The two nerve-rings are connected by fibres passing from one to the other.
This is the typical arrangement, which is exhibited in the majority of the Polychaeta and Oligochaeta; in these the successive chambers of the coelom are separated by the intersegmental septa, sheets of muscle fibres extending from the body wall to the gut and thus forming partitions across the body.
These layers arc secreted by the protoplasm by the direct apposition of substances on those already in existence; and they may go on increasing in thickness, both by apposition and by the intussusception of particles probably carried in through the protoplasmic fibres, which penetrate the cell-wall as long as the cell lives.
In the leaf-blade this sometimes aopears as a layer of thickened subepidermal cells, tht hypoderm, often also as subepidermal bundles of sclerenchymatou~ fibres, or as similar bundles extending right across the leaf from mu epidermis to the other and thus acting as struts.
It also distinguishes the true cotton from the silk cottons or flosses, the fibres of which have no twist, and do not readily spin into thread, and for this reason, amongst others, are very considerably less important as textile fibres.
"Fibroin " and silk-glue or sericin occur in natural silk fibres.
Scattered single stereids or bundles of fibres are no imnrornmnn in the rnrtev of the root The innermost layer of the cortex, abutting on the central cylinder of the stem or on the bundles of the leaves, is called the jthloeoterma, and is often differentiated.
The fibres are frequently found in tangential bands between similar bands of tracheae or sieve-tubes.
The fibres belong to the same n,orpholcgical category as the parenchyma, various transitions being found between them; thus there may be thin-walled cells of the shape of fibres, or ordinary fibres may be divided into a number of superposed cells.
These intermediate cells, like the ordinary parenchyma, frequently store starch, and the fibres themselves, though usually dead, sometimes retain their protoplasm, and in that case may also be used for starch accumulations.
The stereom is furnished either by cortical cells or by the tracheal elements, in a few cases by fibres which arc probably homologous with sievetubes.
The limit of each years increment of secondary wood, in those plants whose yearly activity is interrupted by a regular winter or dry season, is marked by a more or less distinct line, which is produced by the sharp contrast between the wood formed in the late summer of one year (characterized by the sparseness or small diameter of the tracheal elements, or by the preponderance of fibres, or by a combination of these characters, giving a denseness to the wood) and the loose spring wood of the next year, with its absence of fibres, or its numerous large tracheae.
In Gymnosperms, where vessels and fibres are absent, the late summer wood is composed of radially narrow thick-walled tracheids, the wood of the succeeding spring being wide-celled and thin-walled, so that the limit of the years growth is very well marked.
periderm; c, cortex; ph, phlocni with alternating strands of fibres, sieve-tubes and parenchyma; ~r.r, principal ray; Sr., subordinate rays; ca, cambium.
The cytoplasm is largely concerned in the formation of spindle fibres and centrosomes, and such structures as the cell membrane, cilia, or flagella, the coenocentrum, nematoplasl~ or vibrioids and physodes are also products of its activity.
They are more easily seen, when the nucleus is about to undergo mitosis, at the ends of the spindle, where they form the centres towards which the radiating fibres in.
At each pole of this spindle figure there often occur fibres radiating in all directions into the cytoplasm, and sometimes a minute granular body, the centrosome, is also found there.
Many observers hold the view that the chromosomes are pulled apart by the contraction of the fibres to which they are attached.
In the higher plants, after the separation of the daughter nuclei, minute granular swellingc appear, in the equatorial region, on the connecting fibres which still persist between the two nuclei, to form what is called the cell-plate.
Tubes formed by the elongation of single cells are found in bast fibres, tracheides, and especially in laticiferous cells.
They are present from the beginning of the development of the cell-wail, and arise from the spindle fibres, all of which may be continued as connecting threads (endosperm of Tamus communis), or part of them may be overlaid by cellulose lamellae (endosperm of Lilium Martagon), or they may be all overlaid as in pollen mother-cells and pollen grains of Helleborus foetidus.
The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.
Arising as a long tendon from the sterno-scapular ligament, it passes the axilla by means of a fibrous pulley, accompanies the axillary vessels and nerves along the humerus, and is inserted by a few fleshy fibres on the base of the last two or three cubital quills.
Here, alone, at the distal portion of the tendon, occur muscular fibres, but these are unstriped, belonging to the category of cutaneous muscles.
the transverse commissure of the right and left pallium) is in birds reduced to a narrow flat bundle of a few white fibres; it is situated immediately above and behind the much stronger anterior commissure, i.e.
The iris contains a sphincter and a dilator muscle; the former, supplied by branches from the oculomotorius nerve, is under control of the will, whilst the dilator fibres belong to the sympathetic system.
The communication with the atrium is guarded by a valvula cardiaca dextra, which only in function represents the mammalian tricuspid; it consists of an oblique reduplication of the muscular fibres together with the endocardiac lining of the right ventricle, while the opposite wall is convex and forms neither a velum nor papillary muscles, nor chordae tendineae.
The next following instalments of vapour, getting diffused throughout a large mass of relatively cold gas, condense into a kind of "snow," known in commerce and valued as "flowers of sulphur" (fibres sulphuris).
The natural products include fine cabinet and construction woods, rubber, fruit, palm oil and fibres.
Below this is a circular, and below that again a longitudinal, layer of muscle fibres.
The muscular layers are thinner in the aquatic forms, which possess only a single row of longitudinal fibres, or (Enchytraeidae) two layers.
This may be associated with mud-eating habits; but it is not wholly certain that this is the case; for in Chaetogaster and Agriodrilus, which are predaceous worms, there is no protrusible pharynx, though in the latter the oesophagus is thickened through its extent with muscular fibres.
Having arrived at the conclusion that the food of plants consists of minute particles of earth taken up by their rootlets, it followed that the more thoroughly the soil in which they grew was disintegrated, the more abundant would be the " pasture " (as he called it) to which their fibres would have access.
