How to use Fields in a sentence
I can see plenty of nice gardens and fields down below us, at the edge of this city.
The desert and lava fields behind them, they made good time.
We asked about buildings; there were none, only corn in the four fields separated by the cross roads.
It was a year in which all agriculture was remitted, in which the fields lay unsown and the vines grew unpruned, only the spontaneous yield of the land might be gathered.
There are no larger fields than these, no worthier games than may here be played.Advertisement
The camping facilities were secondary to the main park functions, multiple ball fields, tennis courts and twenty-four horse shoe pits, for the serious pitcher.
She kept the doors locked and pulled Brutus in from the fields to walk with them when they did chores.
Of late years many experiments have been made on the influence of electric fields or currents on plant growth.
These fields are about to explode with innovation and advancement.
The strongest magnetic fields employed for experimental purposes are obtained by the use of electromagnets.Advertisement
Not till the 13th of February were the miserable remnants of the population permitted to rebuild their houses and cultivate their fields once more.
The output is to-day relatively small in comparison with that of many other fields, but there are one or two permanent gold mines of great value working low-grade ore.
A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits.
The fields of New South Wales have proved to be of immense value, the yield of silver and lead during 1905 being £2,500,000, and the total output to the end of the year named over £40,000,000.
Although indications of silver abound in all the other states, no fields of great importance have yet been discovered.Advertisement
The returns from the copper fields in the state are at present a little over half a million sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication with the coast.
The yield of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1890 extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland district - at Omeo and Tarwin.
Iron is distributed throughout Australia, but for want of capital for developing the fields this industry has not progressed.
The most extensive fields are in the Mittagong, Wallerawang and Rylstone districts, which are roughly estimated to contain in the aggregate 12,944,000 tons of ore, containing 5,853,000 tons of metallic iron.
In Queensland the fields were all showing development in 1891, when the output exhibited a very large increase compared with that of former years; but, as in the case of Victoria, the production of the metal seems to have ceased.Advertisement
The establishment of the gold fields caused many people to move West.
Battersea Fields, bordering the river, were formerly a favourite resort, so that the park also perpetuates a memory.
Minerals remained for the most part unworked, though the profitable coal fields and oil wells in Ferghana were used when disturbances in Trans-Caspia cut Turkestan off from the Baku oil, on which it relies entirely for its industrial life.
It has large coal mines, which form the south-western portion of the extensive Upper Silesian coal fields, the largest Austrian deposit.
The Royalist cavalry was disorganized by victory as often as by defeat, and illustrated on numerous fields the now discredited maxim that cavalry cannot charge twice in one day.Advertisement
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The Phlegraean Fields embrace all the country round Baiae and Pozzuoli and the adjoining islands.
The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
The fields of Tuscany for the most part bear wheat one year and maize the next, in perpetual interchanges, relieved to some extent by green crops.
Battles became all but bloodless; diplomacy and tactics superseded feats of arms and hard blows in pitched fields.
Life and Letters of Harriet Beecher Stowe, edited by Annie Fields (Boston, 1898).
A great deal of work still remains to be done in this department, which at the present time affords one of the most promising fields of anatomical investigation.
Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.
No measures had been taken to supply these voluntary crusaders with food or clothing; as harvest-time approached, the landlords commanded them to return to reap the fields, and on their refusing to do so, proceeded to maltreat their wives and families and set their armed retainers upon the half-starved multitudes.
Though feeding largely on worms and insects they ravage gardens and fields, on which account they are detested by the colonists.
Natural gas is piped to Frostburg from the West Virginia fields, 120 m.
If Britain and Sicily were the greatest fields of their enterprise, they were very far from being the only fields.
The circumstances of his settlement in his two great fields of conquest were widely different; his position when he was fully established in his two insular realms was widely different; but the end has been the same in both cases.
One good feature of the Russian primary school system, however, is that in many villages there are school gardens or fields; in nearly moo schools, bee-keeping, and in 300 silkworm culture is taught; while in some 900 schools the children receive instruction in various trades; and in 300 schools in slojd (a system of manual training originated in Finland).
Out of these have grown large factories, employing as many as 10,000 to 12,000 men each; but when harvest comes round, these men leave the factories and repair to their fields, and meantime the factories stand still for two or three months.
The remains were dismembered and carried to the fields, excepting the portion offered to the earth goddess, which was buried.
The Pawnees, however, had an elaborate ritual, in which a human victim was sacrificed to the Morning Star; the blood of the victims was sprinkled on the fields, and the details of the rite are not unlike those of the Khond custom.
Charles's ambition aimed at wider fields, and when Margaret, countess of Flanders, asked help of the French court against the German king William of Holland, by whom she had been defeated, he gladly accepted her offer of the county of; Hainaut in exchange for his assistance (1253); this arrangement was, however, rescinded by Louis of France, who returned from captivity in 1254, and Charles gave up Hainaut for an immense sum of money.
Semitic tribes wandered northwards from their home in Arabia to seek sustenance in its more fertile fields, to plunder, or to escape the pressure of tribes in the rear.
The study of the clan-group as an organization is as instructive here as in other fields.
The true nature of this relation can be readily observed in other fields (ancient Britain, Greece, Egypt, &c.), where, however, the native documents and sources have not that complexity which characterizes the composite biblical history.
In Elephantine, as in Nippur, the legal usages show that similar elements of Babylonio-Assyrian culture prevailed, and the evidence from two such widely separated fields is instructive for conditions in Palestine itself.3 20.
His miracles were reported and eagerly believed everywhere; " from Poland, Hamburg and Amsterdam treasures poured into his court; in the Levant young men and maidens prophesied before him; the Persian Jews refused to till the fields.
In all these fields they have achieved prominence.
The dry season lasts from October to May, the hottest months appear to be in March and April, when the heat is increased by the burning of the corn and henequen fields.
Rawling, who have increased our knowledge of ancient fields of industry and commerce in Turkestan and Tibet.
Woodthorpe was followed into Burmese fields by many others; and amongst the earliest travellers to those mysterious mountains which hide the sources of the Irrawaddy, the Salween and the Mekong, was Prince Henri d'Orleans Burma was rapidly brought under survey; Siam was already in the 'mapmaking hands of James M'Carthy, whilst Curzon and Warrington Smyth added much to our knowledge of its picturesque coast districts.
