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filament

filament

filament Sentence Examples

  • Each palpacle is a tactile filament, very extensile, without accessory filaments or nematocysts.

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  • Denoting the cross-section a of a filament by dS and its mass by dm, the quantity wdS/dm is called the vorticity; this is the same at all points of a filament, and it does not change during the motion; and the vorticity is given by w cos edS/dm, if dS is the oblique section of which the normal makes an angle e with the filament, while the aggregate vorticity of a mass M inside a surface S is M - l fw cos edS.

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  • Cephalic shield continuous with neck; twelve to fourteen stomachal plates; a posterior pallial filament passing through a notch in shell.

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  • In short, the little chisel becomes in his fingers a painters brush, and when it is remembered that, the basis upon which he works being simply a thread of silk, his hand must be trained to such delicacy of muscular effort as to be capable of arresting the edge of the knile at varying depths within the diameter of the tiny filament, the difficulty of the achievement will be understood.

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  • Tungsten has been applied in the manufacture of filament electric lamps.

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  • Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.

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  • Inner capsule, continuous with wall of the filament, f.

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  • Consequently, each primitive filament has a descending and an ascending ramus, and instead of each row forming a simple plate, the plate is double, consisting of a descending and an ascending lamella.

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  • Consequently, each primitive filament has a descending and an ascending ramus, and instead of each row forming a simple plate, the plate is double, consisting of a descending and an ascending lamella.

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  • The poles at the ends of an infinitely thin uniform magnet, or magnetic filament, would act as definite centres of force.

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  • A girl with a small hand brush of twigs keeps stirring them in the water till the silk softens, and the outer loose fibres (floss) get entangled with the twigs and come off till the end of the main filament (maitre brin) is found.

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  • a cell with an internal cavity containing a vibrating filament or flagellum.

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  • Complications follow upon this in other forms. Even in Mytilus and Arca a connexion is here and there formed between the ascending and descending rami of a filament by hollow extensible outgrowths called " interlamellar junctions " (il.

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  • Nevertheless the filament is a complete tube formed of chitinous substance and clothed externally by ciliated epithelium, internally by endothelium and lacunar tissue - a form of connective tissue - as shown in fig.

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  • The thallus in all cases consists of a branched filament of cells placed end to end, as in many of the Green Algae.

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  • Fleming invented in 1904 a detector called an oscillation valve or glow lamp detector made as follows: 1 A small carbon filament incandescent lamp has a platinum plate or cylinder placed in it surrounding or close to the filament.

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  • The same would be the case if the magnetization of the filament varied inversely as the area of its cross-section a in different parts.

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  • So extensible is viscous glass that it can be drawn out into a filament sufficiently fine and elastic to be woven into a fabric.

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  • A vortex filament must close on itself, or end on a bounding surface, as seen when the tip of a spoon is drawn through the surface of water.

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  • A vortex filament must close on itself, or end on a bounding surface, as seen when the tip of a spoon is drawn through the surface of water.

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  • In Anodonta, besides being thickened, the skeletal substance of the filament develops a specially dense, rod-like body on each side of each filament.

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  • In Anodonta, besides being thickened, the skeletal substance of the filament develops a specially dense, rod-like body on each side of each filament.

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  • With a supply pressure of 200 volts a 5 c.p. carbon filament lamp takes only 0.1 ampere; hence unless a meter will begin to register with 1 1 - 6 - ampere it will fail to record the current consumed by a single small incandescent lamp. In a large supply system such failure would mean a serious loss of revenue.

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  • An alternative method consisted in passing an electric current through a filament of the tetroxide in a vacuum.

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  • An alternative method consisted in passing an electric current through a filament of the tetroxide in a vacuum.

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  • King patented filament electric lamps exhausted by the same methods.

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  • Rudimentary cephalic eyes occur in the Mytilidae and in Avicula at the base of the first filament of the inner gill, each consisting of a I pigmented epithelial fossa containing a cuticular lens.

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  • The four orders now retained exhibit successive stages in the modification of the ctenidia by reflection and concrescence of the filament, but other organs, such as the heart, adductors, renal organs, may not show corresponding stages.

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  • The cells of the filament may be all alike, and growth may occur equally in all parts (Oscillatoriaceae); or certain cells (heterocysts) may become marked off by their larger size and the transparency of their contents; in which case growth may still be distributed equally throughout (Nostoc), or the filament may be attached where the heterocyst arises, and grow out at the opposite extremity into a fine hair (Rivulariaceae).

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  • Among colonial Desmidiaceae, the break-up of the filament is a preliminary to this conjugation; otherwise the process is the same.

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  • In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.

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  • Among colonial Desmidiaceae, the break-up of the filament is a preliminary to this conjugation; otherwise the process is the same.

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  • B,Diagram of the posterior face of a single complete filament with descending ramus and ascending ramus ending in a hook-like process;ep.,ep.,the ciliated junctions; il,j ., inter-lamellar junction.

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  • Next follows the operation of cleaning, in which the silk is simply reeled from one bobbin to another, but on its way it passes through a slit which is sufficiently wide to pass the filament but stops the motion when a thick lump or nib is presented.

