Finance In addition to the provisions that have been mentioned above (Section VII.), the London Government Act 1899 simplified administration in two respects.
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  • The following table gives the net loans outstanding of the several classes of local authorities in London at the 31st of March 1908 :/n==Authorities== - Full details and figures relating to the finance of London will be found in the parliamentary papers Local Taxation Returns (England and Wales), part iv.
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  • The cabinet, in which Baron Louis was minister of finance, and Marshal Gouvion Saint Cyr remained minister' of war, was entirely Liberal; and its first act was to suppress the ministry of police, as Decazes held that it was incompatible with the regime of liberty.
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  • He next entered into relations with the family of Bonaparte, and in 1799, after the 18th Brumaire, again entered politics, becoming successively prefect of the lower Seine, councillor of state, and finance minister to Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia.
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  • The knowledge he displayed of the principles and practice of finance was especially remarkable.
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  • In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a history of French finance by Francois d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his journal.
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  • Elected to the Legislative Assembly, Cambon became noted for his independence, his honesty and his ability in finance.
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  • He was the most active member of the committee of finance and was often charged to verify the state of the treasury.
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  • In matters of finance Cambon was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictatorship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being antirevolutionary and an aristocrat.
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  • On the 21st of February 1795 the project which he presented to withdraw four milliards of assignats from circulation, was rejected, and on the 3rd of April he was excluded from the committee of finance.
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  • His talent in finance won him a distinguished place in the chamber.
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  • His SOn, Georges Charles Paul, born in 1855, was in his father's department from 1879 till 1885, deputy from 1885, five times president of the Budget Commission, minister of finance (1895-1898) and vice-president of the chamber (1898-1902), and again finance minister in the Briand Cabinet, 1909.
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  • He was one of those who induced the states-general to proclaim itself a National Assembly on the 17th of June 1789; approved, in several speeches, of the capture of the Bastille and of the taking of the royal family to Paris (October 1789); demanded that strict measures be taken against the royalists who were intriguing in the south of France, and published some pamphlets on finance.
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  • The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration.
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  • Russia's military prestige was at a low ebb, her finance in a state of chaos, the Tsarist regime discredited and the country in the throes of revolution.
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  • His interest and efficiency in financial legislation in the House led to his appointment on the Senate Committee of Finance, and after 1867 he was chairman of this influential committee.
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  • The immediate supervision and despatch of public administrative affairs is in the hands of the cabinet ministers - interior, foreign affairs, war and marine, finance and commerce, justice and public instruction, and public works and promotion (fomento).
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  • The single standard has worked well, and has contributed much toward the recovery of Peruvian commerce and finance.
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  • The viceroys were chief magistrates, but in legal matters they had to consult the Audiencia of judges, in finance the Tribunal de Cuentas, in other branches of administration the Juntas de Gobierno and de Guerra.
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  • Except in finance, he was not able to accomplish much, for he was met and thwarted at every turn by his chief's invincible hostility to change; but the more advanced section of the Liberal party began to look upon him as their predestined leader.
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  • Simms in defence of the politics and finance of the South, enjoyed a shorter career.
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  • The Finance Act of 1902 allows a manufacturer to obtain a license which permits the use of duty-free alcohol, if he can show that such alcohol is absolutely essential for the success of his business, and that methylated spirit is unsuitable.
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  • On the 26th of August 1786 he was appointed privy councillor for finance (Geheimer Oberfinanzrath), and on the 2nd of October was ennobled.
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  • Villele resigned within a year, but on the fall of Richelieu at the end of 1821 he became the real chief of the new cabinet, in which he was minister of finance.
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  • As minister of finance in the Bourgeois cabinet (from the 3rd of November 1895 to the 21st of April 1896) he tried without success to introduce an income-tax.
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  • From 1835 to 1837 he was a member of the Virginia house of delegates; from 1837 to 1843 and from 1845 to 1847 was a member of the national house of representatives, being Speaker from 1839 to 1841; and from 1847 to 1861 he was in the senate, where he was chairman of the finance committee (1850-1861).
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  • On the fall of the Brown-Dorion administration in 1858 he was called on to form a ministry, but declined the task, and became finance minister under Sir John Macdonald and Sir George Cartier on condition that the federation of the British North American provinces should become a part of their programme.
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  • From 1858 to 1862 and 1864 to 1867 he was finance minister, and did much to reduce the somewhat chaotic finances of Canada into order.
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  • He became finance minister in the first Dominion ministry, but suddenly and mysteriously resigned on the 4th of November 1867.
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  • In 1871 he was again offered the ministry of finance on condition of abandoning these views, but declined.
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  • (For the ancient Athenian Xetrovpyiat, as forms of taxation, see Finance.) In order to understand terms and references it will be convenient to give the tabular form the chief component parts of a liturgy, selecting the Liturgy of Rome as characteristic of Western, and that of Constantinople as characteristic of Eastern, Christendom; at the same time appending an explanation of some of the technical words which must be employed in enumerating those parts.
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  • He was minister of finance from the, 8th of June to the 9th of November 1799, but refused office under the Consulate and the Empire.
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  • Fouquet, the finance minister, had accumulated enormous wealth during the late disturbances, and seemed to possess power and ambition too great for a subject.
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  • On the 5th of November, accordingly, Laffitte became minister-president of a government pledged to progress (mouvement), holding at the same time the portfolio of finance.
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  • In 1869 he succeeded to the post of secretary of the joint departments of the interior and of finance, and for the next fourteen years he devoted himself wholly to politics.
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  • In 1872 he was again appointed minister of finance, and when the expedition under General Saig6 was sent to Formosa (1874) to chastise the natives of that island for the murder of some shipwrecked fishermen, he was nominated president of the commission appointed to supervise the campaign.
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  • In spite of the troubled times in which he lived, Frederick was a successful ruler, and introduced a regular system of public finance into his lands.
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  • The subject received little attention in the United Kingdom, owing to the relatively high cost of home-produced alcohol as compared with that of imported petrol; and the use of alcohol in England for generating mechanical power was neither contemplated nor provided for by the Legislature before 1920, when, as the result of the consideration of the position by the Government, following on a report by a Departmental Committee appointed towards the end of 1918, clauses were inserted in the Finance Act of 1920 legalizing the use of alcohol for power purposes.