In still more western fields of research much additional light has been thrown since 1875 on the physiography of the great deserts and oases of Arabia.
To such fields may be added the yet more complicated problems of those reflex waves which flowed backwards from India into the border highlands.
The reputation of the district immediately to the south, embraced in the parish of St Giles in the Fields, was far different.
The present parish church of St Giles in the Fields, between Shaftesbury Avenue and New Oxford Street, dates from 1734, but here was situated a leper's hospital founded by Matilda, wife of Henry I., in i ioi.
To the west lie the fine square, with public gardens, still called, from its original character, Lincoln's Inn Fields.
The varied collections of Sir John Soane, accumulated at his house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, are open to view as the Soane Museum.
There may also be mentioned the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields, with museum; the Royal Colleges of Organists, and of Veterinary Surgeons, the College of Preceptors, the Jews' College, and the Metropolitan School of Shorthand.
But the costume and physiognomy of the inhabitants, the narrow streets and flatroofed, whitewashed houses, and more than all, the thousands of palm-trees in its gardens and fields, give the place a strikingly Oriental aspect, and render it unique among the cities of Spain.
The women have frankness and strength of character; they work hard in the fields, and as a rule evince domestic virtue.
Next came the sowing, the seed being pressed into the soil by the feet of sheep which were driven over the fields.
The stones were carefully cleared from the fields, which were also watered from canals and conduits, communicating with the brooks and streams with which the country " was well watered everywhere," and enriched by the application of manures.
The arable land was divided into two or, more usually, three fields, which were cut up into strips bounded by balks and allotted to the villagers in such a way that one holding might include several disconnected strips in each field - a measure designed to prevent the whole of the best land falling to one man.
The fields were fenced in from seed-time to harvest, after which the fences were taken 1 Translation by Clement-Mullet (Paris, 1864).
This procedure was followed on each of the three fields so that in every year one of them was fallow.
Enclosures must have been numerous in some counties; and there is a very good comparison between " champion (open fields) country and several," which Blith afterwards transcribed into his Improver Improved.
Carrots, cabbages, turnips and rape, not yet cultivated in the fields, are mentioned among the herbs and roots for the kitchen.
He is a great enemy to commons and common fields, and to retaining land in 1 During the 16th century wheat had risen in price, and between 1606 and 1618 never fell below 30s.
The mountaineers breed some cattle and sheep, and cultivate small fields on the mountain-sides.
The coal fields, comprising a total area of 10,000 sq.
The only uniform practice is to let the fields " rest " when they have become exhausted.
Fields considered utterly used up, and allowed to " rest " for years, when cultivated again have produced better crops than those which had been under a more or less thoughtful rotation.
Lowne's machine is useful in specially wide-planted fields and when the ground is sufficiently hard.
The proportions of England's fields supplies drawn from different fields is indicated in the table below.
There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
From Oil Creek, development spread first over the eastern United States and then became general, subsequently embracing Canada (1862), recently discovered fields being those of Illinois, Alberta and California (44,854,737 barrels in 1908).
Oil fields are being continually opened up in other parts of the world, and whilst America still maintains her position as the largest petroleum producer, the world's supplies are now being derived from a steadily increasing number of centres.
They need not be horizontal, and sometimes have a dip of a few feet per mile, as in the case of the Ohio and Indiana oil fields, where the amount varies from one to ten feet.
The extremely high pressure under which oil is met with in wells drilled in some parts of the Russian oil fields is a matter of common knowledge, and a fountain or spouting well resulting therefrom is one of the " sights" of the country.
The conditions of formation and accumulation of petroleum point to the fact that the principal oil fields of the world are merely reservoirs, which will become exhausted in the course of years, as in the case of the decreasing yield of certain of the American fields.
In this list, while certain occurrences in rocks of undetermined age in little-known regions have been omitted, many of those included are of merely academic interest, and a still larger number indicate fields supplying at present only local needs.
The " wild-cat " wells, sunk by speculators on untested territory or on lands which had not previously proved productive, played an important part in the earlier mapping out of the petroleum fields.
Experience has proved that in some of the oil fields of the United States one well to five acres is as close as they should be drilled.
In the religious system of Numa, Quirinus and Mars were both recognized as divine beings, distinct but of similar attributes and functions; thus, like Mars, Quirinus was at once a god of war and a nature god, the protector of fields and flocks.
In the irrigated fields the rice plants are first grown in nurseries, and are subsequently transplanted when they have reached a certain stage of development.
Originally a nature goddess (like Venus the garden goddess, with whom she was sometimes identified), she represented at first the hope of fruitful gardens and fields, then of abundant offspring, and lastly of prosperity to come and good fortune in general, being hence invoked on birthdays and at weddings.
Planting crosses in the open fields he drew the people to desert the churches, and had won a great following throughout all Neustria.
In both fields he displayed much talent, and by writing his Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains and in the British and Russian Possessions in North America (1836), and by founding the American Ethnological Society of New York in 1842, he earned the title of "Father of American Ethnology."
If Athens lost her supremacy in the fields of science and scholarship to Alexandria, she became more than ever the home of philosophy, while Menander and the other poets of the New Comedy made Athenian life and manners known throughout the civilized world.
On the 8th of February 1662 she removed to Leicester House in Leicester Fields, and died shortly afterwards on the 13th of the same month being buried in Westminster Abbey.
This theory brought together, as it were, the most varied compounds, and stimulated inquiry into many fields.
The same phenomena have been witnessed, not only in the conflicts within the Church that marked the 13th to the 16th centuries, but in the different mission fields, and particularly in Madagascar and China.
There is a public park, besides bowling-greens and cricket and football fields.
Pointers are employed to mark game for guns, and are especially' useful in low cover such as that afforded by turnip fields.
In 1909 the number of missionaries (including wives) was 113; organized churches, 194; members and adherents, 21,085; schools, 135; pupils, 7042; hospitals and dispensaries, 17; patients treated, 6865; subscriptions raised from Friends in Great Britain and Ireland, £26,689, besides £3245 received in the fields of work.