From the widespreading roots string and ropes are manufactured in Lapland and Bothnia: the longer ones which run near the surface are selected, split through, and then boiled for some hours in a ley of wood-ashes and salt, which, dissolving out the resin, loosens the fibres and renders them easily separable, and ready for twisting into cordage.
It is clear that, if we start from the condition of full eversion of the tube and watch the process of introversion, we shall find that the pleurecbolic variety is introverted by the apex of the tube sinking inwards; it may be called acrembolic, whilst conversely the acrecbolic tubes are pleurembolic. Further, it is obvious enough that the process either of introversion or of eversion of the tube may be arrested at any point, by the development of fibres connecting the wall of the introverted tube with the wall of the body, or with an axial structure such as the oesophagus; on the other hand, the range of movement of the tubular introvert may be unlimited or complete.
mica, talc, chlorite, haematite), or in long blades or fibres (anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite, tourmaline), and, when these have a well marked parallel arrangement in definite bands or folia, the rock will break far more easily along the bands than across them.
Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins, cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal, and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions, leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs, iron and steel and.
qutun), the most important of the vegetable fibres of the world, consisting of unicellular hairs which occur attached to the seeds of various species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the Mallow order (Malvaceae).
This characteristic is of great economic importance, the natural twist facilitating the operation of spinning the fibres into thread or yarn.
The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.
In the posterior retractor the longitudinal fibres become united into one bundle, which, as noticed above, is inserted in the wall of the sheath.
At the circular insertion of the proboscis in front of the brain the muscular fibres belonging to the anterior extremity of the body and those connected with the proboscis are very intimately interwoven, forming a strong attachment.
8) from the following - that is, from a layer in which longitudinal muscular fibres are largely intermixed with tortuous glands, which by reason of their deeper situation communicate with the exterior by a much longer and generally very narrow duct.
Increase in size appears sometimes to be accompanied by the development of a new layer of fibres, whereas a difference in the method of preparation may give to a layer which appeared homogeneous in one specimen a decidedly fibrous aspect in another.
The Heteronemertini thus appear to have developed an extra layer of longitudinal fibres internally to those which they inherited from more primitive ancestors, whereas the Metanemertini are no longer in possession of the internal circular layer, but have on the contrary largely developed the external circular one, which has dwindled away in the Heteronemertini.
In addition to the musculature of the proboscis and proboscidian sheath, longitudinal muscular fibres are found in the walls of the oesophagus, whilst transverse ones are numerous and united into vertical dissepiments between the successive intestinal caeca, thus bringing about a very regular internal metamerization.
The oesophagus is the anterior portion of the digestive canal; its walls are folded longitudinally, comparatively thick and provided with longitudinal muscular fibres.
This second coil is suspended by a number of silk fibres, and to the coil is also attached a spiral spring the other end of which is fastened to a torsion head.
This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
A clear distinction must be drawn between colour and the property of dyeing; all coloured substances are not dyes, and it is shown in the article Dyeing that the property of entering into chemical or physical combination with fibres involves properties other than those essential to colour.
Inside the syncytium is a not very regular layer of circular muscle fibres, and within this again some rather scattered longitudinal fibres; there is no endothelium.
In their minute structure the muscular fibres resemble those of Nematodes.
Except for the absence of 'the longitudinal fibres the skin of the proboscis resembles that of the body, but the fluid-containing tubules of the latter are shut off from those of the body.
It results from this that the horn has the appearance of a mass of agglutinated hairs, which, in the newly growing part at the base, readily fray out on destruction of the softer intermediate substance; but the fibres differ from true hairs in growing from a free papilla of the derm, and not within a follicular involution of the same.
The nervous system is thus essentially epidermal in position and diffuse in distribution; but an interesting concentration of nerve-cells and fibres has taken place in the collar-region, where a medullary tube, closed in from the outside, opens in front and behind by anterior and posterior neuropores.
These hollow roots terminate blindly in the dorsal epidermis of the collar, and place the nervous layer of the latter in direct connexion with the fibres of the nerve-tube.
From the ventral surface of the collar nerve-tube numerous motor fibres may be seen passing to the subjacent musculature.
These fibres are not aggregated into roots.
The flowers are yellow, and the seeds enclosed in a pod are long and thin with numerous long silky fibres attached to them, which enable the seeds to be readily carried by the wind.
22) is hollow, and it contains a diverticulum "' s from the coelom, a branch of the vascular system, a nerve and some muscle fibres.
Others of the endothelial cells show a great tendency to form muscle fibres.
Much of the latter takes the form of hyaline supporting tissue, embedded in which are scattered cells and fibres.
The action of aconitine on the circulation is due to an initial stimulation of the cardio-inhibitory centre in the medulla oblongata (at the root of the vagus nerves), and later to a directly toxic influence on the nerve-ganglia and muscular fibres of the heart itself.
But they also receive the nerve fibres of the optic nerve.
Muscular fibres connected with the suctorial pharynx are in Limulus inserted into the entosternite, and the activity of the two organs may be correlated.
nerv.f, Nerve fibres of the optic nerve.
- Section through a portion of the lateral eye of Limulus, showing three ommatidia - A, B and C. hyp, The epidermic cell-layer (so-called hypodermis), the cells of which increase in volume below each lens, 1, and become nerve-end cells or retinula-cells, rt; in A, the letters rh point to a rhabdomere secreted by the cell rt; c, the peculiar central spherical cell; n, nerve fibres; mes, mesoblastic skeletal tissue; ch, chitinous cuticle.
n, Nerve fibres.
nf, Nerve fibres.
The Scyths had a method of divination with sticks, and the Enarees, who claimed to be soothsayers by grant of the goddess who had afflicted them, used another method by splitting bast fibres.
The forest products, whose collection and preparation form regular industries, are rubber (called Gaucho or goma), tonka beans, vanilla, copaiba, chique-chique, sarsaparilla, divi-divi, dye-woods, cabinet-woods and fibres.
