You could finance the entire government and its (hopefully) noble agenda, by this method alone.
Information regarding Australian state finance will be found under the heading of each state.
The administration of finance was as chaotic as the condition of parliament.
The banking institutions are supervised by an inspector of finance, who reports annually to the General Assembly.
Again, in 1902, he became minister of finance, after nearly ten years in exclusion from office, in the Radical cabinet of M.
persons who have held the licence to trade (sec FINANCE) for five years and upwards.
Bastable, Public Finance (1903).
Depretis thereupon reconstructed his administration, excluding Nicotera, Melegari and Zanardelli, placing Crispi at the home office, entrusting Magliani with finance, and himself assuming the direction of foreign affairs.
- Australian public finance requires to be treated under the separate headings of Commonwealth and states finance.
three councils - the Council of State, the Privy Council and the Council of Finance, but in reality all power had been placed by Philip in the hands of three confidential councillors styled the Consulta - Barlaymont, president of the Council of Finance, Viglius, president of the Privy Council, and Antony Perrenot, bishop of Arras, better known by his later title as Cardinal Granvelle.
At the time of her accession to office Charles changed the form of administration by the creation of three separate councils, those of State, of Finance, and the Privy Council.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
In their anxiety to remain in office Depretis and the finance minister, Magliani, never hesitated to mortgage the financial future of their country.
1 The Finance Bill1909-1910re-imposed this duty, and extended it to husbands and wives as well as descendants and ancestors.
In view of the severe monetary crisis of 1893 he was entrusted by Crispi with the portfolio of finance (December 1893), and in spite of determined opposition dealt energetically and successfully with the deficit of more than £6,000,000 then existing in the exchequer.
Of the rest of the sum assigned to the ministry of finance (593/4 millions in all) 81/2 millions went in the expense of collection of revenue.
tered by a director-general, who has his headquarters at Paris, assisted by three administrators who are charged with the working of the forests, Nord and Pas-de- 3 Valei questions of rights and law, finance Calais..
Minghettis finance, though less clearsighted and less resolute than that of Sella, was on the whole prudent and beneficial.
Signor Fortis then became premier and minister of the interior, Signor Maiorano finance minister and Signor Carcano treasury minister, while Signor Tittoni, Admiral Mirabello 1905 and General Pedotti retained the portfolios they had held in the previous administration.
The administrative officers of the state are a governor, a lieutenantgovernor, a secretary of state, a state treasurer, and an auditor of accounts, elected by popular vote, and an inspector of finance, a commissioner of taxes, a superintendent of education, a fish and game commissioner, three railroad commissioners, and various boards and commissions, of whom some are elected by the General Assembly and some are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate.
They have no genius or talent for comparatively humble questions of taxation and finance, commerce and manufacturers and agriculture.
Though perhaps less desperate than during the previous decade, the condition of Italian finance was precarious indeed.
At the head of the financial organization of France, and exercising a general jurisdiction, is the minister of finance, who co-ordinates in one general budget the separate budgets prepared by his colleagues and assigns to each ministerial department the sums necessary for its expenses.
Elected deputy in 1880, he distinguished himself by trenchant criticism of Magliani's finance, and upon the fall of Magliani was for some months, in 188 9, under-secretary of state for the treasury.
As finance minister in the Rattazzi cabinet of that year he had been confronted with a public debt of nearly 120,000,000, and with an immediate deficit of nearly 18,000,000.
On the outbreak of Kosciuszko's insurrection he returned to Poland, and as member of the national government and minister of finance took a leading part in affairs.
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
Outside the all-important domain of finance, the attention of Minghetti and his colleagues was principally absorbed by strife between church and state, army reform and railway redemption.
Batthyany, who formed the first responsible ministry, could not refuse to admit Kossuth, but he gave him the ministry of finance, probably because that seemed to open to him fewest prospects of engrossing popularity.
In Germany at the same period the feudal system debarred the Jews from holding land, and though there was as yet no material persecution they suffered moral injury by being driven exclusively into finance and trade.
The ministry of war is divided into branches for infantry, cavalry, &c.and services for special subjects such as military law, explosives, health, &c. The general staff (stat major de larme) has its functions classed as follows: personnel; material and finance; 1st bureau (organization and mobilization), 2nd (intelligence), 3rd (military operations and training) and 4th (communications and transport); and the famous historical section.
The management of finance was scarcely satisfactory, for though Giolitti, who had succeeded Magliani and Perazzi at the treasury, suppressed the formers illusory pension fund, he lacked the fibre necessary to deal with the enormous deficit of nearly 10,000,000 in 1888-1889, the existence of which both i Perazzi and he had recognized.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
A company to finance his case was formed in 1905, and in the autumn of 1907 he instituted a charge of perjury against Mr Herbert Druce, T.
Trade is controlled by foreigners, the British being prominent in banking, finance, railway work and the higher branches of commerce; Spaniards, Italians and French in the wholesale and retail trade.
Besides the premiership, Depretis assumed the portfolio of finance; Nicot~a, an ex-Garibaldian of somewhat tarnished reputation, but a man of energetic ~~t~ and conservative temperament, was placed at the ministry of the interior; public works were entrusted to Zanardelli, a Radical doctrinaire of considerable juridical attainments; General Mezzacapo and Signor Brin replaced General Ricotti Magnani and Admiral Saint-B on at the war office and ministry of marine; while to Mancini and Coppino, prominent members of the Left, were allotted the portfolios of justice and public instruction.
Baron Sidney Sonnino, minister of finance in the Crispi cabinet, found a prospective deficit of 7,080,000, and in spite of economies was obliged to face an actual deficit of more than 6,ooo,000.
In this cabinet he at first held the ministry of finance.
So vigorous was his treatment of Irredentism that he dismissed without warning his colleague Seismit Doda, minister of finance, for having failed to protest against Irredentist speeches delivered in his presence at Udine.
He is assisted by a council of ministers representing the departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war and marine, industry, labour and instruction and public works.
In the new Tirard ministry formed to combat the Boulangist agitation he was minister of finance.
Ferrara, successor of Scialoja, met a like fate; but Count Cambray-Digny, finance minister in the Menabrea cabinet of 1868-1869, driven to find means to cover a deficit aggravated by the interest on the Venetian debt, succeeded, with Sellas help, in forcing a Grist Tax Bill through parliament, though in a form of which Sella could not entirely approve.
This question has given rise to an enormous amount of discussion among learned men, and some of the disputants have not yet laid down their arms; but for impartial outsiders who have carefully studied the evidence there can be little doubt that 1 See Researches into the State of Fisheries in Russia (9 vols.), edited by Minister of Finance (1896, Russian); Kusnetzow's Fischerei and Thiererbeutung in den Gewassern Russlands (1898).
Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.
Practically, therefore, the Right, of which the Minghetti cabinet was the last representative administration, left Italian finance with a surplus of 80,000.
In these years Maximilian created three organs (apparently following the precedent set by his Burgundian ancestors in the Netherlands) - a Hofrat, a Hofkammer for finance, and a Hofkanzlei.
It was thus to be the supreme executive and judicial organ, discharging all business except that of finance and the drafting of documents; and it was intended to serve Maximilian as a point d'appui for the monarchy against the system of oligarchical committees, instituted by Berthold, archbishop of Mainz.
George Grenville, whom the Rockinghams had displaced, and who was bitterly incensed at their formal reversal of his policy, printed a pamphlet to demonstrate his own wisdom and statesmanship. Burke replied in his Observations on a late Publication on the Present State of the Nation (1769), in which he showed for the first time that he had not only as much knowledge of commerce and finance, and as firm a hand, in dealing with figures as Grenville himself, but also a broad, general and luminous way of conceiving and treating politics, in which neither then nor since has he had any rival among English publicists.
On the 4th of June 1882 he was appointed Imperial minister of finance and administrator of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the distinction with which he filled this office, for a period of 21 years, is his chief title of fame (see Bosnia And Herzegovina).
The government is carried on by a ministry of five, with departments for the ducal house and foreign affairs, home affairs, justice, education and public worship and finance.
For the government of the state see The Revised Laws of Vermont (Rutland, 1881); the Vermont Legislative Directory, published biennially at Montpelier; the biennial reports of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, the commissioner of state taxes, the superintendent of education, the supervisors of the insane, &c., and the annual reports of the inspector of finance.
