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fief

fief

fief Sentence Examples

  • Each fief was organized like the kingdom.

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  • The help afforded by Ertoghrul to the Seljukian monarch on a critical occasion led to the addition of Sugut to his fief, with which he was now formally invested.

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  • His daughter Marie sold the fief of Coucy to Louis, duke of Orleans, in 1400.

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  • Lothair was crowned emperor at the Lateran in June 1133, and as a further reward Innocent gave him the territories of the Countess Mathilda as a fief, but refused to surrender the right of investiture.

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  • for assistance, and submitted to accept his kingdom from him as a fief of the Holy See.

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  • for assistance, and submitted to accept his kingdom from him as a fief of the Holy See.

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  • The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.

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  • himself, was a natural fief of Jerusalem.

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  • Elbeuf was, in the 13th century, the centre of an important fief held by the house of Harcourt, but its previous history goes back at least to the early years of the Norman occupation, when it appears under the name of Hollebof.

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  • Elbeuf was, in the 13th century, the centre of an important fief held by the house of Harcourt, but its previous history goes back at least to the early years of the Norman occupation, when it appears under the name of Hollebof.

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  • After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.

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  • In 1462 Giovanni contrived to make himself master of the city, although it was nominally a fief of the church under a papal legate.

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  • In 1462 Giovanni contrived to make himself master of the city, although it was nominally a fief of the church under a papal legate.

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  • But in 1561 another master followed the example of Albert, and received Courland as an hereditary fief from Poland.

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  • When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.

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  • The vidames usually took their title from the see they represented, but not infrequently they styled themselves, not after their official fief, but after Head Vicugna.

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  • According to Japanese annals they were discovered towards the close of the 16th century, and added to the fief of a Daimyo, Ogasawa Sadayori, whence the name Ogasawarajima.

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  • of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.

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  • In 1810 it was divided by Napoleon between the grand duchy of Berg and France, but was, in 1815, restored to the duke of Arenberg as a fief under Prussian sovereignty.

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  • But the conception of the equality of the king and his peers in the long run led to hereditary monarchy; for if the king held his kingdom as a fief, like other nobles, the laws of descent which applied to a fief applied to the kingdom, and those laws demanded heredity.

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  • Towards the close of the 12th century Moravia was raised to the dignity of a margraviate, but with the proviso that it should be held as a fief of the crown of Bohemia.

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  • In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.

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  • More remarkable than all his other acts is his letter to St Stephen, king of Hungary, to whom he sent a golden crown, and whose kingdom he accepted as a fief of the Holy See.

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  • In 1488 Pierre de Beaujeu had succeeded to the Bourbonnais, the last great fief of France.

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  • ARMAGNAC, formerly a province of France and the most important fief of Gascony, now wholly comprised in the department of Gers.

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  • That line of descent can be made out with convincing clearness and with no particular difficulty from epoch to epoch, from the precarium and the patrocinium, through the benefice and commendation, to the fief and vassalage.

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  • In 1488 Pierre de Beaujeu had succeeded to the Bourbonnais, the last great fief of France.

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  • When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.

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  • Thus conceived as the holder of a great fief, the king had only the rights of suzerain over the four great baronies and the twelve minor fiefs of his kingdom.

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  • It is the seat of a court of justice and of an archbishop. During the middle ages it was for a time a fief of the Villehardouins.

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  • Breda was in the i i th century a direct fief of the Holy Roman Empire, its earliest known lord being Henry I.

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  • Fiefs with a revenue of from 3000 to 20,000 aspres were timars, furnishing one armed warrior for every 3000 aspres' revenue; the grant of a fief was conditional on obligatory residence.

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  • A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.

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  • The defeat of Bohemund at Durazzo in 1108 had resulted in a treaty, which made Antioch a fief of Alexius; but Tancred (who in 1107 had recovered Cilicia from the Greeks) refused to fulfil the terms of the treaty, and Alexius (who attempted - but in vain - to induce Baldwin I.

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  • The conception of the kingdom as a fief not only subjected it to the jurisdiction of the high court; it involved the more disastrous result that the kingdom, like other fiefs, might be carried by an heiress to her husband; and the proximate causes of the collapse of the kingdom in 1187 depend on this fact and the dissensions which it occasioned.

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  • The lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; at the end of the 13th century the fief was sold to the crown, and afterwards passed to the house of Orleans, then to those of Dunois and Longueville and ultimately again to that of Orleans.

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  • ' The poem of Aymeri de Narbonne contains the account of the young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children.

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  • as a vacant fief of the empire; but Dietrich, called the Oppressed, secured the mark after Henry's death in 1197.

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  • Albert's two remaining sons, Frederick and Dietrich or Diezmann, then claimed Meissen; but it was seized by King Adolph of Nassau as a vacant fief of the empire, and was for some time retained by him and his successor King Albert I.

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  • Its original name was Duverger, derived from a fief near Bressuire in Poitou, and its pedigree is traceable to the 13th century.

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  • NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.

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  • The Este family received a confirmation of their duchy of Modena and Reggio, and were invested in their fief of Ferrara by the pope.

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  • Urban VIII., however, put in a claim to Ferrara, which, it will be remembered, had been recognized a papal fief in 1530.

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  • Thus the three bishoprics of Lubeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin, which hitherto had been fief of the Reich, now passed under Danish suzerainty.

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  • By insisting upon the restitution of the confiscated church-lands, assuming to regard England as a papal fief, requiring Elizabeth, whose legitimacy he aspersed, to submit her claims to him, he raised insuperable obstacles to the return of England to the Church of Rome.

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  • Here Christian, bishop of Prussia, who had received from the Polish duke of Masovia a part of Kulmerland as a fief, had founded the knightly Order of Dobrzin, and was attempting with its aid to subdue the heathens of Prussia.

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  • At the same time, if our text is thus late, it must be remembered that its content gives us the earliest and purest exposition of French feudalism, and describes for us the organization of a kingdom, where all rights and duties were connected with the fief, and the monarch was only a suzerain of feudatories.

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  • Towards the end of the 8th century they aided Charlemagne in putting an end to the Avar kingdom, and were rewarded by receiving part of it, corresponding to North Hungary, as a fief of the German emperor, whose supremacy they also acknowledged more or less for their other possessions.

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  • Thus the three bishoprics of Lubeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin, which hitherto had been fief of the Reich, now passed under Danish suzerainty.

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  • At the same time, if our text is thus late, it must be remembered that its content gives us the earliest and purest exposition of French feudalism, and describes for us the organization of a kingdom, where all rights and duties were connected with the fief, and the monarch was only a suzerain of feudatories.

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  • The fief passed later into the possession of the counts of Berg.

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  • All round and about this line of descent there was a crowd of varying forms branching off more or less widely from the main stem, different kinds of commendation, different forms of precarium, some of which varied greatly from that through which the fief descends, and some of which survived in much the old character and under the old name for a long time after later feudalism was definitely established.'

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  • The most lucrative of the lord's rights were wardship and marriage, but the feudal theory of these also was non-economic. The fief fell into the hands of the lord, and he enjoyed its revenues during the minority of the heir, because the minor could not perform the duties by which it was held.