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  • The long connective of the single stamen is hinged to the short filament and has a shorter arm ending in a blunt process and a longer arm bearing a half-anther.

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  • In very many cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated movements of two or more parts.

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  • The zygospore becomes surrounded with its own wall, consisting finally of three layers, the outer of which is furnished with spicular prominences of various forms. In Zygnemaceae there is no dissolution of the filaments, but the whole contents of one cell pass over by means of a conjugation-tube into the cavity of a cell of a neighbouring filament, where the zygospore is formed by the fusion of the two FIG.

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  • In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp. Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.

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  • The nucleus of the ooblastema filament dominates the FIG.

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  • He has also seen Pleurococcus viridis dividing so as to form a filament, but has not succeeded in seeing the formation of zoospores as described by Chodat.

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  • Such a filament is called a simple magnetic solenoid, and the product aI is called the strength of the solenoid.

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  • " True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

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  • Phormidium sp., single filament with hormogonium.

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  • The experiment of Engelmann referred to deserves to be mentioned here, if only in illustration .of the use to which algae have been put in the study of physiological problems. Engelmann observed that certain bacteria were motile only in the presence of oxygen, and that they retained their motility in a microscopic preparation in the neighbourhood of an algal filament when they had come to rest elsewhere on account of the exhaustion of oxygen.

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  • The experiment of Engelmann referred to deserves to be mentioned here, if only in illustration .of the use to which algae have been put in the study of physiological problems. Engelmann observed that certain bacteria were motile only in the presence of oxygen, and that they retained their motility in a microscopic preparation in the neighbourhood of an algal filament when they had come to rest elsewhere on account of the exhaustion of oxygen.

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  • If a series of such elements, all equally and longitudinally magnetized, were placed end to end with their unlike poles in contact, the external action of the filament thus formed would be reduced to that of the two extreme poles.

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  • 19 a lateral surface either, in which case they are said to be free; when mucilage does occur on the lateral wall, it appears as the sheath surrounding either the single filament, or a sheaf of filaments of common origin.

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  • The attachment of the cell of an ooblastema filament to a cell of the thallus may be effected by means of a minute pore, or the two cells may fuse their contents into one protoplasmic mass.

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  • 3, The same, when disturbed by the entrance of the proboscis of the bee in the direction of the arrow; f, filament; c, connective; s, the obstructing half of the anther.

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  • In Champia and allied genera, the cylindrical axis is due not to the derivatives of one axial filament, but of several, the growth of which is co-ordinated to form a septated tube.

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  • The tail varies much in length and shape according to the species; sometimes it is rounded at the end, sometimes more or less acutely pointed, or even terminating in a filament.

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  • If through every point of a small closed curve the vortex lines are drawn, a tube is obtained, and the fluid contained is called a vortex filament.

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  • Hence in any infinitesimal part of the fluid the circulation is zero round every small plane curve passing through the vortex line; and consequently the circulation round any curve drawn on the surface of a vortex filament is zero.

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  • 11, C, tending in fact to obliterate altogether the lumen of the filament.

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  • (For further details on the form and arrangement of the flower and its parts, see Flower.) Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (microsporangia) which are associated to form the anther, and carried up on a stalk or filament.

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  • These aggregations or colonies, as they are termed, may attached to muddy surfaces by rhizoids; Caulerpa, on the other, assume the form of a plate, a ring, a solid sphere, a hollow sphere, presents a remarkable instance of the way in which much the same a perforate sphere, a closed net, or a simple or branched filament.

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  • Indeed the genus Oedogonium exhibits a high degree of specialization in its reproductive system, considering that its thallus has not advanced beyond the stage of an unbranched filament.

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  • Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."

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  • 1) varies from that of a minute sphere to that of a straight, curved, or twisted filament or cylinder, which is not necessarily of the same diameter throughout, and may have flattened, rounded, or even pointed ends.

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  • At f and g occurs the breaking up of the filament into rodlets.

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  • Germinating spores in various stages, more highly magnified, and showing the different ways of escape of the filament from the spore-membrane.

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  • In some filamentous forms this " fragmentation " into multicellular pieces of equal length or nearly so is a normal phenomenon, each partial filament repeat s ing the growth, division and q?

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  • If the cells remain connected the resulting filament repeats these processes of elongation and subsequent division uniformly so long as the conditions are maintained, and very accurate measurements have been obtained on such a form, e.g.

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  • Hardy has shown that such a destruction of part of the filament may be effected by the attacks of another organism.

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  • - Curve of growth of a filament of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), constructed from data such as in fig.

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  • The abscissae represent intervals of time, the ordinates the measured lengths of the growing filament.

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  • Thus, at 2.33 the length of the filament was 6; at 5.45, at 8 P.M., 70 and so on.

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  • If we place the base of the filament in each case on a base line in the order of the successive times of observation recorded, and at distances apart proportional to the intervals of time (8.30, 10.0, 10.30, 11.40, and so on) and erect the straightened-out filaments, the proportional length of each of which is here given for each period, a line joining the tips of the filaments gives the curve of growth.

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  • Stages of growth of a sheathed filament - a at 9 A.M., b at 3 P.M., cat 9 P.M., d at I I A.M.

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  • From the edges of the vase the four primary tentacles grow out, each a slender filament with a solid endodermal axis.