Lancaster is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural region, has good transportation facilities, and is near the Hocking Valley and Sunday Creek Valley coal-fields; its commercial and industrial importance increased greatly, after 1900, through the development of the neighbouring natural gas fields and, after 1907-1908, through the discovery of petroleum near the city.
In 1909 Jennings was the chief field in Louisiana, lesser fields being at Welsh, Anse la Butte, Caddo and Vinton.
In 1544 the Indians, so far as they had not succumbed to the labour of the mines and fields to which they were put by the Spaniards, were proclaimed emancipated.
Two relations R and R' are said to be ordinally similar, if a one-one relation holds between the members of the two fields of R and R', such that if x and y are any two members of the field of R, such that x has the relation R to y, and if x' and y are the correlates in the field of R' of x and y, then in all such cases x has the relation R' to y', and conversely, interchanging the dashes on the letters, i.e.
R and R', x and x', &c. It is evident that the ordinal similarity of two relations implies the cardinal similarity of their fields, but not conversely.
The addition and multiplication of two relation-numbers is defined by taking two relations R and S, such that (I) their fields have no Cf.
Similarly, a class of serial relations, called well-ordered serial relations, can be defined, such that their corresponding relation-numbers include the ordinary finite ordinals, but also include relation-numbers which have many properties like those of the finite ordinals, though the fields of the relations belonging to them are not finite.
After 1881 the Mining Company of Bosnia began to develop the coal and iron fields; and from 1886 its operations were continued by the government.
His controversial writings have not received due recognition, partly because they were opposed to the drift of his times, partly because of his success in other fields.
Their slopes enclose well-watered valleys of great fertility, in which the Berber tribes cultivate tiny irrigated fields, their houses clinging to the hill-sides.
The city owned in 1905 about 290 acres of parks and "open spaces," the chief being Roath Park of Too acres (including a botanical garden of 15 acres), Llandaff fields of 70 acres, and Cathays Park of 60 acres, which was acquired in 1900 mainly with the view of placing in it the chief public buildings of the town.
There are two gravitational fields which sometimes reinforce and at other times diminish each other and the effect is always a resultant one.
Water is plentiful in the Elburz, and situated in well-watered valleys and gorges are innumerable flourishing villages, embosomed in gardens and orchards, with extensive cultivated fields and meadows, and at higher altitudes small plateaus, under snow until March or April, afford cool camping grounds to the nomads of the plains, and luxuriant grazing to their sheep and cattle during the summer.
In any case, eventually, Franks fought (451) in the Roman ranks at the great battle of Mauriac (the Catalaunian Fields), which arrested the progress of Attila into Gaul; and in the Vita Lupi, which, though undoubtedly of later date, is a recension of an earlier document, the name of Meroveus appears among the combatants.
It lives entirely away from houses, commonly taking up its abode in wheat or hay fields, where it builds a round grass nest about the size of a cricket-ball, in which it brings up its young.
South-east Transbaikalia suffers from want of water, and the Buriats have to irrigate their fields.
Their bronze ornaments and implements, often polished, evince considerable artistic taste; and their irrigated fields covered wide areas in the fertile tracts.
Their reputation as raiders is sufficiently shown in the division of the tribe into two clans, the Hazari-khoas or "eaters of a thousand hearths," and the Kapah-chors or "thieves that lurk in the cotton fields."
The resultant magnetic field, therefore, is compounded of two fields, the one being due to the poles, and the other to the external causes which would be operative in the absence of the magnetized metal.
Curves of magnetization (which express the relation of I to H) have a close resemblance to those of induction; and, indeed, since B = H+47r1, and 47rI (except in extreme fields) greatly exceeds H in numerical value, we may generally, without serious error, put I = B /47r, and transform curves of induction into curves of magnetization by merely altering the scale to which the ordinates are referred.
But when exceptionally strong fields are desired, the use of a coil is limited by the heating effect of the magnetizing current, the quantity of heat generated per unit of time in a coil of given dimensions increasing as the square of the magnetic field produced in its interior.
For fields of moderate intensity the first term of the expression is the more important, but when the value of H exceeds 12,000 or thereabouts, the second preponderates, and with the highest values that have been actually obtained, HI is several times greater than 21rI 2.
Magnetization In Very Weak Fields Some interesting, observations have been made of the effects produced by very small magnetic forces.
If these equations could be assumed to hold when H is indefinitely small, it would follow that has a finite initial value, from which there would be no appreciable deviation in fields so weak that bH was negligibly small in comparison with a.
In hardened iron and steel the effect can scarcely be detected, and in weak fields these metals exhibit no magnetic hysteresis of any kind.
It appears that the contraction which followed the initial extension of the iron reached a limit in fields of i 000 or 1100.
In weak fields the magnetic contraction is always diminished by pulling stress; in strong fields the contraction increases under a small load and diminishes under a heavy one.
In the case of the ring in question, the circumferential changes were in weak fields less than twice as great as the transverse ones, while in strong fields they were more than twice as great; under increasing magnetic force therefore the volume of the ring was first diminished, then it regained its original value (for H=go), and ultimately increased.
Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.
Austin, who found continuous elongation with increasing fields, the curves obtained bearing some resemblance to curves of magnetization.
Nagaoka and Honda, who employed a fluid dilatometer, found that the volume of several specimens of iron, steel and nickel was always slightly increased, no diminution being indicated in low fields; cobalt, on the other hand, was diminished in volume, and the amount of the change, though still very small, was greater than that shown by the other metals.
The Villari critical point for aegiven sample of iron is reached with a smaller magnetizing force when the stretching load is great than when it is small; the reversal also occurs with smaller loads and with weaker fields when the iron is soft than when it is hard.
Analogous changes are observed in the residual magnetization which remains after the wire has been subjected to fields of different strength.
The effects of longitudinal pressure are opposite to those of traction; when the cyclic condition has been reached, pressure reduces the magnetization of iron in weak fields and increases it in strong fields (Ewing, Magnetic Induction, 1900, 223).
Ewing and Cowan looked carefully for it, especially in weak fields, but failed to discover anything of the kind.'