The royal commissioner for finance, Giacomelli, had, as a precautionary measure, seized the pontifical treasury; but upon being informed by Cardinal Antonelli that among the funds deposited in the treasury were 1,000,000 crowns of Peters Pence offered by the faithful to the pope in person, the commissioner was authorized by the Italian council of state not only to restore this sum, but also to indemnify the Holy See for moneys expended for the service of the October coupon of the pontifical debt, that debt having been taken over by the Italian state.
Cairoli succeeded in forming an administration, in which his friend Count Corti, Italian ambassador at Constantinople, accepted the portfolio of foreign affairs, Zanardelli the ministry of the interior, and Seismit Doda the ministry of finance.
What the war and revolution had left of the large farms, subsequent agrarian legislation further damaged; and in 1921 the Latvian state was still struggling against the dislocating effects of war and revolution, and its finance and commerce were seeking new methods of reconstruction.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
During the war against Austria in the year named, Isaac Pesaro Marogonato was finance minister in Venice.
But this concession was illusory, and as the statute prevented Jews from engaging in finance - the only occupation which had been open to them - it was a prelude to their expulsion in 1290.
The high commissioner is aided in the administration by a cabinet of three members, styled " councillors " (utµ ovXoe), who superintend the departments of justice, finance, education, public security and the interior.
The Holy Ghost College became Duquesne University, and in 1920 had 2,129 students, including department of law, 86 students, and evening school of accounts and finance, 1,120 students.
He specially devoted himself to finance, being for a short time president of the customs commission before his appointment as minister of agriculture and commerce in March 1879 in the Waddington cabinet.
He was minister of commerce in Freycinet's second cabinet (1882), of finance under E.
Rouvier in the Ribot cabinet (1892-1893) as minister of finance, and died in Paris on the 4th of November 1893.
His son Paul, called the duc de Beauvillier, was several times ambassador to England; he became' chief of the council of finance in 1685, governor of the dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berri from 1689 to 1693, minister of state in 1691, and grandee of Spain in 1701.
The executive ministry of state is divided into the departments of the interior, justice and finance.
It was by Goschen's influence that in 1889 he was made under-secretary of finance in Egypt.
At the time of the Austrian annexation in 1908, the only remaining token of Ottoman suzerainty was that the foreign consuls received their exequatur from Turkey, instead of Austria; otherwise the government of the country was conducted in the name of the Austrian emperor, through the imperial minister of finance at Vienna, who controlled the civil service for the occupied territory.
Its central bureau, with departments of the interior, religion and education, finance and justice, was established at Serajevo; and its members were largely recruited among the Austrian Sla y s, who were better able than the Germans to comprehend the local customs and language.
The government of the country was then handed over to the imperial ministry of finance; but the bureaucratic methods of the finance ministers, Baron von Hoffmann and Joseph de Szlavy, resulted only in the insurrection of 1881-82.
Order was restored in June 1882, when the administration was entrusted to Benjamin von Kallay, as imperial minister of finance.
The grand vizier (sadr-azam), who is nominated by the sultan, presides ex officio over the privy council (mejliss-i-khass), which, besides the Sheikh-ul-Islam, comprises the ministers of home and foreign affairs, war, finance, marine, commerce and public works, justice, public instruction and " pious foundations " (evkaf), with the grand master of ordnance and the president of the council of state.
For the introduction of improvements something, however, was done by the creation in 1892 of a special ministry of agriculture, to which is attached the department of mines and forests, formerly under the minister of finance.
The revenues produced by the customs duties for the five years1905-1906to1909-1910are as follows: Finance Preliminary Sketch.-From the outset of their history the Osmanli Turks adapted to their own needs most of the political, economic and administrative institutions which existed before them.
At this time (1657-1681) the brilliant administration of the two Kuprilis restored temporary order to Ottoman finance.
The budget of Ali Aga is almost identical with that of Eyubi Effendi, and is worthy of special note for the conclusions which accompanied it, and which although drawn up 250 years ago, described with striking accuracy some of the very ills from which Turkish finance was suffering throughout the reign of Abd-ul-Hamid.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
Special instructions and regulations determined the latitude left to each department in the distribution of the credits accorded to it among its various heads of expenditure, the degree of responsibility of the functionaries within each department and the relations regarding finance and accounts between each department and its dependencies.
It was there stated that, on the most favourable estimate, the normal deficit of the Turkish treasury was T2,725,000, (upwards of £T,1,700,000 below the truth as now declared.) and the following observations were appended: " This budget represents the normal situation of Ottoman finance; it does not tally with the budget published in 1897, which was prepared with a special object in view, and was obviously full of inaccuracies, nor indeed does it agree with figures which could be officially obtained from the Porte.
During the finance ministry of Agop Pasha (1889 to 1894) a good deal was done to set matters in order, but most of the ground then gained has since been lost."
To this may be added a short extract from the Explanatory Preface to the Finance Bill for the year 1910-1911.
Laurent, the financial adviser to the Turkish government, stated in a lecture on Turkish Finance, delivered in Paris on the 22nd of April 1910, that the Ministry of Finance has now been largely reorganized.
The agents of the finance ministry, instead of being mere clerks, are now employed in " the assessment and collection of taxes, the control of expenditure, the preparation and execution of the budget, the estimates of the necessary cash required at different points of the empire - all that, in fine, constitutes the real financial administration of a great empire."
The minister of finance stated in his budget speech to parliament, delivered on the 23rd of April 1910, that the revenues for the year 1909-1910, which had been estimated to produce T25,000,000, had as a matter of fact produced £T26,50o,000.
The debts of the former are stated in the preface to the budget to be very large, and as payments are effected fresh creditors present themselves with undeniable vouchers in their hands, causing much embarrassment to the minister of finance: no figures, however, are given.
The Finance Bill provides that these debts are to be paid out of supplementary credits.
The ministry of finance absorbs £T2,989,600.
In this are included the expenses of the administration of both the central and provincial departments of the finance ministry, the mint, charitable allowances, expenses and presents in connexion with the holy cities (£T121,410), pension funds of state officials (£7628,038), administrative allowance made to the agricultural bank (ET225,380) and various other expenses.
Various administrative reforms were in hand in 1910-1911, by which it was expected considerably to reduce the credits demanded by the finance ministry - especially those in connexion with the holy cities.
The total credits for the ministry of finance are, then, as follows: Ottoman public debt, £T8,288,394; House of Osman, £T443,880; legislative corps, U181,871; treasury, ET2,989,600; central accounts department, £T17,124; forming an aggregate of £T11,920,869.
The minister of finance points out the immense importance of the thorough reorganization of the customs administration.
This is really an accretion of undetermined liabilities which has been indefinitely, and probably alternately, advancing and receding for a great number of years, and which no previous minister of finance, or Turkish government, had the courage to face.
The principal increase is due to the war departments, according to the budget speech of the minister of finance (April 23, 1910), although he states that some 1 On the 25th of June 1910 the chamber finally passed the budget for 1910-1911.
On the other hand, the minister of finance reckoned that the revenue would probably show an increase of £TI,Soo,000, while about £T2,000,000 of expenditure would remain undisbursed, which, with a reserve of £T2,000,000 from 1909, would reduce the deficit to roughly £T5,000,000.
The demands of the various departments of state had been much cut down, and according to the minister of finance's own statement much of the reduction was merely unavoidable expenditure deferred; the fact that some of this expenditure, which had been jealously scrutinized, was to be undertaken at once, meant that demands on future years would be relatively re- duced.
As before stated reorganization was quickly followed by a marked increase of revenue, and it seemed probable that the forecast of the minister of finance that within a comparatively short time that increase would amount to £T5,000,000 Was not excessive.
It was intended to assign to the war department £T3,804,918, to the grand master of ordnance £T358,108, to the admiralty £T93,912, and to the ministry of finance £T2,443,202 for the payment of the war indemnities in Thessaly and other urgent liabilities, the estimated aggregate extraordinary expenditure thus amounting to £T6,700,140.
Ready buyers were not found for the state lands, and the sale of the ex-sultan's securities was disputed by the German Reichsbank with which they were deposited, while the government did not consider it good policy to sell the Anatolian railway shares, which it seized at Yildiz, so that only £T450,000 were encashed by the ministry of finance from these sources.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
The public debt council consented with good grace, although the minister of finance, by omitting to consult that council during the progress of negotiations, lost sight of the fact that a sum of £T87,823 was due to the public debt administration on account of arrears of the Eastern Rumelian annuity up to December 1887, and that a further sum of £T430,741 was due by the Bulgarian to the Turkish government itself in compensation Tor the Rustchuk-Varna railway under the Treaty of Berlin.