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  • He settled in Philadelphia as a lawyer, and in February 1780 he published in Philadelphia a series of essays on finance, in which he criticized the issue of legal-tenders, denounced laws passed for the benefit of the debtor class, and urged the people to tax themselves for the common good.
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  • From 1781 to 1785 he was assistant to Robert Morris, superintendent of finance.
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  • He was several times minister, and became minister of finance in the cabinet of Casimir-Perier (from the 3rd of November 1893 to the 22nd of May 1894).
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  • But difficulties of finance, the impossibility of undertaking effective operations against Italy, and signs of impending trouble in the Balkans at length compelled the Ottoman Government to peace.
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  • Finance otherwise absorbed attention; by 1880 the public debt had reached £25,000,000, against which the chief new asset was 1300 m.
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  • These did not interfere with the general lines of Atkinson's strong and cautious finance, though the first of them was the abolition of his direct tax upon all property, personal as well as real, and the substitution therefor of a landtax of id.
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  • The money is lent by an official board, which deals with applications and manages the finance of the system.
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  • In 1792 he took part as a volunteer in the campaign of Champagne; in 1793 he assumed, in conformity with the Revolutionary fashion, the pre-name of Atticus, and became secretary to Claviere, then finance minister.
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  • These figures are exclusive of railway receipts and expenditure (see Transvaal: Finance).
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  • In carrying out this policy of government regulation and supervision of corporations he became involved in a great struggle with the powerful financial interests whose profits were threatened, and with those legislators who sincerely believed that government should solely concern itself with protecting life and property, and should leave questions of individual and social relations in trade and finance to be settled by the operation of so-called natural economic laws.
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  • The executive consists of a responsible ministry (Gesammt Ministerium), with the six departments of justice, finance, home affairs, war, public worship and education, and foreign affairs.
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  • Next follow chapters on the literary renaissance of the nation, its progress in art, mathematics, chemistry and natural science; the magnificent development of agriculture, modern industry, commerce and finance; and in particular its flourishing selfgovernment, " which will be exercised in the fullest freedom," and in which " the communal organization embodies in the highest degree the conception of self-government " (p. 234), and " the independent sphere of activity unlimited in its fundamental principle " (p. 235) in that " State control is exercised seldom and discreetly " (p. 236).
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  • It was over these demands in connexion with the waterways, which the Minister of Finance declared to be impossible of fulfilment to the extent required by the Poles, that Bienerth's mainstay failed to support him; and on Dec. 12 he sent in his resignation, which was, however, followed by a renewed Bienerth Ministry, composed of Germans, Poles and officials.
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  • War finance was not able to dispense with the printing of notes.
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  • Quesnay died on the 16th of December 1774, having lived long enough to see his great pupil, Turgot, in office as minister of finance.
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  • The empire was supported by a standing army and an elaborate system of finance.
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  • There is a council consisting of the ten ministers of state - for foreign affairs, war, interior, finance, household, justice, metropolitan government, public works, public instruction and for agriculture together with the general adviser.
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  • The revenue administration is controlled by the ministers of the interior, of metropolitan government and of finance, by means of well-organized departments and with expert European assistance.
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  • There are nine departments, each under a director: namely, justice; interior; instruction, public worship and industry; agriculture (created in 1905); civil public works; government works (created in 1908); finance; war; marine.
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  • The reasons for this were numerous, first among them being the abuses of the papal system of finance, which had to provide funds for the vast administrative machinery of the Curia.
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  • Finance and army bills must be introduced first in the Lower House, the Chamber of Deputies.
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  • The executive Government is placed in charge of 15 ministries concerned with the following matters: - foreign affairs, interior, finance, commerce, labour, food supplies, railways, health, social welfare, justice, agriculture, public instruction, national defence, posts and telegraphs, and the unification of laws.
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  • It was in favour of creating in central Europe a new political and economic system by which permanent peace would be secured - a definite understanding between all the " Succession States " of the former AustroHungarian monarchy in the matter of communications, post, telegraphs, navigation, finance and banking, exchange of goods and commercial treaties generally, opening up the way to a system of unfettered economics and freer trade - but at the same time jealously guarding the economic and political sovereignty of the Czechoslovak Republic.
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  • P. Brissot, whom he had met in London, he became minister of finance in the Girondist ministry, from March to the 12th of June 1792.
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  • (JEAN JOSEPH CHARLES) LOUIS BLANC (1811-1882), French politician and historian, was born on the 29th of October 1811 at Madrid, where his father held the post of inspector-general of finance under Joseph Bonaparte.
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  • Ribot's great reputation as an expert in finance and foreign affairs brought him effectively into office.
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  • When Briand reconstituted his Cabinet, in Dec. 1916, Ribot retained the portfolio of Finance.
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  • In 1882 he became Conservative member for King's County, N.B., in the Dominion parliament, and in 1885 entered the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as minister of marine and fisheries; in 1888 he became minister of finance, which position he held till the defeat of his party in 1896.
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  • For that year the budget was already settled, and it was introduced by Mr Asquith himself, the ex-chancellor; but Mr Lloyd George earned golden opinions, both at the Treasury and in parliament, by his industry and his handling of the Finance Bill, especially important for its inclusion of Old Age Pensions, in the later stages.
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  • When the Finance Bill went up to the House of Lords, Lord Lansdowne gave notice that on the second reading he would move "that this House is not justified in giving its consent to this bill until it has been submitted to the judgment of the country," and on the last day of November this motion was carried by an overwhelming majority of peers.
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  • Claude (c. 1500-1567), baron of Chateauneuf-sur-Cher, Sebastien's brother, was a secretary of finance; he had charge of negotiations with England in 1555 and 1559, and was several times commissioned to treat with the Huguenots in the king's name.
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  • They are assisted by a cabinet of four ministers, representing the departments of the interior, police and public works; foreign affairs, justice, religion and education; finance and commerce; war and marine.
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  • Calvo, The Republic of Costa Rica (Chicago, 1890), gives a partisan account of local politics, trade and finance, authorized by the government.
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  • Ostensibly, he was only the Holstein minister at Charles's court, in reality he was everything in Sweden except a Swedish subject - finance minister, plenipotentiary to foreign powers, factotum, and responsible to the king alone, though he had not a line of instructions.
