Each fief was organized like the kingdom.
The help afforded by Ertoghrul to the Seljukian monarch on a critical occasion led to the addition of Sugut to his fief, with which he was now formally invested.
His daughter Marie sold the fief of Coucy to Louis, duke of Orleans, in 1400.
Lothair was crowned emperor at the Lateran in June 1133, and as a further reward Innocent gave him the territories of the Countess Mathilda as a fief, but refused to surrender the right of investiture.
The vidames usually took their title from the see they represented, but not infrequently they styled themselves, not after their official fief, but after Head Vicugna.
Elbeuf was, in the 13th century, the centre of an important fief held by the house of Harcourt, but its previous history goes back at least to the early years of the Norman occupation, when it appears under the name of Hollebof.
For assistance, and submitted to accept his kingdom from him as a fief of the Holy See.
But in 1561 another master followed the example of Albert, and received Courland as an hereditary fief from Poland.
In 1462 Giovanni contrived to make himself master of the city, although it was nominally a fief of the church under a papal legate.
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
According to Japanese annals they were discovered towards the close of the 16th century, and added to the fief of a Daimyo, Ogasawa Sadayori, whence the name Ogasawarajima.
NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.
The Este family received a confirmation of their duchy of Modena and Reggio, and were invested in their fief of Ferrara by the pope.
Urban VIII., however, put in a claim to Ferrara, which, it will be remembered, had been recognized a papal fief in 1530.
Thus the three bishoprics of Lubeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin, which hitherto had been fief of the Reich, now passed under Danish suzerainty.
By insisting upon the restitution of the confiscated church-lands, assuming to regard England as a papal fief, requiring Elizabeth, whose legitimacy he aspersed, to submit her claims to him, he raised insuperable obstacles to the return of England to the Church of Rome.
Here Christian, bishop of Prussia, who had received from the Polish duke of Masovia a part of Kulmerland as a fief, had founded the knightly Order of Dobrzin, and was attempting with its aid to subdue the heathens of Prussia.
In 1810 it was divided by Napoleon between the grand duchy of Berg and France, but was, in 1815, restored to the duke of Arenberg as a fief under Prussian sovereignty.
Himself, was a natural fief of Jerusalem.
The defeat of Bohemund at Durazzo in 1108 had resulted in a treaty, which made Antioch a fief of Alexius; but Tancred (who in 1107 had recovered Cilicia from the Greeks) refused to fulfil the terms of the treaty, and Alexius (who attempted - but in vain - to induce Baldwin I.
But the conception of the equality of the king and his peers in the long run led to hereditary monarchy; for if the king held his kingdom as a fief, like other nobles, the laws of descent which applied to a fief applied to the kingdom, and those laws demanded heredity.
The conception of the kingdom as a fief not only subjected it to the jurisdiction of the high court; it involved the more disastrous result that the kingdom, like other fiefs, might be carried by an heiress to her husband; and the proximate causes of the collapse of the kingdom in 1187 depend on this fact and the dissensions which it occasioned.
The lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; at the end of the 13th century the fief was sold to the crown, and afterwards passed to the house of Orleans, then to those of Dunois and Longueville and ultimately again to that of Orleans.
Towards the close of the 12th century Moravia was raised to the dignity of a margraviate, but with the proviso that it should be held as a fief of the crown of Bohemia.
In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.
' The poem of Aymeri de Narbonne contains the account of the young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children.
As a vacant fief of the empire; but Dietrich, called the Oppressed, secured the mark after Henry's death in 1197.
Albert's two remaining sons, Frederick and Dietrich or Diezmann, then claimed Meissen; but it was seized by King Adolph of Nassau as a vacant fief of the empire, and was for some time retained by him and his successor King Albert I.
More remarkable than all his other acts is his letter to St Stephen, king of Hungary, to whom he sent a golden crown, and whose kingdom he accepted as a fief of the Holy See.
After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.
In 1488 Pierre de Beaujeu had succeeded to the Bourbonnais, the last great fief of France.
Its original name was Duverger, derived from a fief near Bressuire in Poitou, and its pedigree is traceable to the 13th century.
ARMAGNAC, formerly a province of France and the most important fief of Gascony, now wholly comprised in the department of Gers.
When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.
That line of descent can be made out with convincing clearness and with no particular difficulty from epoch to epoch, from the precarium and the patrocinium, through the benefice and commendation, to the fief and vassalage.
When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.
Thus conceived as the holder of a great fief, the king had only the rights of suzerain over the four great baronies and the twelve minor fiefs of his kingdom.
At the same time, if our text is thus late, it must be remembered that its content gives us the earliest and purest exposition of French feudalism, and describes for us the organization of a kingdom, where all rights and duties were connected with the fief, and the monarch was only a suzerain of feudatories.
Towards the end of the 8th century they aided Charlemagne in putting an end to the Avar kingdom, and were rewarded by receiving part of it, corresponding to North Hungary, as a fief of the German emperor, whose supremacy they also acknowledged more or less for their other possessions.
It is the seat of a court of justice and of an archbishop. During the middle ages it was for a time a fief of the Villehardouins.
Breda was in the i i th century a direct fief of the Holy Roman Empire, its earliest known lord being Henry I.
Fiefs with a revenue of from 3000 to 20,000 aspres were timars, furnishing one armed warrior for every 3000 aspres' revenue; the grant of a fief was conditional on obligatory residence.
Of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.
The fief passed later into the possession of the counts of Berg.
A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.
All round and about this line of descent there was a crowd of varying forms branching off more or less widely from the main stem, different kinds of commendation, different forms of precarium, some of which varied greatly from that through which the fief descends, and some of which survived in much the old character and under the old name for a long time after later feudalism was definitely established.'
In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.
The most lucrative of the lord's rights were wardship and marriage, but the feudal theory of these also was non-economic. The fief fell into the hands of the lord, and he enjoyed its revenues during the minority of the heir, because the minor could not perform the duties by which it was held.
The heiress must marry as the lord wished, because he had a right to know that the holder of the fief could meet the obligations resting upon it.
(976) this "East Mark" (Ostmark, Oesterreich, Austria) was granted in fief to the Babenbergers, and in the reign of Frederick Barbarossa (1156) it was advanced to the rank of a duchy.
This capacity, coupled with readiness to sacrifice life at any moment on the altar of country, fief or honor, made a remarkably heroic character.
He summoned to his fief the painter Tangena pupil of the renowned Tanyu, who died in 1674and employed him to paint faience or to furnish designs for the ceramists of Tatsumonji.
But its chief development took place under the direction of Igarashi J izaemon, an amateur ceramist, who, happening to visit Chikuzen about 1620, was taken under the protection of the chief of the fief and munificently treated.
In 1742 Anand Rao received Dhar as a fief from Bail Rao, the peshwa, the victory of the Mahrattas thus restoring the sovereign power to the family which seven centuries before had been expelled from this very city and country.
In later times it was held in fief, first from the dukes of Brabant, then from the dukes of Gelderland.
Nor was the king's aid lacking to this method of dividing up the royal authority, any more than to the immunity, for it became a frequent practice to make the administrative office into a fief, and to grant it to be held in that form of property by the count.
The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.
So long as they were fulfilled, he, and his heir after him, held the fief as his property, practically and in relation to all under tenants as if precarium and patrocinium were lacking.