These were successful in France, the Imperial Ottoman Bank group agreeing to undertake 30% of the finance without, however, any countenance from the French government - the " Glarus Syndicate " being formed for apportioning interests.
A commission (the successor of many) was instituted at the ministry of finance in 1910, to draw up proposals for setting this confusion in order.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
Law, Commerce and Finance: F.
The defterdar was practically the minister of finance.
For the financial reforms see the section Finance, above.
On the 13th of September 1909 the Macedonian international commission of finance met for the last time; its members were reappointed to a higher finance board for the whole empire, under the presidency of Djavid Bey.
Monographs: Much information on modern Turkish history and politics will be found in the works dealing primarily with topography, finance, law and defence, which have been cited above.
A cry now arose in Holland for a revision of the fundamental law and for more liberal institutions; ministerial responsibility was introduced, and the royal control over finance diminished.
Bookwalter, Siberia and Central Asia (Springfield, Ohio, 1899);; Siberia and the Great Siberian Railway, by Ministry of Finance (Eng.
At the same time he was being tutored in law by Savigny and in finance by a series of distinguished masters.
In 1864 he was appointed, by Sella, secretary-general of finance, and after being created senator in 1865, acquired considerable fame as a financial authority.
He then entered the government service, and after a period of probation was appointed to a post in the ministry of finance.
In 1886 Wekerle was elected to the House of Deputies, became in the same year financial secretary of state, and in 1889 succeeded Tisza as minister of finance.
In November 1892 Wekerle succeeded Count Szapary as premier, though still retaining the portfolio of finance.
On the reconciliation of the king-emperor with the coalition he was therefore selected as the most suitable man to lead the new government, and on the 8th of April 1906 was appointed prime minister, taking at the same time the portfolio of finance.
PEDER OXE (1520-1575), Danish Finance Minister, was born in 1520.
They formed a permanent council, and Hadrian's successors entrusted these comites with the administration of justice and finance, or placed them in military commands.
It is difficult to give briefly a clear idea of the functions of the three important officials comes sacrarum largitionum, comes rei privatae and comes sacri partrimonii; but the terms have been well translated by a German author as Finanzminister des Reichsschatzes (finance minister of the treasury of the Empire), F.
foreign affairs; finance; agriculture, industry and commerce; 1 communications (Viacao) and public works; 1 war; and marine.
The service of the national debt absorbs a very large part of the expenditure, about 45% of the estimates for 1907 being assigned to the department of finance.
The judicial and financial functions in each province were vested in the Ouvidor, whose authority in the college of finance was second only to that of the governor.
The executive power is vested in a responsible cabinet, consisting of ten ministers, namely, the president of the council, the minister of the interior, of national defence, of education and public worship, of finance, The franchise is " probably the most illiberal in Europe."
Modern roads were made, the first railways were laid down, the regulation of the river Theiss was taken in hand, a new and better scheme of finance was inaugurated.
These benefits the nation owed for the most part to Gabor Baross, Hungary's greatest finance minister, who entered the cabinet in 1886 and greatly strengthened it.
2 The cabinet consisted of Dr Wekerle (premier and finance), Ferencz Kossuth (commerce), Count Gyula Andrassy (interior), 'Count Albert Apponyi (education), Davanyi (agriculture), Polonyi ((justice) and Count Aladar Zichy (court).
In these circumstances the king sent for Dr Laszlo Lukacs, once finance - minister in the Fejervary cabinet, whose task was, acting as a.
Other ministers were Mr Károly de Hieronymi (commerce), Dr Lukacs (finance), Ferencz de Szekely (justice, education, public worship), Bela Serenyi (agriculture) and General Hazay (national defence).
Among the newer writers on common and commercial law may be mentioned Wenczal, Zlinsky, ZsgOd, Gustave Schwarz, Alexander Plosz, Francis Nagy and Neumann; on constitutional law, Korbuly, Boncz, Stephen Kiss, Ernest Nagy, Kmety, Arthur Balogh, Ferdinandy, Bela Grunwald, Julius Andrassy and Emeric Ha j nik; on administration, George Fesiis, Kmety and Csiky; on finance, Mariska, Exner and Laszlo.
The Senate, which exercises the greater part of the executive power, is composed of eighteen members, one half of whom must have studied law or finance, while at least seven of the remainder must belong to the class of merchants.
Besides law, the important departments of finance and mines were organized, and steps taken to remedy the grievances of the commercial and mining classes.
Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by the " comat " or secret council, composed of the heads of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself.
After the fall of Palermo, Crispi was appointed minister of the interior and of finance in the Sicilian provisional government, but was shortly afterwards obliged to resign on account of the struggle between Garibaldi and the emissaries of Cavour with regard to the question of immediate annexation.
In May 1852 he became minister of finance in the reconstructed d'Azeglio cabinet, and later minister of education in that of Cavour.
On the completion of the feudal revolution of 1868 he was appointed governor of the province of Tosa, and having served six years in this office, was transferred to Tokyo as assistant minister of finance.
On his return home, he held for a short time in 1880 the portfolio of home affairs, and was in 1881 appointed minister of finance.
Matsukata, who in 1884 was created Count, twice held the office of prime minister (1891-1892, 1896-1898), and during both his administrations he combined the portfolio of finance with the premiership; from October 1898 to October 1900 he was minister of finance only.
Finance In addition to the provisions that have been mentioned above (Section VII.), the London Government Act 1899 simplified administration in two respects.
The following table gives the net loans outstanding of the several classes of local authorities in London at the 31st of March 1908 :/n==Authorities== - Full details and figures relating to the finance of London will be found in the parliamentary papers Local Taxation Returns (England and Wales), part iv.
The cabinet, in which Baron Louis was minister of finance, and Marshal Gouvion Saint Cyr remained minister' of war, was entirely Liberal; and its first act was to suppress the ministry of police, as Decazes held that it was incompatible with the regime of liberty.
He next entered into relations with the family of Bonaparte, and in 1799, after the 18th Brumaire, again entered politics, becoming successively prefect of the lower Seine, councillor of state, and finance minister to Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia.
The knowledge he displayed of the principles and practice of finance was especially remarkable.
In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a history of French finance by Francois d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his journal.
Elected to the Legislative Assembly, Cambon became noted for his independence, his honesty and his ability in finance.
He was the most active member of the committee of finance and was often charged to verify the state of the treasury.
In matters of finance Cambon was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictatorship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being antirevolutionary and an aristocrat.
On the 21st of February 1795 the project which he presented to withdraw four milliards of assignats from circulation, was rejected, and on the 3rd of April he was excluded from the committee of finance.
The table has been adapted from the Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States, January 1907, prepared in the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, Washington Government Printing Office, 1902.
His talent in finance won him a distinguished place in the chamber.
His SOn, Georges Charles Paul, born in 1855, was in his father's department from 1879 till 1885, deputy from 1885, five times president of the Budget Commission, minister of finance (1895-1898) and vice-president of the chamber (1898-1902), and again finance minister in the Briand Cabinet, 1909.
He was one of those who induced the states-general to proclaim itself a National Assembly on the 17th of June 1789; approved, in several speeches, of the capture of the Bastille and of the taking of the royal family to Paris (October 1789); demanded that strict measures be taken against the royalists who were intriguing in the south of France, and published some pamphlets on finance.
The municipal finance has on the whole been sound, and notwithstanding the extra burdens assumed on the incorporation of the suburbs, the equilibrium of the communal budget was maintained up to the fall of the Liberal administration.
Russia's military prestige was at a low ebb, her finance in a state of chaos, the Tsarist regime discredited and the country in the throes of revolution.
His interest and efficiency in financial legislation in the House led to his appointment on the Senate Committee of Finance, and after 1867 he was chairman of this influential committee.
The immediate supervision and despatch of public administrative affairs is in the hands of the cabinet ministers - interior, foreign affairs, war and marine, finance and commerce, justice and public instruction, and public works and promotion (fomento).
The single standard has worked well, and has contributed much toward the recovery of Peruvian commerce and finance.
The viceroys were chief magistrates, but in legal matters they had to consult the Audiencia of judges, in finance the Tribunal de Cuentas, in other branches of administration the Juntas de Gobierno and de Guerra.