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  • F, Gastral filament.

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  • In Siphonopodiidae it ends in a disk with papillated margins, and in Pulsellum there is a filament in the centre of the disk.

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  • A typical male flower consists of a central axis bearing numerous spirally-arranged sporophylls (stamens), each of which consists of a slender stalk (filament) terminating distally in a more or less prominent knob or triangular scale, and bearing two or more pollen-sacs (microsporangia) on its lower surface.

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  • The stamens of Araucaria and Agathis are peculiar in bearing several long and narrow free pollen-sacs; these may be compared with the sporangiophores of the horsetails (Equisetum); in Taxus (yew) the filament is attached to the centre of a large circular distal expansion, which bears several pollen-sacs on its under surface.

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  • The lower part of the free edge of every mesentery, whether complete or incomplete, is thrown into numerous puckers or folds, and is furnished with a glandular thickening known as a mesenterial filament.

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  • Each mesentery has a filament; but two of them, namely, the pair farthest from the sulcus, are longer than the rest, and have a different form of filament.

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  • m, Mouth; mf, mesenterial filament; ax, axis.

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  • The filament most important in the economy of the angler is the first, which is the longest, terminates in a lappet, and is movable in every direction.

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  • In their most differentiated form each consists of a stalk, the filament (fig.

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  • - Stamen, consisting of a filament (stalk) f and an anther a, containing the pollen p, which is discharged through slits in the two lobes of the anther.

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  • In Scrophularia the fifth stamen appears as a scale-like body; in other Scrophulariaceae, as in Pentstemon, it assumes the form of a filament, with hairs at its apex in place of an anther.

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  • 25 f), and a broader portion, usually of two lobes, termed the anther (a), containing the powdery pollen (p), and supported upon the end of the filament.

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  • That portion of the filament in contact with the anther-lobes is termed the connective.

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  • Older flower with the stamens (S) anther is developed o n the c orolla dried up.er(X2) dth e hairs before the filament, and when the latter is not produced, the anther is sessile, as in the mistletoe.

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  • The filament is usually, as its name imports, filiform or threadlike, and cylindrical, or slightly tapering towards its summit.

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  • In some instances, as in Tamarix gallica, Peganum Harmala, and Campanula, the base of the filament is much dilated, and ends suddenly in a narrow thread-like portion.

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  • The filament varies much in length and in firmness.

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  • The filament is generally continuous from one end to the other, but in some cases it is bent or jointed, becoming geniculate; at other times, as in the pellitory, it is spiral.

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  • Hairs, scales, teeth or processes of different kinds are some times developed on the filament.

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  • In Lauraceae there are perfect stamens, each having at the base of the filament two abortive stamens or staminodes, which may be analogous to stipules.

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  • The anther entire (a) with its filament; section of anther (b) showing the four loculi.

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  • The anther is developed before the filament, and is always sessile in the first instance, and sometimes continues so.

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  • That part of the anther to which the filament is attached is the back, the opposite being the face.

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  • The anther-lobes are united to the connective, which is either continuous with the filament or articulated with it.

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  • When the filament is continuous with the connective, and is prolonged so that the anther-lobes appear to be united to it throughout their whole length, and lie in apposition to it and on both sides of it, the anther is said to be adnate or adherent; when the filament ends at the base of the anther, then the latter is innate or erect.

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  • 105), &c., where the filament is attached only to the middle of the connective.

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  • The connective is joined to the filament by a movable joint forming a lever which plays an important part in the pollinationmechanism.

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  • In Scrophularia the fifth stamen appears in the form of a scale; and in many Pentstemons it is reduced to a filament with hairs or a shrivelled membrane at the apex.

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  • lf, fertile lobe full of pollen; ls, barren lobe without pollen; e, connective; f, filament.

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  • - Stamen of Asclepias, showing filament f, anther a, and appendages p. Enlarged.

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  • (x 6z.) B, Stamens more highly magnified: g, vascular bundle of filament; e, pollen-sac after dehiscence.

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  • absent foot pulses and a stocking distribution neuropathy (could not feel a 10g filament ).

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  • The thin filament is made of a protein called actin.

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  • We conclude that precise control of actin filament dynamics by UNC-60B is required for proper integration of actin into myofibrils.

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  • actin filament rotating like a propeller.

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  • Under the microscope, dark-ground illumination reveals the details of one of the darker anthers and its filament.

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  • bulb filament?

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  • The tungsten bulb has a relatively large, tightly wound filament.

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  • Different types of light bulbs for lamps Using filament bulbs The most commonly used bulbs are filament light bulbs.

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  • The model is applied in evaluation of a remote virtual cathode system for use with the display using thermionic filament cathodes.

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  • cheaper to run than filament bulbs.

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  • There is more energy needed to eject the droplet and also the droplets are formed with a filament.

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  • eject the droplet and also the droplets are formed with a filament.

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  • Under some conditions cofilin severs actin filaments, providing new plus ends for nucleation of actin filament growth.

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  • Each motor drives a protruding helical filament, and the rotating filaments provide the propulsive force for cells to swim.

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  • The thin filament is made of a protein called actin.

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  • A type of intermediate filament found in epithelial cells.