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  • In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.

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  • The heiress must marry as the lord wished, because he had a right to know that the holder of the fief could meet the obligations resting upon it.

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  • In later times it was held in fief, first from the dukes of Brabant, then from the dukes of Gelderland.

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  • With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.

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  • gave the Order the rights of a prince of the Empire in its territories: Conrad of Masovia gave it the whole of Kulmerland in 1230; while in 1234 the Order established its independence of all authorities except the Papacy, by surrendering its territories to the Holy See and receiving them back again as a fief.

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  • The island was annexed by Great Britain in 1628 and was bestowed in 1680 upon the Codrington family who, for more than 200 years, held it as a kind of feudal fief.

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  • The faithful performance of all the duties he had assumed in homage constituted the vassal's right and title to his fief.

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  • It often included also the duty of guarding the lord's castle, and of holding one's own castle subject to the plans of the lord for the defence of his fief.

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  • In 1193 Margarito Brundusio received Malta as a fief with the title of count; he was Grand Admiral of Sicily.

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  • His ancestry claimed blood relationship with the lords of Montespertoli, a fief situated between Val di Pesa and Val d'Elsa, at no great distance from the city.

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  • hominaticum, which occurs in a document of 1035), one of the ceremonies used in the granting of a fief, and indicating the submission of a vassal to his lord.

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  • The ceremony was of a preliminary nature, securing that the fief would not be alienated; but the vassal had to take the oath of fealty, and to be formally invested, when he reached his majority.

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  • On the 6th of July 1806 Napoleon conferred on his minister the title of prince of Benevento, a papal fief in the Neapolitan territory.

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  • His reward in England was a mighty fief scattered over twelve counties.

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  • Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making the count of Nantes his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun.

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  • The manor of Zuilen on the Vecht, four miles north-west of Utrecht, was partly held in fief from this abbey and partly from the bishops of Utrecht.

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  • In 1345 it became a fief of the landgraves of Thuringia, to whom it escheated in 1385 with the extinction of the line of Otto III.

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  • In the 10th century it passed under the titular sway of Liege, and remained the fief of the prince-bishopric till the French revolution put an end to that survival of feudalism.

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  • of France seized the opportunity afforded by his rival's defeat and death to take possession of the duchy of Burgundy as a fief lapsed to the French crown, and also of Franche Comte, Picardy and Artois.

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  • It was from the precarium, or ecclesiastical benefice, that the feudal fief originated.

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  • Furia, in feudal law, was the right granted to tenants having major jurisdiction to erect a gallows within the limits of their fief.

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  • Ketteler, who had adopted Lutheranism during a visit to Germany in 1553, now professed the Augsburg Confession, and became the first duke of a new Protestant duchy, which he was to hold as a fief of the Polish crown, with local autonomy and absolute freedom of worship. The southern provinces of the ancient territory of the Order, Courland and Semgallen, had first been ceded on the 24th of June 1559 to Lithuania on similar conditions, the matter being finally adjusted by the compact of March 1562.

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  • Algeria was considered as a kind of great military fief, and the officers who ruled there commonly took the side of the native chieftains against the civil population.

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  • The lordship of Horn was a fief of the counts of Loon, and after 1361 of the bishop of Liege; but in 1450 it was raised to a countship by the Emperor Frederick II.

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  • Albi (Albiga) was, in the Gallo-Roman period, capital of the Albigenses, and later of the viscounty of Albigeois, which was a fief of the counts of Toulouse.

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  • In 1128 his brother-in-law, Henry II., margrave of the Saxon north mark, died, and Albert, disappointed at not receiving this fief, attacked Udo, the succeeding margrave, and was consequently deprived of Lusatia by Lothair.

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  • From 1368 the electors themselves held the county of Arnsberg as an imperial fief.

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  • For the derivation of the word see FIEF and FEE.

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  • Snorri himself became the lendrma8r, vassal or baron, of the king of Norway, and held his lands as a fief under him.

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  • Finally it became a fief of the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein, though often hypothecated for loans advanced to these princes by the free city of Hamburg.

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  • Malik Shah regulated also the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria, conceding the latter province as an hereditary fief to his brother Tutush, who established himself at Damascus and killed Atsiz.

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  • The province of Kerman was one of the first conquests of the Seljuks, and became the hereditary fief of Kavurd, the son of Chakir Beg.

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  • This valiant prince saved the empire from destruction and conquered Erzerum, which had been ruled during a considerable time by a separate dynasty, and was now given in fief to his brother, Mughit ud-din Toghrul Shah.

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  • On the death of Count Leonhard (12th April 1500) the fief reverted to the house of Habsburg.

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  • In view of these antipathies the treaty of 1627 between France, Spain and the pope is but an episode: instructive, however, in that the project, originated apparently by the pope, provided that England should be dismembered, and that Ireland should be treated as a papal fief.

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  • His first plan was a combination against her of Saxony, Denmark and Brandenburg; but, Brandenburg failing him, he was obliged very unwillingly to admit Russia into the partnership. The tsar was to be content with Ingria and Esthonia, while Augustus was to take Livonia, nominally as a fief of Poland, but really as an hereditary possession of the Saxon house.

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  • The French court gave her frequent presents, and in December 1673 conferred upon her the ducal fief of Aubigny at the request of Charles II.

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  • As Gautier himself admits, the feudal system made it difficult to separate the woman's person from her fief: instead of the freedom of Christian marriage on which the Church in theory insisted, lands and women were handed over together, as a business bargain, by parents or guardians.

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  • In 1143 Heribert of Bierum, bishop of Utrecht, converted the office into an hereditary fief in favour of his brother Liffert, on the extinction of whose male line it was partitioned between the families of Koevorden (or Coevorden) and van den Hove.

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  • to seize Thuringia as a vacant fief of the Empire, and established himself as landgrave.

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  • The duke rounded off his dominions by the purchase of Tenda and Oneglia, which increased his seaboard, and the last years of his life were spent in fruitless negotiations to obtain Monferrato, held by the Gonzagas under Spanish protection, and Saluzzo, which was a French fief.

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  • In 1037 he issued from Milan his famous edict for the kingdom of Italy which decreed that upon the death of a landholder his fief should, descend to his son, or grandson, and that no fiefholder should be deprived of his fief without the judgment of his peers.

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  • Moreover, by several campaigns in i{ungary the German king brought that country into the position of a fief of the German crown.

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  • Instead of acknowledging its inferiority as in former times it had claimed to be the higher power; it had eyen attempted to dispose of the imperial crown as if the Empire were a papal fief; and it had found out that it could at any time tamper, and perhaps paralyse, the imperial authority by exciting internal strife in Germany.

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  • During a meeting of the diet a papal legate read a letter from Pope Adrian IV., which seemed to imply that the Empire was a papal fief.

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  • Besides the imperial cities, and the princes and other immediate nobles, there were the mediate nobles, the men who held land in fief of the highest classes of the aristocracy, and who, in virtue of this feudal relation, looked down upon the allodial proprietors or freemen, and upon the burghers.