Heydweiller, 2 which appeared to indicate a reversal in weak fields (corresponding to I= 5, or thereabouts), have been shown by Honda and Shimizu to be vitiated by the fact that his specimen was not initially in a magnetically neutral state; they found that when the applied field had the same direction as that of the permanent magnetization, Heydweiller's fallacious results were easily obtained; but if the field were applied in the direction opposite to that of the permanent magnetization, or if, as should rightly be the case, there were no permanent magnetization at all, then there was no indication of any Villari reversal.
The effect of tension was subsequently studied by Nagaoka and Honda, who in 1902 confirmed, mutatis mutandis, the results obtained by Chree and Ewing for cast cobalt, while for annealed cobalt it turned out that tension always caused diminution of magnetization, the diminution increasing with increasing fields.
Magnetization produces inTension produces increase of crease of length in weak fields, magnetization in weak fields, decrease in strong fields.
Magnetization produces de- Tension produces decrease of crease of length in weak fields, magnetization in weak fields, increase in strong fields.
Magnetization produces inTension produces increase of crease of length in all fields.
Further, although iron lengthens in fields of moderate strength, it contracts in strong ones; and if the wire is stretched, contraction occurs with smaller magnetizing forces than if it is unstretched.
Specimens of curves showing the relation of induction to magnetic field at various temperatures, and of permeability to temperature with fields of different intensities, are given in figs.
Experiments were made at several constant temperatures with varying magnetic fields, and also at constant fields with rising and falling temperatures.
The paper contains tables and curves showing details of the magnetic changes, sometimes very complex, at different temperatures and with different fields.
The silicon-iron had, in fields up to about Io, a greater permeability than a sample of the best Swedish charcoal-iron, and its hysteresisloss for max.
Bidwell," who, adopting special precautions against sources of error by which former work was probably affected, measured the changes of thermo-electric force for iron, steel, nickel and cobalt produced by magnetic fields up to I Soo units.
In nickel the maximum change of the elastic constants is remarkably large, .amounting to about 15% for Young's modulus and 7% for rigidity; with increasing fields the elastic constants first decrease and then increase.
Wills found that the suceptibility was constant in fields ranging from 4200 to 15,000.
A small but decided tendency to a decrease of susceptibility in very strong fields was observed.
According to the best determinations the value of elm does not exceed 1.8X Io', and T is of the order of Io 15 second, the period of luminous vibrations; hence OM/M must always be less than 109 H, and therefore the strongest fields yet reached experimentally, which fall considerably short of Io %, could not change the magnetic moment M by as much as a ten-thousandth part.
He went to the place of execution in Lincoln's Inn Fields with perfect calmness, which was preserved to the last.
From the violence of tyranny, and the rapine of a disorderly banditti, by which this district long suffered, as well as from shocks of earthquakes, the villages have a ruinous and dilapidated appearance; and, with the exception of a few fields in their neighbourhood, the country presents a rocky and sandy waste, with in many places scarcely a show of vegetation.
It is not uncommon to find once cultivated fields abandoned because of their ravages and to see large campos completely covered with enormous ant-hills.
Here the Amahlubi prospered, and after the diamond fields had been discovered many of the young men who had been to Kimberley brought back firearms. These Langalibalele refused to register, and entered into negotiations with several tribes with the object of organizing a general revolt.
Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal not only sent her own colonists to the new fields, but also offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe.
With inexhaustible energy he promoted the legal proceedings over the riot in St George's Fields, when a youth named Allen was killed, and exposed the irregularity in the judge's order for the execution of two Spitalfields weavers.
Having thus become the tongue of the educated and privileged classes, Latin continued to monopolize the chief fields of literature until the revival of the native language at the close of the 18th century.
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed) is a pest in fields and gardens on account of its wide-spreading underground stem, and many of the dodders (Cuscuta) cause damage to crops.
Many new fields were opened up, but there was still continual progress in pure algebra.
A thriving export trade is carried on in agricultural produce, condensed milk is manufactured, and slate is extensively quarried in the neighbourhood, while some coal is exported from the neighbouring fields.
Goldfields also exist in the Waterberg and on the western frontier in the Marico district (the Malmani fields).
Gold was discovered in this district of the Drakensberg in 1875, but it was not until 1884 that the fields attracted much attention.
The total production (including the Komati and Swaziland fields) to the end of 1908 was 1,097,685 oz.
The Lydenburg fields, reported to have been worked by the Portuguese in the 17th century, and rediscovered in 1869, though lying at an elevation of 4500 to 5000 ft.
The chief centres of the fields are Lydenburg, Pilgrims Rest and Spitzkop. The total output of the Lydenburg fields up to the end of 1908 is estimated at 1,200,000 oz.
The fields in the Waterberg and along the Malmani river are very small producers.
The total yield to the end of 1908 of the Zoutpansberg, Low Country and other minor fields was 160,535 oz.
The chief diamond fields are in the Pretoria district.
Besides the Pretoria fields there are diamondiferous areas (alluvial diggings) in the Bloemhof district on the Vaal river north-east of Kimberley, and in other regions.
Some 25% more women than men were so employed, this preponderance being due to the large number of Kaffir women and the few native men who work in the mealie fields.
From both fields they hoped to expel the evils which were summed up in the word barbarism.
As by the discovery of stethoscopy by Laennec a new field of medical science and art was opened up, so, more recently, inventions of other new methods of investigation in medicine have opened to us other fields of little less interest and importance.
By the laryngoscope, invented about 1850 by Manuel Garcia the celebrated singingmaster, and perfected by Johann Czermak (1828-1873) and others, the diseases of the larynx also have been brought into the general light which has been shed on all fields of disease; and many of them, previously known more or less empirically, submitted to precise definition and cure.
For the record and diffusion of rapidly growing knowledge, learned societies, universities and laboratories, greatly increased in number and activity, issue their transactions in various fields; and by means of yearbooks and central news-sheets the accumulation of knowledge is organized and made accessible.
Medea was honoured as a goddess at Corinth, and was said to have become the wife of Achilles in the Elysian fields.
One is an inscription in the rocky valley of Hammamat, through which the desert road from the Red Sea to the valley of Egypt opens on the green fields and palm groves of the river Nile near Coptos..