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  • The thicker filament also means that the bulbs are more robust.

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  • filament bulb within a steel casing, which is often stolen or knocked off by passing traffic.

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  • filament lamps I've just removed?

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  • filament yarn.

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  • filament silk in two popular sizes.

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  • filament dynamics by UNC-60B is required for proper integration of actin into myofibrils.

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  • Video recording showed the fluorescent actin filament rotating like a propeller.

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  • A few decades ago a new design for tungsten filament lamps appeared on the scene.

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  • A myosin filament contains several hundred myosin molecules in two bundles packed end to end.

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  • Dactylogyrus 01 (gill fluke) (212 kb) A gill fluke on the edge of a gill filament at 100x magnification.

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  • For a festive version, try black glitter yarn or add a fine metallic or nylon light-reflective filament.

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  • filament in a light bulb.

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  • filament of a flashlight bulb.

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  • fluorescent lamps are cheaper to run than filament bulbs.

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  • Dactylogyrus 01 (gill fluke) (212 kb) A gill fluke on the edge of a gill filament at 100x magnification.

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  • helical filament, and the rotating filaments provide the propulsive force for cells to swim.

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  • Under the microscope, using dark-ground illumination, a single pollen covered filament can be seen to have spiked ridges.

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  • The filament is uneven when focussed and gives glare for the same field iris setting as Philips.

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  • Plus, the fluorescent lamps are cheaper to run than filament bulbs.

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  • At a point in time when the PM is most distant from the filament end, a new monomer is able to add on.

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  • The thick filament is made of a protein called myosin.

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  • myosin in the filament.

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  • A myosin filament contains several hundred myosin filament contains several hundred myosin molecules in two bundles packed end to end.

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  • nucleoprotein filament of HIV has a similar structure.

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  • Pollen sac ~ the bag that holds the pollen sac ~ the bag that holds the pollen at top of the filament.

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  • The rectifier tube - The most common problem with rectifier tubes is either low or loss of emission or an open filament.

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  • pollen sac ~ the bag that holds the pollen at top of the filament.

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  • severs actin filaments, providing new plus ends for nucleation of actin filament growth.

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  • These four are the first in a collection of fourteen - made of filament silk, they're surprisingly strong.

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  • Each filament is made up of many molecules of a protein called tau.

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  • tungsten filament lamps appeared on the scene.

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  • tungsten bulb has a relatively large, tightly wound filament.

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  • tungsten lampes ago a new design for tungsten filament lamps appeared on the scene.

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  • The advantage of low voltage 12v downlights versus 240v mains voltage downlights is a thicker filament.

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  • voltaic battery quite capable of lighting any filament lamp by simply connecting copper to zinc.

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  • white lightded to use warm white fluorescent light rather than the more efficient and economical sodium filament.

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  • Chapter 3 examines the prices of and market for spun yarn whilst Chapter 4 examines acetate filament yarn.

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  • Fleming invented in 1904 a detector called an oscillation valve or glow lamp detector made as follows: 1 A small carbon filament incandescent lamp has a platinum plate or cylinder placed in it surrounding or close to the filament.

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  • Fleming discovered that if the filament is made incandescent by the current from an insulated battery there is a unilateral conductivity of the rarefied gas between the hot filament and the metal plate, such that if the negative terminal of the filament is connected outside the lamp through a coil in which electric oscillations are created with the platinum plate, only one half of the oscillations are permitted to pass, viz., those which carry negative electricity from the hot filament to the cooled plate through the vacuous space.

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  • Such an oscillation valve was first used by Fleming as a receiver for wireless telegraph purposes in 1904 as follows: - In between the receiving antenna and the earth is placed the primary coil of an oscillation transformer; the secondary circuit of this transformer contains a galvanometer in series with it, and the two together are joined between the external negative terminal of the carbon filament of the above-described lamp and the insulated platinum plate.

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  • Wehnelt discovered that the same effect could be produced by using instead of a carbon filament a platinum wire covered with the oxides of calcium or barium, which when incandescent have the property of copiously emitting negative ions.

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  • Inner capsule, continuous with wall of the filament, f.

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  • Each palpacle is a tactile filament, very extensile, without accessory filaments or nematocysts.

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  • The tail varies much in length and shape according to the species; sometimes it is rounded at the end, sometimes more or less acutely pointed, or even terminating in a filament.

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  • The thallus in all cases consists of a branched filament of cells placed end to end, as in many of the Green Algae.

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  • Cephalic shield continuous with neck; twelve to fourteen stomachal plates; a posterior pallial filament passing through a notch in shell.

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  • The poles at the ends of an infinitely thin uniform magnet, or magnetic filament, would act as definite centres of force.

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  • If a series of such elements, all equally and longitudinally magnetized, were placed end to end with their unlike poles in contact, the external action of the filament thus formed would be reduced to that of the two extreme poles.

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  • The same would be the case if the magnetization of the filament varied inversely as the area of its cross-section a in different parts.

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  • Such a filament is called a simple magnetic solenoid, and the product aI is called the strength of the solenoid.

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  • The slender filaments of the stamens vary widely, often in the same flower; the anthers are linear to ovate in shape, attached at the back to the filament, and open lengthwise.