Increased work thrown on to a tissue may produce hypertrophy, but, if this excessive function be kept up, atrophy will follow; even the blacksmith's arm breaks down owing to the hypertrophic muscle fibres becoming markedly atrophied.
- Muscle fibres from atrophied heart.
Many of the muscle fibres show numerous droplets of oil seen as dark round granules.
- Healing abscess showing a wall of young cellular and vascular granulation tissue, which separates the pus area (top of Fig.) from the muscle fibres seen at lower part of Fig.
- Chronic interstitial myocarditis, showing the muscle fibres in the heart wall being separated and becoming atrophied by a slow fibrous overgrowth of the connective tissue.
Note that the malignant cells are invading and destroying the muscle fibres of the heart.
The fibres are arranged in irregular bundles forming a dense firm tissue.
The change appears to begin in the fibrils which lie between the circular muscle fibres of the middle coat of the smaller arterioles and extends both backwards and forwards along the vessels.
It spreads forwards, affecting the supporting fibres outside the epithelium of the capillaries, and then passes to the connective-tissue fibrils of the veins.
Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise maize, tilseed, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, wheat, millet, other food grains including pulse, condiments and spices, tea, barley, sago, linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce.
Almost all the Guanches used to wear garments of goat-skins, and others of vegetable fibres, which have been found in the tombs of Grand Canary.
The muscles are composed of outer circular and inner longitudinal layers, and of branched dorso-ventral fibres.
The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano.
This layer also forms the attachment for the muscles, of which there are two enveloping coats, a circular and a longitudinal layer and also dorso-ventral fibres.
The gathering and preparation of "ixtle" fibres from the agave and yucca forms another important industry, the fibre being sent to Tampico for export.
Soc., 1880, 30, p. 411, showing experiments on residual charge of condensers and a comparison between the behaviour of dielectrics and glass fibres under torsion.
boards covered with canvas or sacking, the gold and heavier particles becoming entangled in the fibres.
Pulses of different sorts, oilseeds, fibres, sugar-cane, tobacco, spices and vegetables also form crops of the district.
This species usually constructs its nest on the bottom, excavating a hollow in which a bed of grass, rootlets or fibres is prepared; walls are then raised, and the whole is roofed over with the like material.
Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.
The study of Indian textiles includes an account of their fibres, tools, processes, products, ornaments and uses.
The addition of brilliant ornamentation in shell, teeth, feathers, wings of insects and dyed fibres completed the round of the textile art.
Edible plants, and those for dyes and medicines, were on their lists, as well as wood for tools, utensils and weapons, and fibres for textiles.
The commonest state of aggregation is that of radially arranged fibres, the external surface of the mass being globular, nodular or stalactitic in form.
For this purpose the skin is tied by connecting fibres of white fibrillar tissue to the deep layer of the dermis along the lateral and lower edges of the palmar fascia and to the sheaths of the flexor tendons.
He first published his views in 1736, and he thus writes - "Antheras et stigmata constituere sexum plantarum, a palmicolis, Millingtono, Grewio, Rayo, Camerario, Godofredo, Morlando, Vaillantio, Blairio, Jussievio, Bradleyo, Royeno, Logano, &c., detectum, descriptum, et pro infallibili assumptum; nec ullum, apertis oculis considerantem cujuscunque plantae fibres, latere potest."
The chief value of the agaves, however, is in their fibres, of which a great variety is produced.
The exports include gold, silver, copper, coffee, henequen or sisal, ixtle and other fibres, cabinet woods, chicle, rubber and other forest products, hides and skins, chickpeas, tobacco and sugar.
There are other agaves used both in the production of drinks and fibres, but they are not cultivated.
The " ixtle " fibres shipped from Tampico and Chiapas are all obtained from the agaves and yuccas found growing wild.
The natural and forest products of Mexico include the agave and yucca (ixtle) fibres already mentioned; the " ceibon " fibre derived from the silk-cotton tree (Bombax pentandria); rubber and vanilla in addition to the cultivated products; palm oil; castor beans; ginger; chicle, the gum extracted from the " chico-zapote " tree (Achras sapota); logwood and other dye-woods; mahogany, rosewood, ebony, cedar and other valuable woods; " cascalote " or divi-divi; jalap root (Ipomaea); sarsaparilla (Smilax); nuts and fruits.
There were of course some crude industries in existence before the arrival of the 'Spaniards, such as weaving and dyeing of fabrics made from various fibres, and making earthenware utensils, images, &c. The Spaniards introduced their own industries, including sugar-making, weaving, tanning, and leatherand metal-working, some of which still exist.
From this simple nerve fibres are given off to the body-wall, especially 4uk t A, x °C FIG.
The leading imports in 1909 were as follows, indicating in each case, when not evidently unnecessary, the value of finished manufactures and of unmanufactured materials: Silk (manufactured, $32,963,162; unmanufactured, $75,512,401); hides and skins, other than fur skins ($103,758,277); sugar and molasses ($91,535,466); fibres, vegetables and textile grasses (manufactured, $33,511,696; unmanufactured, $54,860,698); coffee ($86,524,006); chemicals ($86,401,432); cotton (manufactured, $68,380,780; raw and waste, $1 5,421,854); rubber (manufactured, $1,462,541, unmanufactured, $83,682,013); wool (manufactured, $22,058,712; unmantifactured, $55,530,366); and wood (manufactured, $43,620,591; unmanufactured, $13,584,172).
The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).
21), so that its fibres join the anterior faces of the nerve-end cells as in Vertebrates, instead of their posterior faces as in the cephalic eyes of Mollusca and Arthropoda; moreover, the lens is not a cuticular product but a cellular structure, which, again, is a feature of agreement with the Vertebrate FIG.
