The bowler delivers his bowl with one foot on a mat or footer, made of india-rubber or cocoanut fibre, the size of which is also prescribed by rule as 24 by 16 in., though, with a view to protecting the green, Australasian clubs employ a much larger size, and require the bowler to keep both feet on the mat in the act of delivery.
7ruppos, flamecoloured, and o-i&17Aos, iron): a scaly-fibrous variety from the same locality is called lepidocrocite (from X€iris, scale, and KpoKcis, fibre).
in diameter, attached to a stretched fibre and having a M t ru e small magnetic needle fixed to its back, is arranged within a menu.
He passed the oscillations to be detected through a fine wire or strip of gold leaf, and over this, but just not touching, suspended a loop of bismuth-antimony wire by a quartz fibre.
He sometimes held the carbon powder against the diaphragm in a small tr ans' shallow cell (from a quarter to half an inch in diameter and about an eighth of an inch deep), and sometimes he used what he describes as a fluff, that is, a little brush of silk fibre with plumbago rubbed into it.
Flax covers about 160,000 acres, with a product, in fibre, amounting to about 20,000 tons.
Numerically insufficient to reject such measures, and lacking the fibre and the cohesion necessary for the pursuance of a far-sighted policy, the Right thought prudent not to employ its strength in uncompromising opposition, but rather, by supporting the government, to endeavour to modify Radical legislation in a Conservative sense.
The management of finance was scarcely satisfactory, for though Giolitti, who had succeeded Magliani and Perazzi at the treasury, suppressed the formers illusory pension fund, he lacked the fibre necessary to deal with the enormous deficit of nearly 10,000,000 in 1888-1889, the existence of which both i Perazzi and he had recognized.
A tissue mother-cell of the phloem may give rise to (i) a segment of a sieve-tube with its companion cell or cells; (2) a phloem fibre; (3) a single phloem-parenchyma (cambiform) cell, or a ve~rtical file of short parenchyma cells.
Mangabeira rubber is collected to a limited extent, and piassava fibre is an article of export.
The most important palm of the country perhaps is the Raphia vinifera, which produces the piassava fibre of commerce.
In consequence of these more favourable conditions there is greater variety in the cropping; a good deal of wheat is grown, as well as beetroot for sugar, fibre plants and oleaginous plants, fruit, and even (W.
The cordage works are among the largest in the world, and consume immense quantities of sisal fibre imported from Mexico and manila from the Philippine Islands; binder-twine for binding wheat is one of the principal products.
The chief cultivated plants are maize, the sugar-cane, tobacco, cotton, coffee and especially henequen, the so-called "Sisal hemp," which is a strong, coarse fibre obtained from the leaves of the Agave rigida, var.
It is a market for live-stock, and for dairy and farm products, and has slaughtering and packing establishments, flour mills, creameries and cheese factories, canning and preserving factories, carriage works, a flax fibre mill and grain elevators.
Ashland has large saw-mills, iron and steel rolling mills, foundries and machine shops, railway repair shops (of the Chicago & NorthWestern railway), knitting works, and manufactories of dynamite, sulphite fibre, charcoal and wood-alcohol.
Each fibre is formed by the outgrowth of a single epidermal cell of the testa or outer coat of the seed.
The fibre is generally white, somewhat harsh and wiry, and especially adapted for mixing with wool.
The fibre is fine and silky, of about an inch in length.
The fibre takes almost nothing from the land, and where the seeds are restored to the soil in some form, even without other fertilizers, the exhaustion of the soil is very slow.
This comprises separating the fibre or lint from the seeds, the operation being known as " ginning."
The most primitive is hand-picking, the fibre being laboriously pulled from off each seed, as still practised in parts of Africa.
Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.
Saw gins do considerable damage to the fibre, but for short-stapled cotton they are largely used, owing to their great capacity.
The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.
They are called " stainers " because their excrement is yellow and stains the fibre; also if crushed during the process of ginning they give the cotton a reddish coloration.
The fibre has increased in length from about z4 to 22 in., and the plants have at the same time been increased in productiveness.
Strength of Fibre.
with a fibre of about 4 in.) and of the worst growth.
Only the very lowest counts can be spun from cotton with " no staple," that is, with a fibre of about three-quarters of an inch.
Considerations of growth determine to a great extent the hardness or softness, and strength or weakness, of the fibre, and thus, indirectly, whether the cotton is suitable for warp or weft.
