In light Kundt's name is widely known for his inquiries in anomalous dispersion, not only in liquids and vapours, but even in metals, which he obtained in very thin films by means of a laborious process of electrolytic deposition upon platinized glass.
In 1826 he described the prismatically-coloured films of metal, known as Nobili's' rings, deposited electrolytically from solutions of lead and other salts when the anode is a polished iron plate and the cathode is a fine wire placed vertically above it.
The water of the soil, which in well-drained soil is met with in the form of delicate films surrounding the particles of solid matter, is absorbed into the plant by the delicate hairs borne by the young roots, the entry being effected by a process of modified osmosis.
The black films of antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder.
The black films of tin, lead and cadmium dissolve at once in the acid, the lead film being also soluble in bleaching-powder.
The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.
Flattened crystals of garnet, films of quartz, and needles of tourmaline are not uncommon.
Sericite in the form of scales and films characterizes those portions which have been faulted, squeezed or sheared.
The principle of applying metallic films to glass seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the Egyptians, and is mentioned by Alexander Neckam in the 12th century, but it would appear that it was not until the 16th century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected.
In regard to gold this has been proved to be so; gold leaf, or thin films of gold produced chemically on glass plates, transmit light with a green colour.
On the other hand, infinitely thin films of silver which can be produced chemically on glass surfaces are absolutely opaque.
Very thin films of liquid mercury, according to Melsens, transmit light with a violet-blue colour; also thin films of copper are said to be translucent.
It is from such films that the root-hairs absorb all that plants require for their growth.
The movement of water into the root-hairs is brought about by the osmotic action of certain salts in their cell-sap. Crops are, however, unable to absorb all the water present in the soil, for when the films become very thin they are held more firmly or cling with more force to the soil particles and resist the osmotic action of the root-hairs.
Faraday applied it to the preparation of extremely thin films of the metal.
The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum and iron pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.
Films of pyrites sometimes coat the joint-planes of coal.
That such enzymes are formed in the protoplasm is evident from the behaviour of hyphae, which have been observed to pierce cell-membranes, the chitinous coats of insects, artificial collodion films and layers of wax, &c. That a fungus can secrete more than one enzyme, according to the materials its hyphae have to attack, has been shown by the extraction of diastase, inulase, trehalase, invertase, maltase, raffinase, malizitase, emulsin, trypsin and lipase from Aspergillus by Bourquelot, and similar events occur in other fungi.
By saponification it yields a number of fatty acids - palmitic, myristic, oleic, linolic, linolenic and isolinolenic. Exposed to the air in thin films, linseed oil absorbs oxygen and forms " linoxyn," a resinous semi-elastic, caoutchouclike mass, of uncertain composition.
Kundt prepared metallic films of iron, nickel and cobalt, and obtained powerful negative optical rotation with them (Wied.
He also greatly facilitated the study of liquid films by showing how to form a liquid, the films of which will last for twelve or even for twenty-four hours.
p. 620) experimented on liquid films, and showed how a film of a liquid of high surfacetension is replaced by a film of lower surface-tension.
[The continued coexistence of various thicknesses, as evidenced by the colours in the same film, affords an instantaneous proof of this conclusion.] The phenomena of very thin liquid films deserve the most careful study, for it is in this way that we are most likely to obtain evidence by which we may test the theories of the molecular structure of liquids.
We shall therefore indicate a method of investigating the tension of such films.
On the hypothesis of uniform density we shall find that this is true for films whose thickness exceeds The symbol x is defined as the energy of unit of mass of the substance.
Hence the tension is the same for all films thicker than e, the range of the molecular forces.
For thinner films do =4'rp24(c).
Now 2 7rmpi,t(c) represents the attraction between a particle m and the plane surface of an infinite mass of the liquid, when the distance of the particle outside the surface is c. Now, the force between the particle and the liquid is certainly, on the whole, attractive; but if between any two small values of c it should be repulsive, then for films whose thickness lies between these values the tension will increase as the thickness diminishes, but for all other cases the tension will diminish as the thickness diminishes.
When three films of the same liquid meet, their tensions are equal, and, therefore, they make angles of 120 with each other.
The froth of soap-suds or beaten-up eggs consists of a multitude of small films which meet each other at angles of I 20°.
If six films of the same liquid meet in a point the corresponding tetrahedron is a regular tetrahedron, and each film, where it meets the others, has an angle whose cosine is - i.