In the anterior part of the gland are seen bundles of striped muscle fibres, which are of interest when the comparative ana Ampulla of vas deferens tomy of the gland Cut end of great sacrois studied: they are 1 sciatic ligament Common ejaculatory duct Levator ani than in old prostates.
From two to three weeks after the completion of the cocoon the enclosed insect is ready to escape; it moistens one end of its self-made prison, thereby enabling itself to push aside the fibres and make an opening by which the perfect moth comes forth.
On this account the fibres of tussur or tussore silk tend to split up into fine fibrillae under the various preparatory processes in manufacturing, and its riband structure is the cause of the glassy lustre peculiar to the woven and finished fibres.
It is a most perfect non-conductor of electricity, and in its dry state the fibres frequently get so electrically excited as to seriously interfere with their working, so that it becomes necessary to moisten them with glycerin or soapy solutions.
Silk is readily distinguished from wool and other animal fibres by the action of an alkaline solution of oxide of lead, which darkens wool, &c., owing to the sulphur they contain, but does not affect silk, which is free from that body.
The former embraces a range of operations peculiar to silk, dealing as they do with continuous fibres of great length, whereas in the spun silk industry the raw materials are treated by methods analogous to those followed in the treatment of other fibres (see Weaving).
A girl with a small hand brush of twigs keeps stirring them in the water till the silk softens, and the outer loose fibres (floss) get entangled with the twigs and come off till the end of the main filament (maitre brin) is found.
The permanent committee of the Paris International Congress of 1900, which was held for the purpose of unification of the numerotage of counts, unanimously decided - (a) With reference to cotton, silk and other textiles spun from fibres, that they should be based on a fixed weight and variable length, the unit being one metre to one gramme.
Scouring renders all common silks, whether white or yellow in the raw, a brilliant pearly white, with a delicate soft flossy texture, from the fact that the fibres which were agglutinated in reeling, being now degummed, are separated from each other and show their individual tenuity in the yarn.
A silk " throwster " receives his silk in skein form, the thread of which consists of a number of silk fibres wound together to make a certain diameter or size, the separate fibre having actually been spun by the worm, and this fibre may measure anything from Soo to woo yds.
It is the spinner's business to straighten out these fibres, with the aid of machinery, and then to so join them that they become a thread, which is known as spun silk.
The object of the spinner at this point is to straighten out the tangles and lumps, and to lay the fibres parallel: the first machine to assist in this process being known as an opening machine, and the second as a filling engine.
As the drum revolves at a good speed, the silk is drawn by the steel teeth through the porcupines into the drum in more or less straight and parallel fibres.
By these means the silk has been opened, straightened and then cut into a certain length, the fibres now being fairly laid parallel and ready for the next operation, known as silk dressing.
Its purpose is to sort out the different lengths of fibre, and to clear such fibres of their nibs and noils.
The resulting sliver is used by silk spinners who make a speciality of spinning short fibres, and the exhaust noils are bought by those who spin them up into " noil yarns " on the same principle as wool.
Short fibre silks are still put through cards and treated like cotton; but the value of silk is in its lustre, elasticity and strength, which characteristics are obtained by keeping fibres as long as possible.
Therefore, when gill drawing machinery was invented, the cutting of silk into short fibres ceased, and long silks are now prepared for spinning on what is known as " long spinning process."
When the agreed-on weight is on the drum, the silk is drawn across the face of the drum parallel with its axle, and pulled off in form of a sheet, and is called a lap. This lap is thin, but presents the fibres of silk now joined and overlapped in a continuous form, the length measured by the circumference of the drum.
There is also felt a sense of constriction in the pharynx, due to the action of the drug on its muscular fibres.
Besides the sphincter pupillae, the fibres of the ciliary muscle are stimulated.
Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.
The interior of the head is filled up with masses of muscle fibres which are mainly occupied with moving the sickle-shaped hooks.
The skin consists of a transparent cuticle excreted by the underlying ectoderm, the cells of which though usually one-layered may be heaped up into several layers in the head; beneath this is a basement membrane, and then a layer of longitudinal muscle fibres which are limited inside by a layer of peritoneal cells.
To the foregoing may be added the following three additional propositions, so as to form a more complete expression of a physiognomical philosophy: (4) Certain muscles concerned in producing these skin-folds become strengthened by habitual action, and when the skin diminishes in elasticity and fulness with advancing age, the wrinkles at right angles to the course of the muscular fibres become permanent.
(d) The hypophloeodal thallus is often concealed beneath the bark of trees (as in some Verrucariae and Arthoniae), or enters into the fibres of wood (as in Xylographa and After Bonnier, from v.
On the tree being lifted from its hole the roots should be examined, and all which have been severed roughly with the spade should have the ends cut smooth with the knife to facilitate the emission of fibres.
in which time they will have acquired the shape given by the nurseryman, who generally transplants his stock each autumn to produce large masses of root fibres.
These conditions of orchid-growing have undergone great changes of late years, and the plants are grown much as other stove and greenhouse plants in ordinary pots with composts not only of peat but of leaf-mould, and fibres from osmunda and polypodium ferns.
Uredospores, septa of Basidiomycetes), spirals, reticulations, rings, &c. (capillitium fibres of Podaxon, Calostoma, Battarrea), occur as in the vessels of higher plants, while sculptured networks, pittings and so forth are as common on fungus-spores as they are on pollen grains.
b, Sub-epidermal fibres.
These properties of fur constitute its essential value for felting purposes, and mark its difference from wool and silk; the first, after some slight preparation by the aid of hot water, readily unites its fibres into a strong and compact mass; the others can best be managed by spinning and weaving.
The function of the veins which consist of vessels and fibres is to form a rigid framework for the leaf and to conduct liquids.
The fall is directly caused by the formation of a layer of tissue across the base of the leaf-stalk; the cells of this layer separate from one another and the leaf remains attached only by the fibres of the veins until it becomes finally detached by the wind or frost.
Phormium is prepared with great care by native methods, only the mature fibres from the under-side of the leaves being taken.