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  • He saw some service against the Carlists; was elected deputy to the Cortes of 1836; took part for Espartero, and then against him; was imprisoned in 1843; went into exile and returned; was governor of Barcelona in 1854, and minister of finance in 1855; had a large share in secularizing the Church lands; and after the revolution of 1868 was governor of Madrid.
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  • Under the Empire, Roederer, whose public influence was very considerable, was Joseph Bonaparte's minister of finance at Naples (1806),(1806), administrator of the grand duchy of Berg (181o), and imperial commissary in the south of France.
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  • At first Thiers, though elected deputy for Aix, obtained only subordinate places in the ministry of finance.
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  • After quitting the university he became private secretary to Count Schimmelmann, Danish minister of finance.
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  • He was minister of justice and of finance.
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  • On the expulsion of Queen Isabella, he returned to Spain, represented Manresa in the Cortes, and in1871-1872was successively minister of the colonies and of finance.
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  • There is a ministry with five departments - for the prince's household, domestic affairs, finance, churches and schools, and justice.
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  • Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
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  • When finally adopted by the House, the bills go to the Senate and are forthwith referred to the committee on finance or to that on appropriations.
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  • The secretary has, however, a smaller range of action than a finance minister in European countries, for, as he is excluded from Congress, he has nothing directly to do with the imposition of taxes, and very little with the appropriations for government expenditure.
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  • The banks are required by law to furnish to the finance minister detailed monthly statements which are published in the official gazette.
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  • The new system was laid before parliament in 1879 by the finance minister, Sir Leonard Tilley; and the tariff then agreed upon, although it received considerable modification from time to time, remained, under both Conservative and Liberal administrations, the basis of Canadian finance, and, as Canadians generally believed, the bulwark of their industry.
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  • During these years he saved a competence and gained a thorough acquaintance with the theory and practice of finance.
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  • In 1868 he published a short life of Bismarck in French, with the object of producing a better understanding of German affairs, and in 1870, owing to his intimate acquaintance with France and with finance, he was summoned by Bismarck to Versailles to help in the discussion of terms of peace.
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  • In the German Reichstag he was the leading authority on matters of finance and economics, as well as a clear and persuasive speaker, and it was chiefly owing to him that a gold currency was adopted and that the German Imperial Bank took its present form; in his later years he wrote and spoke strongly against bimetallism.
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  • One of the first problems of the new commonwealth was that of finance.
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  • On the 10th of December 1816 Pozzo di Borgo wrote to the duke enclosing a memorandum in which the emperor Alexander of Russia suggested a reduction in the army of occupation: "no mere question of finance, but one of general policy, based on reason, equity and a severe morality"; at the same time he left the question of its postponement entirely to Wellington.
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  • The ministry of finance is in the Treasury building on Rua do Sacramento - an immense structure of no special architectural merit.
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  • There are seven directorias, or boards, under the prefect, each one assigned to a special field of work, chief among which are education, health and public assistance, public works and transportation, and finance.
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  • In this capacity he took an active part in the reorganization of finance and of the administration of the departments of France.
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  • On the right bank of the Elbe in Neustadt stand the fine buildings of the ministries of war, of finance, justice, the interior and education.
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  • He early displayed his mastery of the principles of finance by a Discours delivered in August 1790 before this society, in regard to the issue of assignats by the government.
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  • He laid the foundations broadly in evangelism, finance, temperance and education, founding in the latter connexion a middleclass school at Shebbear, at which generations of ministers' sons and numerous students for the ministry have been educated.
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  • Thus by 1700 nepotistic plunder had practically ceased, and with the exception of the magnificent peculations of Cardinal Coscia under Benedict (1724-1730), the central administration of finance has been usually considered honest.
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  • The educated bourgeoisie, which controls the fields of politics, science, finance, administration, art and literature, does not trouble itself about that great spiritual universal monarchy which Rome, as heir of the Caesars, claimed for the Vatican, and to which the Curia of to-day still clings.
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  • (3) The Apostolic Chamber (Reverends Camera Apostolica) was before the abolition of the temporal power of the papacy the ministry of finance, at once treasury and exchequer, of the popes as heads of the Catholic Church as well as sovereigns of the papal states.
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  • His own bent was towards finance, but no VI.
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  • He studied law and politics at Heidelberg, and entered the Baden government department of finance in 1829.
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  • He was made finance minister in Baden in May 1849, but was dismissed after a few days of office.
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  • Since that time municipal finance has been in a prosperous condition.
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  • 34,667,673 Minister of finance 6,696,780 Contribution to im perial exchequer.
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  • He has a fivefold wergild, summons the nobles and clergy for purposes of deliberation, calls out the host, administers justice and regulates finance.
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  • The heads of the departments to whom the especial executive functions are entrusted are eight in number - ministers respectively of the interior, of " water-staat," trade and industry (that is, of public works, including railways, post-office, &c.), of justice, of finance, of war, of marine, of the colonies and of foreign affairs.
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  • His principal publications were Essays on Finance (1879 and 1884), The Progress of the Working Classes (1884), The Growth of Capital (1890), The Case against Bimetallism (1892), and Economic Inquiries and Studies (1904).
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  • Sir Robert Giffen continued in later years to take a leading part in all public controversies connected with finance and taxation, and his high authority and practical experience were universally recognized.
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  • The ministers represent departments for finance, foreign affairs, colonies, justice, the interior, science and arts, war, railways, posts and telegraphs, agriculture, public works, and industry and labour.
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  • The budget is submitted to the chambers by the minister of finance and passed by them.
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  • In politics he was originally a Republican, and was a delegate to the national convention of the party in 1880, and chairman of its finance committee.
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  • The board responsible for the imperial control over the whole railway system in Germany is the Reichseisenbahnamt in Berlin, the administration of the various state systems residing, in Prussia, in the ministry of public works; in Bavaria in the ministry of the royal house and of the exterior; in Wurttemberg in the ministry of the exterior; in Saxony in the ministry of the interior; in Baden and- Hesse-Darmstadt in commissions of the ministry of finance; and in Alsace-Lorraine in the imperial ministry of railways.
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  • During the years 1908 and 1909 considerable public discussion and political activity were devoted to the reorganization of German imperial finance, and it is only possible here to deal historically with the position up to that time, since further developmen.ts of an important nature were already foreshadowed.
