Filaments Sentence Examples
The metal is manufactured, for use as filaments in electric lamps, by the action of sodium on sodium tantalofluoride.
An actual magnet may generally be regarded as a bundle of magnetic filaments, and those portions of the surface of the magnet where the filaments terminate, and socalled " free magnetism " appears, may be conveniently called poles or polar regions.
In the first, which are called ectotropic, the fungal filaments form a thick felt or sheath round the root, either completely enclosing it or leaving the apex free.
The other type is called endctropic. The fungal filaments either penetrate the epidermis of the root, or enter it from the stem and ramify in the interior.
The organic compounds of the latter are absorbed by the protruding fungal filaments, which take the place of root-hairs, the tree ceasing to develop the latter.Advertisement
The food so absorbed passes to the outer cortical mycellum, and from this tc the inner hyphae, which appear to be the organs of the interchangi of substance, for they are attracted to the neighborhood of thi nuclei of the cells, which they enter, and iii which they form agglom erations of interwoven filaments.
These occur on the tips of tendrils and on the tentacles of Drosera; (2) sensitive papillae found on the irritable filaments of certain stamens; and (3) sensitive hairs or bristles on the leaves of Dionaea muscipula and Mimosa pudicaall of which are so constructed that any pressure exerted on them at once reacts on the protoplasm.
In Plotus, the snakebird, the pyloric chamber of the stomach is beset with a mass of hair-like stiff filaments which permit nothing but fluid to pass into the duodenum.
The prostomium has many long filaments which recall the gills of the Sabellids, &c. The nephridia are specialized into two series, as in the last-mentioned worms. (5) Spioniformia (including Chaetopterus, Spio, &c.) and (6) Scoleciformia (Arenicola, Chloraema, Sternaspis) are the remaining groups.
Curiously enough, however, they differ from the cephalic Molluscan eye in the fact that, as in the vertebrate eye, the filaments of the optic nerve penetrate the retina, and are connected with the re surfaces of the nerve-end cells nearer the lens instead of with the opposite end.Advertisement
It stretches forward as far as the brain, and in Carinella is again continued in front of it, whereas in the Heteronemertines the innervation of the anterior extremity of the head, in front of the brain, takes the form of more definite and less numerous branching stems. The presence of this plexus in connexion with the central stems, sending out nervous filaments amongst the muscles, explains the absence, in Pro-, Mesoand Heteronemertines, of separate and distinct peripheral nerve stems springing from the central stems innervating the different organs and body-regions, the only exceptions being the L.N.
Tantalum has in recent years been turned to economic service, being employed, in the same manner as tungsten, for the production of the filaments employed in incandescent electric lighting.
Similarly, the forces acting in the opposite direction on the negative poles of the filaments have a resultant at another point S, which is called the south or negative pole.
The slender filaments of the stamens vary widely, often in the same flower; the anthers are linear to ovate in shape, attached at the back to the filament, and open lengthwise.
He supposed that the filaments of water which graze along the sides of the pipe lose a portion of their velocity; that the contiguous filaments, having on this account a greater velocity, rub upon the former, and suffer a diminution of their celerity; and that the other filaments are affected with similar retardations proportional to their distance from the axis of the pipe.Advertisement
At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.
The shell is thick, and operculate in some forms; thin, and provided with filaments, in others; in the latter cases it may contain only a few yolk-granules suspended in an albumen-like substance.
The tongue in snakes is narrow, almost worm-like, generally of a black colour and forked, that is, it terminates in front in two extremely fine filaments.
The species are numerous, and are distinguished one from another by the scales of the bulb being woolly or smooth on the inner surface, by the character of the flower-stalks, by the filaments being hairy or otherwise, and by other characters.
Cardium belongs to the order of Lamellibranchia in which the gills present the maximum of complexity, the original vertical filaments of which they are composed being united by interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions.Advertisement
The marginal tentacles may be very numerous or may be few in number or even absent altogether; and they may be simple filaments, or branched in a complicated manner.
These filaments are so fine and are set so closely together that they appear to form a continuous membrane until examined with a lens.
The microscope shows that the neighbouring filaments are held together by patches of cilia, called " ciliated junctions," which interlock with one another just as two brushes may be made to do.
The filaments of the gill (ctenidium) of Mytilus and Arca thus form two closely set rows which depend from the axis of the gill like two parallel plates.
Further, their structure is profoundly modified by the curious condition of the free ends of the depending filaments.Advertisement
This is the condition seen in Arca and Mytilus, the so-called plates dividing upon the slightest touch into their constituent filaments, which are but loosely conjoined by their " ciliated junctions."