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  • They were often transformed into free knights by the grant of a fief, and the class ultimately became absorbed in that of the knights.

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  • Meissen, which he claimed as a vacant fief of the Empire, and Thuringia, which he bought from the landgrave Albert II., seemed to offer a favorable field for this undertaking, and he spent a large part of his short reign in a futile attempt to carry out his plan.

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  • He became a Protestant, dissolved the order, and received in fief of the king of Poland the duchy of Prussia.

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  • By virtue of the old relations between the popes and the Normans of Apulia, he held his kingdom in fief of the Holy See, a position which on the whole strengthened the royal power.

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  • Towards the beginning of the 3rd Islamic century the practice of giving Egypt in fief to a governor was resumed by the caliph Mamun, who bestowed this privilege on Abdallgh b.

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  • Egypt was given in fief to a Turkish general Ashnas (Ashinas), who never visited the country, and the, rule of individuals of Turkish origin prevailed till the rise of the Fatimites, who for a time interrupted it.

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  • On the appointed, death of Ashngs in 844 Egypt was given in fief to another Turkish general Itgkh, but in 850 this person fell out of favor, and the fief was transferred to Monta~ir, son of the caliph Motawakkil.

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  • In the year 868 Egypt was given in fief to a Turkish general Bayikbeg, who sent thither as his representative his stepson - Abmad b.

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  • Insurrections by adherents of the Alids gave him the opportunity to display his military skill; and when in 870 his stepfather died, by a stroke of luck the fief was given to his father-in-law, who retained Abmad in the lieutenancy, and indeed extended his authority to Alexandria, which had till that time been outside it.

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  • On the death of Ahmads father-in-law in the same year, when Egypt was given in fief to the caliphs brother Mowaffaq (famous for his defeat of the Zanj), Ahmad secured himself in his post by extensive bribery at headquarters; and in the following year the administration of the Syri,an frontier was conferred on him as well.

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  • The register by which a great portion of the land was a fief of the Mamelukes was left unchanged, and it is said that a proposal made by the sultans vizier to appropriate these estates was punished with death.

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  • In 875 the town was in the hands of Pope John VIII., who gave it to the count of Capua as a fief of the Holy See, which had long claimed jurisdiction over it.

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  • Hans also received in fief the territory of Dietmarsch from the emperor, but, in attempting to subdue the hardy Dietmarschers, suffered a crushing defeat in which the national banner called " Danebrog " fell into the enemy's hands (1500).

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  • Schleswig was recognized as a Danish fief, in contradistinction to Holstein, which owed vassalage to the Empire.

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  • Seeking at once to strengthen the royal position, he claimed Meissen as a vacant fief of the Empire, and in 1294 allied himself with Edward I., king of England, against France.

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  • The capture of William at Alnwick, in July 1174, permitted a Celtic revolt in Galloway, and necessitated the Treaty of Falaise, by which for fifteen years Scotland was absolutely a fief of England, though the clergy maintained their independence of the see of York, which was recognized by Pope Clement III.

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  • At the same time it traces the birth of feudalism from the germs of the Gallo-Roman personal comitatus; and shows how the bond that united the different parties was the contract of the fief; and how, after a slow growth of three centuries, feudalism was definitely organized in the 12th century.

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  • At the beginning of the 18th century it appears as a kind of military fief held under the nawab of Murshidabad by one Asadullah Pathan, whose family had probably been its chieftains since the fall of the Pathan dynasty of Bengal in 1600.

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  • The fief became for the first time a dependency of the French crown in 1185, when Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders, ceded it to Philip Augustus.

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  • There the Danes very early settled on the island of Walcheren, which had in fact been given by the emperor Louis the Pious in fief to a Danish fugitive king, Harald by name, who sought the help of Louis, and adopted Christianity.

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  • In 1338 the title of duke was bestowed upon him by the emperor Louis the Bavarian, who at the same time granted to him the fief of East Friesland.

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  • The town was captured by the Franks in 1210; after 1246 it was held in fief by the rulers of Athens.

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  • 1194) proclaimed king, and obtained the support Frederick of the Holy See on condition that the kingdom should II ' be once more recognized as a fief of the church.

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  • and formed the second fief of the barony of Krak with the title Château de la Valee de Moyse or Sela; it remained in the hands of the Franks till 1189; fragments of the Crusaders' citadel are still standing near the High-place on en-Nejr.

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  • During his stay in that city he formed for himself a guard of honour, composed of Soo descendants of the Ansar, 2 to whom he assigned a quarter in Bagdad, named after them the Qati`a (Fief) of the Ansar.

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  • After 984 we find it a fief of Tedaldo, count of Modena and Canossa, nephew of the emperor Otho I.

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  • He had no legitimate male heir, and in 1597 Ferrara was claimed as a vacant fief by Pope Clement VIII., as was also Comacchio.

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  • He then tried to win recognition as dukes of Aquitaine for the sons of his wife Agnes by William the Great, who were still minors, but Fulk Nerra promptly took up arms to defend his suzerain William the Fat, from whom he held the Loudunois and a tan g S h= - Saintonge in fief against his son.

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  • There are also some small districts or dependencies generally held in fief, turyul, by princes or high functionaries who take the revenues in lieu of salaries, pensions, allowances, &c., and either themselves govern or appoint others to do so.

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  • Flanders in the feudal period was a fief of the king of France - the count of Flanders being the first of the twelve peers of France; but there was a small strip extending from Alost to the isles of Zeeland, designated Imperial Flanders, of which the count was the vassal of the Holy Roman emperor.

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  • In 1095 Portugal was an obscure border fief of the kingdom of Leon.

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  • It was arranged that Theresa should be liberated and should continue to hold the county of Portugal as a fief (honor) of Leon.

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  • consenting to wed Donna Beatriz de Guzman, illegitimate daughter of Alphonso X., and to hold Algarve as a fief of Castile.

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  • At an early period Heidelberg was a fief of the bishop of Worms, who entrusted it about 1225 to the count palatine of the Rhine, Louis I.

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  • Albert, king of the Romans, declared that Bohemia was a vacant fief of the Empire, and, mainly by intimidation, induced the Bohemians to elect his son Rudolph as their sovereign; but Rudolph died after a reign of only one year.

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  • He was in the intervals of residence on his own fief a constant attendant on the court, but he declined to accompany the king on his last and fatal expedition.

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  • Besides his Histoire de Saint Louis and his Credo or "Confession of Faith" written much earlier, a considerable number, relatively speaking, of letters and business documents concerning the fief of Joinville and so forth are extant.

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  • Suzerain has been defined as " Qui possede un fief dont d'autres fiefs relevent " (Littre and Dictionnaire de l'academic francaise).

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  • Despagnet the term suzerain is applicable to a case in which a state concedes a fief, in virtue of its sovereignty (Essai sur le protectorat international, p. 46), reserving to itself certain rights as the author of this concession.

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  • Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.

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  • The lordship of Malines was conferred as a separate fief by Pippin the Short on his kinsman Count Adon in 754.