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  • But it was also provided that, for the purpose of deficits, the states should, in addition, if required by the imperial minister of finance, contribute their quotas according to populationMatri/eular Beitrage.
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  • Meanwhile, in spite of the matricular contributions, the calls on imperial finance had steadily increased, and up to 1908 were continually met to a large extent by loans, involving a continual growth of the imperial debt, which in 1907 amounted to 3643 millions of marks.
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  • Bismarck took the opportunity of avowing that his ideal was a monopoly of tobacco, and this statement was followed by the resignation of Camphausen, minister of finance.
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  • At his invitation a conference of the finance ministers met in July at Heidelberg; they agreed to a great increase in the indirect taxes, but refused to accept the monopoly on tobacco.
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  • At the beginning of the autumn session a union of 204 members of the Reichstag was formed for the discussion of econolnic questions, and they accepted Bismarcks reforms. In December he was therefore able to issue a memorandum explaining his policy; it included a moderate duty, about 5%, on all imported goods, with the exception of raw material required for German manufactures (this was a return to the old Prussian principle); high finance duties on tobacco, beer, brandy and petroleum; and protective duties on iron, corn, cattle, wood, wine and sugar.
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  • In 1903 Baron von Stengel, who succeeded Baron von Thielmann as finance minister in this year, proposed that the matricular contributions of the several states, instead of varying as heretofore with the exigencies of the annual budget, should be fixed by law.
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  • In 1909 the whole system of German imperial finance was once more in the melting-pot, and, in spite of the undoubted wealth of the country, the conflict of state and party interests seemed to make it practically impossible to remould it on a satisfactory basis.
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  • Miquel, as minister of finance, succeeded indeed in carrying a reform by which the proceeds of the tax on land and buildings were transferred to the local government authorities, and the loss to the state exchequer made up by increased taxation of larger incomes and industry.
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  • Originally the opponents of the landed interest and the nobility, they were the party of th educated middle class, of the learned, of the officials and finance They never succeeded in winning the support of the workinl men.
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  • The contest was from the first hopeless, and, but for the personal request of the emperor that he would pilot the Finance Bill through the House in some shape or other, Prince Blow would have resigned early in the year.
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  • Throughout his term of office he was supported by the finance minister Count Cambray Digny, who forced through parliament the grist tax proposed by Quintino Sella, though in an altered form from the earlier proposal.
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  • In this predicament Morton appointed a bureau of finance, and appealed for financial aid to private individuals, bankers, the counties, and even the Federal government.
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  • These are: (1) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.
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  • For the administration of these common affairs there are three joint ministries: the ministry of foreign affairs and of the imperial and royal house, the ministry of war, and the ministry of finance.
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  • The minister of finance has charge of the finances of common affairs, prepares the joint budget, and administers the joint state debt.
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  • (Till 1909 the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were also administered by the joint minister of finance, excepting matters exclusively dependent on the minister of war.) For the control of the common finances, there is appointed a joint supreme court of accounts, which audits the accounts of the joint ministries.
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  • Side by side with the budget of each state of the Dual Monarchy, there is a common budget, which comprises the expenditure necessary for the common affairs, namely for the conduct of foreign affairs, for the army, and for the ministry of finance.
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  • This had been originally organized in a series of departments: Aulic chanceries for Austria, for Hungary and Transylvania, a general Aulic chamber for finance, domains, mines, trade, post, &c., an Aulic council of war, a general directory of accounts, and a chancery of the household, court and state.
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  • There were to be three ministers for common purposes - (r) for foreign affairs; (2) for war; (3) for finance; these ministers were responsible to the Delegations, but the Delegations were really given no legislative power.
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  • The minister of finance had to lay before them the common budget, but they could not raise money or vote taxes; after they had passed the budget the money required had to be provided by the separate parliaments.
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  • There are, therefore, e.g., three ministries of finance: the Kaiserlich and Koniglich for joint affairs; the Kaiserlich-Koniglich for Austrian affairs; the Kirdlye for Hungary.
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  • It was not until his report on the financial results of 1888 that Sir Evelyn Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer) was able to inform the British government that the situation was such that it would take a series of untoward events seriously to endanger the stability of Egyptian finance and the solvency of the Egyptian government.
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  • The three officials of importance whose nomination is mentioned by the historians in addition to that of the governor were the commander of the bodyguard, the minister of finance and the judge.
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  • In 1873 he overthrew the Lanza-Sella Cabinet and regained the premiership, which, with the portfolio of finance, he held until the fall.
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  • During his premiership he inaugurated the rapprochement between Italy, Austria and Germany, and reformed the naval and military administration; and before his fall he was able, as finance minister,.
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  • Financially, Afghanistan has never, since it first became a kingdom, been able to pay for its own government, public works Finance.
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  • In administrative details he is assisted by the Council of India, an advisory body, with special control over finance.
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  • The several departments of administration - Foreign, Home, Finance, Legislative, Army, Revenue and Agriculture (with Public Works), Commerce and Industry, Education (added in 1910) - are distributed among the council after the fashion of a European cabinet, the foreign portfolio being reserved by the viceroy; but all orders and resolutions are issued in the name of the governor-general in council and must be signed by a secretary.
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  • That the state should appropriate to itself a direct share in the produce of the soil is a fundamental maxim of Indian finance that has been recognized throughout the East from time immemorial.
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  • The heading Opium in the finance accounts represents the duty on the export of the drug.
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  • The rates levied at a certain percentage of the land revenue for local purposes are now excluded from the finance accounts.
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  • Subject to his control the government of India enjoys a certain discretionary Finance.
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  • There is a special member for finance in the governorgeneral's council, and all important matters are brought before the council.
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  • His successor was Lord Northbrook, whose ability showed itself chiefly in the department of finance.
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  • The incident, however, led to military measures being taken by the government of Lord Dufferin, which had far-reaching effects on Indian finance.
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  • On the 1st of September 1900 this body assumed the legislative functions of the central government at Manila; on the 4th of July 1901 the executive authority was, by order of the president, transferred from the military governor to Judge Taft, whom he had appointed civil governor; on the 6th of September 1901 the Philippine Commission, by authority of the president, established the four executive departments, of interior, commerce -and police, finance and justice, and public instruction; and on the 29th of October 1901 the president appointed a vice-governor.