We must not, however, raise the upper net too much, or the system of films will become unstable.
Indeed the possibility of the continued existence of films, such as constitute foam, depends upon the properties now under consideration.
Lord Rayleigh has shown that the fall of surface-tension begins when the quantity of oil is about the half of that required to stop the camphor movements, and he suggests that this stage may correspond with a complete coating of the surface with a single layer of molecules.] On the Forms of Liquid Films which are Figures of Revolution.
Since in the case of thin films the outer and inner surfaces are approximately equal, we shall consider the area of the film as representing either of them, and shall use the symbol T to denote the energy of unit of area of the film, both surfaces being taken together.
Many streams that are turned in spring or by summer cloud-bursts into torrents are normally mere water films or dry gulches.
By rapid division hundreds of thousands of cells may be produced in a few hours,' and, according to the species and the conditions (the medium, temperature, &c.), enormous collections of isolated cells may cloud the fluid in which they are cultivated, or form deposits below or films on its surface; valuable characters are sometimes obtained from these appearances.
The tissues and fluids are treated by various histological methods, but, to speak generally, examination is made either in films smeared on thin cover-glasses and allowed to dry, or in thin sections cut by the microtome after suitable fixation and hardening of the tissue.
A fragment of such a paste brought into a liquid in which the solid particles are soluble, slowly expands into a honeycomb like foam, the walls of the minute vesicles being films of oil, and the contents being the soluble particles dissolved in droplets of the circumambient liquid.
The time for the formation of an efficient surface films varies, according to the quality of the raw water, from a few hours to a few days.
Others split readily into fine leaflets or laminae parallel to their bedding, and this structure is accentuated by the presence of films of other materials, such as sand or vegetable debris.
The films were often subtle allegory of the totalitarian society, and they functioned as a subversive voice within the state-controlled production.
Even Ms. Lopez herself told us that was unable to remember being in any films.
We will also endeavor to get the winning films screened on television.
It then proceeds to discuss examples of literary texts and two films that incorporate postmodern perspectives in order to call those perspectives into question.
There are a few catch phrases thrown in from various other famous films along the way, which add to the comedy.
People still imitate German accents that they hear in WWII films, although modern Germans do not speak like this anymore.
It was noted that there had been long breaks between films at the last all-nighter in order to prolong the finish.
annealing of the films in precisely controlled atmospheres showed that the ferromagnetism in our films is not linked to the carrier concentration density.
Powell's films are the absolute antithesis of realist cinema.
art filml arts films have been compared to musicals in the past, and this is not a far-fetched comparison.
Both films show considerable artistry, thought there are stylistic differences.
There's an excellent, lengthy video interview with Munro who is keen to discuss all aspects of her career in exploitation films.
But can Tarantino be considered an auteur, if nothing is personal in his facsimile films?
auteur theory; he reckoned his films ' creator was his whole team.
Featuring the films of emerging directors alongside the more established auteurs is a distinguishing factor of the Seagate Foyle Film Festival.
RRP £ 14.99 | Our Price £ 9.00 Films from the agency containing Tony & a blond babe enjoying anal.
bankrolls films as a hobby.
His early days were spent taking pictures of the couture shows in Paris where he often found himself developing films in the hotel bathtub.
blonde£ 14.99 | Our Price £ 9.00 Films from the agency containing Tony & a blond babe enjoying anal.
boundless enthusiasm for the films we love.
It offered a steady stream of blue movies with just a quick breather for horror films on Friday nights.
broad range of films greatly helps.
Many films came out complete with soundtrack CD or a book to tempt buyers.
say bye-bye to those annoying adverts in the middle of films!
A limited number of films or disposable cameras are available.
cameraman films Hugh Gaitskell (right) for television during a tour in the 1959 election.
Perhaps one reason why films like this are so popular is because evil is often caricatured.
Should we all carry a copy of the DM or wear a red carnation like spies in old war films?
The movie was screened without a certificate in June at the Irish Film Center, which has previously shown films banned by the censor.
It is certain to provoke debate and discussion, not least about how and why certain to provoke debate and discussion, not least about how and why certain films enter the nation's consciousness.
Compared to those films, Fantastic Four seems pretty cheesy.
chick flick ' to describe the films with appeal to women began in the early 1990s.
chloroform solution and in LB films.
How could Guy Ritchie, who showed such chutzpah in his first couple of films, have become such a muddled, pretentious bore?