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  • In the 9th century Charles the Bald bestowed the fief on the bishop of Liege, and after being shared between Brabant and Flanders it passed into the hands of Philip the Bold, founder of the house of Burgundy, in 1384.

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  • Finally the Holy See intervened, and by the second peace of Thorn (October 14, 1466) all West Prussia, as it is now called, was ceded to Poland, while East Prussia was left in the hands of the knights, who held it as a fief of the Polish crown.

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  • of Denmark, but was unsuccessful in the attempt to try Edward I., the conqueror of Scotland, on the charge of interfering with a papal fief; for parliament declared in 1301 that Scotland had never been a fief of Rome.

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  • 1304), after coming to an understanding with the bishop of Utrecht, bestowed the fief on his brother, Guy of Hainaut.

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  • The Amstelland with its capital, Amsterdam, which had hitherto been held as a fief of Utrecht, was by William, on the death of his uncle Bishop Guy, finally annexed to Holland.

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  • Claimed in 1708 as a fief of the empire by Joseph I., it was governed for the greater part of the century by the Austrians.

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  • Ottavio had been made lord of Camerino in 1540, but he gave up that fief when his father became duke of Parma.

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  • In 1758, Nanjiraj, the powerful minister of the raja, caused Bangalore to be granted, as a jagir or fief, to Hyder Ali, afterwards usurper of Mysore, who greatly enlarged and strengthened the fort, which, in 1760, on his expulsion from Seringapatam, served as his refuge from destruction.

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  • During his papacy Calixtus became involved in a quarrel with his former friend, Alphonso of Aragon, now also king of Naples, and after the king's death in June 1458 he refused to recognize his illegitimate son, Ferdinand, as king of Naples, asserting that this kingdom was a fief of the Holy See.

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  • The lay abbot took his recognized rank in the feudal hierarchy, and was free to dispose of his fief as in the case of any other.

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  • After temporary occupations by the Seljuk Turks (1089-1092) and by the Venetians (1124-1125, 1172, 1204-1225), it was given in fief to the Genoese family of Zaccaria, and in 1346 passed definitely into the hands of a Genoese maona, or trading company, which was organized in 1362 under the name of "the Giustiniani."

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  • In the 12th century it became a fief of the archbishop of Lund.

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  • He allied himself with Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and with Maximilian of Austria, who was ruling the Netherlands in behalf of his young son, Philip, the heir of the Burgundian inheritance, for the purpose of preventing France from annexing Brittany, the last great fief of the crown which had not yet been absorbed into the Valois royal domain.

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  • The Norman attacks on Benevento, a papal fief, alarmed and angered Gregory VII., but pressed hard by the emperor, Henry IV., he turned again to the Normans, and at Ceprano (June r080) reinvested Robert, securing him also in the southern Abruzzi, but reserving Salerno.

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  • Aided by Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and other Protestant princes, he fought a victorious battle against Ferdinand's troops at Lauffen in May 1534, and then by the treaty of Cadan he was again recognized as duke, but was forced to accept his duchy as an Austrian fief.

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  • Thus once again Wurttemberg became a direct fief of the Empire.

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  • It was the seat of an independent lordship until 1402, after which time it was held in fief from the dukes of Gelderland.

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  • She had already given proofs of her superior statesmanship by recovering possession of Schleswig from the Holstein counts, who had held it absolutely for a generation, and who now received it back indeed as a fief (by the compact of Nyborg 1386), but under such stringent conditions that the Danish crown got all the advantage of the arrangement.

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  • The suzerain, after receiving the vassal's homage and oath of fealty, invested him with his land or office by presenting some symbol, such as a clod, a banner, a branch, or some other object according to the custom of the fief.

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  • The duchy with which he rewarded Robert the Strong was only a military command, but became a powerful fief.

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  • A still more lengthy and unfortunate suit was the attempt of Philip the Fair and his successors to incorporate the Flemish fief like the English one (1300-1326), thus coming Philip the into conflict with proud and turbulent republics;:, composed of wool and cloth merchants, weavers, fullers and powerful counts.

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  • had given Guienne in fief, provoked the nobles of Gascony to complain to Charles V.

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  • There was no longer a single great fief in France to which the malcontents could fly for refuge.

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  • Louis did indeed add the fief of Louis XIL Orleans to the royal domain and hastened to divorce 1515).

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  • The name of Barere de Vieuzac, by which he continued to call himself long after the renunciation of feudal rights on the famous 4th of August, was assumed from a small fief belonging to his father, a lawyer at Vieuzac. He began to practise as an advocate at the parlement of Toulouse in 1770, and soon earned a considerable reputation as an orator; while his brilliant and flowing style as a writer of essays led to his election as a member of the Academy of Floral Games of Toulouse in 1788.

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  • He gave it as a fief to Albert of Saxony, who thoroughly crushed out all resistance.

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  • In the Lindsey Survey of1115-1118the name of Roger Marmion, ancestor of the Marmion family, who had inherited the fief of Robert Despenser, appears for the first time.

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  • that their land was a direct fief of the Empire, and aided by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, took up arms; and a quarrel broke out with John, duke of Sagan, over the possessions of John's brother-in-law, Henry XI., duke of Glogau.

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  • They had been worried by the prospect of more Kindred entering the growing fief.

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  • The sections of land given to the loyal Norman vassals was called a fief.

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  • The relationship might be personal or, if the vassal received a fief, tenurial.

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  • However, on his sire's ' suggestion ' Prince Richard left the fief for exile in France.

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  • Fief Middle Ages era, period, life, age and times fief Middle Ages era, period, life, age and times Fief Definition The Medieval Fief - Feudalism Who granted the Fief?

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  • The largest fief of a lay tenant-in-chief in Middlesex is that of Walter of St. Valery (fn.

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  • As is well known Gerry Healy ran the WRP as his private fief.

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  • The vassal might therefore become an overlord, granting part of his fief to one who then became vassal to him.

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  • A fief was the land held by a vassal of a lord in return for stipulated services, chiefly military.

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  • Several Kindred had already entered the fief but all proved willing to acknowledge him as Prince.

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  • Wootton Bassett (Wodeton, Wotton) was held in the reign of Edward the Confessor by one Levenod, and after the Norman Conquest was included in the fief of Miles Crispin.

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  • FIEF, a feudal estate in land, land held from a superior (see Feudalism).

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  • feoffer, to invest with a fief or fee, has given the English law terms" f coffee " and " feoffment " (q.v.).

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  • Most of the year 1306 he spent at Bordeaux because of ill-health; subsequently he resided at Poitiers and elsewhere, and in March 1309 the entire papal court settled at Avignon, an imperial fief held by the king of Sicily.

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  • With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.

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  • The vidames usually took their title from the see they represented, but not infrequently they styled themselves, not after their official fief, but after Head Vicugna.

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  • The lordship of Bergen-op-Zoom appears, after the definite union of the Low Countries with the Empire in 924, as an hereditary fief of the Empire, and the succession of its lords may be traced from Henry (1098-1125), who also held Breda.

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  • It has a yearly revenue of about £1 200, and is held in fief by the family of Bahram Mirza, Muizz ed Dowleh (d.

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  • The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.