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  • This Khalid, who was descended from an old sacerdotal family in Balkh, and had been one of the trusty supporters of Abu Moslim, Mansur appointed as minister of finance.
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  • Regulations were framed for the purpose of establishing adequate supervision over the revenue and expenditure for the abolition of irregular taxation and extortions, as well as the practice of farming out the collection of the revenue to individuals, and, generally, to adapt the whole collection and expenditure of the national revenue to modern ideas of public finance.
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  • The king, with the checks upon his absolutism removed, reverted to the worst traditions of his dynasty, and the control and arrangements of finance were upset by Russia.
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  • The government is carried on by a ministry of three, holding the portfolios of finance; of home and foreign affairs; and of religion, education and justice, with which is combined the ducal household.
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  • In 1831 he succeeded Johan Sigismund Misting (1789-1843), as minister of finance.
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  • The mere fact that a distinguished statesman who had served the last two absolute kings of Denmark now voluntarily placed himself at the head of a ministry which included the most advanced of the popular agitators, gave the new government the hall-mark of stability and trustworthiness, whilst the fact that he still retained the ministry of finance was of itself a guarantee of security during the earlier years of a troublesome and costly war.
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  • He was Minister of Finance in the first Sonnino Cabinet of 1906 and Treasury Minister in the second (1909-10).
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  • There were federal officers, all the military forces of the cities were controlled by the league, and federal finance was quite separate from city finance.
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  • The principal spending departments are those of war and marine, internal development, and finance.
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  • The executive is entrusted to a president similarly chosen for six years (instead of four) and aided by a cabinet representing the five ministries of foreign affairs and education, finance, internal administration and justice, war and marine, and public works.
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  • For administrative purposes the republic is divided into 13 departments and 2 comarcas, each under a political head who acts as military commandant and controls education, finance, &c. The administration of justice is entrusted to numerous courts of first instance, three courts of appeal, and a supreme court.
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  • Although at times subject to fierce criticism with regard to matters of administration and finance, he was recognized as one of the ablest men on the Confederate side, and he remained with Jefferson Davis to the last, sharing his flight after the surrender at Appomattox, and only leaving him shortly before his capture, because he found himself unable to go farther on horseback.
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  • He also wrote on questions of finance and economics.
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  • From the 4th of September 1870 he held the portfolio of finance in the government of National Defence.
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  • The term " finance," which comes into English through French, in its original meaning denoted a payment (finatio).
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  • The plural form (Les Finances) was particularly reserved for this application, while the singular came to denote business activity in respect to monetary dealings (as in the expression la haute finance).
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  • For the Germans the phrase " science of finance " (Finanzwissenschaft) refers exclusively to the economy of the state.
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  • The expressions " science of finance " and " public finance " have been suggested as suitable to delimit the last mentioned application.
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  • In the present article attention will be directed to " public finance "; for the other aspects of the subject reference may be made (inter alia) to the following: - B Anks And Banking; Company; Exchange; Market; STOCK Exchange.
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  • The theory of well-organized public finance is also discussed under Taxation and National Debt.
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  • The scanty and obscure references to finance, and to economic matters generally, in classical literature do not elucidate all the details of the system; but the analogies of other countries, e.g.
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  • The absence of settled public law and the influence of direct democracy made a complete ministry of finance impossible.
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  • Their finance, like their social life generally, exhibited a blending of Hellenic and barbarian elements.
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  • The real centre of finance was the Fiscus or imperial treasury, which was under the exclusive control of the ruler (` ` res fiscales," says Ulpian, " quasi propriae et privatae principis sunt "), and was administered by officials of his household.
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  • By means of his freedmen the emperor introduced the more rigorous economy of the Roman household into public finance.
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  • Thus some of the most valuable lessons as to the normal evolution of a system of finance are to be learned in this connexion.
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  • The close relation between finance and general policy is most impressively illustrated in this failure of benevolent autocracy.
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  • In substance and spirit, however, Roman finance was essentially backward.
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  • Without altogether accepting Merivale's judgment that " their principles of finance were to the last rude and unphilosophical," it may be granted that Roman statesmen never seriously faced the questions of just distribution and maximum productiveness in the tax system.
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  • Still less did they perceive the connexion between these two aspects of finance.
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  • Whether (as has been suggested) an Adam Smith in power could have saved the Empire is doubtful; but he would certainly have remodelled its finance.
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  • In addition to its value as illustrating the difficulties and defects that beset the development of a complex financial organization from the simpler forms of the city and the province, Roman finance is of special importance in consequence of its place as supplying a model or rather a guide for the administration of the states that arose on its ruins.
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  • Finance is essentially a part of public law and administration.
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  • Over and above the details of financial development there is a thread of connexion which requires treatment under Finance taken as a whole.
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  • As the great aim of this side of public activity is to secure funds for the maintenance of the state's life and working, the administration which operates for this end is the true nucleus of all national finance.
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  • Feudalism, as the antithesis of this orderly treatment, had to be overthrown before national finance could become established.
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  • The gradual unification operates on all the branches of finance, - expenditure, revenue, debt and methods of control.
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  • It was, however, the fundamental division for the early French writers on finance, and it survives for England as late as Blackstone's Commentaries.
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  • How great has been the progress in these aspects is best illustrated in the case of English finance, but both French and German fiscal history can supply many instructive examples.
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  • In a third direction the co-ordination of finance has been just as remarkable.
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  • Apart from the special problems that this system of borrowing raises, there is the general one of its aid in making national finance continuous and orderly.
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  • The growth of this department, parallel with the general progress of finance, is significant of its function.
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  • Such a real underlying unity is the reason and justification for regarding " public finance " as a distinct subject of study and as an independent division of political science.
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  • One of the most remarkable features of modern financial development has been the growth of the complementary system of local finance, which in extent and complication bids to rival that of the central authority.
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  • After the fall of the Western Empire, a partial revival of city life, particularly in Italy and Germany, gave some scope for a return to the type of finance presented by the Athenian state.
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  • It is in this condition of subordination that the finance of localities has been framed and effectively organized.
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  • Amongst these the first to be noticed is the essential subordination of local finance.