Except in finance, he was not able to accomplish much, for he was met and thwarted at every turn by his chief's invincible hostility to change; but the more advanced section of the Liberal party began to look upon him as their predestined leader.
Simms in defence of the politics and finance of the South, enjoyed a shorter career.
Was as Finance Minister, M.
Grinius (Peasants' Union); Minister of Finance, Trade and Commerce and Communications, E.
It was first enacted in 1855 that methylated spirit, a specific mixture of pure alcohol and wood naphtha, should be duty-free; the present law is to be found in the Customs and Inland Revenue Act of 1890, and the Finance Act (sect.
The Finance Act of 1902 allows a manufacturer to obtain a license which permits the use of duty-free alcohol, if he can show that such alcohol is absolutely essential for the success of his business, and that methylated spirit is unsuitable.
On the 26th of August 1786 he was appointed privy councillor for finance (Geheimer Oberfinanzrath), and on the 2nd of October was ennobled.
Villele resigned within a year, but on the fall of Richelieu at the end of 1821 he became the real chief of the new cabinet, in which he was minister of finance.
As minister of finance in the Bourgeois cabinet (from the 3rd of November 1895 to the 21st of April 1896) he tried without success to introduce an income-tax.
From 1835 to 1837 he was a member of the Virginia house of delegates; from 1837 to 1843 and from 1845 to 1847 was a member of the national house of representatives, being Speaker from 1839 to 1841; and from 1847 to 1861 he was in the senate, where he was chairman of the finance committee (1850-1861).
On the fall of the Brown-Dorion administration in 1858 he was called on to form a ministry, but declined the task, and became finance minister under Sir John Macdonald and Sir George Cartier on condition that the federation of the British North American provinces should become a part of their programme.
From 1858 to 1862 and 1864 to 1867 he was finance minister, and did much to reduce the somewhat chaotic finances of Canada into order.
He became finance minister in the first Dominion ministry, but suddenly and mysteriously resigned on the 4th of November 1867.
In 1871 he was again offered the ministry of finance on condition of abandoning these views, but declined.
(For the ancient Athenian Xetrovpyiat, as forms of taxation, see Finance.) In order to understand terms and references it will be convenient to give the tabular form the chief component parts of a liturgy, selecting the Liturgy of Rome as characteristic of Western, and that of Constantinople as characteristic of Eastern, Christendom; at the same time appending an explanation of some of the technical words which must be employed in enumerating those parts.
He was minister of finance from the, 8th of June to the 9th of November 1799, but refused office under the Consulate and the Empire.
Fouquet, the finance minister, had accumulated enormous wealth during the late disturbances, and seemed to possess power and ambition too great for a subject.
in 1 9 08 (see CHINA: §§ Finance).
On the 5th of November, accordingly, Laffitte became minister-president of a government pledged to progress (mouvement), holding at the same time the portfolio of finance.
In 1869 he succeeded to the post of secretary of the joint departments of the interior and of finance, and for the next fourteen years he devoted himself wholly to politics.
In 1872 he was again appointed minister of finance, and when the expedition under General Saig6 was sent to Formosa (1874) to chastise the natives of that island for the murder of some shipwrecked fishermen, he was nominated president of the commission appointed to supervise the campaign.
In spite of the troubled times in which he lived, Frederick was a successful ruler, and introduced a regular system of public finance into his lands.
The subject received little attention in the United Kingdom, owing to the relatively high cost of home-produced alcohol as compared with that of imported petrol; and the use of alcohol in England for generating mechanical power was neither contemplated nor provided for by the Legislature before 1920, when, as the result of the consideration of the position by the Government, following on a report by a Departmental Committee appointed towards the end of 1918, clauses were inserted in the Finance Act of 1920 legalizing the use of alcohol for power purposes.
named him controllergeneral of the finances in December 1763, but the burden was great and Laverdy knew nothing of finance.
He settled in Philadelphia as a lawyer, and in February 1780 he published in Philadelphia a series of essays on finance, in which he criticized the issue of legal-tenders, denounced laws passed for the benefit of the debtor class, and urged the people to tax themselves for the common good.
From 1781 to 1785 he was assistant to Robert Morris, superintendent of finance.
He was several times minister, and became minister of finance in the cabinet of Casimir-Perier (from the 3rd of November 1893 to the 22nd of May 1894).
Djavid Bey, Minister of Finance, called a French adviser to his assistance; a British adviser, Mr. R.
But difficulties of finance, the impossibility of undertaking effective operations against Italy, and signs of impending trouble in the Balkans at length compelled the Ottoman Government to peace.
Finance otherwise absorbed attention; by 1880 the public debt had reached £25,000,000, against which the chief new asset was 1300 m.
These did not interfere with the general lines of Atkinson's strong and cautious finance, though the first of them was the abolition of his direct tax upon all property, personal as well as real, and the substitution therefor of a landtax of id.
The money is lent by an official board, which deals with applications and manages the finance of the system.
In 1792 he took part as a volunteer in the campaign of Champagne; in 1793 he assumed, in conformity with the Revolutionary fashion, the pre-name of Atticus, and became secretary to Claviere, then finance minister.
These figures are exclusive of railway receipts and expenditure (see Transvaal: Finance).
In carrying out this policy of government regulation and supervision of corporations he became involved in a great struggle with the powerful financial interests whose profits were threatened, and with those legislators who sincerely believed that government should solely concern itself with protecting life and property, and should leave questions of individual and social relations in trade and finance to be settled by the operation of so-called natural economic laws.
The executive consists of a responsible ministry (Gesammt Ministerium), with the six departments of justice, finance, home affairs, war, public worship and education, and foreign affairs.
the present marine department, which deals with ships and seamen, the harbour department and the finance department.
The Finance Department was, like the harbour department, separated in 1866 from the marine department.
Next follow chapters on the literary renaissance of the nation, its progress in art, mathematics, chemistry and natural science; the magnificent development of agriculture, modern industry, commerce and finance; and in particular its flourishing selfgovernment, " which will be exercised in the fullest freedom," and in which " the communal organization embodies in the highest degree the conception of self-government " (p. 234), and " the independent sphere of activity unlimited in its fundamental principle " (p. 235) in that " State control is exercised seldom and discreetly " (p. 236).
It was over these demands in connexion with the waterways, which the Minister of Finance declared to be impossible of fulfilment to the extent required by the Poles, that Bienerth's mainstay failed to support him; and on Dec. 12 he sent in his resignation, which was, however, followed by a renewed Bienerth Ministry, composed of Germans, Poles and officials.
STR.) Finance and Banking.
But, besides this, the bank had also afforded credits to the State in other forms. In return for bonds given by the Austrian and Hungarian State they issued Treasury bills, and transferred the proceeds from them to the two finance departments.
War finance was not able to dispense with the printing of notes.
Quesnay died on the 16th of December 1774, having lived long enough to see his great pupil, Turgot, in office as minister of finance.
The empire was supported by a standing army and an elaborate system of finance.
made him practically his finance minister and gave him the privilege of quartering his own (Della Rovere) arms with those of the Chigi.
There is a council consisting of the ten ministers of state - for foreign affairs, war, interior, finance, household, justice, metropolitan government, public works, public instruction and for agriculture together with the general adviser.
The revenue administration is controlled by the ministers of the interior, of metropolitan government and of finance, by means of well-organized departments and with expert European assistance.
There are nine departments, each under a director: namely, justice; interior; instruction, public worship and industry; agriculture (created in 1905); civil public works; government works (created in 1908); finance; war; marine.
The reasons for this were numerous, first among them being the abuses of the papal system of finance, which had to provide funds for the vast administrative machinery of the Curia.
Finance and army bills must be introduced first in the Lower House, the Chamber of Deputies.
The executive Government is placed in charge of 15 ministries concerned with the following matters: - foreign affairs, interior, finance, commerce, labour, food supplies, railways, health, social welfare, justice, agriculture, public instruction, national defence, posts and telegraphs, and the unification of laws.
It was in favour of creating in central Europe a new political and economic system by which permanent peace would be secured - a definite understanding between all the " Succession States " of the former AustroHungarian monarchy in the matter of communications, post, telegraphs, navigation, finance and banking, exchange of goods and commercial treaties generally, opening up the way to a system of unfettered economics and freer trade - but at the same time jealously guarding the economic and political sovereignty of the Czechoslovak Republic.