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  • Lothair was crowned emperor at the Lateran in June 1133, and as a further reward Innocent gave him the territories of the Countess Mathilda as a fief, but refused to surrender the right of investiture.

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  • According to Japanese annals they were discovered towards the close of the 16th century, and added to the fief of a Daimyo, Ogasawa Sadayori, whence the name Ogasawarajima.

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  • NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.

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  • The Este family received a confirmation of their duchy of Modena and Reggio, and were invested in their fief of Ferrara by the pope.

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  • Urban VIII., however, put in a claim to Ferrara, which, it will be remembered, had been recognized a papal fief in 1530.

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  • of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.

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  • By insisting upon the restitution of the confiscated church-lands, assuming to regard England as a papal fief, requiring Elizabeth, whose legitimacy he aspersed, to submit her claims to him, he raised insuperable obstacles to the return of England to the Church of Rome.

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  • Here Christian, bishop of Prussia, who had received from the Polish duke of Masovia a part of Kulmerland as a fief, had founded the knightly Order of Dobrzin, and was attempting with its aid to subdue the heathens of Prussia.

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  • gave the Order the rights of a prince of the Empire in its territories: Conrad of Masovia gave it the whole of Kulmerland in 1230; while in 1234 the Order established its independence of all authorities except the Papacy, by surrendering its territories to the Holy See and receiving them back again as a fief.

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  • When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.

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  • But in 1561 another master followed the example of Albert, and received Courland as an hereditary fief from Poland.

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  • In 1810 it was divided by Napoleon between the grand duchy of Berg and France, but was, in 1815, restored to the duke of Arenberg as a fief under Prussian sovereignty.

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  • himself, was a natural fief of Jerusalem.

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  • The defeat of Bohemund at Durazzo in 1108 had resulted in a treaty, which made Antioch a fief of Alexius; but Tancred (who in 1107 had recovered Cilicia from the Greeks) refused to fulfil the terms of the treaty, and Alexius (who attempted - but in vain - to induce Baldwin I.

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  • But the conception of the equality of the king and his peers in the long run led to hereditary monarchy; for if the king held his kingdom as a fief, like other nobles, the laws of descent which applied to a fief applied to the kingdom, and those laws demanded heredity.

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  • The conception of the kingdom as a fief not only subjected it to the jurisdiction of the high court; it involved the more disastrous result that the kingdom, like other fiefs, might be carried by an heiress to her husband; and the proximate causes of the collapse of the kingdom in 1187 depend on this fact and the dissensions which it occasioned.

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  • Thus conceived as the holder of a great fief, the king had only the rights of suzerain over the four great baronies and the twelve minor fiefs of his kingdom.

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  • Each fief was organized like the kingdom.

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  • The lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; at the end of the 13th century the fief was sold to the crown, and afterwards passed to the house of Orleans, then to those of Dunois and Longueville and ultimately again to that of Orleans.

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  • Towards the end of the 8th century they aided Charlemagne in putting an end to the Avar kingdom, and were rewarded by receiving part of it, corresponding to North Hungary, as a fief of the German emperor, whose supremacy they also acknowledged more or less for their other possessions.

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  • Towards the close of the 12th century Moravia was raised to the dignity of a margraviate, but with the proviso that it should be held as a fief of the crown of Bohemia.

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  • It is the seat of a court of justice and of an archbishop. During the middle ages it was for a time a fief of the Villehardouins.

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  • Breda was in the i i th century a direct fief of the Holy Roman Empire, its earliest known lord being Henry I.

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  • In 1350 the fief was resold to John (Jan) of Polanen (d.

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  • The island was annexed by Great Britain in 1628 and was bestowed in 1680 upon the Codrington family who, for more than 200 years, held it as a kind of feudal fief.

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  • In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.

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  • The help afforded by Ertoghrul to the Seljukian monarch on a critical occasion led to the addition of Sugut to his fief, with which he was now formally invested.

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  • Fiefs with a revenue of from 3000 to 20,000 aspres were timars, furnishing one armed warrior for every 3000 aspres' revenue; the grant of a fief was conditional on obligatory residence.

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  • His daughter Marie sold the fief of Coucy to Louis, duke of Orleans, in 1400.

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  • ' The poem of Aymeri de Narbonne contains the account of the young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children.

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  • as a vacant fief of the empire; but Dietrich, called the Oppressed, secured the mark after Henry's death in 1197.

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  • Albert's two remaining sons, Frederick and Dietrich or Diezmann, then claimed Meissen; but it was seized by King Adolph of Nassau as a vacant fief of the empire, and was for some time retained by him and his successor King Albert I.

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  • More remarkable than all his other acts is his letter to St Stephen, king of Hungary, to whom he sent a golden crown, and whose kingdom he accepted as a fief of the Holy See.

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  • In later times it was held in fief, first from the dukes of Brabant, then from the dukes of Gelderland.

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  • After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.

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  • Its original name was Duverger, derived from a fief near Bressuire in Poitou, and its pedigree is traceable to the 13th century.

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  • ARMAGNAC, formerly a province of France and the most important fief of Gascony, now wholly comprised in the department of Gers.

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  • The fief passed later into the possession of the counts of Berg.

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  • When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.

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  • That line of descent can be made out with convincing clearness and with no particular difficulty from epoch to epoch, from the precarium and the patrocinium, through the benefice and commendation, to the fief and vassalage.

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  • All round and about this line of descent there was a crowd of varying forms branching off more or less widely from the main stem, different kinds of commendation, different forms of precarium, some of which varied greatly from that through which the fief descends, and some of which survived in much the old character and under the old name for a long time after later feudalism was definitely established.'

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  • The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.

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  • In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.

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  • The faithful performance of all the duties he had assumed in homage constituted the vassal's right and title to his fief.

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  • So long as they were fulfilled, he, and his heir after him, held the fief as his property, practically and in relation to all under tenants as if precarium and patrocinium were lacking.

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  • It often included also the duty of guarding the lord's castle, and of holding one's own castle subject to the plans of the lord for the defence of his fief.

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  • The most lucrative of the lord's rights were wardship and marriage, but the feudal theory of these also was non-economic. The fief fell into the hands of the lord, and he enjoyed its revenues during the minority of the heir, because the minor could not perform the duties by which it was held.

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  • The heiress must marry as the lord wished, because he had a right to know that the holder of the fief could meet the obligations resting upon it.

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  • A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.

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  • (976) this "East Mark" (Ostmark, Oesterreich, Austria) was granted in fief to the Babenbergers, and in the reign of Frederick Barbarossa (1156) it was advanced to the rank of a duchy.

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  • He summoned to his fief the painter Tangena pupil of the renowned Tanyu, who died in 1674and employed him to paint faience or to furnish designs for the ceramists of Tatsumonji.

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  • But its chief development took place under the direction of Igarashi J izaemon, an amateur ceramist, who, happening to visit Chikuzen about 1620, was taken under the protection of the chief of the fief and munificently treated.