But up till 1860 it was only native-prepared phormium that was known in the market, and it was on the material so carefully, but wastefully, selected that the reputation of the fibre was built up. The troubles with the Maoris at that period led the colonists to engage in the industry, and the sudden demand for all available fibres caused soon afterwards by the Civil War in America greatly stimulated their endeavours.
But the fibre produced by these rapid and economical means was very inferior in quality to the product of Maori handiwork, mainly because weak and undeveloped strands are, by machine preparation, unavoidably intermixed with the perfect fibres, which alone the Maoris select, and so the uniform quality and strength of the material are destroyed.
It is rather softer and less dense than crystallized quartz, its hardness being about 6.5 and its specific gravity 2.6, the difference being probably due to the presence of a small amount of opaline silica between the fibres.
Cotton, indigo and various fibres of plants deserve notice.
The natives round the Cameroon estuary are clever carvers of wood, and make highly ornamental figure heads for their canoes, which also sometimes show very fine workmanship. In the interior the people use the wild-growing cotton and fibres of plants to manufacture coarse drapery and plait-work.
With the increase of transport facilities it is probable that the trade with the Mediterranean coasts will also be diverted to the south, and profitable minor branches of trade would be formed in leather, ostrich feathers, gums, fibres, &c. The imports from Great Britain, which come via Forcados, are mostly cotton goods, provisions and hardware.
of plants and fibres.
Such discharges descend the nerve fibres of the spinal cord, and through the intermediation of various spinal nerve cells excite the respiratory muscles through their motor nerves.
It is propagated along the muscle fibres of the skeletal muscles at a rate of about 3 metres per second.
Non-myelinate nerve fibres are as resistant to fatigue as are the myelinate.
The work of Camillo Golgi (Pavia, 1885 and onwards) on the minute structure of the nervous system has led to great alteration of doctrine in neural physi nerve cells, that is to say, the fine nerve fibres - since all nerve fibres are nerve cell branches, and all nerve cell branches are nerve fibres - which form a close felt-work in the nervous centres, there combined into a network actually continuous throughout.
The axons of the motor neurons are, inasmuch as they are nerve fibres in nerve trunks, easily accessible to artificial stimuli.
The inference is that the "fatigue substances" generated in the muscle fibres in the course of their prolonged contraction injure and paralyse the motor end plates, which are places of synapsis between nerve cell and muscle cell, even earlier than they harm the contractility of the muscle fibres themselves.
It is a brief extension of the limb at the knee-joint, due to a simple contraction of the extensor muscle, elicited by a tap or other short mechanical stimulus applied to the muscle fibres through the tendon of the muscle.
The jerk is obtainable only from muscle fibres possessed of neural tonus.
In the myelinated cell branches of the neuron, that is, in the ordinary nerve fibres, no visible change has ever been demonstrated as the result of any normal activity, however great - a striking contrast to the observations obtained on the perikarya.
This is the explanation of the repair of nerve trunks that have been severed, with consequent degeneration of the peripheral nerve fibres.
Abdomen Wrist come to be furnished more and more with fibres that are fully myelinate.
At the beginning of its history each is unprovided with myelinate nerve fibres.
The organ seems also to receive many fibres from the parietal region of the cerebral hemisphere.
From the organ there emerge fibres which cross to the opposite red nucleus, and directly or indirectly reach the thalamic region of the crossed hemisphere.
Certain nerve fibres from the sympathetic nervous system, which can also cause the secretion of a (specially viscous) saliva, are entirely unaffected by atropine.
The action of atropine in dilating the pupil is also aided by a stimulation of the fibres from the sympathetic nervous system, which innervate the remaining muscle of the iris - the dilator pupillae.
He finds no spindle fibres or true chromosomes, and considers the division direct, not indirect.
The exports include sugar, rum, cotton, hides, skins, rubber, wax, fibres, dyewoods, cacau, mandioca flour, pineapples and other fruits.
Hats and hammocks are made from the fibres of the mocora and toquilla palms, and sandals from the fibre of the Agave americana.
But in those forms where curving must take place in different directions the layers or fibres of metal are made to glide over one another, extension taking place in some layers but not in others, and this goes on without producing much reduction in the thickness.
A piece of wrought iron, or mild steel or copper, if torn asunder shows long lustrous fibres, resembling a bundle of threads in appearance.
The village system is well described, each little rural unit seeming to be an independent republic. Megasthenes remarked the exemption of the husbandmen (Vaisyas) from war and public services, and enumerates the dyes, fibres, fabrics and products (animal, vegetable and mineral) of India.
There are three principal varieties: sinamay, which is made from selected hemp fibres and is worn by both men and women; jusi, which is made from a mixture of hemp and pineapple-plant fibres with or without the addition of some cotton and silk and is used for making women's dresses and men's shirts; pina, which is made from the fibres in the leaf of the pineapple-plant and is used for making women's garments, handkerchiefs and scarfs.
To allow for this effect of temperature a compensating system of metal bars is attached to the upper end of the bifilar suspension, so arranged that with rise of temperature the fibres are brought nearer together and hence the value of 0 decreases.
Wimmer supports his thesis with great learning and ingenuity, and when allowance is made for the fact that a script to be written upon wood, as the runes were, of necessity avoids horizontal lines which run along the fibres of the wood, and would therefore be indistinct, most of the runic signs thus receive a plausible explanation.
Stiffness of Ropes.Ropes offer a resistance to being bent, and, when bent, to being straightened again, which arises from the mutual friction of their fibres.
This cord is neither elastic nor solid, but consists of nerve tissue, fibres and ganglion cells, surrounding a small central canal.
Corresponding with each pair of myotomes, and subject to the same alternation, two pairs of spinal nerves arise from the neurochord, namely, a right and left pair of compact dorsal sensory roots without ganglionic enlargement, and a right and left pair of ventral motor roots composed of loose fibres issuing separately from the neurochord and passing directly to their termination on the muscle-plates of the myotomes.