The Royal College of Physicians is in Pall Mall East, and the Royal College of Surgeons is in Lincoln's Inn Fields.
Other museums are Sir John Soane's collection in Lincoln's Inn Fields and the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, while the scientific societies have libraries and in some cases collections of a specialized character, such as the museums of the Royal College of Surgeons, the Royal Architectural Society, and the Society of Art and the Parkes Museum of the Sanitar y Institute.
At first there was a panic among the citizens, but subsequently the city was placed in a proper state of defence, and the king himself encamped in St George's Fields.
St Giles's was literally a village in the fields; Piccadilly was " the waye to Redinge," Oxford Street " the way to Uxbridge," Covent Garden an open field or garden, and Leicester Fields lammas land.
Adjoining Moorfields were Finsbury Fields, a favourite practising ground for the archers.
Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, was built about 1629, and named in honour of Henrietta Maria.
Lincoln's Inn Fields had been planned some years before.
The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.
In addition to the manufacture of woollen wares, for which it has long been known, there is now extensive production of vinegar, paraffin, potash and especially beetroot-sugar; while the surrounding district, which was formerly devoted in great part to marketgardening, is now turned almost entirely into beetroot fields.
Calah was burned thou h the stron walls g YP, g g of Nineveh protected the relics of the Assyrian army which had taken refuge behind them; and when the raiders had passed on to other fields of booty, a new palace was erected among the ruins of the neighbouring city.
The gardens and fields produce an abundance of flowers, which justify the city's title of la cittd dei fiori.
By the adoption of this system in one large plantation in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus made available for employment in the fields.
These scums are not worth passing through the filter presses, and are sent to the fields direct as manure.
The juice is then drawn off and pumped up to one of the double-bottomed defecators and redefecated, or, where juice-heaters have been used instead of defecators, the scums from the separators or subsiders are heated and forced through filter presses, the juice expressed going to the evaporators and the scum cakes formed in the filter presses to the fields as manure.
The roots are brought from the fields by carts, canals and railways.
The whole is then passed through filter presses, the clear juice being run off for further treatment, while the carbonate of lime is obtained in cakes which are taken to the fields as manure.
Linguet was a prolific writer in many fields.
In primitive religions inclusive of almost every serious offence even in fields now regarded as merely social or political, its scope is gradually lessened to a single part of one section of ecclesiastical criminology, following inversely the development of the idea of holiness from the concrete to the abstract, from fetishism to mysticism.
Fields of wheat and other cereals rarely recover after a week's submergence, but orchards and many trees when at rest in winter withstand a flooded or water-logged condition of the soil for two or three weeks without damage.
The material is dug from neighbouring pits or sometimes from the fields which are to be improved, and applied in autumn and winter.
The paring and burning of land, although formerly practised as an ordinary means of improving the texture and fertility of arable fields, can now only be looked upon as a practice p to be adopted for the purpose of bringing rapidly into cultivation very foul leys or, land covered with a coarse turf.
The nitrate fields are confined to a narrow strip of country, averaging 21 m.
The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.
The estates are usually very large, and are divided up into fields which are cultivated in rotation, each field being given several years' rest after producing one crop. The tobacco is air-cured, fires being only employed during continuous wet weather, and the process of curing occupies four or five weeks.
Thence proceeding eastwards to higher altitudes where coffee plantations give way to fields of wheat and barley, they reached the town of Jibla situated among a group of mountains exceeding 10,000 ft.
Deep valleys winding through the barren foothills lead gradually up to the higher mountains, and as the track ascends the scenery and vegetation change their character; the trees which line the banks of the wadi are overgrown with creepers, and the running stream is dammed at frequent intervals, and led off in artificial channels to irrigate the fields on either side; the steeper parts of the road are paved with large stones, substantially built villages, with their masonry towers or da y s, crowning every height, replace the collection of *mud walls and brushwood huts of the low country; while tier above tier, terraced fields cover the hill slopes and attest the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of their mountains.
Betha are all well-built villages with palm-groves and irrigated fields.
The river furnishes water for irrigating the low fields in the vicinity.
Outside the walls, over the sterile sand plateau, stretch great fields of tombs and graves, for Nejef is so holy that he who is buried here will surely enter paradise.
In addition to these noxious and obtrusive forms, England has a few indigenous species belonging to the genus Ectobia, which live under stones or fallen trees in fields and woods.
He appears to have also been a prebendary of St Paul's, and for a very short time he had held the rectory of St Giles in the Fields.
A great mass of pale-green foliage is usually composed of the algarrobo trees, while the course of the river is marked by lines or groups of palms, by fine old willows (Salix humboldtiana), fruit-gardens, and fields of cotton, Indian corn, sugar-cane and alfalfa (lucerne).
Under Abel's guidance, the prevailing obscurities of analysis began to be cleared, new fields were entered upon and the study of functions so advanced as to provide mathematicians with numerous ramifications along which progress could be made.
An irrigation canal, deriving water from the Sega, furnishes 112 cubic metres per second to the fields of the upper Veronese district.
This discrepancy caused anxiety at one time, but large fields suitable for colonization have been opened in Sakhalin, Korea, Manchuria and Formosa, so that the problem of subsistence has ceased to be troublesome.
Tradition credits him with an especial genius for the delineation of animals and landscape, and commemorates his skill by a curious anecdote of a painted horse which left its frame to ravage the fields, and was reduced to pictorial stability only by the sacrifice of its eyes.
As a matter of fact, after great suffering from gout and stone, he died in Ropemaker's Alley, Moorfields, on Monday the 26th of April 1731, and was buried in Bunhill Fields.
Upon the highest summits are found Saponaria Pumilio (resembling our Silene acaulis) and varieties of Galium, Euphorbia, Astragalus, Veronica, Jurinea, Festuca, Scrophularia, Geranium, Asphodeline, Allium, Asperula; and, on the margins of the snow fields, a Taraxacum and Ranunculus demissus.
The Lar familiaris has been regarded' as the embodiment of all the family dead and his cult as a consummation of ancestor-worship, but a more probable explanation regards him as one of the Lares (q.v.; numina of the fields worshipped at the compita, the places where properties marched) who had special charge of the house or possibly of the household servants (familia); for it is significant that his worship was committed to the charge of the vilica.