This is one of the most beautifully shot films I have seen, thanks to the legendary cinematographer Nestor Almendros.
Bava's films are always beautifully shot and this film has exemplary cinematography.
David is an award-winning Sound Designer who directs feature films, performs classical and jazz clarinet, and teaches vibrational healing and sound design.
climactic battle seems to borrow elements from the previous two films.
comas in films as being " unrealistic " .
Q: To what extent do you collaborate with the soundtrack composers on your films?
In fact, most of these films have internal stresses that are highly compressive (tending to contract ).
The films here barely conceal the cold war politik behind them.
This somewhat condescending view of women can be seen within other of Leigh's films.
The image of Bond as the sexual conquistador belongs to the films.
construction of masculinity in one or more of the films studied on the unit.
copolymer films so that nanoscopic droplets of silicone " float " in a matrix of polystyrene.
corned beef tins, German artillery, purloined American films.
corny things you've seen in films actually do add atmosphere.
U films should be set within a positive moral framework and should offer reassuring counterbalances to any violence, threat or horror.
They had found Mr Frey selling counterfeit DVDs that included films that had only just gone on general release in the cinema.
Like the small time crooks he was to feature in his films, he supported himself by petty theft.
It is certain to provoke debate and discussion, not least about how and why certain films enter the nation's consciousness.
We have observed that Nickel thin films may be partially demagnetized on time scales shorter than 300 fs.
Dixon finds the recent wave of Hollywood remakes equally deplorable on the same grounds, especially those derived from films from other national cinemas.
deviate from the formula of the films it is trying to parody.
For X-ray diffraction studies on organic thin films a portable vacuum chamber is used.
I understand, but it may also be very discouraging for friends who only make films for fun.
discuss all aspects of her career in exploitation films.
Could they discern editor Antony Gibbs ' individual " handwriting " in these otherwise disparate films?
The design of the phantom assures both films and alanine dosimeters are accurately located at the same point on the depth dose curve.
dubbing Only films dubbed in France were permitted from 29 July 1932.
For the first time death, so effortless avoiding in previous films can even stop the mighty Willis.
Piezoelectric materials are the basis of electromechanical devices, and therefore piezoelectric films are especially relevant to micro electro mechanical systems or MEMS.
embittered old man who doesn't like films anymore.
emissivity films will: Reject up to 69% of unwanted solar energy.
You will have made films at school, at college or just by yourself for the sheer enjoyment of it.
The dialog is flat and there is very little dramatic irony which so enlivened the earlier films.
Films featuring American entertainers or Popular Songs 1927-1947 Films: R Also check for entertainers in the American jazz and dance band films listing.
Their common bond is their boundless enthusiasm for the films we love.
In 1999 the people of Poland flocked in their millions to see two new films based on much-loved historical literary epics.
We have a national facility within the condensed matter group for the production of thin magnetic films by molecular beam epitaxy.
Today's audience wants more escapism - not that they want just dumb films.
evoke more than the films can deliver?
We'll be watching films, making stuff, playing games, worshipping, praying and reading the Bible in our action-packed extravaganza.
However it is more to do with the whole explosion of interest in short films being utterly fallacious.
Ghibli films have always struck me as being far more poignant, playful yet dramatic, never really becoming farcical in any broad sense.
Mark Doyle is a producer for fecund films and a core member of fecund films and a core member of fecund's acting ensemble.
It is generally considered to be one of the funniest, most genuinely feel-good films in years.
ferroelectric thin films has historically been focused on those films having application within the semiconductor memory markets.
Finally back home to have a quiet night in watching films.
Funding FAQ's How do you fund short films?
Growth of thin films occurs at a rate which deposits material at the rate of around 1 monolayer per second.
I like all the bond films, the Godfather films, Pretty Woman, those sorts of films.
A film club shows films made by local filmmakers.
Boys on Boys and Girls on Girls are our fresh and loud short films where budding new filmmakers round off the program.
And as long as these films are available to inspire future filmmakers, cinema may not be as dead as Peter Greenaway thinks.
B BBC Film Network New short films from up-and-coming British filmmakers.
filmography2 and 4 supply select Filmographies of the main prison films cited in the relevant chapters.
This is augmented by numerous carefully chosen illustrations and a comprehensive filmography of English films, fiction and non-fiction, for the year.
filmographyhies lists of films that Harrison Ford, Josh Hartnett, Ron Sheldon and Robert Souza have been involved with.
first-run films with special themed seasons.