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  • A second characteristic is the predominance of the economic element in the several tasks that local administrations have to perform, and the consequent tendency to treat the charges of local finance as payments for services rendered, or, in the usual phrase, to apply the " benefits " principle, in contrast to that of " ability," which rightly prevails in national finance.
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  • Over a great part of municipal administration - particularly that engaged in supplying the needs of the individual citizens - the finance may be assimilated to that of the joint-stock company, with of course the necessary differences, viz.
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  • The great expansion in recent years of what is known as Municipal Trading has brought this aspect of local finance into prominence.
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  • Over and above the peculiar revenues of local bodies there is the further resource - which emphasizes the subordinate position of local finance - of obtaining supplemental revenue from the central treasury, either by taxes additional to the charges of the state, and collected at the same time; or by donations from its funds, in the shape of grants for special services, or assignments of certain parts of the state's receipts.
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  • The broad resemblance between the two parts of the entire system of public finance is seen in another direction.
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  • Finally, there is the same set of problems in respect to accounting and control in local as in central finance.
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  • Perhaps the greatest weakness of local finance lies in this direction.
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  • The English literature on finance is rather unsatisfactory; for public finance the available text-books are: Adams, Science of Finance (New York, 1898); Bastable, Public Finance (London, 1892; 3rd ed., 1903); Daniels, Public Finance (New York, 1899), and Plehn, Public Finance (3rd ed., New York, 1909).
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  • (edited by Gerlach), 1901; Wagner (4 vols.), incomplete; Cohn (1889) and Eheberg (9th ed., 1908) have published works entitled Finanzwissenschaft, dealing with all the aspects of state finance.
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  • Clamageran, Histoire de l'imp& en France (1876), gives the earlier development of French finance.
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  • Porcius Cato to annex the island, nominally because its king had connived at piracy, really because its revenues and the treasures of Paphos were coveted to finance a corn law of P. Clodius.
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  • On his return to France after a year and a half, he was received into the house of Fouquet, superintendent of finance, who gave him a pension of 150o livres.
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  • Among Colbert's papers are Memoires sur les affaires de finance de France (written about 1663), a fragment entitled Particularites secretes de la vie du Roy, and other accounts of the earlier part of the reign of Louis XIV.
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  • In December 1877 he became minister of finance in the reconstructed Depretis ministry, and he subsequently held the same office in three other Liberal cabinets.
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  • See Agriculture; Navy (also Ship and Ship-BUILDING); Education; English Finance; English History; Civil Ser Vice; National Debt; Police; Poor Law; &C. A separate section, however, is devoted to the army, the constitution of which in 1910 is described; the history is given under Army.
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  • -The following publications relating to the United Kingdom are issued annually in London (unless otherwise stated): Finance Accounts; Financial Estimates; Return showing Revenue and Expenditure (England, Scotland and Ireland); National Debt Accounts; National Debt during 60 Years; Local Taxation Returns; Army Estimates; Army Accounts; Army List (quarterly); Navy Estimates; Navy List (quarterly); Royal Commission on Agriculture, Reports (1896); Mineral Statistics; Reports of Inspectors of Mines; Reports on Factories and Workshops; Reports of Inspectors of Fisheries; Return of Fish conveyed inland by rail; Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom; Statement of the Shipping and Navigation of the United Kingdom; Report of the Postmaster-General.
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  • But in accordance both with the growing tendency to separate command and administration and with the desire to enlist local sympathies and utilize local resources, "associations," partly of civilian, partly of military members, were formed in every county and charged by statute with all matters relating to the enlistment, service and discharge of the county's quota in the force, finance (other than pay, &c. in camp), buildings, ownership of regimental property, &c. To these duties of county associations are added that of supervising and administering cadet corps of all sorts (other than officers' training corps), and that of providing the extra horses required on mobilization, not only by the territorial force, but by the expeditionary force as well.
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  • A year later he was selected to be secretary-general of public instruction, and in 1862 received from Rattazzi the portfolio of finance.
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  • The Rattazzi cabinet fell before Sella could efficaciously provide for the deficit of £17,500,000 with which he was confronted; but in 1864 he returned to the ministry of finance in the La Marmora cabinet, and dealt energetically with the deficit of £8,000,000 then existing.
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  • A vote of the chamber compelled him to resign before his preparations for financial restoration were complete; but in 1869 he returned to the ministry of finance in a cabinet formed by himself, but of which he made over the premiership to Giovanni Lanza.
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  • By means of the grist tax (which he had proposed in 1865, but which the Menabrea cabinet had passed in 1868), and by other fiscal expedients necessitated by the almost desperate condition of the national exchequer, he succeeded, before his fall from power in 1873, in placing Italian finance upon a sound footing, in spite of fierce attacks and persistent misrepresentation.
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  • They are eleven in number, one being prime minister, two others consultative ministers, and the remaining eight heads of the departments of administration, which are justice, foreign affairs, land defence, naval defence, home affairs, finance, public works, agriculture.
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  • But Count Posse, deserted by his own party over the army bill, resigned, and was succeeded on the 16th of May 1884 by Oscar Themptauder, who had been minister of finance in the previous cabinet.
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  • He is assisted and advised by a cabinet of six ministers whose departments are: interior, foreign affairs, worship and colonization, justice and public instruction, war and marine, finance, industry and public works.
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  • The removal of this source of irritation and the restoration of friendly relations between the two republics was a great relief to the finance of Chile.
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  • The vizirs are the ministers of the interior, foreign affairs, war, justice, finance, commerce, education, public works.
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  • The departments that had a vizir at their head were the following: court, ceremonies, shahs secretarial department, interior, correspondence between court and governors, revenue accounts and budget, finance, treasury, outstanding accounts, foreign affairs, war, army accounts, military stores, arsenals, justice, commerce, mines and industries, agriculture and Crown domains, Crown buildings, public works, public instruction, telegraphs, posts, mint, religious endowments and pensions, customs, press.
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  • A new assessment of the maliat, based upon the present value of the produce of lands and actual profits of artisans and tradesmen, has frequently been spoken of, and government, aided by a strong minister of the interior and an able minister of finance, ought to have no difficulty in raising the maliat to its proper level and the total revenues of the country to about two millions sterling.