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  • King patented filament electric lamps exhausted by the same methods.

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  • Patten in 1824; whilst in 1881 Rankine Kennedy resuscitated the idea for the purpose of exhausting filament electric lamps.

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  • So extensible is viscous glass that it can be drawn out into a filament sufficiently fine and elastic to be woven into a fabric.

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  • At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.

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  • Considered by itself, with the cylinders held fixed, the vortex sets up a circumferential velocity m/r on a radius r, so that the angular momentum of a circular filament of annular cross section dA is pmdA, and of the whole vortex is pm7r(b2-a2).

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  • Any circular filament can be started from rest by the application of a circumferential impulse 7rpmdr at each end of a diameter; so that a mechanism attached to the cylinders, which can set up a uniform distributed impulse rpm across the two parts of a diameter in the liquid, will generate the vortex motion, and react on the cylinder with an impulse couple-pmira 2 and pm7rb 2, having resultant pm7r(b 2 -a 2), and this couple is infinite when b = oo, as the angular momentum of the vortex is infinite.

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  • If through every point of a small closed curve the vortex lines are drawn, a tube is obtained, and the fluid contained is called a vortex filament.

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  • Hence in any infinitesimal part of the fluid the circulation is zero round every small plane curve passing through the vortex line; and consequently the circulation round any curve drawn on the surface of a vortex filament is zero.

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  • The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.

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  • Denoting the cross-section a of a filament by dS and its mass by dm, the quantity wdS/dm is called the vorticity; this is the same at all points of a filament, and it does not change during the motion; and the vorticity is given by w cos edS/dm, if dS is the oblique section of which the normal makes an angle e with the filament, while the aggregate vorticity of a mass M inside a surface S is M - l fw cos edS.

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  • The perianth consists of five or six oblong greenish lobes, within which is found a tuft, consisting of a large number of stamens, each of which has a very short filament and an oblong two-lobed anther bursting longitudinally, and surmounted by an oblong lobe, which is the projecting end of the connective.

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  • In short, the little chisel becomes in his fingers a painters brush, and when it is remembered that, the basis upon which he works being simply a thread of silk, his hand must be trained to such delicacy of muscular effort as to be capable of arresting the edge of the knile at varying depths within the diameter of the tiny filament, the difficulty of the achievement will be understood.

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  • With a supply pressure of 200 volts a 5 c.p. carbon filament lamp takes only 0.1 ampere; hence unless a meter will begin to register with 1 1 - 6 - ampere it will fail to record the current consumed by a single small incandescent lamp. In a large supply system such failure would mean a serious loss of revenue.

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  • In very many cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated movements of two or more parts.

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  • The long connective of the single stamen is hinged to the short filament and has a shorter arm ending in a blunt process and a longer arm bearing a half-anther.

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  • 3, The same, when disturbed by the entrance of the proboscis of the bee in the direction of the arrow; f, filament; c, connective; s, the obstructing half of the anther.

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  • Complications follow upon this in other forms. Even in Mytilus and Arca a connexion is here and there formed between the ascending and descending rami of a filament by hollow extensible outgrowths called " interlamellar junctions " (il.

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  • Nevertheless the filament is a complete tube formed of chitinous substance and clothed externally by ciliated epithelium, internally by endothelium and lacunar tissue - a form of connective tissue - as shown in fig.

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  • 11, C, tending in fact to obliterate altogether the lumen of the filament.

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  • The filaments take on a secondary grouping, the surface of the lamella being thrown into a series of halfcylindrical ridges, each consisting of ten or twenty filaments; a filament of much greater strength and thickness than the others may be placed between each pair of groups.

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  • f.e., Frontal epithelium; l.f.e'., l.f.e"., the two rows of latero-frontal epithelial cells with long cilia; ch, chitinous tubular lining of the filament; lac., blood lacuna traversed by a few processes of connective tissue cells; b.c., blood-corpuscle.

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  • B,Diagram of the posterior face of a single complete filament with descending ramus and ascending ramus ending in a hook-like process;ep.,ep.,the ciliated junctions; il,j ., inter-lamellar junction.

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  • Rudimentary cephalic eyes occur in the Mytilidae and in Avicula at the base of the first filament of the inner gill, each consisting of a I pigmented epithelial fossa containing a cuticular lens.

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  • The four orders now retained exhibit successive stages in the modification of the ctenidia by reflection and concrescence of the filament, but other organs, such as the heart, adductors, renal organs, may not show corresponding stages.

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  • a cell with an internal cavity containing a vibrating filament or flagellum.

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  • A girl with a small hand brush of twigs keeps stirring them in the water till the silk softens, and the outer loose fibres (floss) get entangled with the twigs and come off till the end of the main filament (maitre brin) is found.

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  • In this water the cocoons are kept stirring by small brushes rotated by mechanical means, and as the silk softens the brushes gradually rise out of the water, bringing entangled with them the loose floss, and thereby revealing the main filament of each cocoon.

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  • Next follows the operation of cleaning, in which the silk is simply reeled from one bobbin to another, but on its way it passes through a slit which is sufficiently wide to pass the filament but stops the motion when a thick lump or nib is presented.