My childhood in Ireland was filled with images of London from films, TV and much more cultural flotsam and jetsam.
One of the things I do feel about today's films is that they are too frenetic.
fright films made for several hundred times that amount don't begin to approach its effectiveness.
The films he produces are touching as well as being genuinely funny.
gala SCREENINGS This year the film festival will be book ended by two films shot exclusively in Northern Ireland.
IMPORTANT NOTE Modern color films are no longer made using gelatin.
I hope these films haven't turned Hitler into some unreal, mad genius.
It also spawned a new genre of Japanese films, or J-horror as it's often called, such as Audition or The Eye.
goofball comedy has been a blight on films like GETTING ANY?
gore horror films and the people who make them, all of whom have rejected him.
Recent films include The governess, with Minnie Driver as a young 19th century Sephardi woman on the Isle of Skye.
Speech came across natural and distinct; music score sounded grand, which fit the films overall presentation.
Over time that impact was diminished and in order to get the same reaction, certain films became more graphic.
One of the great British films of the 1940s it is brimming over with catholic guilt.
The films are at once hardened, philosophical, passionate and darkly subdued.
heroines of these films.
Watching the films in sequence, The Curse of Frankenstein perhaps betrays a certain hesitancy of tone.
hooligan culture already wrecking some British football matches, do we need such films?
For all their technical advances, the new films have not really expanded the horizons of the animated genre very far at all.
hysteresis exhibited by cobalt films deposited by MOCVD under certain conditions.
Another in a succession of films made by the famous illusionist and one of the first films to utilize stop-motion techniques.
Any colors seen in films or in books are purely imaginary.
impossible to ignore the buzz his films still command.
However, Caldwell -- clearly a real film ' buff ' -- resists any inclination to spend much time on any of these films.
Forget films or courier expenses, you can finally produce in-house, top quality color prints with minimal investment or effort.
Carefully plotted, emotionally intense stories, both films are supported by professional production design, deliciously decrepit settings, and engaging characters.
interweaveope the comparatively ambiguous nature of the films ' content, so cleverly interwoven and profound doesn't put potential viewers off.
In these films newly invented rays stop the engines of planes in flight.
Differences in frame rates are responsible for old films looking jerky with everyone walking around faster.
joke films Jesse's car ride to the courtroom and them joking around outside it, despite the prospect of a daunting jail sentence.
But the UK version produced by September Films contains too much enforced jollity and not enough genuine surprises.
Music: Wurlitzer juke box, videos of 70s shows and films.
Reduces turbo lag and provides more power and economy while providing thicker bearing oil films at operating temperature than a petroleum 10W-40.
lambasted films in recent years.
We watch TV and films, we cook - I love making lasagna.
As often as not the films so lauded are likely to be quite forgotten in a year or so.
How can soap films help to optimize road layout?
lenticular films can be overlaid to control diffusion in both dimensions.
You do seem to have a liking for metaphor in your films.
Despite the inherent limitations of concert films, Sign o ' the Times is conceptually strong and visually riveting.
Marcus Rosenthal, 32, political lobbyist I'd like to see the films.
Thin films of such a material will be deposited using magnetron sputtering.
magpie collection also found a natural outlet in animated films, of which Paolozzi made three with different collaborators.
In films the brilliant hero, the victor or the innocent maiden is seen charging upon a white steed.
Following in the wake of the popular Charlie's Angels feature films it certainly should have been easily marketable.
Players can remake the films they love or create an all-new masterpiece.
In these films cameraman Martyn Colbeck and I followed the lives of one family of elephants led by the distinguished matriarch Echo.
mediocre in comparison to his two masterpieces but they are by no means poor films.
mediumick on mixed media gives reviews about books, films and music which is another interesting feature of the site.
We are also developing novel ultra thin magnetic films, and sensors (including memS) based on them.
I have never been a fan of period films or Jane Austen, but I was absolutely mesmerized by each frame of this adaptation.
It has mick takes from loads of films and links into each other.
There is a full range of electronic and optical characterisation techniques available for thin films and an extensive surface microanalysis suite.
Once captured on 35mm archive microfilm, the films were sent to an outside contractor, who scanned the films to create digital images.
mind-blowing action and outrageous imagery and sound with moving seats synchronized to some of Hollywood's most action packed films.