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  • In the United Kingdom the chancellor of the exchequer, usually in April, lays before the House of Commons a statement of the actual results of revenue and expenditure in the past finance year (now ending March 31), showing how far his estimates have been realized, and what surplus or deficit there has been in the income as compared with the expenditure.
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  • The resolutions of these committees are reported to the House, and when the taxation and expenditure obtain the assent of parliament, the results as thus adjusted become the final budget estimate for the year, and are passed as the Finance Act.
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  • This charter is peculiar in that it gives to the city council the power to elect various administrative boards - of police, finance, &c. - from which the legislative council of most cities is separated.
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  • Amongst his economic works may be mentioned Money and the Mechanism of Exchange (1875), written in a popular style, and descriptive rather than theoretical, but wonderfully fresh and original in treatment and full of suggestiveness, a Primer on Political Economy (1878), The State in Relation to Labour (1882), and two works published after his death, namely, Methods of Social Reform and Investigations in Currency and Finance, containing papers that had appeared separately during his lifetime.
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  • In the domain of finance Goulburn's chief achievements were to reduce the rate of interest on part of the national debt, and to allow any one to sell beer upon payment of a small annual fee, a complete change of policy with regard to the drink traffic. Leaving office with Wellington in November 1830, Goulburn was home secretary under Sir Robert Peel for four months in 1835, and when this statesman returned to office in September 1841 he became chancellor of the exchequer for the second time.
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  • He attempted to restore some order in the treasury and administration of finance, with a view to obtain ways and means to cover the expense of the three civil wars, Carlist, cantonal and Cuban.
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  • The sovereign exercised his executive power through a cabinet which was responsible to the cortes, and consisted of seven members, representing the ministries of (I) the interior, (2) foreign affairs, (3) finance, (4) justice and worship, (5) war, (6) marine and colonies, (7) public works, industry and commerce.
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  • Beginning with finance and commerce, he reversed the bullionist policy of his predecessors and reorganized the entire system of taxation.
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  • The president is assisted by a cabinet of five ministers of state, viz.: foreign relations and worship; finance and industry; interior and fomento; justice and public instruction; war and colonization.
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  • The appropriations for 1905 were as follows: war, 2,081,119 bolivianos; finance and industry, 1,462,259; government and fomento, 2,021,428; justice and public instruction, 1,878,941.
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  • He sends in reports on the labour, manufacture, trade, commercial legislation and finance, technical education, exhibitions and conferences of the country or district in which he resides, and, generally, furnishes information on any subject which may be desired of him.
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  • He himself confessed his unfitness for dealing with questions of finance.
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  • During his long term of office he abolished the grist tax, extended the suffrage, completed the railway system, aided Mancini in forming the Triple Alliance, and initiated colonial policy by the occupation of Massawa; but, at the same time, he vastly increased indirect taxation, corrupted and destroyed the fibre of parliamentary parties, and, by extravagance in public works, impaired the stability of Italian finance.
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  • South of Unter den Linden lies the Friedrichstadt, with its parallel lines of straight streets, including the Behren-strasse - (the seat of finance) - the Wilhelmstrasse, with the palace of the imperial chancellor, the British embassy, and many government offices - the official quarter of the capital - and the busy Leipziger-strasse, running from the Potsdamer-platz to the DOnhoff-platz.
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  • Nominated assessor in 1837, he acted for five years in this capacity at Magdeburg and Coblenz, became in 1845 counsellor in the ministry of finance, and was in 1849 elected a member of the second chamber of the Prussian diet, joining the Moderate Liberal party.
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  • In 1869 he was appointed minister of finance.
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  • As chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance, his services were second in value only to those of President Lincoln and Secretary Salmon P. Chase in efforts to provide funds for the defence of the Union; and in July 1864 Fessenden succeeded Chase as secretary of the treasury.
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  • In the Senate he again became chairman of the finance committee, and also of the joint committee on reconstruction.
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  • The only redeeming traits of Queen Isabella's reign were a war against Morocco, which ended in an advantageous treaty and some cession of territory; some progress in public works, especially railways; a slight improvement in commerce and finance.
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  • Vishnegradski, minister of finance, who appointed him head of the railway department in the finance ministry.
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  • In 1892 he was promoted to be minister of ways of communication, and in the following year, on the retirement of Vishnegradski, he succeeded him as minister of finance.
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  • During his ten years' tenure of the finance ministry he nearly doubled the revenues of the empire, but at the same time he made for himself, by his policy and his personal characteristics, host of enemies.
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  • He was transferred, therefore, in 1903 from the influential post of finance minister to the ornamental position of president of the committee of ministers.
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  • The council as a whole is the legislative body, while the board of control is the executive body, and as such is responsible for the supervision of all matters of finance, the appointment of officials, the carrying on of public works, and the general administration of the affairs of the city, except the departments of education and of police, the first being under the control of the board of education, elected annually by the citizens, and the latter under the board of police commissioners, consisting of the mayor, the county judge and the police magistrate.
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  • The finance committee is also a body with distinct duties.
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  • In order to appreciate some of the points relating to the finance of a county council, it is necessary to indicate the relations between an administrative county and the boroughs which are locally situated within it.
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  • This explanation is necessary in order to appreciate what has now to be said about county finance.
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  • Its revenues are derived from various sources which Finance.
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  • The county council must appoint a finance committee for regulating and controlling the finance of the county, and the council cannot make any order for the payment of money out of the county fund save on the recommendation of that committee.
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  • Moreover, the order for payment of any sum must be made in pursuance of an order of the council signed by three members of the finance committee present at the meeting of the council, and countersigned by the clerk.
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  • In October 1907 an imperial decree announced the constitution of a cabinet on European lines, ministers being appointed to the portfolios of foreign affairs, war, commerce, justice and finance.
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  • He was a member of the committee on finance throughout his service in the Senate, and his first speech in that body was a defence of the free coinage of silver and a plea for the preservation of the full legal tender value of greenback currency, though in 1893 he voted to repeal the silver purchase clause of the Sherman Act.
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  • He had hoped to be made minister of finance, and was disappointed by the nomination of Necker, of whom he became a bitter opponent.
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  • The grand pensionary presided over the meetings of the college, which had the general charge of the whole provincial administration, especially of finance, the carrying out of the resolutions of the states, the maintenance of defences, and the upholding of the privileges and liberties of the land.