It is more profitable to turn from the life of the household to the outdoor occupations of the fields, where the early Roman settler met with his neighbours to celebrate the various stages of the agricultural year in religious ceremonies which afterwards became the festivals of the state calendar.
Suan, another rice-like cereal, not cultivated, grows spontaneously in the paddy fields.
He won a reputation as a bold knight in the fields of chivalry and in the crusades, and he inaugurated a new policy for his house by devoting more attention to his Italian possessions than to those on the French side of the Alps and in Switzerland.
But fertile fields and running water made it attractive; and outsiders gradually came in.
His great work was the Vulgate, but his achievements in other fields would have sufficed to distinguish him.
He was a pioneer in the fields of patrology and of biblical archaeology.
The Bhutias lay out their fields in a series of terraces cut out of the sides of the hills; each terrace is riveted and supported by stone embankments, sometimes 20 ft.
Porphyra laciniata, the edible laver; Codium tomentosum, a coarse species; Padina pavonia, common in shallow water; Ulva latissima; Haliseris polypodioides; Sargassum bacciferum; the well-known gulf weed, probably transported from the Atlantic; Zostera marina, forming dense beds in muddy bays; the roots are cast up by storms and are valuable to dress the fields.
The fields are small and composed of terraces by which the soil has been walled up along the contours of the hills, with enormous labour, to save it from being washed away.
He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire."
There is a university at Innsbruck, but primary education, though compulsory, does not attain any very high degree of excellence, as in summer the schools are closed, for all hands are then required in the fields or on the mountain pastures.
He had the courage also to reform the games, in spite of all the traditions of the playing fields.
The development of manufacturing in Delaware has not been so extensive as its favourable situation relative to the other states, the facilities for water and railway transportation, and the proximity of the coal and iron fields of Pennsylvania, would seem to warrant.
Otkar continues to answer " Not yet," adding at last " When thou shalt see the fields bristling with an iron harvest, and the Po and the Ticino swollen with sea-floods, inundating the walls of the city with iron billows, then shall Karl be nigh at hand."
Smaller isolated fields are those of the Forest of Dean (Gloucestershire) and the field on either side of the Avon above Bristol.
In a modified degree the same is true of the Indian fields; large supplies are unworked, but in several districts, especially about Raniganj and elsewhere in Bengal, workings are fully developed.
This group of fields is followed in importance by the " Eastern Interior " group in Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, and the " Western Interior " group in Iowa, Missouri and Kansas.
In Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and along the line of the Rocky Mountains, extensive fields occur, producing lignite and bituminous coal.
The lastnamed fields are continued northward in Canada (Crow's Nest Pass field, Vancouver Island, &c.).
Australia possesses fields of great value, principally in the south-east (New South Wales and Victoria), and in New Zealand considerable quantities of coal and lignite are raised, chiefly in South Island.
Where properties are much divided, it is always necessary to maintain a thick barrier of unwrought coal between the boundary of the mine and the neighbouring workings, especially if the latter are to the dip. If a prominent line of fault crosses the area it may usually be a convenient division of the fields into sections or districts.
A convenient digest of the evidence classified according to subjects was published by the Colliery Guardian newspaper in three quarto volumes in 1905-1907, and the leading points bearing on the extension and resources of the different districts were incorporated in the fifth edition (1905) of Professor Edward Hull's Coal Fields of Great Britain.
In connexion with the re-survey in greater detail of the coalfields by the Geological Survey a series of descriptive memoirs were undertaken, those on the North Staffordshire and Leicestershire fields, and nine parts dealing with that of South Wales, having appeared by the beginning of 1908.
On the 19th of October 1741 he made his appearance at Goodman's Fields as Richard III.
His fortune was now made, and while the managers of Covent Garden and Drury Lane resorted to the law to make Giffard, the manager of Goodman's Fields, close his little theatre, Garrick was engaged by Fleetwood for Drury Lane for the season of 1742.
The hill fields are left fallow for ten years after two years' cultivation.
Andrewes was distinguished in many fields.
In the neighbourhood are extensive coal fields.
He lived, on the invitation of Dr Whistler, for a short time in 1682 at the College of Physicians, but died on the 12th of December 1685 at the house of Mr Cothorne, reader of the church of St Giles-in-the Fields.
But oscillating between the two fields, it took part in neither.
The French halted, somewhat loosened by pursuit, between Rossomme and Genappe and spent a wretched night in the sodden fields.
Later stories say that Thetis snatched his body from the pyre and conveyed it to the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube, where he ruled with Iphigeneia as his wife; or that he was carried to the Elysian fields, where his wife was Medea or Helen.
The pioneer work of the census of 1840 in the fields of educational statistics, statistics of occupations, of defective classes and of causes of death, suffered from numerous errors and defects.
The two coils, the shunt and the series coil, then produce two magnetic fields, with their lines of force at right angles to one another.
The small pivoted iron needle ns placed in their common field therefore takes up a certain position, dependent on the relative value of these fields.
The cyanide process of gold extraction, and the returns obtained by its means from the great Waihi mine in the Upper Thames, caused an outbreak of gold fever, which led to the opening up of a few good and a great many worthless quartz-mines in the Auckland fields.
North-west of the city are the valuable oil fields of Santa Barbara county, notably the Santa Maria field, 6 m.
In the years1870-1871a Discovery large number of diggers had settled on the diamond of the fields near the junction of the Vaal and Orange rivers, which were situated in part on land claimed by the Fi Griqua chief Nicholas Waterboer and by the Free State.
The Free State established a temporary government over the diamond fields, but the administration of this body was satisfactory neither to the Free State nor to the diggers.
The diamond fields offered a ready market for stock and other agricultural produce.
He was all his life an omnivorous reader of the best books in very varied fields of literature, and he developed to an unusual degree the faculty of digesting and remembering what he has read.
The coal is found principally in two fields - one near Zwickau, and the other in the governmental district of Dresden.
The neighbouring fields of clay, afford material for the manufacture of bricks and pottery; coarse cloth is woven in the town; and there is a considerable trade in farm produce.