That which is nearest the rind is called stupa [` tow '1, inferior to the inner fibres, and fit only for the wicks of lamps.
Among Western nations it was, without any competitor, the most important of all vegetable fibres till towards the close of the 18th century, when, after a brief struggle, cotton took its place as the supreme vegetable fibre of commerce.
It is unadvisable to ripple the flax so severely as to break or tear the delicate fibres at the upper part of the stem.
The drying, which takes from a week to a fortnight, must be uniform, so that all the fibres may spin equally well.
The former, being soluble, is left in the water; but the latter, an insoluble body, is in part attached to the fibres, from which it is only separated by changing into soluble metapectic acid under the action of hot alkaline ley in the subsequent process of bleaching.
When the fibres are easily separated from the stalk, the operation is complete and the bundles should be withdrawn.
Thus, the finest fibres may be divided as follows: Superfine first marks.
Long before jute came to occupy a prominent place amongst the textile fibres of Europe, it formed The lower qualities are, naturally, divided into fewer varieties.
Each baler has his own marks, the fibres of which are guaranteed not follow that a large crop of jute will result in low prices, for the year1906-1907was not only a record one for crops, but also olitorius.
This peculiarity of jute, coupled also with the fact that the machinery on which it was first spun, although quite suitable for the stronger and more elastic fibres for which it was designed, required certain modifications to suit it to the weaker jute, was the cause of many annoyances and failures in the early days of the trade.
All, however, perform the same function, viz., combing out the fibres and thus laying them parallel, and in addition drawing out the sliver.
These pins are much finer than those of the breaker and finisher cards, consequently the fibres are more thoroughly separated.
The different sizes of yarn are extensively used in a large variety of fabrics, sometimes alone, sometimes in conjunction with other fibres, e.g.
5) a flat paddleshaped needle of aluminium foil U is supported by a bifilar suspension consisting of two cocoon fibres.
apart and the suspended fibres near together at the top, the deflection produced by a P.D.
When the fibres were far apart at the top a similar flatness was obtained in the curve with the quadrants about i mm.
Where the stomach and bowels are irritable, all food likely to cause mechanical irritation should be avoided, such as skins, bones, fibres and seeds.
A few vessels and woody fibres traverse the tubers.
These cave flowers are unfolded by pressure, as if a sheaf were forced through a tight binding, or the crystal fibres curl outward from the centre of the group. Thus spotless arches of 50 ft.
The Campo de fibres contains some of the most splendid short poems ever written in Portuguese, and an Italian critic has ventured to call Joao de Deus, to whom God and women were twin sources of inspiration, the greatest love poet of the 19th century.
From the great juicy, leafless, branchless stalk of the yucca, soap is prepared, and strong fibres useful in making paper, rope and fabrics.
The work of van Tieghem, van Senus, Fribes, Omeliansky and others has now shown that while certain anaerobic bacteria decompose the substance of the middle lamella - chiefly pectin compounds - and thus bring about the isolation of the cellulose fibres when, for instance, flax is steeped or " retted," they are unable to attack the cellulose itself.
Thus in diphtheria changes in both nerve cells and nerve fibres have been found, and in tetanus minute alterations in the nucleus and protoplasm of nerve cells.
The natives eat extensively the bulbs of the Martagon lily, and weave cloth out of the fibres of the Kamchatka nettle.
The muscular system of the Scyphomedusae is developed on the subumbral surface as a system of circularly disposed fibres which by their contraction make the umbrella more concave and diminish its FIG.
The whole length of the alimentary canal is provided, as a rule, with muscular fibres, both circular and longitudinal, running in its walls, and, in addition, there may be muscle-bands running between the gut and the body-wall.
They are expert navigators, and construct curious charts of thin strips of wood tied together with fibres, some giving the position of the islands and some the direction of the prevailing winds.
In some bamboos they are very numerous from the lower nodes of the erect culms, and pass downwards to the soil, whilst those from the upper nodes shrivel up and form circles of spiny fibres.
of length, and that a piece of the material may be bent cold 180 over a mandril equal to the thickness of the piece tested without fracture of the fibres on the outside of the bend.
After the cambium has been active for some time producing secondary xylem and phloem, the latter consisting of sievetubes, phloem-parenchyma and frequently thick-walled fibres, a second cambium is developed in the pericycle; this produces a second vascular zone, which is in turn followed by a third cambium, and so on, until several hollow cylinders are developed.
The secondary phloem contains numerous thick-walled fibres, parenchymatous cells, and large sieve-tubes with plates on the radial walls; swollen parenchymatous cells containing crystals are commonly met with in the cortex, pith and medullary-ray tissues.
The phloem consists of sieve-tubes, with pitted areas on the lateral as well as on the inclined terminal walls, phloem-parenchyma and, in some genera, fibres.
In the Abietineae the phloem consists of parenchyma and sieve-tubes only, but in most other forms tangential rows of fibres occur in regular alternation with the parenchyma and sieve-tubes.
The presence of hypodermal fibres is another feature worthy of note, but the occurrence of these elements is too closely connected with external conditions to be of much systematic value.
A pine needle grown iji continuous light differs from one grown under ordinary conditions in the absence of hypodermal fibres, in the absence of the characteristic infoldings of the mesophyll cell-walls, in the smaller size of the resin-canals, &c. The endodermis in Pinus, Picea and many other genera is usually a well-defined layer of cells enclosing the vascular bundles, and separated from them by a tissue consisting in part of ordinary parenchyma and to some extent of isodiametric tracheids; but this tissue, usually spoken of as the pericycle, is in direct continuity with other stem-tissues as well as the pericycle.
One of the bestknown anatomical characteristics of the genus is the occurrence of numerous spindle-shaped or branched fibres with enormouslythickened walls studded with crystals of calcium oxalate.