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  • In the settlement of the Latin empire after the truce with Lascaris, Villehardouin received the fief of Messinople (supposed to be Mosynopolis, a little inland from the modern Gulf of Lagos, and not far from the ancient Abdera) from Boniface of Montferrat, with the record of whose death the chronicle abruptly closes.

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  • In 1742 Anand Rao received Dhar as a fief from Bail Rao, the peshwa, the victory of the Mahrattas thus restoring the sovereign power to the family which seven centuries before had been expelled from this very city and country.

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  • In 1193 Margarito Brundusio received Malta as a fief with the title of count; he was Grand Admiral of Sicily.

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  • His ancestry claimed blood relationship with the lords of Montespertoli, a fief situated between Val di Pesa and Val d'Elsa, at no great distance from the city.

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  • hominaticum, which occurs in a document of 1035), one of the ceremonies used in the granting of a fief, and indicating the submission of a vassal to his lord.

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  • The ceremony was of a preliminary nature, securing that the fief would not be alienated; but the vassal had to take the oath of fealty, and to be formally invested, when he reached his majority.

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  • On the 6th of July 1806 Napoleon conferred on his minister the title of prince of Benevento, a papal fief in the Neapolitan territory.

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  • His reward in England was a mighty fief scattered over twelve counties.

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  • Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making the count of Nantes his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun.

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  • The manor of Zuilen on the Vecht, four miles north-west of Utrecht, was partly held in fief from this abbey and partly from the bishops of Utrecht.

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  • In 1345 it became a fief of the landgraves of Thuringia, to whom it escheated in 1385 with the extinction of the line of Otto III.

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  • In the 10th century it passed under the titular sway of Liege, and remained the fief of the prince-bishopric till the French revolution put an end to that survival of feudalism.

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  • of France seized the opportunity afforded by his rival's defeat and death to take possession of the duchy of Burgundy as a fief lapsed to the French crown, and also of Franche Comte, Picardy and Artois.

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  • It was from the precarium, or ecclesiastical benefice, that the feudal fief originated.

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  • Furia, in feudal law, was the right granted to tenants having major jurisdiction to erect a gallows within the limits of their fief.

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  • Ketteler, who had adopted Lutheranism during a visit to Germany in 1553, now professed the Augsburg Confession, and became the first duke of a new Protestant duchy, which he was to hold as a fief of the Polish crown, with local autonomy and absolute freedom of worship. The southern provinces of the ancient territory of the Order, Courland and Semgallen, had first been ceded on the 24th of June 1559 to Lithuania on similar conditions, the matter being finally adjusted by the compact of March 1562.

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  • Algeria was considered as a kind of great military fief, and the officers who ruled there commonly took the side of the native chieftains against the civil population.

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  • The lordship of Horn was a fief of the counts of Loon, and after 1361 of the bishop of Liege; but in 1450 it was raised to a countship by the Emperor Frederick II.

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  • Albi (Albiga) was, in the Gallo-Roman period, capital of the Albigenses, and later of the viscounty of Albigeois, which was a fief of the counts of Toulouse.

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  • In 1128 his brother-in-law, Henry II., margrave of the Saxon north mark, died, and Albert, disappointed at not receiving this fief, attacked Udo, the succeeding margrave, and was consequently deprived of Lusatia by Lothair.

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  • From 1368 the electors themselves held the county of Arnsberg as an imperial fief.

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  • For the derivation of the word see FIEF and FEE.

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  • Snorri himself became the lendrma8r, vassal or baron, of the king of Norway, and held his lands as a fief under him.

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  • Finally it became a fief of the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein, though often hypothecated for loans advanced to these princes by the free city of Hamburg.

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  • Malik Shah regulated also the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria, conceding the latter province as an hereditary fief to his brother Tutush, who established himself at Damascus and killed Atsiz.

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  • The province of Kerman was one of the first conquests of the Seljuks, and became the hereditary fief of Kavurd, the son of Chakir Beg.

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  • This valiant prince saved the empire from destruction and conquered Erzerum, which had been ruled during a considerable time by a separate dynasty, and was now given in fief to his brother, Mughit ud-din Toghrul Shah.

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  • On the death of Count Leonhard (12th April 1500) the fief reverted to the house of Habsburg.

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  • In view of these antipathies the treaty of 1627 between France, Spain and the pope is but an episode: instructive, however, in that the project, originated apparently by the pope, provided that England should be dismembered, and that Ireland should be treated as a papal fief.

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  • His first plan was a combination against her of Saxony, Denmark and Brandenburg; but, Brandenburg failing him, he was obliged very unwillingly to admit Russia into the partnership. The tsar was to be content with Ingria and Esthonia, while Augustus was to take Livonia, nominally as a fief of Poland, but really as an hereditary possession of the Saxon house.

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  • The French court gave her frequent presents, and in December 1673 conferred upon her the ducal fief of Aubigny at the request of Charles II.

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  • As Gautier himself admits, the feudal system made it difficult to separate the woman's person from her fief: instead of the freedom of Christian marriage on which the Church in theory insisted, lands and women were handed over together, as a business bargain, by parents or guardians.

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  • In 1143 Heribert of Bierum, bishop of Utrecht, converted the office into an hereditary fief in favour of his brother Liffert, on the extinction of whose male line it was partitioned between the families of Koevorden (or Coevorden) and van den Hove.

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  • to seize Thuringia as a vacant fief of the Empire, and established himself as landgrave.

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  • The duke rounded off his dominions by the purchase of Tenda and Oneglia, which increased his seaboard, and the last years of his life were spent in fruitless negotiations to obtain Monferrato, held by the Gonzagas under Spanish protection, and Saluzzo, which was a French fief.

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  • In 1037 he issued from Milan his famous edict for the kingdom of Italy which decreed that upon the death of a landholder his fief should, descend to his son, or grandson, and that no fiefholder should be deprived of his fief without the judgment of his peers.

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  • Moreover, by several campaigns in i{ungary the German king brought that country into the position of a fief of the German crown.

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  • Instead of acknowledging its inferiority as in former times it had claimed to be the higher power; it had eyen attempted to dispose of the imperial crown as if the Empire were a papal fief; and it had found out that it could at any time tamper, and perhaps paralyse, the imperial authority by exciting internal strife in Germany.

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  • During a meeting of the diet a papal legate read a letter from Pope Adrian IV., which seemed to imply that the Empire was a papal fief.

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  • Besides the imperial cities, and the princes and other immediate nobles, there were the mediate nobles, the men who held land in fief of the highest classes of the aristocracy, and who, in virtue of this feudal relation, looked down upon the allodial proprietors or freemen, and upon the burghers.

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  • They were often transformed into free knights by the grant of a fief, and the class ultimately became absorbed in that of the knights.

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  • Meissen, which he claimed as a vacant fief of the Empire, and Thuringia, which he bought from the landgrave Albert II., seemed to offer a favorable field for this undertaking, and he spent a large part of his short reign in a futile attempt to carry out his plan.

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  • He became a Protestant, dissolved the order, and received in fief of the king of Poland the duchy of Prussia.

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  • By virtue of the old relations between the popes and the Normans of Apulia, he held his kingdom in fief of the Holy See, a position which on the whole strengthened the royal power.