In point of fact, there are fields of action in which A is sovereign, others in which B is sovereign, and certain others in which A and B are jointly or alternately sovereign.
Natural gas derived from the Kansas fields became available for lighting and heating, and crude oil for fuel, in 1906.
Irrigation is rudimentary, for no system exists for raising the water of the innumerable canals on to the fields.
For the next thirty-five years its "Elysian Fields" were a famous pleasure resort of New York City.
The fields and places of entertainment in Islington were favourite places of resort for the citizens of London in the 17th century and later; the modern Ball's Pond Road recalls the sport of duck-hunting practised here and on other ponds in the parish, and the popularity of the place was increased by the discovery of chalybeate wells.
At Copenhagen Fields, now covered by the great cattle market (1855) adjoining Caledonian Road, a great meeting of labourers was held in 1834.
The borough has only some 40 acres of public grounds, the principal of which is Highbury Fields.
The aether is taken to be at rest; and the strain-forms belonging to the atoms are the electric fields of the intrinsic charges, or electrones, involved in their constitution.
Foreseeing the extent to which the demand would grow in America for iron and steel, he started the Keystone Bridge works, built the Edgar Thomson steel-rail mill, bought out the rival Homestead steel works, and by 1888 had under his control an extensive plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a railway 4 25 m.
Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.
He was twice married and had eight sons and ten daughters, his numerous descendants being prominent in many fields.
He was buried in the churchyard of St Martin's in the Fields, his funeral sermon being preached by his friend Bishop Burnet.
At each change it has worked havoc and disaster by covering the cultivated fields with 2 or 3 ft.
Beverly is connected by a regular line of oil-steamers with Port Arthur, Texas, and is the main distributing point for the Texas oil fields.
On the 3rd of June at Cold Harbor (q.v.) took place the last of Grant's "hammering" battles in the open fields.
The agave and prickly pear, the myrtle, the olive and the dwarf palm grow luxuriantly; and the fields are covered with narcissus, iris and other flowers of every hue.
Great pipe lines from Parkersburg, West Virginia, to Somerset, Pulaski county, and with branches to the Ragland, Barbourville and Prestonburg fields, had in 1902 a mileage of 275 m.
The principal fields are in the " southern tier," from Wayne to Allen county, including Barren county; farther east, Knox county, and Floyd and Knott counties; to the north-east the Ragland field in Bath and Rowan counties on the Licking river.
His university lectures and published works ranged over the wide fields of church history in its various branches, particularly the literature and the controversies of the church, dogmatics, ethics and pastoral theology.
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
The denuded mountain slopes and plateaus of southern Mexico are due to the prehistoric inhabitants who cleared away the tropical forest for their Indian corn fields, and then left them to the erosive action of the tropical rains and subsequent occupation by coarse grasses.
The suggestion that Mother Shipton had foretold the end of the world in 1881 was the cause of the most poignant alarm throughout rural England in that year, the people deserting their houses, and spending the night in prayer in the fields, churches and chapels.
In point of time and energy military activity was about equally divided between these two fields.
South of the city are Rathmines, a populous suburb, near which, at the "Bloody Fields," English colonists were murdered by the natives in 1209; and Donnybrook, celebrated for its former fair.
The scene of slaughter is still called the Bloody Fields, and Easter Monday denominated Black Monday.
This last point is important in connexion with voltmeters used on the switchboards of electric generating stations, where relatively strong electric or magnetic fields may be present, due to strong currents passing through conductors near or on the board.
Lying within the rich agricultural region of the Lebanon and Schuylkill valleys and near vast fields of anthracite coal and iron ore, Reading possesses unusual business and industrial advantages.
The wild form Brassica campestris, the wild coleseed, colza or kohlsaat, of the fields of England and many parts of Europe, is sometimes cultivated on the European continent for its seed, which, however, is inferior in value to rape as an oil-yielding product.
It was chiefly the mineral wealth of the Cordilleran region, first developed on the far Pacific slope, and later in many parts of the inner mountain ranges, that urged pioneers across the dry plains into the apparently inhospitable mountain region; there the adventurous new-corners rapidly worked out one mining district after another, exhausting and abandoning the smaller camps to early decay and rushing in feverish excitement to new-found river fields, but establishing important centres of varied industries in the more important mining districts.
Productive coal beds are found in five principal fields.
Oil was produced in 1908 in sixteen states., This productive area is divided by the United States Geological Survey into six fields (in addition to some scattering states) with reference to the quality of oil that they produce, such quality determining their uses.
The Lima (Ohio)-Indiana, the Illinois, the Mid-Continent (Kansas, Oklahoma and northern Texas) and the Gulf (Texas and Louisiana) fields produce oils containing more or less of sulphur and asphalt between the extremes of the two other fields just mentioned.
The geological conditions of the different fields, and the details of the composition of the oils yielded, are exceedingly varied, and their study has been little more than begun In 1859 when the total output of the country is supposed to have been only 2000 barrels of oil, production was confined to Pennsylvania and New York.
There are a large gymnasium and a stadium of re-enforced concrete for athletic contests, capable of seating 20,000 people and one of the largest athletic fields in the world.
Since 1867 the opening up of the fertile lands in the north-west, the increase of population, the discovery of new mineral fields, the construction of railways and the great improvement of the canal system have changed the conditions, methods and channels of trade.
Only a very small proportion of the decline in the price of wheat since 1880 is due to cheapened transport rates; for while the mileage rate has been falling, the length of haulage has been extending, until in 1900 the principal wheat fields of America were 2000 m.
The valleys and slopes are carefully cultivated in fields divided by stone walls, and produce beans, peas, sweet potatoes, "Russian turnip radish," barley, a little rice and millet, the last being the staple article of diet.
The forests of Georgia, next to the fields, furnish the largest amount of raw material for manufactures.
Agriculture, and specially viticulture, is the principal occupation of the population, and the vine is here planted not only in regular vineyards, but is introduced in long lines through the ordinary fields and carried up the hills in terraces locally called ronchi.
This it leaves at nightfall to seek fields of young wheat and other cereals whose tender herbage forms its favourite food.
Gas, obtained by pipe lines from the Ohio-Pennsylvania and the Canadian (Welland) natural gas fields, is also used extensively for lighting and heating purposes.