Organic thin films: determination of orientation of adsorbed molecules.
But I have a very monochromatic style of making films and these are plot colors, like the bright neon colors in Unbreakable.
In order to determine the surface morphology and orientation texture of the films, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, was performed.
motorbike riding, reading and regularly goes to films, theater and opera.
I like listening to cheesy rock music and watching 80s films and sometimes sci-fi movies.
The average American moviegoer can typically see a similar story and plot development within most major Hollywood films.
mummyal Verdict: Legend of the Mommy gives mommy films a bad name.
The big blocky " starring " credits, reminiscent of the Superman films, seemed to make the vortex less mysterious I thought.
These include nanotechnology, engineering composites, metal forming, sensors, surface science and thin films.
newsreel type films entitled Events of 1937.
no-brainer action films.
I adore old French films, and that really romantic notion of music aching and breaking hearts all over a film.
nudity in films?
offbeat films are at the SHADOWS FILM FESTIVAL.
Complex machines, films, live music and an acute sense of the absurd combine in creating images of striking originality.
outrun even the Indiana Jones films.
Privacy films This range of films prevents outsiders from seeing through the glass, whilst still allowing light to enter the building.
panchromatic films except that they have extended red sensitivity to longer electromagnetic wavelengths.
Director Marc Levin was asked how the general audience could be persuaded to see films like this rather than the usual commercial pap.
peons in ponchos belong to the films.
perforation pattern offers a balance between surface area for high resolution color prints and preserving the films ' one-way visibility.
performing on stage she also enjoys being in films.
photoelectron emission properties of diamond films.
photogenic city, I don't understand why more films aren't made here.
Plenty of subsequent films in the horror genre ditched the usual slashing strings and went for tinkling piano sounds instead.
hand Pict / Channel 4 Edinburgh To edit five short films for a Channel 4 series.
From a purely pictorial point of view, his films are among the most beautiful ever made.
pinholes in the films are critical, MicroEmissive Displays has invested heavily in Class 10 clean room facilities.
Ayin Adams - poetry, films, writings and music from award-winning poet.
Chaucer and Journey's End present obvious parallels, as do all the portmanteau horror films from the 1970s produced by Amicus Productions.
Regardless of the title, generally the films were all similar, low budget potboilers.
predominant themes in the films of the period.
prefer watching films from the comfort of my own home.
priseer Anna Sanders Films artists, meanwhile, have claimed some of the most prestigious visual art prizes.
prizewinning films to a packed clubroom.
I then when on to direct pop promos, training films and dance films.
Film work includes: art work on several Ministry of Sound pop promos, 'The Bill ' (Badly Made Films ).
The subject matter for these films is varied, from music promos to short hard-hitting documentaries.
Renewable Energy: » Development of a spray pyrolysis coating process to produce nano-structured metal oxide thin films for novel photovoltaic devices.
recognizable faces from the Star Wars films make appearances in Jedi Academy.
Up to now, films have provided the last redoubt of the myth of clean wars.
relyr survival relies heavily on showing the right sort of films.
Both films are now available fully remastered from newly-restored prints.
The films are the results of a three-month residency for visual artists as part of the nationwide Year of the Artist scheme.
In the mid-1980s, Wessex Films was producing two revues a term that were regularly screened to audiences of over 150.
rip-roaring good time making these films.
The fluorescent probe was incorporated into thin films and three dimensional porous scaffolds demonstrating the capabilities of monitoring on-line.
Chest X-ray films and computed tomographic scans disclosed left pleural effusion and diffuse pleural thickening.
Oh, one more thing for your cocktail add a Troma films screenwriter.
segued into feature films such as Leaving Las Vegas and Timecode.
self-aware films that address the role of art.
semester description of Module: French women have been directing films from the very beginning of cinema.
London shaggers 5 - Added on 2004-02-19 Studio: Anarchy Films What's better than Shagging a girl rotten?
This comedy film will appeal to people who enjoy classic British comedy films, sit-coms and Carry-On style shenanigans.
The directors of the other films took distinctive, even showy, approaches to their subjects.
Those kitchen sink films, like Billy Liar, hit me right in the heart.
The extras on these films are very, very, very skimpy.
There's nothing necessarily new about that, but the same films often also treat us to moments of transcendentally silly slapstick as well.
slew of films of the period featuring a gorilla on the rampage.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.