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  • Towards the beginning of the 3rd Islamic century the practice of giving Egypt in fief to a governor was resumed by the caliph Mamun, who bestowed this privilege on Abdallgh b.

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  • Egypt was given in fief to a Turkish general Ashnas (Ashinas), who never visited the country, and the, rule of individuals of Turkish origin prevailed till the rise of the Fatimites, who for a time interrupted it.

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  • On the appointed, death of Ashngs in 844 Egypt was given in fief to another Turkish general Itgkh, but in 850 this person fell out of favor, and the fief was transferred to Monta~ir, son of the caliph Motawakkil.

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  • In the year 868 Egypt was given in fief to a Turkish general Bayikbeg, who sent thither as his representative his stepson - Abmad b.

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  • Insurrections by adherents of the Alids gave him the opportunity to display his military skill; and when in 870 his stepfather died, by a stroke of luck the fief was given to his father-in-law, who retained Abmad in the lieutenancy, and indeed extended his authority to Alexandria, which had till that time been outside it.

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  • On the death of Ahmads father-in-law in the same year, when Egypt was given in fief to the caliphs brother Mowaffaq (famous for his defeat of the Zanj), Ahmad secured himself in his post by extensive bribery at headquarters; and in the following year the administration of the Syri,an frontier was conferred on him as well.

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  • The register by which a great portion of the land was a fief of the Mamelukes was left unchanged, and it is said that a proposal made by the sultans vizier to appropriate these estates was punished with death.

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  • In 875 the town was in the hands of Pope John VIII., who gave it to the count of Capua as a fief of the Holy See, which had long claimed jurisdiction over it.

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  • Hans also received in fief the territory of Dietmarsch from the emperor, but, in attempting to subdue the hardy Dietmarschers, suffered a crushing defeat in which the national banner called " Danebrog " fell into the enemy's hands (1500).

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  • Schleswig was recognized as a Danish fief, in contradistinction to Holstein, which owed vassalage to the Empire.

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  • Seeking at once to strengthen the royal position, he claimed Meissen as a vacant fief of the Empire, and in 1294 allied himself with Edward I., king of England, against France.

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  • The capture of William at Alnwick, in July 1174, permitted a Celtic revolt in Galloway, and necessitated the Treaty of Falaise, by which for fifteen years Scotland was absolutely a fief of England, though the clergy maintained their independence of the see of York, which was recognized by Pope Clement III.

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  • At the same time it traces the birth of feudalism from the germs of the Gallo-Roman personal comitatus; and shows how the bond that united the different parties was the contract of the fief; and how, after a slow growth of three centuries, feudalism was definitely organized in the 12th century.

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  • At the beginning of the 18th century it appears as a kind of military fief held under the nawab of Murshidabad by one Asadullah Pathan, whose family had probably been its chieftains since the fall of the Pathan dynasty of Bengal in 1600.

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  • The fief became for the first time a dependency of the French crown in 1185, when Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders, ceded it to Philip Augustus.

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  • There the Danes very early settled on the island of Walcheren, which had in fact been given by the emperor Louis the Pious in fief to a Danish fugitive king, Harald by name, who sought the help of Louis, and adopted Christianity.

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  • In 1338 the title of duke was bestowed upon him by the emperor Louis the Bavarian, who at the same time granted to him the fief of East Friesland.

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  • The town was captured by the Franks in 1210; after 1246 it was held in fief by the rulers of Athens.

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  • 1194) proclaimed king, and obtained the support Frederick of the Holy See on condition that the kingdom should II ' be once more recognized as a fief of the church.

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  • to come to Italy in 1265, agreeing to accept the kingdom of the Two Sicilies as a fief of the church, and in 1266 he marched southward with the privileges of a crusader (see Charles I., king of Naples and Sicily).

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  • and formed the second fief of the barony of Krak with the title Château de la Valee de Moyse or Sela; it remained in the hands of the Franks till 1189; fragments of the Crusaders' citadel are still standing near the High-place on en-Nejr.

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  • During his stay in that city he formed for himself a guard of honour, composed of Soo descendants of the Ansar, 2 to whom he assigned a quarter in Bagdad, named after them the Qati`a (Fief) of the Ansar.

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  • After 984 we find it a fief of Tedaldo, count of Modena and Canossa, nephew of the emperor Otho I.

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  • He had no legitimate male heir, and in 1597 Ferrara was claimed as a vacant fief by Pope Clement VIII., as was also Comacchio.

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  • He then tried to win recognition as dukes of Aquitaine for the sons of his wife Agnes by William the Great, who were still minors, but Fulk Nerra promptly took up arms to defend his suzerain William the Fat, from whom he held the Loudunois and a tan g S h= - Saintonge in fief against his son.

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  • There are also some small districts or dependencies generally held in fief, turyul, by princes or high functionaries who take the revenues in lieu of salaries, pensions, allowances, &c., and either themselves govern or appoint others to do so.

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  • Flanders in the feudal period was a fief of the king of France - the count of Flanders being the first of the twelve peers of France; but there was a small strip extending from Alost to the isles of Zeeland, designated Imperial Flanders, of which the count was the vassal of the Holy Roman emperor.

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  • In 1095 Portugal was an obscure border fief of the kingdom of Leon.

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  • It was arranged that Theresa should be liberated and should continue to hold the county of Portugal as a fief (honor) of Leon.

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  • consenting to wed Donna Beatriz de Guzman, illegitimate daughter of Alphonso X., and to hold Algarve as a fief of Castile.

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  • At an early period Heidelberg was a fief of the bishop of Worms, who entrusted it about 1225 to the count palatine of the Rhine, Louis I.

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  • Albert, king of the Romans, declared that Bohemia was a vacant fief of the Empire, and, mainly by intimidation, induced the Bohemians to elect his son Rudolph as their sovereign; but Rudolph died after a reign of only one year.

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  • He was in the intervals of residence on his own fief a constant attendant on the court, but he declined to accompany the king on his last and fatal expedition.

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  • Besides his Histoire de Saint Louis and his Credo or "Confession of Faith" written much earlier, a considerable number, relatively speaking, of letters and business documents concerning the fief of Joinville and so forth are extant.

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  • Suzerain has been defined as " Qui possede un fief dont d'autres fiefs relevent " (Littre and Dictionnaire de l'academic francaise).

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  • Loyseau adds, " Seigneurie suzeraine est dignite d'un fief ayant justice " (p. 38).

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  • Bousquet (Nouveau dictionnaire de droit) defines suzerain as " superieur, celui dont un fief relevait "; Rogulau (Glossaire du droit francois), " superieur en quelque charge ou dignite autre que le roy."

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  • Despagnet the term suzerain is applicable to a case in which a state concedes a fief, in virtue of its sovereignty (Essai sur le protectorat international, p. 46), reserving to itself certain rights as the author of this concession.

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  • Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.

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  • The lordship of Malines was conferred as a separate fief by Pippin the Short on his kinsman Count Adon in 754.

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  • In the 9th century Charles the Bald bestowed the fief on the bishop of Liege, and after being shared between Brabant and Flanders it passed into the hands of Philip the Bold, founder of the house of Burgundy, in 1384.