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  • (For further details on the form and arrangement of the flower and its parts, see Flower.) Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (microsporangia) which are associated to form the anther, and carried up on a stalk or filament.

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  • 19 a lateral surface either, in which case they are said to be free; when mucilage does occur on the lateral wall, it appears as the sheath surrounding either the single filament, or a sheaf of filaments of common origin.

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  • The cells of the filament may be all alike, and growth may occur equally in all parts (Oscillatoriaceae); or certain cells (heterocysts) may become marked off by their larger size and the transparency of their contents; in which case growth may still be distributed equally throughout (Nostoc), or the filament may be attached where the heterocyst arises, and grow out at the opposite extremity into a fine hair (Rivulariaceae).

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  • The former arises when a filament in a sheath, either in consequence of growth in length beyond the capacity of the sheath to accommodate it, FIG.

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  • " True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

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  • Phormidium sp., single filament with hormogonium.

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  • These aggregations or colonies, as they are termed, may attached to muddy surfaces by rhizoids; Caulerpa, on the other, assume the form of a plate, a ring, a solid sphere, a hollow sphere, presents a remarkable instance of the way in which much the same a perforate sphere, a closed net, or a simple or branched filament.

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  • Indeed the genus Oedogonium exhibits a high degree of specialization in its reproductive system, considering that its thallus has not advanced beyond the stage of an unbranched filament.

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  • The zygospore becomes surrounded with its own wall, consisting finally of three layers, the outer of which is furnished with spicular prominences of various forms. In Zygnemaceae there is no dissolution of the filaments, but the whole contents of one cell pass over by means of a conjugation-tube into the cavity of a cell of a neighbouring filament, where the zygospore is formed by the fusion of the two FIG.

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  • In Champia and allied genera, the cylindrical axis is due not to the derivatives of one axial filament, but of several, the growth of which is co-ordinated to form a septated tube.

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  • In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp. Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.

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  • In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.

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  • The attachment of the cell of an ooblastema filament to a cell of the thallus may be effected by means of a minute pore, or the two cells may fuse their contents into one protoplasmic mass.

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  • The nucleus of the ooblastema filament dominates the FIG.

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  • He has also seen Pleurococcus viridis dividing so as to form a filament, but has not succeeded in seeing the formation of zoospores as described by Chodat.

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  • After the bacteria had all been brought to rest by being placed in the dark, he threw a spectrum upon the filament, and observed in what region the bacteria first regained their motility, owing to the liberation of oxygen in the process of carbon-assimilation.

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  • Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."

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  • Tungsten has been applied in the manufacture of filament electric lamps.

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  • Edison in the United States, were engaged in struggling with the difficulties of producing a suitable carbon incandescence electric lamp. Edison constructed in 1879 a successful lamp of this type consisting of a vessel wholly of glass containing a carbon filament made by carbonizing paper or some other carbonizable material, the vessel being exhausted and the current led into the filament through platinum wires.

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  • 1) varies from that of a minute sphere to that of a straight, curved, or twisted filament or cylinder, which is not necessarily of the same diameter throughout, and may have flattened, rounded, or even pointed ends.

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  • The spore sown at I I A.M., as shown at a, had swollen (b) perceptibly by noon, and had germinated by 3.30 P.M., as shown at c: in d at 6 P.M., and e at 8.30 P.M.; the resulting filament is segmenting into bacilli as it elongates, and at midnight (f) consisted of twelve such segments.

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  • At f and g occurs the breaking up of the filament into rodlets.

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  • Germinating spores in various stages, more highly magnified, and showing the different ways of escape of the filament from the spore-membrane.

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  • In some filamentous forms this " fragmentation " into multicellular pieces of equal length or nearly so is a normal phenomenon, each partial filament repeat s ing the growth, division and q?

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  • If the cells remain connected the resulting filament repeats these processes of elongation and subsequent division uniformly so long as the conditions are maintained, and very accurate measurements have been obtained on such a form, e.g.

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  • the times taken by any portion of the filament to double its length - are constant, because each cell is equally active along the whole length; (2) there are optimum, minimum and maximum temperatures, other conditions remaining constant, at which growth begins, runs at its best and is soon exhausted, respectively; (3) that the most rapid cell-division and maximum growth do not necessarily accord with the best conditions for the life of the organism; and (4) that any sudden alteration of temperature brings about a check, though a slow rise may accelerate growth (fig.

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  • Hardy has shown that such a destruction of part of the filament may be effected by the attacks of another organism.

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  • - Curve of growth of a filament of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), constructed from data such as in fig.

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  • The abscissae represent intervals of time, the ordinates the measured lengths of the growing filament.

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  • Thus, at 2.33 the length of the filament was 6; at 5.45, at 8 P.M., 70 and so on.

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  • If we place the base of the filament in each case on a base line in the order of the successive times of observation recorded, and at distances apart proportional to the intervals of time (8.30, 10.0, 10.30, 11.40, and so on) and erect the straightened-out filaments, the proportional length of each of which is here given for each period, a line joining the tips of the filaments gives the curve of growth.

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  • Stages of growth of a sheathed filament - a at 9 A.M., b at 3 P.M., cat 9 P.M., d at I I A.M.

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  • From the edges of the vase the four primary tentacles grow out, each a slender filament with a solid endodermal axis.