P. Brissot, whom he had met in London, he became minister of finance in the Girondist ministry, from March to the 12th of June 1792.
(JEAN JOSEPH CHARLES) LOUIS BLANC (1811-1882), French politician and historian, was born on the 29th of October 1811 at Madrid, where his father held the post of inspector-general of finance under Joseph Bonaparte.
Ribot's great reputation as an expert in finance and foreign affairs brought him effectively into office.
27 1914 he became Minister of Finance in M.
When Briand reconstituted his Cabinet, in Dec. 1916, Ribot retained the portfolio of Finance.
In 1882 he became Conservative member for King's County, N.B., in the Dominion parliament, and in 1885 entered the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as minister of marine and fisheries; in 1888 he became minister of finance, which position he held till the defeat of his party in 1896.
For that year the budget was already settled, and it was introduced by Mr Asquith himself, the ex-chancellor; but Mr Lloyd George earned golden opinions, both at the Treasury and in parliament, by his industry and his handling of the Finance Bill, especially important for its inclusion of Old Age Pensions, in the later stages.
When the Finance Bill went up to the House of Lords, Lord Lansdowne gave notice that on the second reading he would move "that this House is not justified in giving its consent to this bill until it has been submitted to the judgment of the country," and on the last day of November this motion was carried by an overwhelming majority of peers.
Claude (c. 1500-1567), baron of Chateauneuf-sur-Cher, Sebastien's brother, was a secretary of finance; he had charge of negotiations with England in 1555 and 1559, and was several times commissioned to treat with the Huguenots in the king's name.
They are assisted by a cabinet of four ministers, representing the departments of the interior, police and public works; foreign affairs, justice, religion and education; finance and commerce; war and marine.
Calvo, The Republic of Costa Rica (Chicago, 1890), gives a partisan account of local politics, trade and finance, authorized by the government.
Ostensibly, he was only the Holstein minister at Charles's court, in reality he was everything in Sweden except a Swedish subject - finance minister, plenipotentiary to foreign powers, factotum, and responsible to the king alone, though he had not a line of instructions.
He saw some service against the Carlists; was elected deputy to the Cortes of 1836; took part for Espartero, and then against him; was imprisoned in 1843; went into exile and returned; was governor of Barcelona in 1854, and minister of finance in 1855; had a large share in secularizing the Church lands; and after the revolution of 1868 was governor of Madrid.
Under the Empire, Roederer, whose public influence was very considerable, was Joseph Bonaparte's minister of finance at Naples (1806),(1806), administrator of the grand duchy of Berg (181o), and imperial commissary in the south of France.
The estimates for [[[Religion: Finance]]1908-1909show a marked decline owing to the commercial depression, the revenue being computed at 103,385,000 pesos, and the expenditure at 103,203,830 pesos.
24, 1855), two of whose ministers are conspicuous in later history - Ignacio Comonfort, minister of war, and Benito Juarez, minister of finance.
At first Thiers, though elected deputy for Aix, obtained only subordinate places in the ministry of finance.
After quitting the university he became private secretary to Count Schimmelmann, Danish minister of finance.
He was minister of justice and of finance.
On the expulsion of Queen Isabella, he returned to Spain, represented Manresa in the Cortes, and in1871-1872was successively minister of the colonies and of finance.
There is a ministry with five departments - for the prince's household, domestic affairs, finance, churches and schools, and justice.
Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
When finally adopted by the House, the bills go to the Senate and are forthwith referred to the committee on finance or to that on appropriations.
The secretary has, however, a smaller range of action than a finance minister in European countries, for, as he is excluded from Congress, he has nothing directly to do with the imposition of taxes, and very little with the appropriations for government expenditure.
The banks are required by law to furnish to the finance minister detailed monthly statements which are published in the official gazette.
The new system was laid before parliament in 1879 by the finance minister, Sir Leonard Tilley; and the tariff then agreed upon, although it received considerable modification from time to time, remained, under both Conservative and Liberal administrations, the basis of Canadian finance, and, as Canadians generally believed, the bulwark of their industry.
During these years he saved a competence and gained a thorough acquaintance with the theory and practice of finance.
In 1868 he published a short life of Bismarck in French, with the object of producing a better understanding of German affairs, and in 1870, owing to his intimate acquaintance with France and with finance, he was summoned by Bismarck to Versailles to help in the discussion of terms of peace.
In the German Reichstag he was the leading authority on matters of finance and economics, as well as a clear and persuasive speaker, and it was chiefly owing to him that a gold currency was adopted and that the German Imperial Bank took its present form; in his later years he wrote and spoke strongly against bimetallism.
One of the first problems of the new commonwealth was that of finance.
In England, the Finance Act 1907 (7 Ed.
On the 10th of December 1816 Pozzo di Borgo wrote to the duke enclosing a memorandum in which the emperor Alexander of Russia suggested a reduction in the army of occupation: "no mere question of finance, but one of general policy, based on reason, equity and a severe morality"; at the same time he left the question of its postponement entirely to Wellington.
The ministry of finance is in the Treasury building on Rua do Sacramento - an immense structure of no special architectural merit.
There are seven directorias, or boards, under the prefect, each one assigned to a special field of work, chief among which are education, health and public assistance, public works and transportation, and finance.
In this capacity he took an active part in the reorganization of finance and of the administration of the departments of France.
On the right bank of the Elbe in Neustadt stand the fine buildings of the ministries of war, of finance, justice, the interior and education.
He early displayed his mastery of the principles of finance by a Discours delivered in August 1790 before this society, in regard to the issue of assignats by the government.
He laid the foundations broadly in evangelism, finance, temperance and education, founding in the latter connexion a middleclass school at Shebbear, at which generations of ministers' sons and numerous students for the ministry have been educated.
Thus by 1700 nepotistic plunder had practically ceased, and with the exception of the magnificent peculations of Cardinal Coscia under Benedict (1724-1730), the central administration of finance has been usually considered honest.
The educated bourgeoisie, which controls the fields of politics, science, finance, administration, art and literature, does not trouble itself about that great spiritual universal monarchy which Rome, as heir of the Caesars, claimed for the Vatican, and to which the Curia of to-day still clings.
(3) The Apostolic Chamber (Reverends Camera Apostolica) was before the abolition of the temporal power of the papacy the ministry of finance, at once treasury and exchequer, of the popes as heads of the Catholic Church as well as sovereigns of the papal states.
His own bent was towards finance, but no VI.
He studied law and politics at Heidelberg, and entered the Baden government department of finance in 1829.
He was made finance minister in Baden in May 1849, but was dismissed after a few days of office.
Since that time municipal finance has been in a prosperous condition.
to himself, and resigned with the rest of the cabinet, only to resume office after a short interval as minister of finance.
34,667,673 Minister of finance 6,696,780 Contribution to im perial exchequer.
He has a fivefold wergild, summons the nobles and clergy for purposes of deliberation, calls out the host, administers justice and regulates finance.
The heads of the departments to whom the especial executive functions are entrusted are eight in number - ministers respectively of the interior, of " water-staat," trade and industry (that is, of public works, including railways, post-office, &c.), of justice, of finance, of war, of marine, of the colonies and of foreign affairs.
His principal publications were Essays on Finance (1879 and 1884), The Progress of the Working Classes (1884), The Growth of Capital (1890), The Case against Bimetallism (1892), and Economic Inquiries and Studies (1904).
Sir Robert Giffen continued in later years to take a leading part in all public controversies connected with finance and taxation, and his high authority and practical experience were universally recognized.
The ministers represent departments for finance, foreign affairs, colonies, justice, the interior, science and arts, war, railways, posts and telegraphs, agriculture, public works, and industry and labour.
The budget is submitted to the chambers by the minister of finance and passed by them.
Commerce and Finance: British consular reports (London, annual); Report of the Council of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders (London, annual); statistical publications of the Paraguay government and presidential messages, in Spanish (Asuncion, annual); Revue du Paraguay (Asuncion, monthly); Paraguay (Washington, Bureau of Amer.
In politics he was originally a Republican, and was a delegate to the national convention of the party in 1880, and chairman of its finance committee.