Fused quartz has recently been used for the construction of lenses and laboratory vessels, or it may be drawn out into the finest elastic fibres and used for suspending mirrors, &c., in physical apparatus.
The Colombian "Panama hat" is made from the fibres extracted from the ribs of the fanshaped leaves of still another species of palm, Carludovica palmata, while in the Rio Sinn region the natives make a kind of butter ("manteca de Corozo") from the Elaeis melanococca, Mart., by peeling the nuts in water and then purifying the oil extracted in this way by boiling.
Whale-oil is principally used in oiling wools for combing, in batching flax and other vegetable fibres, in currying and chamois leather-making, and as a lubricant for machinery.
In Actinia equina the mesogloea consists of fine fibres imbedded in a homogeneous matrix, and between the fibres are minute branched or spindle-shaped cells.
The central layer is usually thick and marked by lines of growth; but in Glossograptus and Lasiograptus it is thinned down to a fine membrane stretched upon a skeleton framework of lists and fibres,.
In the Dendroidea, as a rule, the polypary is non-symmetrical in shape and tree-like or shrub-like in habit, with numerous branches irregularly disposed, and with a distinct stem-like or short basal portion ending below in root-like fibres or in a membranous disk or sheet of attachment.
Of fibres the most important are cotton, Deccan hemp (Hibiscus cannabinus), and sunn or tag (Crotalaria juncea).
In the floor of the mouth, between the two branches of the lower jaw, and supported behind by the hyoid apparatus, lies the tongue, an organ the free surface of which, especially in its posterior part, is devoted to the sense of taste, but which by reason of its great mobility (being composed almost entirely of muscular fibres) performs important mechanical functions connected with masticating and procuring food.
It has been suggested that this change is due to the removal of the colloidal silica in solution, leaving behind the fibres and grains of more crystalline structure.
The agricultural products include cotton, coffee, tobacco and cereals, and the forests produce rubber, vanilla and various textile fibres.
Their non-employment of skins for clothing is a marked distinction between the Malagasy and the South African races, and their use of vegetable fibres an equally strong link between them and the Polynesian peoples.
2); but its attachments and relations, as well as the occasional presence of muscular fibres in its substance, show that it is the homologue of the interosseous muscles of other mammals, modified in structure and function, to s ' '16 FIG.
The oesophageal orifice is small, and guarded by a strong crescentic or horseshoe-like band of muscular fibres, supposed to be the cause of the difficulty of vomiting in the horse.
The muscular fibres of the jaws are transversely striated, the other muscles are unstriated.
This case arises when the visual angle, under which the object appears, is approximately a minute of arc; it is due to the physiological construction of the retina, for the ends of nerve fibres, which receive the impression of light, have themselves a definite size.
wrought into a deep, hollow cup, plastered with earth, and lined with fibres; but around this is erected a firmly interwoven, basket-like outwork of thorny sticks, forming a dome over the nest, and leaving but a single hole in the side for entrance and exit, so that the whole structure is rendered almost impregnable.
The walls of the cells are frequently absorbed, so that when the anther attains maturity the fibres are alone left, and these by their elasticity assist in discharging the pollen.
The property of the semi-drying oils to absorb oxygen is accelerated by spreading such oils over a large surface, notably over woollen or cotton fibres, when absorption proceeds so rapidly that frequently spontaneous combustion will ensue.
If care be exercised in the process of rendering animal oils and fats or expressing oils in the cold, the products are, as a rule, sufficiently pure to be delivered to the consumer, after a preliminary settling has allowed any mucilaginous matter, such as animal or vegetable fibres or other impurities, and also traces of moisture, to separate out.
Here it need only be said that the masses of vegetable substance, more or less carbonized and chemically altered, of which coal is composed, frequently contain cells and fragments of tissue in a condition recognizable under the microscope, as for example spores (sometimes present in great quantities), elements of the wood, fibres of the bark, &c. These remnants, however, though interesting as revealing something of the sources of coal, are too fragmentary and imperfect to be of any botanical importance.
The cortex is often preserved; in certain cases it was strengthened by hypodermal strands of fibres, as in Equisetum.
tissues of the Cordaitean stem are well preserved; the cortex possessed a system of hypodermal strands of fibres, comparable to those found in the Lyginodendreae.
The finer varieties are used as an emollient and demulcent in medicine, and in the manufacture of confectionery; the commoner qualities are used as an adhesive paste, for giving lustre to crape, silk, &c., in cloth finishing to stiffen the fibres, and in calico-printing.
The palm, Arenga saccharifera, furnishes gemuti fibres for ropes; its juice is manufactured into sugar and a beverage called sagueir; and intoxicating drinks are prepared from several other palms.
The bast fibres of Cannabis are the hemp of commerce, but, unfortunately, the products from many totally different plants are often included under the general name of hemp. In some cases the fibre is obtained from the stem, while in others it comes from the leaf.
The very finest hemp, that grown in the province of Piedmont, Italy, is, however, very similar to flax, and in many cases the two fibres are mixed in the same material.
fibres is where the cellulose fibers pass through a refining process which is vital in the art of papermaking.
It is made by dusting on a specially prepared adhesive surface finely powdered fibres of cotton or silk.
The system of agriculture is very simple; in the country west of the Aravallis only one crop is raised in the year, while in other parts south and east of the Aravallis two crops are raised annually, and various kinds of cereals, pulses and fibres are grown.
The external conjunctive tissue is often arranged in relation to each bundle separately, the pericyclic fibres for instance, already referred to, being cften confined to the bands of pericyclic tissue abutting on the phloem of each bundle, while the Cortex and pith frequently form rays in the intervals between the adjacent bundles.
During every laying season the left duct increases enormously by new formation of its component fibres.
The muscles in the Hexapoda are striated, as in Arthropods generally, the large fibres being associated in bundles which are attached from point to ` point of the cuticle, so .,/I i i I as to move adjacent sclerites with respect to one 4011 another (see figs.
an outer circular, a longitudinal and an inner circular layer of muscular fibres (fig.