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  • F, Gastral filament.

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  • In Siphonopodiidae it ends in a disk with papillated margins, and in Pulsellum there is a filament in the centre of the disk.

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  • disposed stamens; each stamen consists of a slender Flowers filament terminating in a small apical scale, which bears usually two, but not infrequently three or four pollen-sacs (fig.

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  • A typical male flower consists of a central axis bearing numerous spirally-arranged sporophylls (stamens), each of which consists of a slender stalk (filament) terminating distally in a more or less prominent knob or triangular scale, and bearing two or more pollen-sacs (microsporangia) on its lower surface.

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  • The stamens of Araucaria and Agathis are peculiar in bearing several long and narrow free pollen-sacs; these may be compared with the sporangiophores of the horsetails (Equisetum); in Taxus (yew) the filament is attached to the centre of a large circular distal expansion, which bears several pollen-sacs on its under surface.

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  • The lower part of the free edge of every mesentery, whether complete or incomplete, is thrown into numerous puckers or folds, and is furnished with a glandular thickening known as a mesenterial filament.

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  • Each mesentery has a filament; but two of them, namely, the pair farthest from the sulcus, are longer than the rest, and have a different form of filament.

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  • m, Mouth; mf, mesenterial filament; ax, axis.

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  • The filament most important in the economy of the angler is the first, which is the longest, terminates in a lappet, and is movable in every direction.

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  • In their most differentiated form each consists of a stalk, the filament (fig.

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  • - Stamen, consisting of a filament (stalk) f and an anther a, containing the pollen p, which is discharged through slits in the two lobes of the anther.

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  • In Scrophularia the fifth stamen appears as a scale-like body; in other Scrophulariaceae, as in Pentstemon, it assumes the form of a filament, with hairs at its apex in place of an anther.

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  • The stamen usually consists of two parts, a contracted portion, often thread-like, termed the filament (fig.

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  • 25 f), and a broader portion, usually of two lobes, termed the anther (a), containing the powdery pollen (p), and supported upon the end of the filament.

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  • That portion of the filament in contact with the anther-lobes is termed the connective.

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  • Older flower with the stamens (S) anther is developed o n the c orolla dried up.er(X2) dth e hairs before the filament, and when the latter is not produced, the anther is sessile, as in the mistletoe.

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  • The filament is usually, as its name imports, filiform or threadlike, and cylindrical, or slightly tapering towards its summit.

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  • In some instances, as in Tamarix gallica, Peganum Harmala, and Campanula, the base of the filament is much dilated, and ends suddenly in a narrow thread-like portion.

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  • The filament varies much in length and in firmness.

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  • The filament is usually of sufficient solidity to support the anther in an erect position; but sometimes, as in grasses, and other wind-pollinated flowers, it is very delicate and hair-like, so that the anther is pendulous (fig.

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  • The filament is generally continuous from one end to the other, but in some cases it is bent or jointed, becoming geniculate; at other times, as in the pellitory, it is spiral.

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  • Hairs, scales, teeth or processes of different kinds are some times developed on the filament.

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  • In Lauraceae there are perfect stamens, each having at the base of the filament two abortive stamens or staminodes, which may be analogous to stipules.

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  • The anther entire (a) with its filament; section of anther (b) showing the four loculi.

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  • The anther is developed before the filament, and is always sessile in the first instance, and sometimes continues so.

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  • That part of the anther to which the filament is attached is the back, the opposite being the face.

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  • The anther-lobes are united to the connective, which is either continuous with the filament or articulated with it.

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  • When the filament is continuous with the connective, and is prolonged so that the anther-lobes appear to be united to it throughout their whole length, and lie in apposition to it and on both sides of it, the anther is said to be adnate or adherent; when the filament ends at the base of the anther, then the latter is innate or erect.

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  • 105), &c., where the filament is attached only to the middle of the connective.

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  • In Salvia officinalis the connective is attached to the filament in a horizontal manner, so as to separate the two anther-lobes (fig.

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  • The connective is joined to the filament by a movable joint forming a lever which plays an important part in the pollinationmechanism.

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  • In Scrophularia the fifth stamen appears in the form of a scale; and in many Pentstemons it is reduced to a filament with hairs or a shrivelled membrane at the apex.

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  • lf, fertile lobe full of pollen; ls, barren lobe without pollen; e, connective; f, filament.

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  • - Stamen of Asclepias, showing filament f, anther a, and appendages p. Enlarged.

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  • (x 6z.) B, Stamens more highly magnified: g, vascular bundle of filament; e, pollen-sac after dehiscence.

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  • Each stamen consists of a long filament, bearing several erect, cylindrical pollen-sacs at its summit (cf.

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  • The Rectifier Tube - The most common problem with rectifier tubes is either low or loss of emission or an open filament.

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  • These four are the first in a collection of fourteen - made of filament silk, they 're surprisingly strong.

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  • Each filament is made up of many molecules of a protein called tau.

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  • It is possible to filament wind with prepreg tapes or with thermoplastic matrix composites.

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  • The advantage of low voltage 12v downlights versus 240v mains voltage downlights is a thicker filament.