Further, if the cavalry had to walk, or at most trot, through the fields the opposing infantry was almost always unable to fire their muskets.
Natural gas for domestic use and for factories is piped from the Kansas gas fields.
This district affords striking contrasts of scenery, from the sheltered fields of Miranzai to the barren desolation of the salt mines.
Both slopes of the Caucasus are very fertile and well irrigated, with fine forests, fields of rice and other cereals, and flourishing gardens.
At about the same time Japanese immigration to Hawaii fell off upon the opening of new fields for colonization by the Russo-Japanese War, and Korean immigration was promoted by employers on the islands.
He was Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge in 1841-1842, and steadily built up a reputation as scholar and preacher, which would have been enhanced but for his discursive ramblings in the fields of minor poetry and magazine editing.
The holdings were probably not compact but consisted of scattered strips in common fields, changed perhaps from year to year, the choice being determined by lot or otherwise.
The educated bourgeoisie, which controls the fields of politics, science, finance, administration, art and literature, does not trouble itself about that great spiritual universal monarchy which Rome, as heir of the Caesars, claimed for the Vatican, and to which the Curia of to-day still clings.
There have been mining strikes at Scranton (1871), in the Lehigh and Schuylkill regions (1875), at Hazleton (1897), and one in the anthracite fields (1902) which was settled by a board of arbitrators appointed by President Roosevelt; and there were street railway strikes at Chester in 1908 and in Philadelphia in 1910.
Here, at an elevation of 15,000 ft., about the great Lake Dangra, we hear of well-built villages and of richly cultivated fields of barley, indicating a condition of climate analogous to that which prevails in the districts south of Lhasa, and in contrast to the sterility of the lake region generally and the nomadic character of its population.
History, theology, jurisprudence, politics, classics, poetry, - all these fields he cultivated.
As the operations on these three fields had little interaction on one another, it will be more convenient to take them separately than to follow the confusing chronological order.
In Tahiti, Madagascar and other fields this society has largely taken over work begun by the London Society, whose operations were viewed with suspicion by the French government.
These committees comprise not only real experts, such as retired veteran missionaries, and retired civil and military officers who have been active friends of missions while on foreign service, but also leading clergymen and laymen who, though not personally acquainted with the mission fields, become almost equal experts by continuous attendance and careful study.
In New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand and Canada there are also Church missionary associations which supply missionaries, and support them, for the mission fields of the Church Missionary Society.
Its total membership is under ioo,000, and it has some 350 missionaries, labouring in the most unpromising fields - Greenland, Labrador, Alaska, Central America, Tibet, and among the Hottentots.
Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
History Of Mission Fields The continuity of missionary enthusiasm maintained through the primitive, the medieval, and the modern periods of the Church's history, operating at every critical epoch, and surviving after periods of stagnation and depression, is a very significant fact.
It is in every sense a modern field, or rather a collection of fields, varying in physical, racial, social and linguistic character.
Madagascar' is one of the most interesting mission fields.
The Anglican Church is not so strong in China as in some other fields; the American Episcopalians were first in the field in 1835, followed by the Church Missionary Society (in 1844), which has had stirring success in Fu-Kien, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1874.
The rich oasis of Tyin contains many villages embosomed in palm groves and surrounded with orchards and fields.
It is the rapid spread of these yeast-conidia in manure and soil waters which makes it so difficult to get rid of smuts, &c., in the fields, and they, like the ordinary conidia, readily infect the seedling wheat, oats, barley or other cereals.
The country round the towns, however, is cultivated with care, the fields yielding in abundance grain, yams, vegetables and fruits.
Hume's eminence in the fields of philosophy and history must not be allowed to obscure his importance as a political economist.
At the great battle of Mauriac (the Catalaunian fields) in which Aetius checked the invasion of the Huns (451), there were present in the Roman army a number of Frankish foederati, and a later document, the Vita lupi, states that Merovech (Merovaeus) was their leader.
Gathering around them many of the Covenanters who clung tenaciously to their standards of faith, these ministers began to preach in the fields, and a period of persecution marked by savage hatred and great brutality began.
The pomegranate fields form a striking feature in the valley - the pomegranates of Kandahar, with its "sirdar" melons and grapes, being unequalled in quality by any in the East.
Ricotti, "no citizens in the cities, neither man nor beast in the fields, all the land forest-clad and wild; one sees no houses, for most of them are burnt, and of nearly all the castles only the walls are visible; of the inhabitants, once so numerous, some have died of the plague or of hunger, some by the sword, and some have fled elsewhere preferring to beg their bread abroad rather than support misery at home which is worse than death."
The sculptures and paintings of ancient Egypt bear no trace of anything approaching scientific irrigation, but they often show the peasant baling up the water at least as early as 2000 B.C. By means of this simple plan of raising water and pouring it over the fields thousands of acres are watered every year in India, and the system has many advantages in the eyes of the peasant.
For this monsoon irrigation there is always abundance of water, and so long as the canals and sluices are kept in repair, there is little trouble in distributing it over the fields.
It is the effort of the British engineers in Egypt to remodel the surface of the fields to this type.
If a dam be absolutely necessary, care must be taken so to build it as to secure the fields on both sides from possible inundation; and it should be constructed substantially, for the cost of repairing accidents to a weak dam is very serious.
The water flows from the ditches as conductors into built conduits formed at right angles to them in parallel lines through the fields; it rises upwards in them as high as the surface of the ground, and again subsides through the soil and the conduits into the ditches as main drains, and thence it passes at a lower level either into a stream or other suitable outfall.
Peat-moss of the most sterile character has been by this process covered with soil of the greatest fertility, and swamps which used to be resorted to for leeches are now, by the effects of warping, converted into firm and fertile fields.
The object of the engineer is so to utilize this flood-water that as little as possible of the alluvium may escape into the sea, and as much as possible may be deposited on the fields.
When the surface-water of a river is higher than the fields right and left, there is nothing easier than to breach the embankments and flood the fields - in fact, it may be more difficult to prevent their being flooded than to flood them - but in ordinary floods the Nile is never higher than all the bordering lands, and in years of feeble flood it is higher than none of them.