Then let us suppose that the inter-lamellar junctions already noted in Mytilus become very numerous, large and irregular; by them the two trellis-works of filaments would be united so as to leave only a sponge-like set of spaces between them.
Section across the axis of a ctenidium with a pair of plates - flattened and shortened filaments - attached.
The filaments take on a secondary grouping, the surface of the lamella being thrown into a series of halfcylindrical ridges, each consisting of ten or twenty filaments; a filament of much greater strength and thickness than the others may be placed between each pair of groups.
The gill axis d is seen lying in the sub-pallial chamber between the foot b and the mantle c. From it depend the gillfilaments or lamellae - formed by united filaments - drawn as black lines f.
A,Part of four filaments seen from the outer face in order to show the ciliated junctions c.j.
In the filaments of the gill of Protobranchia and many Filibranchia the tubular cavity is divided by a more or less complete fibrous septum into two channels, for an afferent and efferent blood-current.
Gills folded and the filaments at summits and bases of the folds are different from the others.
Branchial filaments united by vascular interfilamentar junctions and vascular interlamellar junctions; the latter contain the afferent vessels.
The thread so ejected forms the silk of commerce, which as wound in the cocoon consists of filaments seriposited from two separate glands (discovered by an Italian naturalist named Filippi) containing a glutinous or resinous secretion which serves a double purpose, viz.
The object of reeling is to bring together the filaments (bave) from two or more (generally four or five, but sometimes up to twenty) cocoons, and to form them into one continuous, uniform, and regular strand, which constitutes the " raw silk " of commerce.
To do this, the natural gum of the cocoons which holds the filaments together must be softened, the ends of the filaments of the required number of cocoons must be caught, and means must be taken to unwind and lay these filaments together, so as to form a single uniform rounded strand of raw silk.
The ends of the requisite number of filaments being brought together, they are passed through an eyelet or guide, and similarly another equal set are passed through a corresponding guide.
The two sets of filaments are then crossed or twisted around each other several turns as if to make one thread, after which they are separated and passed through separate guides to the reel round which they are separately wound.
The object of crossing (croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated into a compact single fibre of raw silk.
From the tray the filaments are carried through a series of porcelain and glass eyelets, so arranged that the strand returns on itself, two portions of the same strand being crossed or intertwisted for rounding and consolidation, instead of the croissage of two separate strands as in the old method.
In the doubling, which is the next process, two or more filaments are wound together side by side on the same reel, preparatory to their being twisted or thrown into one yarn.
According to the qualities of raw silk used and the throwing operations undergone the principal classes of thrown silk are - (1) " singles," which consist of a single strand of twisted raw silk made up of the filaments of eight to ten cocoons; (2) tram or weft thread, consisting of two or three strands of raw silk not twisted before doubling and only lightly spun (this is soft, flossy and comparatively weak); (3) organzine, the thread used for warps, made from two and rarely three twisted strands spun in the direction contrary to that in which they are separately twisted.
We may mention the sensitiveness of the bill, which, though to some extent noticeable in many Sandpipers (q.v.), is in Snipes carried to an extreme by a number of filaments, belonging to the fifth pair of nerves, which run almost to the tip and open immediately under the soft cuticle in a series of cells that give this portion of the surface of the premaxillaries, when exposed, a honeycomb-like appearance.
The paraphyses; (which may be absent entirely in the Pyrenolichens) are erect, colourless filaments which are After Tulasne, from De Bary's Vergleichende Morphologie and Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoen and Bacterien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann.
Each gill has the structure of a typical molluscan ctenidium, consisting of an axis bearing an anterior and posterior row of filaments or lamellae.
They are often devoid of hyphae, or put forth fine protoplasmic filaments into the cells of their hosts.
Any one of these soon comes to rest on a host-cell, and either pierces it and empties its contents into its cavity, where the further development occurs (Olpidium), or merely sends in delicate protoplasmic filaments (Rhizophydium) or a short hyphal tube of, at most, two or three cells, which acts as a haustorium, the further development taking place outside the cell-wall of the host (Chytridium).
This charge is heated, like the filaments of a common household electric lamp, by the resistance which it offers to the passage of a current of electricity induced in it by means of the core C and the frame EEE.
On the living animal the overhair keeps the fur filaments apart, prevents their tendency to felt, and protects them from injury - thus securing to the animal an immunity from cold and storm; while, as a matter of fact, this very overhair, though of an humbler name, is most generally the beauty and pride of the pelt, and marks its chief value with the furrier.