The board responsible for the imperial control over the whole railway system in Germany is the Reichseisenbahnamt in Berlin, the administration of the various state systems residing, in Prussia, in the ministry of public works; in Bavaria in the ministry of the royal house and of the exterior; in Wurttemberg in the ministry of the exterior; in Saxony in the ministry of the interior; in Baden and- Hesse-Darmstadt in commissions of the ministry of finance; and in Alsace-Lorraine in the imperial ministry of railways.
During the years 1908 and 1909 considerable public discussion and political activity were devoted to the reorganization of German imperial finance, and it is only possible here to deal historically with the position up to that time, since further developmen.ts of an important nature were already foreshadowed.
But it was also provided that, for the purpose of deficits, the states should, in addition, if required by the imperial minister of finance, contribute their quotas according to populationMatri/eular Beitrage.
Meanwhile, in spite of the matricular contributions, the calls on imperial finance had steadily increased, and up to 1908 were continually met to a large extent by loans, involving a continual growth of the imperial debt, which in 1907 amounted to 3643 millions of marks.
and this was undertaken under the auspices of Baron Heinrich von Bulow (1 792f 846), minister in the foreign department for commerce and shipping, and Karl Georg Maassen (1769-1834), the minister of finance.
Bismarck took the opportunity of avowing that his ideal was a monopoly of tobacco, and this statement was followed by the resignation of Camphausen, minister of finance.
At his invitation a conference of the finance ministers met in July at Heidelberg; they agreed to a great increase in the indirect taxes, but refused to accept the monopoly on tobacco.
At the beginning of the autumn session a union of 204 members of the Reichstag was formed for the discussion of econolnic questions, and they accepted Bismarcks reforms. In December he was therefore able to issue a memorandum explaining his policy; it included a moderate duty, about 5%, on all imported goods, with the exception of raw material required for German manufactures (this was a return to the old Prussian principle); high finance duties on tobacco, beer, brandy and petroleum; and protective duties on iron, corn, cattle, wood, wine and sugar.
In 1903 Baron von Stengel, who succeeded Baron von Thielmann as finance minister in this year, proposed that the matricular contributions of the several states, instead of varying as heretofore with the exigencies of the annual budget, should be fixed by law.
In 1909 the whole system of German imperial finance was once more in the melting-pot, and, in spite of the undoubted wealth of the country, the conflict of state and party interests seemed to make it practically impossible to remould it on a satisfactory basis.
Miquel, as minister of finance, succeeded indeed in carrying a reform by which the proceeds of the tax on land and buildings were transferred to the local government authorities, and the loss to the state exchequer made up by increased taxation of larger incomes and industry.
Originally the opponents of the landed interest and the nobility, they were the party of th educated middle class, of the learned, of the officials and finance They never succeeded in winning the support of the workinl men.
The contest was from the first hopeless, and, but for the personal request of the emperor that he would pilot the Finance Bill through the House in some shape or other, Prince Blow would have resigned early in the year.
Throughout his term of office he was supported by the finance minister Count Cambray Digny, who forced through parliament the grist tax proposed by Quintino Sella, though in an altered form from the earlier proposal.
In this predicament Morton appointed a bureau of finance, and appealed for financial aid to private individuals, bankers, the counties, and even the Federal government.
These are: (1) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.
For the administration of these common affairs there are three joint ministries: the ministry of foreign affairs and of the imperial and royal house, the ministry of war, and the ministry of finance.
The minister of finance has charge of the finances of common affairs, prepares the joint budget, and administers the joint state debt.
(Till 1909 the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were also administered by the joint minister of finance, excepting matters exclusively dependent on the minister of war.) For the control of the common finances, there is appointed a joint supreme court of accounts, which audits the accounts of the joint ministries.
Side by side with the budget of each state of the Dual Monarchy, there is a common budget, which comprises the expenditure necessary for the common affairs, namely for the conduct of foreign affairs, for the army, and for the ministry of finance.
This had been originally organized in a series of departments: Aulic chanceries for Austria, for Hungary and Transylvania, a general Aulic chamber for finance, domains, mines, trade, post, &c., an Aulic council of war, a general directory of accounts, and a chancery of the household, court and state.
There were to be three ministers for common purposes - (r) for foreign affairs; (2) for war; (3) for finance; these ministers were responsible to the Delegations, but the Delegations were really given no legislative power.
The minister of finance had to lay before them the common budget, but they could not raise money or vote taxes; after they had passed the budget the money required had to be provided by the separate parliaments.
There are, therefore, e.g., three ministries of finance: the Kaiserlich and Koniglich for joint affairs; the Kaiserlich-Koniglich for Austrian affairs; the Kirdlye for Hungary.
A civil administration was then established, the provinces not being attached to either half of the empire, but placed under the control of the joint minister of finance.
During 1881-1882 Hungary, desiring means of retaliation against the duties on corn and the impediments to the importation of cattle recently introduced into Germany, withdrew her opposition to protective duties; the tariff was completely revised, protective duties were introduced on all articles of home production, and high finance duties on other articles such as coffee and petroleum.
Sound industrial concerns were little touched by it, but speculation had become so general that every class of society was affected, and in the investigation which followed it became apparent that some of the most distinguished members of the governing Liberal party, including at least two members of the government, were among those who had profited by the unsound finance.
Farther removed from the river are the offices of the ministries of public works and of war - a large building surrounded by gardens - and of justice and finance.
In finance his administration was very successful, as notwithstanding the expenses of his wars he showed an annual surplus of two millions sterling.
includes Geography, Economics, Government, Inhabitants, Finance and Army.
land under perennial irrigation pays higher taxes than land not so irrigated (see below, Finance).
The ministries are those of the interior, finance, public works, justice, war, foreign affairs and public instruction,1 and in each of these are prepared the drafts of decrees, which are then submitted to the council of ministers for approval, and on being signed by the khedive become law.
In the second category of restrictions, namely, those dependent on the London Convention, were the various commissions or boards known as Mixed Administrations and having relations of a quasi-independent character with the ministry of finance.
The revenue assigned to the debt charges was paid direct to the Caisse without passing through the ministry of finance.
It was not until his report on the financial results of 1888 that Sir Evelyn Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer) was able to inform the British government that the situation was such that it would take a series of untoward events seriously to endanger the stability of Egyptian finance and the solvency of the Egyptian government.
items of revenue and expenditure out of the accounts altogether a violation of the principles of sound finance.
The subsequent history of Egyptian finance is told in the following blue-books, &c.: Cors-espondence respecting the State Domains of Egypt (1883); Statement of the Revenue and Expenditure of Egypt, together wilh a List of the Egyptian Bonds and the Charges for their Services (1885);
relative to the Finance of Egypt, signed at London, March i8, 1885; Khedivial decree of the 28th November 1904;
Under the finance minister Obaidallah b.
The three officials of importance whose nomination is mentioned by the historians in addition to that of the governor were the commander of the bodyguard, the minister of finance and the judge.
While the governor T rkish was appointed by the feudal lord, the finance minister goUvernors continued to be appointed by the caliph.
He found a rival in Egypt in the person of Ibn al-Modabbir, the finance minister, who occupied an independent position, and who started the practice of surrounding himself with an army of his own slaves or freedmen; of these Ibn Tulun succeeded in depriving the finance minister, and they formed the nucleus of an army by which he eventually secured his own independence.
He united in his person the offices of governor and minister of finance, which had been separate since the time of the Tulunids.
The Porte was not able at the time to take active measures for the suppression of All Bey, and the latter endeavoured to consolidate his dominions by sending expeditions against marauding tribes, both in north and south Egypt, reforming the finance, and improving the administration of justice.
About six weeks after, the Arnaut (or Albanian) soldiers in the service of Khosrev tumultuously demanded their pay, and surrounded the house of the defterdr (or finance minister), who in vain appealed to the pasha to satisfy their claims. The latter opened fire from the artillery of his palace on the insurgent soldiery in the house of the defterdgr, across the Ezbekia.
Driven to desperation, Ismail made a virtue of necessity and accepted, in September 1878, in lieu of the Dual Control, a constitutional ministry, under the presidency of Nubar Pasha (qv.), with Rivers Wilson as minister of finance and de Blignires as minister of public works.
after coming into conflict with each other were both recalled, and the reforming activity was for a time restricted to the departments of war, public works and finance.
place in 1895, and Lord Salisburys cabinet, which had consistently assailed the Egyptian policy of the old, was not unwilling to consider whether the flourishing condition of Egyptian finance, the prosperity of the country and the settled state of its affairs, with a capable and proved little army ready to hand, did not warrant an attempt being made to recover gradually the Sudan provinces abandoned by Egypt in 1885 On the advice of Mr Gladstones government.