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  • Any schoolboy today knows that you can make a voltaic battery quite capable of lighting any filament lamp by simply connecting copper to zinc.

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  • Most generic lights which use filament bulbs which produce a yellowy light that is not as bright as a discharge lamp.

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  • This standard bulb uses a heated filament to radiate light.

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  • Halogen gas and a regular light bulb filament combine in a quartz envelope to create a high-wattage, yet still cost-effective light source.

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  • To assemble, attach the filament line to one chair, thread the slinky onto the line, and then attach to the second chair.

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  • The filament line can either be tied to the chair, or taped on securely.

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  • Marsh invented a product known as Nichrome wire, a filament that has the ability to withstand the intense heat that it takes to toast a piece of bread quickly.

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  • For years it was most famous as the material the filament of a light bulb is made from and was strictly for industrial use.

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  • Wrap a strip of nylon filament packing tape around each suitcase to insure it stays closed should it be drop-kicked or otherwise mistreated by baggage handlers.

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  • Made of lightweight filament silk, it skims the thighs, has an elastic waist and can be machine-washed.

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  • Made of filament silk and machine-washable.

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  • filament.

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  • After the bacteria had all been brought to rest by being placed in the dark, he threw a spectrum upon the filament, and observed in what region the bacteria first regained their motility, owing to the liberation of oxygen in the process of carbon-assimilation.

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    1
  • Edison in the United States, were engaged in struggling with the difficulties of producing a suitable carbon incandescence electric lamp. Edison constructed in 1879 a successful lamp of this type consisting of a vessel wholly of glass containing a carbon filament made by carbonizing paper or some other carbonizable material, the vessel being exhausted and the current led into the filament through platinum wires.

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    1
  • Fleming discovered that if the filament is made incandescent by the current from an insulated battery there is a unilateral conductivity of the rarefied gas between the hot filament and the metal plate, such that if the negative terminal of the filament is connected outside the lamp through a coil in which electric oscillations are created with the platinum plate, only one half of the oscillations are permitted to pass, viz., those which carry negative electricity from the hot filament to the cooled plate through the vacuous space.

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  • Such an oscillation valve was first used by Fleming as a receiver for wireless telegraph purposes in 1904 as follows: - In between the receiving antenna and the earth is placed the primary coil of an oscillation transformer; the secondary circuit of this transformer contains a galvanometer in series with it, and the two together are joined between the external negative terminal of the carbon filament of the above-described lamp and the insulated platinum plate.

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  • The slender filaments of the stamens vary widely, often in the same flower; the anthers are linear to ovate in shape, attached at the back to the filament, and open lengthwise.

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  • At a time when the Cartesian system of vortices universally prevailed, he found it necessary to investigate that hypothesis, and in the course of his investigations he showed that the velocity of any stratum of the vortex is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the strata which enclose it; and from this it evidently follows that the velocity of a filament of water moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean between the velocities of the filaments which surround it.

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  • If at any points of a vortex line the cross-section ABC, A'B'C' is drawn of the vortex filament, joined by the vortex line AA', then, since the flow in AA' is taken in opposite directions in the complete circuit ABC AA'B'C' A'A, the resultant flow in AA' cancels, and the circulation in ABC, A'B'C' is the same; this is expressed by saying that at all points of a vortex filament wa is constant where a is the cross-section of the filament and w the resultant spin (W.

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    2
  • The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.

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  • The perianth consists of five or six oblong greenish lobes, within which is found a tuft, consisting of a large number of stamens, each of which has a very short filament and an oblong two-lobed anther bursting longitudinally, and surmounted by an oblong lobe, which is the projecting end of the connective.

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  • The essence of his views is contained in the following passage, which he follows up with the conclusion "that one and the same kind of living filaments is and has been the cause of all organic life": "Would it be too bold to imagine that, in the great length of time since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, - would it be too bold to imagine that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which the great First Cause endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions and associations, and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down these improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!"

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    2
  • If at any points of a vortex line the cross-section ABC, A'B'C' is drawn of the vortex filament, joined by the vortex line AA', then, since the flow in AA' is taken in opposite directions in the complete circuit ABC AA'B'C' A'A, the resultant flow in AA' cancels, and the circulation in ABC, A'B'C' is the same; this is expressed by saying that at all points of a vortex filament wa is constant where a is the cross-section of the filament and w the resultant spin (W.

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  • Patten in 1824; whilst in 1881 Rankine Kennedy resuscitated the idea for the purpose of exhausting filament electric lamps.

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  • The filaments take on a secondary grouping, the surface of the lamella being thrown into a series of halfcylindrical ridges, each consisting of ten or twenty filaments; a filament of much greater strength and thickness than the others may be placed between each pair of groups.

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    3
  • The essence of his views is contained in the following passage, which he follows up with the conclusion "that one and the same kind of living filaments is and has been the cause of all organic life": "Would it be too bold to imagine that, in the great length of time since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, - would it be too bold to imagine that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which the great First Cause endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions and associations, and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down these improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!"

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    3
  • In this water the cocoons are kept stirring by small brushes rotated by mechanical means, and as the silk softens the brushes gradually rise out of the water, bringing entangled with them the loose floss, and thereby revealing the main filament of each cocoon.

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    8
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