The eggs are large and yellow, and produced in two rosary-like strings, as if strung together by elastic filaments continuous with the gelatinous capsules.
In the severed axon the degeneration is first evident in a breaking down of the naked nerve filaments of the motor end plate.
The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.
Such filaments may not give rise to mucilage on the I.
The mucilage may also form an embedding substance similar to that of Chroococcaceae, in which the filaments lie parallel or radiate from a common centre (Rivulariaceae).
In these cases, certain cells of a colony of unicellular plants or of the filaments of multicellular plants enlarge greatly and thicken their wall.
Attached to the bottom of pools series of the Confervales, the thallus consists of filaments branched by means of rhizoids, the thallus of Characeae grows upwards by or unbranched, attached at one extremity, and growing almost means of an apical cell, giving off whorled appendages at regular wholly at the free end.
The zygospore becomes surrounded with its own wall, consisting finally of three layers, the outer of which is furnished with spicular prominences of various forms. In Zygnemaceae there is no dissolution of the filaments, but the whole contents of one cell pass over by means of a conjugation-tube into the cavity of a cell of a neighbouring filament, where the zygospore is formed by the fusion of the two FIG.
Some Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae form either a short conjugating tube, or none at all, but the filaments approach each other by a knee-like bend, and the zygospore is formed at the point of contact, often being partially contained within the walls of the parent-cell.
In Fucaceae, Dictyotacea, and in Laminariaceae and Sphacelariaceae, among Phaeosporeae, the thallus consists of a true parenchyma; elsewhere it consists of free filaments, or filaments so compacted together, as in Cutleriaceae and Desmarestiaceae, as to form a false parenchyma.
The antheridia, which arise in the conceptacular cavity as special cells of branched filaments, are similarly discharged whole, the antherozoids only escaping when the antheridia are clear of the conceptacle.
If the sub-group, Bangiaceae, be excluded, they may be said to consist exclusively of branched filaments.
Like the Fungi, therefore, the Red Algae consist for the most part of branched filaments, even where the thallus appears massive to the eye, and, as in the case of Fungi, this fact is not inconsistent with a great variety of external morphology.
These are for the most part long, thin-walled, unicellular and colourless, and arise from the outer cells of the pseudo-cortex, or from the terminal cells of branches when the filaments are free.
In the compact thalli a secondary development often takes place by the growth of rhizoid-like internal filaments.
In Batrachospermum filaments arise from the carpogonium on all sides; in Chantransia and Scinaia on one side only; in Helminthora the filaments are enclosed in a dense mucilage; in Nemalion, prior to the formation of the filaments, a sterile segment is cut off below.
In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp. Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.
The filaments arising from the carpogonia grow into long thin tubes, which fuse with special cells rich in protoplasm contents; and from these points issue isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, several of which may form the product of one fertilized female cell.
In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.
In the Gigartinales, the filaments which arise from the auxiliary cell may spread and give rise to isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, as in the Cryptonemiales.
In Rhodomelaceae there is a special urn-shaped envelope surrounding the sporogenous filaments.
Structurally they are either a plate of cells, as in Porphyra, or filaments, as in Bangia.
He finds that eight chromosomes appear in karyokinesis in the ordinary thallus cells, but sixteen in the gonimoblast filaments derived from the fertilized carpogonium.
Thus Spirogyra filaments, which have been denuded of starch by being placed in the dark, form starch in one day if they are placed in a io to 20% solution of dextrose.
It generally takes the form of a single flattened disc as in the Fucaceae, or a group of fingerlike processes as in Laminariaceae, or a tuft of filaments as in many instances.
Others are attached throughout their extent, but also grow vertical filaments so as to form a velvety pile.
The larvae are aquatic, active, armed with strong sharp mandibles, and breathe by means of seven pairs of abdominal branchial filaments.
It has the same moderately long, plump body, with a low dorsal crest, the continuation of the membrane bordering the strongly compressed tail; a large thick head with small eyes without lids and with a large pendent upper lip; two pairs of well-developed limbs, with free digits; and above all, as the most characteristic feature, three large appendages on each side of the back of the head, fringed with filaments which, in their fullest development, remind one of black ostrich feathers.
The stamens are diadelphous, nine of them being united by their filaments f, while the uppermost one (e) is free; st, stigma, c, calyx.
The microorganism which causes the disease of bitterness (amer) forms longish branched filaments in the wine.
At last, however, he saw the loose filaments of the twine standing out every way, and he found them to be attracted by the approach of his finger.
The specially painful points are chiefly at the commencement of the nerve as it issues from the spinal canal, and at the extremities towards the front of the body, where it breaks up into filaments which ramify in the skin.