The state council (Statsraad) includes the presidency of the council and ministries of war, and marine, foreign affairs, the interior, justice, finance, public institution and ecclesiastical, agriculture and public works.
Perceiving that the coming struggle would be essentially a financial one, he retained the ministry of finance in his own hands; and, strong in the support of the king, the Landsting, and a considerable minority in the country itself, he devoted himself to the double task of establishing the political parity of the Landsting with the Folketing and strengthening the national armaments, so that, in the event of a war between the European great powers, Denmark might be able to defend her neutrality.
Until 1885 he was a devoted adherent of Mr Gladstone, particularly in finance and foreign affairs.
1845), also attained public distinction, the former in the government service in Canada (from 186 9, retiring in 1906), rising to be deputy-minister of finance, and the latter in the British civil service (1865-1892), and as a prominent man of letters and bibliographer.
Richemont entered Paris on the 13th of April 1436, and in the next five years the finance of the country was re-established on a settled basis.
After Bismarck's fall in 1890 he was chosen Prussian minister of finance, and held this post for ten years.
An attempt, however, to reform the system of imperial finance in1893-1894failed, and much injured his reputation.
The court of each university is the supreme authority in regard to finance, discipline, and the regulation of the duties of professors and lecturers.
To his personal energy and enterprise, as manager of the railway company, was largely due the continued prosecution of this difficult engineering undertaking, in connexion with which he was responsible for a thorough reconstruction of Ecuador finance.
He was elected town councillor of the famous Great Western railway centre, Swindon, and became chairman of the Finance Committee and of the Electricity and Tramways Committee.
The chief finance office is at Santa Cruz de Tenerife.
In the house he was continuously a member of the ways and means committee (of which he was chairman in 1865-1867), and in the Senate of the finance committee (of which he was chairman in 1877-1879,1881-1893and 1893-1898).
Appointed Piedmontese minister of the interior, he resigned office shortly after Cavour's death, but was subsequently chosen to be minister of finance by Farini, whom he succeeded as premier in 1863.
In 1873 he overthrew the Lanza-Sella Cabinet and regained the premiership, which, with the portfolio of finance, he held until the fall.
During his premiership he inaugurated the rapprochement between Italy, Austria and Germany, and reformed the naval and military administration; and before his fall he was able, as finance minister,.
Financially, Afghanistan has never, since it first became a kingdom, been able to pay for its own government, public works Finance.
In administrative details he is assisted by the Council of India, an advisory body, with special control over finance.
The several departments of administration - Foreign, Home, Finance, Legislative, Army, Revenue and Agriculture (with Public Works), Commerce and Industry, Education (added in 1910) - are distributed among the council after the fashion of a European cabinet, the foreign portfolio being reserved by the viceroy; but all orders and resolutions are issued in the name of the governor-general in council and must be signed by a secretary.
That the state should appropriate to itself a direct share in the produce of the soil is a fundamental maxim of Indian finance that has been recognized throughout the East from time immemorial.
The heading Opium in the finance accounts represents the duty on the export of the drug.
The rates levied at a certain percentage of the land revenue for local purposes are now excluded from the finance accounts.
Subject to his control the government of India enjoys a certain discretionary Finance.
There is a special member for finance in the governorgeneral's council, and all important matters are brought before the council.
His successor was Lord Northbrook, whose ability showed itself chiefly in the department of finance.
The incident, however, led to military measures being taken by the government of Lord Dufferin, which had far-reaching effects on Indian finance.
On the 1st of September 1900 this body assumed the legislative functions of the central government at Manila; on the 4th of July 1901 the executive authority was, by order of the president, transferred from the military governor to Judge Taft, whom he had appointed civil governor; on the 6th of September 1901 the Philippine Commission, by authority of the president, established the four executive departments, of interior, commerce -and police, finance and justice, and public instruction; and on the 29th of October 1901 the president appointed a vice-governor.
This Khalid, who was descended from an old sacerdotal family in Balkh, and had been one of the trusty supporters of Abu Moslim, Mansur appointed as minister of finance.
Regulations were framed for the purpose of establishing adequate supervision over the revenue and expenditure for the abolition of irregular taxation and extortions, as well as the practice of farming out the collection of the revenue to individuals, and, generally, to adapt the whole collection and expenditure of the national revenue to modern ideas of public finance.
The king, with the checks upon his absolutism removed, reverted to the worst traditions of his dynasty, and the control and arrangements of finance were upset by Russia.
The government is carried on by a ministry of three, holding the portfolios of finance; of home and foreign affairs; and of religion, education and justice, with which is combined the ducal household.
In 1831 he succeeded Johan Sigismund Misting (1789-1843), as minister of finance.
The mere fact that a distinguished statesman who had served the last two absolute kings of Denmark now voluntarily placed himself at the head of a ministry which included the most advanced of the popular agitators, gave the new government the hall-mark of stability and trustworthiness, whilst the fact that he still retained the ministry of finance was of itself a guarantee of security during the earlier years of a troublesome and costly war.
He was Minister of Finance in the first Sonnino Cabinet of 1906 and Treasury Minister in the second (1909-10).
There were federal officers, all the military forces of the cities were controlled by the league, and federal finance was quite separate from city finance.
The principal spending departments are those of war and marine, internal development, and finance.
The executive is entrusted to a president similarly chosen for six years (instead of four) and aided by a cabinet representing the five ministries of foreign affairs and education, finance, internal administration and justice, war and marine, and public works.
For administrative purposes the republic is divided into 13 departments and 2 comarcas, each under a political head who acts as military commandant and controls education, finance, &c. The administration of justice is entrusted to numerous courts of first instance, three courts of appeal, and a supreme court.
For commerce, finance and administration, see the annual Reports of the Committee of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders (London); D.
Pollard (ed.), Code of Virginia (2 vols., St Paul, 1904);; and on finance, W.
Although at times subject to fierce criticism with regard to matters of administration and finance, he was recognized as one of the ablest men on the Confederate side, and he remained with Jefferson Davis to the last, sharing his flight after the surrender at Appomattox, and only leaving him shortly before his capture, because he found himself unable to go farther on horseback.
He also wrote on questions of finance and economics.
From the 4th of September 1870 he held the portfolio of finance in the government of National Defence.
The term " finance," which comes into English through French, in its original meaning denoted a payment (finatio).
The plural form (Les Finances) was particularly reserved for this application, while the singular came to denote business activity in respect to monetary dealings (as in the expression la haute finance).
For the Germans the phrase " science of finance " (Finanzwissenschaft) refers exclusively to the economy of the state.
The expressions " science of finance " and " public finance " have been suggested as suitable to delimit the last mentioned application.
In the present article attention will be directed to " public finance "; for the other aspects of the subject reference may be made (inter alia) to the following: - B Anks And Banking; Company; Exchange; Market; STOCK Exchange.
See also English Finance, and the sections on finance under headings of countries.
The theory of well-organized public finance is also discussed under Taxation and National Debt.
The scanty and obscure references to finance, and to economic matters generally, in classical literature do not elucidate all the details of the system; but the analogies of other countries, e.g.
The absence of settled public law and the influence of direct democracy made a complete ministry of finance impossible.
Their finance, like their social life generally, exhibited a blending of Hellenic and barbarian elements.
The real centre of finance was the Fiscus or imperial treasury, which was under the exclusive control of the ruler (` ` res fiscales," says Ulpian, " quasi propriae et privatae principis sunt "), and was administered by officials of his household.
By means of his freedmen the emperor introduced the more rigorous economy of the Roman household into public finance.
Thus some of the most valuable lessons as to the normal evolution of a system of finance are to be learned in this connexion.
The close relation between finance and general policy is most impressively illustrated in this failure of benevolent autocracy.
In substance and spirit, however, Roman finance was essentially backward.
Without altogether accepting Merivale's judgment that " their principles of finance were to the last rude and unphilosophical," it may be granted that Roman statesmen never seriously faced the questions of just distribution and maximum productiveness in the tax system.
Still less did they perceive the connexion between these two aspects of finance.
Whether (as has been suggested) an Adam Smith in power could have saved the Empire is doubtful; but he would certainly have remodelled its finance.