The inner surface of the intestinal caeca is ciliated, the caeca themselves are some times - especially in the UT hindermost portion of the body - of a considerably smaller lumen than the intermediate genital spaces; sometimes, however, the reverse is the case, and in both cases it is the smaller lumen that appears enclosed between and suspended by the transverse fibres constituting the muscular dissepiments above mentioned.
Strong, fine, glossy fibres are yielded by the exotic ramie (Boehmeria nivea), whose fibre, like that of the majagua, is almost incorruptible; by the maya or rat-pineapple (Bromelia Pinguin), and by the daquilla (or daiguiya - Lagetta lintearia, L.
The fat cells are increased and infiltrate the connective tissue between the bundles of muscle fibres.
The malignant cells develop and accumulate muscle fibres show the pigment in their protoplasm granules of melanin granules, which are of a light yellow pigment.
Digging wasps make simple holes in the ground; many burrowing bees form branching tunnels; other bees excavate timber or make their brood-chambers in hollow plant-stems; wasps work up with their saliva vegetable fibres bitten off tree-bark to make paper; social bees produce from glands in their own bodies the wax whence their nest-chambers are built.
The fibres were either animal or vegetable; animal fibres were hair, Textile fur on the skin, feathers, hide, sinew and intestines; vegetable fibres were stalks of small trees, brush, straw, cotton, bast, bark, leaves and seed vessels in great variety as one passes from the north southward through all the culture provinces.
it is certain that the Indians lived in substantial houses, sometimes using dressed stone, inscriptions and ornamental carvings on the more pretentious edifices; they cultivated the soil, rudely perhaps, and produced enough to make it possible to live in large towns, they made woven fabrics for dress and hangings, using colours in their manufacture; they were skilful in making and ornamenting pottery, in making gold and silver ornaments, and in featherwork; they used the fibres that Nature lavishly provided in weaving baskets, hangings, mats, screens and various household utensils.
The body-wall, cuticulized outside, is formed by a single layer of illdefined cells, and surrounds the simple body cavity (archicoele), traversed by simple or branched muscular fibres ("mesenchyme") (fig.
From this simple nerve fibres are given off to the body-wall, especially 4uk t A, x Ã‚°C FIG.
5) of a somewhat flattened combination of two filaments placed side by side, being on an average nlua part of an inch in thickness (see also Fibres, Plate I.).
Silk fibre (see Fibres) consists essentially of a centre or core of fibroin, with a covering of sericin or silk albumen, and a little waxy and colouring matter.
From vegetable fibres silk is readily distinguished by the bright yellow colour it takes from a solution of picric acid, which does not adhere to vegetable substances.
Spun silks are used largely for silk linings, hosieries, sewing threads, elastic webbing, lace, plush and many other purposes, such as mufflers, dress goods and blouse silks; also for mixing with other fibres in form of stripes in the weaving of various fabrics, or to be used in what are known as mixed goods, i.e.
It has no affinity for vegetable fibres, and consequently cotton goods must be mordanted before dyeing with it (see Dyeing).
The timber is used instead of oak where the latter is scarce, and is employed for axle-trees and spokes, as well as for Windsor chairs, &c. It exhibits two accidental forms in the arrangement of the fibres, an undulated one like those of the curled maple (A.
The cortex was strongly constructed mechanically; in addition to the strands of fibres at the periphery, horizontal plates of stone-cells were present in the inner cortex, giving both stem and petiole a transversely striated appearance, which has served to identify the different parts of the plant, even in the carbonized condition (cf.
It roots firmly, by means of strong woody fibres, and prefers peaty soil mingled with shale or rough gravel, and shady humid positions, such as are afforded by a high rock garden with a north aspect, or by the shelter of a north wall.
It is stouter and has a more profuse matted network of fibres round the bases of the leaves; the segments of the leaves are much broader, and the leaf-stalks shorter and stouter, being from 1 to 2 feet long, and quite unarmed.
The leaf-stalks are very thick at the base, where they are enclosed in a dense mass of rough, brown fibres, which grow upon their lower edges.
The micrometer of Auzout and Picard was provided with silk fibres or silver wires instead of the edges of Gascoigne, but one of the silk fibres remained fixed while the other was moved by a screw.
In old age they appear much ground down; particularly is this the case with women, who chew the different kinds of fibres, of which they make nets and bags.
Their nets, made by women, either of the tendons of animals or the fibres of plants, will catch and hold the kangaroo or the emu, or the very large fish of Australian rivers.
The chief trade is in, and the principal exports are, palm oil and kernels, rubber, cotton, maize, groundnuts (Arachis), shea-butter from the Bassia parkii (Sapotaceae), fibres of the Raphia vinifera, and the Sansevieria guineensis, indigo, and kola nuts, ebony and other valuable wood.
The signal coil is suspended by fibres and is mounted together with a fixed soft iron core on a brass plate affixed to a rack, with which a pinion operated by a milled head screw engages.
The mesogloea in the hydropolyp is a thin elastic layer, in which may be lodged the muscular fibres and ganglion cells mentioned above, but which never contains any connective tissue or skeletogenous cells or any other kind of special mesogloeal corpuscles.
Maas in Results of In its arrangement the muscular tissue the "Albatross " Expedition, forms two s stems: the one composed Museum of Comparative Y P Zoology, Cambridge, Masse, of striated fibres arranged circularly, that U.S.A. is to say, concentrically round the central FIG.
- Stomotoca axis of the umbrella; the other of non- divisa, one of the Tiaridae striated fibres running longitudinally, (Anthomedusae).
The medial portion forms radiating tracts of fibres, the so-called " bell-muscles " running underneath, and parallel to, the radial canals; when greatly developed, as in Tiaridae, they form ridges, so-called mesenteries, projecting into the sub-umbral cavity.
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