Filaments really consist of elongated cylindrical cells which remain united end to end after division, and they may break up later into elements such as those described above.
Such filaments are not always of the same diameter throughout, and their segmentation varies considerably.
If the sinuosity is slight we have the Vibrio form; if pronounced, and the spiral winding well marked, the forms are known as Spirillum, Spirochaete, &c. These and similar terms have been applied partly to individual cells, but more often to filaments consisting of several cells; and much confusion has arisen form the difficulty of defining the terms themselves.
It not unfrequently happens, however, that groups of cells break away from their former connexion as longer or shorter straight or curved filaments, or as solid masses.
If we place the base of the filament in each case on a base line in the order of the successive times of observation recorded, and at distances apart proportional to the intervals of time (8.30, 10.0, 10.30, 11.40, and so on) and erect the straightened-out filaments, the proportional length of each of which is here given for each period, a line joining the tips of the filaments gives the curve of growth.
The flame-like P u t the matter in another processes and outliers are composed of way, if we could imagine writhing filaments, and the contours all the living cells of a are continually changing while the large oak or of a horse, colony moves as a whole.
On the floor of the stomach are borne the conspicuous gonads (ov), and also tentacle-like processes termed gastric filaments or phacellae, projecting into the cavity of the stomach.
E, Young ephyra just liberated, showing the eight bifurcate arms of the disk ' and the interradial single gastral filaments.
The gastral filaments have increased to three in each of the four sets.
In nearly all Crustacea the antennules and often also the antennae bear groups of hair-like filaments in which the chitinous cuticle is extremely delicate and which do not taper to a point but end bluntly.
These are known as olfactory filaments or aesthetascs.
A pair of frontal papillae or filaments, probably sensory, are commonly present.
The head is somewhat rudimentary and without eyes, but bears two dorsal appendages produced into numerous long filaments.
At the base of the head dorsally are a pair of flat tentacular lobes from the edges of which the cephalic filaments or captacula arise.
From the base of the inner part of the tube of the flower, but quite free from it, uprises a cylindrical stalk surrounded below by a small cup-like outgrowth, and bearing above the middle a ring of five flat filaments each attached by a thread-like point to an anther.
Above the ring of stamens is the ovary itself, upraised on a prolongation of the same stalk which bears the filaments, or sessile.
They are hypogynous, and have long and very delicate filaments, and large, linear or oblong two-celled anthers, dorsifixed and ultimately very versatile, deeply indented at each end, and commonly exserted and pendulous.
The filaments elongate rapidly at flowering-time, and the lightly versatile anthers empty an abundance of finely granular smooth pollen through a longitudinal slit.
A common phenomenon in cycads is the production of roots which grow upwards (apogeotropic), and appear as coralline branched structures above the level of the ground; some of the cortical cells of these roots are hypertrophied, and contain numerous filaments of blue-green Algae (Nostocaceae), which live as endoparasites in the cell-cavities.
Each cone consists of an axis, on which numerous broad and thin bracts are arranged in regular rows; in the axil of each bract occurs a single flower; a male flower is enclosed by two opposite pairs of leaves, forming a perianth surrounding a central sterile ovule encircled by a ring of stamens united below, but free distally as short filaments, each of which terminates in a trilocular anther.
It has no sharp boundary, its brightness diminishes rapidly as we recede from the limb, and such structure as it shows consists of long streaks or filaments extending outwards from the limb in broad curved sweeps.
These bands Julius calls dispersion bands, and then, assuming that a species of tubular structure prevails within a large part of the sun (such as the filaments of the corona suggest for that region), he applies the weakening of the light to explain, for instance, the broad dark H and K calcium lines, and the sun-spots, besides many remoter applications.
It has been shown that these asulcar filaments are derived from the ectoderm, the re - mainder from the en doderm.
He discovered that in the nervous trunks there are special sensory filaments, the office of which is to transmit impressions from the periphery of the body to the sensorium, and special motor filaments which convey motor impressions from the brain or other nerve centre to the muscles.
He also showed that some nerves consist entirely of sensory filaments and are therefore sensory nerves, that others are composed of motor filaments and are therefore motor nerves, whilst a third variety contains both kinds of filaments and are therefore to be regarded as sensory-motor.
To render the organization of this creature perfect in relation to its wants, it is provided with three long filaments inserted along the middle of the head, which are, in fact, the detached and modified three first spines of the anterior dorsal fin.
The larvae are free-swimming and have the pelvic fins elongated into filaments.
Whatever the form, the upper surface is, however, covered with numerous fine papillae, in which the terminal filaments of the taste-nerve are distributed.