In addition to its value as illustrating the difficulties and defects that beset the development of a complex financial organization from the simpler forms of the city and the province, Roman finance is of special importance in consequence of its place as supplying a model or rather a guide for the administration of the states that arose on its ruins.
Finance is essentially a part of public law and administration.
Over and above the details of financial development there is a thread of connexion which requires treatment under Finance taken as a whole.
As the great aim of this side of public activity is to secure funds for the maintenance of the state's life and working, the administration which operates for this end is the true nucleus of all national finance.
Feudalism, as the antithesis of this orderly treatment, had to be overthrown before national finance could become established.
The gradual unification operates on all the branches of finance, - expenditure, revenue, debt and methods of control.
It was, however, the fundamental division for the early French writers on finance, and it survives for England as late as Blackstone's Commentaries.
How great has been the progress in these aspects is best illustrated in the case of English finance, but both French and German fiscal history can supply many instructive examples.
In a third direction the co-ordination of finance has been just as remarkable.
Apart from the special problems that this system of borrowing raises, there is the general one of its aid in making national finance continuous and orderly.
The growth of this department, parallel with the general progress of finance, is significant of its function.
Such a real underlying unity is the reason and justification for regarding " public finance " as a distinct subject of study and as an independent division of political science.
One of the most remarkable features of modern financial development has been the growth of the complementary system of local finance, which in extent and complication bids to rival that of the central authority.
After the fall of the Western Empire, a partial revival of city life, particularly in Italy and Germany, gave some scope for a return to the type of finance presented by the Athenian state.
It is in this condition of subordination that the finance of localities has been framed and effectively organized.
Amongst these the first to be noticed is the essential subordination of local finance.
A second characteristic is the predominance of the economic element in the several tasks that local administrations have to perform, and the consequent tendency to treat the charges of local finance as payments for services rendered, or, in the usual phrase, to apply the " benefits " principle, in contrast to that of " ability," which rightly prevails in national finance.
Over a great part of municipal administration - particularly that engaged in supplying the needs of the individual citizens - the finance may be assimilated to that of the joint-stock company, with of course the necessary differences, viz.
The great expansion in recent years of what is known as Municipal Trading has brought this aspect of local finance into prominence.
Over and above the peculiar revenues of local bodies there is the further resource - which emphasizes the subordinate position of local finance - of obtaining supplemental revenue from the central treasury, either by taxes additional to the charges of the state, and collected at the same time; or by donations from its funds, in the shape of grants for special services, or assignments of certain parts of the state's receipts.
The broad resemblance between the two parts of the entire system of public finance is seen in another direction.
Finally, there is the same set of problems in respect to accounting and control in local as in central finance.
Perhaps the greatest weakness of local finance lies in this direction.
The English literature on finance is rather unsatisfactory; for public finance the available text-books are: Adams, Science of Finance (New York, 1898); Bastable, Public Finance (London, 1892; 3rd ed., 1903); Daniels, Public Finance (New York, 1899), and Plehn, Public Finance (3rd ed., New York, 1909).
(edited by Gerlach), 1901; Wagner (4 vols.), incomplete; Cohn (1889) and Eheberg (9th ed., 1908) have published works entitled Finanzwissenschaft, dealing with all the aspects of state finance.
Clamageran, Histoire de l'imp& en France (1876), gives the earlier development of French finance.
Patterson, Science of Finance (London, 1868), C. S.
Meade, Trust Finance (1903), and E.
Carroll, Principles and Practice of Finance, deal with finance in the wider sense of business transactions.
Porcius Cato to annex the island, nominally because its king had connived at piracy, really because its revenues and the treasures of Paphos were coveted to finance a corn law of P. Clodius.
On his return to France after a year and a half, he was received into the house of Fouquet, superintendent of finance, who gave him a pension of 150o livres.
Among Colbert's papers are Memoires sur les affaires de finance de France (written about 1663), a fragment entitled Particularites secretes de la vie du Roy, and other accounts of the earlier part of the reign of Louis XIV.
In December 1877 he became minister of finance in the reconstructed Depretis ministry, and he subsequently held the same office in three other Liberal cabinets.
See Agriculture; Navy (also Ship and Ship-BUILDING); Education; English Finance; English History; Civil Ser Vice; National Debt; Police; Poor Law; &C. A separate section, however, is devoted to the army, the constitution of which in 1910 is described; the history is given under Army.
-The following publications relating to the United Kingdom are issued annually in London (unless otherwise stated): Finance Accounts; Financial Estimates; Return showing Revenue and Expenditure (England, Scotland and Ireland); National Debt Accounts; National Debt during 60 Years; Local Taxation Returns; Army Estimates; Army Accounts; Army List (quarterly); Navy Estimates; Navy List (quarterly); Royal Commission on Agriculture, Reports (1896); Mineral Statistics; Reports of Inspectors of Mines; Reports on Factories and Workshops; Reports of Inspectors of Fisheries; Return of Fish conveyed inland by rail; Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom; Statement of the Shipping and Navigation of the United Kingdom; Report of the Postmaster-General.
Giffen, Essays in Finance (London, 1880 and 1886); R.
But in accordance both with the growing tendency to separate command and administration and with the desire to enlist local sympathies and utilize local resources, "associations," partly of civilian, partly of military members, were formed in every county and charged by statute with all matters relating to the enlistment, service and discharge of the county's quota in the force, finance (other than pay, &c. in camp), buildings, ownership of regimental property, &c. To these duties of county associations are added that of supervising and administering cadet corps of all sorts (other than officers' training corps), and that of providing the extra horses required on mobilization, not only by the territorial force, but by the expeditionary force as well.
A year later he was selected to be secretary-general of public instruction, and in 1862 received from Rattazzi the portfolio of finance.
The Rattazzi cabinet fell before Sella could efficaciously provide for the deficit of £17,500,000 with which he was confronted; but in 1864 he returned to the ministry of finance in the La Marmora cabinet, and dealt energetically with the deficit of £8,000,000 then existing.
A vote of the chamber compelled him to resign before his preparations for financial restoration were complete; but in 1869 he returned to the ministry of finance in a cabinet formed by himself, but of which he made over the premiership to Giovanni Lanza.
By means of the grist tax (which he had proposed in 1865, but which the Menabrea cabinet had passed in 1868), and by other fiscal expedients necessitated by the almost desperate condition of the national exchequer, he succeeded, before his fall from power in 1873, in placing Italian finance upon a sound footing, in spite of fierce attacks and persistent misrepresentation.
They are eleven in number, one being prime minister, two others consultative ministers, and the remaining eight heads of the departments of administration, which are justice, foreign affairs, land defence, naval defence, home affairs, finance, public works, agriculture.
But Count Posse, deserted by his own party over the army bill, resigned, and was succeeded on the 16th of May 1884 by Oscar Themptauder, who had been minister of finance in the previous cabinet.
He is assisted and advised by a cabinet of six ministers whose departments are: interior, foreign affairs, worship and colonization, justice and public instruction, war and marine, finance, industry and public works.
The removal of this source of irritation and the restoration of friendly relations between the two republics was a great relief to the finance of Chile.
The vizirs are the ministers of the interior, foreign affairs, war, justice, finance, commerce, education, public works.
The departments that had a vizir at their head were the following: court, ceremonies, shahs secretarial department, interior, correspondence between court and governors, revenue accounts and budget, finance, treasury, outstanding accounts, foreign affairs, war, army accounts, military stores, arsenals, justice, commerce, mines and industries, agriculture and Crown domains, Crown buildings, public works, public instruction, telegraphs, posts, mint, religious endowments and pensions, customs, press.
A new assessment of the maliat, based upon the present value of the produce of lands and actual profits of artisans and tradesmen, has frequently been spoken of, and government, aided by a strong minister of the interior and an able minister of finance, ought to have no difficulty in raising the maliat to its proper level and the total revenues of the country to about two millions sterling.
In the main portion, however, of the Oriental worldEgypt, and Finance.
Nasru l-Mulk was appointed minister of finance (Feb.
form is derived), the name applied to an account of the ways and means by which the income and expenditure for a definite period are to be balanced, generally by a finance minister for his state, or by analogy for smaller bodies .2 The term first came into use in England about 1760.
In the United Kingdom the chancellor of the exchequer, usually in April, lays before the House of Commons a statement of the actual results of revenue and expenditure in the past finance year (now ending March 31), showing how far his estimates have been realized, and what surplus or deficit there has been in the income as compared with the expenditure.