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  • The division, nevertheless, cannot be passed over without mention, as it is not only a common one in economic writing, but it figures largely in budget statements, financial accounts, and finance ministers' speeches - especially in the United Kingdom and France.
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  • - Following the practice of authors on finance, we may give a short account of the principal taxes in the United Kingdom, with references in passing to points of comparison or contrast with the taxes of other countries.
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  • Another source of revenue in British imperial finance is that from fees in courts of justice, patent stamps and the like, which is usually classified, like the income of the post office, as revenue derived from other sources than taxes.
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  • It is a blot on British finance, therefore, that this part of the taxation is treated as if it were not taxation at all, and largely concealed from view in the way described.
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  • - Taxation ought not to interfere with trade if possible, and the object of Adam Smith's maxims, as we have seen, was largely to erect sign-posts warning finance ministers against the kind of taxes likely to harass traders.
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  • In September 1880 he became minister, and again in April 1885, passing almost immediately to the ministry of finance, which he held under both the Ferry and the Freycinet administrations until December 1886.
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  • Subsequently (1868) Ito was made governor of Hiogo, and in the course of the following year became vice-minister of finance.
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  • In this respect he was assisted by his friendship with Mr Stuyvesant Fish, who, on becoming vice-president of the Illinois Central in 1883, brought Harriman upon the directorate, and in 1887, being then president, made Harriman vice-president; twenty years later it was Harriman who dominated the finance of the Illinois Central, and Fish, having become his opponent, was dropped from the board.
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  • Between 1867 and 1874 he acted as minister of education and of finance; upon the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty he withdrew from politics, and won a new reputation as a dramatist.
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  • Executive power is vested in a council under the presidency of a prime minister, and representing the ministers of foreign affairs; justice; the interior; religion and education; war; finance; agriculture, trade, industry and public domains; and public works.
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  • Community of creed, ancient traditional influence, the entire absence of Russian merchants, and t the consequent avoidance of many small commercial rivalries, contributed to bring about a sort of passive preference for Russia, while the bitter disputes that had occurred with Germany on the question of railway finance had left a very hostile feeling.
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  • To meet the cost of agrarian reform, and of the reorganization of the army (1908), he introduced various fiscal changes, notably an alteration in the budget system, by which the total revenue and expenditure were shown for the first time (see Finance, above).
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  • This expensive practice was abolished; various checks were placed upon legislative extravagance, and upon financial, special and local legislation generally; and among reform provisions, common enough to-day, but uncommon in 1875, were those forbidding the General Assembly to make irrevocable grants of special privileges and immunities; requiring finance officials of the state to clear their accounts precedent to further eligibility to public office; preventing private gain to state officials through the deposit of public moneys in banks, or otherwise; and permitting the governor to veto specific items in general appropriation bills.
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  • He is assisted by a cabinet of six ministers, interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, public instruction and public works, who are chosen and may be removed by himself.
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  • On his accession to office as president he found the country exhausted and disorganized, more especially in the department of finance, and the congress was on the whole hostile to him.
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  • He became minister of finance in 1856, and again in 1857 and 1859.
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  • The fault that the City of London found with him was that he was too much occupied as Leader of the House and member of the War Cabinet to give sufficient attention to finance.
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  • There are six administrative departments (the number is often less in cities of the lower classes, where several departments may be combined under one head)-departments of public works, public safety, public health and charities, law, finance, and collection and assessment.
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  • Yet, three years later, Baron von Rheinbaben, the Prussian minister of finance, complained that in fifteen years the German population of East Prussia had diminished by 630,oco, while Polish immigrants had in five years numbered 30o,000; at the same time he confessed that the Poles were vastly increasing their economic resources at the expense of the German element.
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  • The justiciar, chancellor and treasurer sat with certain other members of the council as the court of exchequer, not only to receive and audit the accounts of the royal revenue, but to give legal decisions on all questions connected with finance.
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  • While on domestic matters, other than those affecting finance, the Liberal ministry was pursuing a Conservative policy, its members were actively engaged on, and the attention of the public was keenly directed to, affairs abroad.
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  • Egyptian finance, in the interests of the bondholders, had been placed under the dual control of England and France.
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  • The first need of a government is finance; the earliest organized machinery for exerting its will is the exchequer; and the earliest great record in English history is Domesday Book.
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  • Be began with finance and went on to justice, recognizing that justitia magnum emolumentum, the administration of justice was a great source of revenue.
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  • This was generously recognized by the emperor in a letter publicly addressed to the chancellor on the 21st of May 1906, immediately after the passage of the Finance Bill.
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  • In 1882 he entered the local legislature as Liberal member for Halifax, and from 1884 to 1896 was premier and provincial secretary of the province, but in the latter year became finance minister in the Dominion administration of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and was elected to the House of Commons for Shelburne and Queen's county.
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  • His administration as finance minister of Canada was important, since in 1897 he introduced a new tariff, granting to the manufactures of Great Britain a preference, subsequently increased; and later he imposed a special surtax on German imports owing to unfriendly tariff legislation by that country.
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  • The highest executive is in the hands of a ministry of state (Staatsministerium), consisting of six ministers respectively of justice, foreign affairs (with the royal household, railways, posts and telegraphs), the interior, public worship and education, war and finance.
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  • Many important reforms, especially in the realm of finance, were introduced, but a proposal for a union of the railway system with that of the rest of Germany was rejected.
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  • There were committees for all committhe chief departments of state, a committee for the tees of the army, a committee for the navy, another for diplomacy, Assembly, another for finance.
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  • Cahier de Gerville was minister of the interior; Tarbe, minister of finance; and Bertrand de Molleville, minister of marine.
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  • Roland became minister of the war interior, Claviere of finance, De Grave of war, and war declared Lacoste of marine.
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  • The representative church council, including laymen, administers finance.
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  • In 1781 he became chief of the council of finance, and in 1783 he supported the nomination of Calonne as controller general.
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  • The executive power is vested in the king, advised by a cabinet of eight members, who are collectively and individually responsible to the nation, and represent the ministers of foreign affairs, war, the interior, finance, public works, commerce, religion and education, and justice.
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  • Ribot again became premier and minister of finance.
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