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  • Finally the Holy See intervened, and by the second peace of Thorn (October 14, 1466) all West Prussia, as it is now called, was ceded to Poland, while East Prussia was left in the hands of the knights, who held it as a fief of the Polish crown.

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  • of Denmark, but was unsuccessful in the attempt to try Edward I., the conqueror of Scotland, on the charge of interfering with a papal fief; for parliament declared in 1301 that Scotland had never been a fief of Rome.

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  • 1304), after coming to an understanding with the bishop of Utrecht, bestowed the fief on his brother, Guy of Hainaut.

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  • The Amstelland with its capital, Amsterdam, which had hitherto been held as a fief of Utrecht, was by William, on the death of his uncle Bishop Guy, finally annexed to Holland.

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  • Claimed in 1708 as a fief of the empire by Joseph I., it was governed for the greater part of the century by the Austrians.

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  • Ottavio had been made lord of Camerino in 1540, but he gave up that fief when his father became duke of Parma.

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  • In 1758, Nanjiraj, the powerful minister of the raja, caused Bangalore to be granted, as a jagir or fief, to Hyder Ali, afterwards usurper of Mysore, who greatly enlarged and strengthened the fort, which, in 1760, on his expulsion from Seringapatam, served as his refuge from destruction.

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  • During his papacy Calixtus became involved in a quarrel with his former friend, Alphonso of Aragon, now also king of Naples, and after the king's death in June 1458 he refused to recognize his illegitimate son, Ferdinand, as king of Naples, asserting that this kingdom was a fief of the Holy See.

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  • The lay abbot took his recognized rank in the feudal hierarchy, and was free to dispose of his fief as in the case of any other.

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  • After temporary occupations by the Seljuk Turks (1089-1092) and by the Venetians (1124-1125, 1172, 1204-1225), it was given in fief to the Genoese family of Zaccaria, and in 1346 passed definitely into the hands of a Genoese maona, or trading company, which was organized in 1362 under the name of "the Giustiniani."

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  • In the 12th century it became a fief of the archbishop of Lund.

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  • He allied himself with Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and with Maximilian of Austria, who was ruling the Netherlands in behalf of his young son, Philip, the heir of the Burgundian inheritance, for the purpose of preventing France from annexing Brittany, the last great fief of the crown which had not yet been absorbed into the Valois royal domain.

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  • The Norman attacks on Benevento, a papal fief, alarmed and angered Gregory VII., but pressed hard by the emperor, Henry IV., he turned again to the Normans, and at Ceprano (June r080) reinvested Robert, securing him also in the southern Abruzzi, but reserving Salerno.

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  • Aided by Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and other Protestant princes, he fought a victorious battle against Ferdinand's troops at Lauffen in May 1534, and then by the treaty of Cadan he was again recognized as duke, but was forced to accept his duchy as an Austrian fief.

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  • Thus once again Wurttemberg became a direct fief of the Empire.

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  • It was the seat of an independent lordship until 1402, after which time it was held in fief from the dukes of Gelderland.

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  • She had already given proofs of her superior statesmanship by recovering possession of Schleswig from the Holstein counts, who had held it absolutely for a generation, and who now received it back indeed as a fief (by the compact of Nyborg 1386), but under such stringent conditions that the Danish crown got all the advantage of the arrangement.

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  • The suzerain, after receiving the vassal's homage and oath of fealty, invested him with his land or office by presenting some symbol, such as a clod, a banner, a branch, or some other object according to the custom of the fief.

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  • The duchy with which he rewarded Robert the Strong was only a military command, but became a powerful fief.

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  • A still more lengthy and unfortunate suit was the attempt of Philip the Fair and his successors to incorporate the Flemish fief like the English one (1300-1326), thus coming Philip the into conflict with proud and turbulent republics;:, composed of wool and cloth merchants, weavers, fullers and powerful counts.

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  • had given Guienne in fief, provoked the nobles of Gascony to complain to Charles V.

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  • There was no longer a single great fief in France to which the malcontents could fly for refuge.

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  • Louis did indeed add the fief of Louis XIL Orleans to the royal domain and hastened to divorce 1515).

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  • The name of Barere de Vieuzac, by which he continued to call himself long after the renunciation of feudal rights on the famous 4th of August, was assumed from a small fief belonging to his father, a lawyer at Vieuzac. He began to practise as an advocate at the parlement of Toulouse in 1770, and soon earned a considerable reputation as an orator; while his brilliant and flowing style as a writer of essays led to his election as a member of the Academy of Floral Games of Toulouse in 1788.

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  • He gave it as a fief to Albert of Saxony, who thoroughly crushed out all resistance.

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  • In the Lindsey Survey of1115-1118the name of Roger Marmion, ancestor of the Marmion family, who had inherited the fief of Robert Despenser, appears for the first time.

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  • The eldest son Jacques also left two sons, famous in the history of Protestantism: - Jacques (1570-1624), pastor of the church founded by himself on his fief of le Tilloy and afterwards at Sedan, where he became professor of Hebrew, distinguished as historian, philologist and exegetical scholar; and Louis (see below).

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  • that their land was a direct fief of the Empire, and aided by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, took up arms; and a quarrel broke out with John, duke of Sagan, over the possessions of John's brother-in-law, Henry XI., duke of Glogau.

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  • A fief was the land held by a vassal of a lord in return for stipulated services, chiefly military.

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  • Several Kindred had already entered the fief but all proved willing to acknowledge him as Prince.

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  • (976) this "East Mark" (Ostmark, Oesterreich, Austria) was granted in fief to the Babenbergers, and in the reign of Frederick Barbarossa (1156) it was advanced to the rank of a duchy.

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  • This capacity, coupled with readiness to sacrifice life at any moment on the altar of country, fief or honor, made a remarkably heroic character.

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  • He summoned to his fief the painter Tangena pupil of the renowned Tanyu, who died in 1674and employed him to paint faience or to furnish designs for the ceramists of Tatsumonji.

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  • But its chief development took place under the direction of Igarashi J izaemon, an amateur ceramist, who, happening to visit Chikuzen about 1620, was taken under the protection of the chief of the fief and munificently treated.

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  • In 1742 Anand Rao received Dhar as a fief from Bail Rao, the peshwa, the victory of the Mahrattas thus restoring the sovereign power to the family which seven centuries before had been expelled from this very city and country.

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  • This capacity, coupled with readiness to sacrifice life at any moment on the altar of country, fief or honor, made a remarkably heroic character.

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  • Nor was the king's aid lacking to this method of dividing up the royal authority, any more than to the immunity, for it became a frequent practice to make the administrative office into a fief, and to grant it to be held in that form of property by the count.

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  • The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.

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  • So long as they were fulfilled, he, and his heir after him, held the fief as his property, practically and in relation to all under tenants as if precarium and patrocinium were lacking.

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  • Nor was the king's aid lacking to this method of dividing up the royal authority, any more than to the immunity, for it became a frequent practice to make the administrative office into a fief, and to grant it to be held in that form of property by the count.

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