In Apus, as the figure shows, there are four of these " antenna-like " palps or filaments on the first thoracic limb.
They may have rudimentary exopodites, and may or may not have branchial filaments or lamellae developed on their posterior faces.
It seems probable that there are branchial plumes or filaments in some Arthropoda (some Crustacea) which can be identified with the distinct branchial organs of Chaetopoda, which lie dorsal of the parapodia and are not part of the parapodium.
These contain three stamens with thread-like filaments and oblong, two-lobed anthers.
The fine thread-like filaments composing the mycelium of the fungus are embedded in the tissue underneath and around the uredo-sorus, and draw from the host the nourishment required.
Changes are produced in the whorl of stamens by cohesion of the filaments to a greater or less extent, while the anthers remain free; thus, all the filaments of the androecium may unite, forming a tube round the pistil, or a central bundle when the pistil is abortive, the stamens becoming monadelphous, as occurs in plants of the Mallow tribe; or they may be arranged in two bundles, the stamens being diadelphous, as in Polygala, Fumaria and Pea; in this case the bundles may be equal or unequal.
The stamens are diadelphous, nine of them being united by their filaments (f), while one of them (e) is free; st, stigma; c, calyx.
When the perianth (p) expands, the filaments are thrown out with force as at a, so as to scatter the pollen.
It consists of minute interwoven tubular filaments, and has been variously interpreted as possibly representing the sheaths of a Cyanophycean Alga, and as constituting a Siphoneous thallus of the type of the Codieae.
Little trace of Confervaceae has been found; Confervites chantransioides, apparently consisting of branched cellular filaments, may perhaps represent a Cambrian Confervoid.
Cladiscothallus, from the Culm of Russia, in which the filaments are united to form hemispherical or globular tufts, has been compared by Renault to a Chaetophora.
Pachytheca is formed of cellular filaments resembling those of a Cladophora, irregularly interwoven in the central region, radiating towards the periphery, and often forked.
I have only just noticed that the filaments, holding the anthers, are covered in fine brown hairs.
Below this there are black anthers on red filaments.
Flowers have white to greenish corollas and purple anthers and filaments.
Under some conditions cofilin severs actin filaments, providing new plus ends for nucleation of actin filament growth.
Each motor drives a protruding helical filament, and the rotating filaments provide the propulsive force for cells to swim.
Once valves with indirectly heated filaments appeared things changed dramatically.
The mix of polyester filaments are coated in a gloss finish, making them easy to clean.
Tangles consist of highly insoluble pairs of filaments which are wound round each other like a double-stranded rope.
This wattage had to include the power to heat the filaments of the valves, which took 2 kilowatts alone!
But please bear in mind that in terms of light output, they can't compete with incandescent mantles or filaments.
A very high resolution electron micrograph shows that each myofibril is made of parallel filaments.
Yeast actin filaments display ATP-dependent sliding movement over surfaces coated with rabbit muscle myosin.
The thicker filaments in the central portion of the sarcomere are composed of the protein myosin; the thinner filaments are primarily actin.
The indentation effect might even be at work in the way porous silicon (with a myriad of nanoscopic filaments) emits light.
These are short segments of filaments consisting of a few cells which disengage themselves from the ambient jelly, if it be present, in virtue of a peculiar creeping movement which they possess at this stage.
Glass or plastic filaments allow the internal refraction of light for viewing.
Actin Filaments At least six different types of actin are synthesized by vertebrate cells.
Also the filaments are more even, only varying slightly in width.
The down plumage is very soft because ,unlike feather quill shafts, it contains what's called filaments that flow out in every direction.
At the Swedish Karolinska Institute, scientists succeeded in constructing a bridge of slender nerve filaments to connect a once-severed spinal cord in rats that subsequently were able to flex their legs.
As the powers of the telescope were gradually developed, it was found that the finest hairs or filaments of silk, or the thinnest silver wires that could be drawn, were much too thick for the refined purposes of the astronomer, as p p they entirely obliterated the image of a star in the more powerful telescopes.
They may bear accessory filaments or tentilla (f'), covered thickly with batteries of nematocysts, to which these organisms owe their great powers of -offence and defence.
Each palpacle is a tactile filament, very extensile, without accessory filaments or nematocysts.
The cells Cell and are commonly joined end to end in simple or branched Tissue filaments.
In the manufacture of these the substances were reduced to the form of slender filaments, shreds, rods, splints, yarn, twine and sennit or braid.
In Mirabilis Jalapa and others the filaments and style finally become intertwined, so that pollen is brought in contact with the stigma.