- Fibre is obtained from the aloe plants, this industry being in the hands of women; ostriches are reared for the sake of their feathers, and large quantities of gum and resin are collected.
The important exports are gums and resin, fibre, hides, ivory, ostrich feathers, coffee, ghee, livestock, gold ingots from Abyssinia and mother-of-pearl; the shells being found along the coast from Zaila to beyond Berbera.
The cells formed on each papilla constitute a distinct horny fibre, like a thick hair, and the whole is cemented together by an intermediate mass of cells which grow up from the interspaces between the papillae.
Ramie fibre and jute are available for coarse cloth; cotton weaving is almost non-existent.
Its trunk furnishes timber for house-building and furniture; the leaves supply thatch; their footstalks are used as fuel, and also yield a fibre from which cordage is spun.
The preparation of ixtle fibre for export is becoming an important industry.
in diameter, which is suspended by a single fibre of unspun silk; this arrangement, when enclosed in a case with a glazed front to protect it from currents of air, constitutes a simple but efficient magnetometer.
The leaves of species of Sansevieria yield a valuable fibre.
The ita palm, Mauritia, flexuosa (a fanleaf palm) provides an edible fruit, medullary meal, drink, fibre, roofing and timber, but is less used on the Amazon than it is on the lower Orinoco.
Another highly useful palm is the carnauba or carnahuba (Copernicia cerifera) which supplies fruit, medullary meal, food for cattle, boards and timber, fibre, wax and medicine.
The fibre of the piassava (Leopoldinia piassava, or Attalea funifera) is widely used for cordage, brushes and brooms. There are many other palms whose fruit, fibre and wood enter largely into the domestic economy of the natives, but the list given shows how important a service these trees rendered to the aboriginal inhabitants of tropical America, and likewise how useful they still are to the people of tropical Brazil.
Palm, or piassava fibre, derived from the piassava palm, is used in the manufacture of brooms, brushes, &c. It is found as far south as southern Bahia, and the export could be very largely increased.
Aloes and ramie are cultivated to some extent for their fibre.
There is ample water power, and there are manufactures of paper, sash and blinds, fibre, &c. From a dam here power is derived for the General Electric Company at Schenectady.
It is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural district, and manufactures bamboo hats, silk and native fibre goods.
The fruit is edible and its juice is made into beer; the sap of the tree is made into wine, and its pith into bread; the leaves furnish an excellent thatch, and the fibre extracted from their midribs is used f or fish lines, cordage, hammocks, nets, &c.; and the wood is hard and makes good building' material.
The importance of Crispi in Italian public life depended less upon the many reforms accomplished under his administrations than upon his intense patriotism, remarkable fibre, and capacity for administering to his fellow-countrymen the political tonic of which they stood in constant need.
- Muscle fibre greatly increased in size, from hypertrophied heart.
(x 300 diam.) colour, situated specially at the poles of the fibre nucleus and extending short distance in the long axis of the fibre.
ABACA, or Abaka, a native name for the plant Musa textilis, which produces the fibre called Manila Hemp.
Formerly hemp and also fibre ropes were commonly used.
The canes in each case are assumed to contain 88% of juice and 12% of fibre, and the extraction by milling to be 75% of the weight of canes - the evaporative power of the factory being equal to 622 tons per 24 hours.
Whatever pressure be brought to bear upon it, the vegetable or woody fibre of crushed sugar-canes will hold and retain for the from moment a quantity of moisture equal to its own weight, Yield .
and in practice 10% more than its own weight; or in Crushing other words, loo lb of the best crushed megass will consist of 47.62 lb of fibre and 52.38 lb of moisture - that is, water with sugar in solution, or juice.
It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.
The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.
At the present day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improvements of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields in Germany 12.79% and in France 11.6% of its weight in sugar.
The slices so blown up, or elevated, are passed through a mill which expels the surplus water, and are then pressed into cakes and dried until they hold about 12% of water and 88% of beet fibre.
sodium nitrite, ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the bronchial tubes.
A solution of the oxide in the chloride has the property of dissolving silk, and hence is employed for removing this fibre from wool.
The cochineal insect is found on the cactus which grows in abundance in the vicinity, and the town is known throughout Ecuador for its manufacture of boots and shoes, and for a cordage made from cabuya, the fibre of the agave plant.
The plaiting of Panama hats from the specially prepared fibre of the " toquilla " palm is a domestic industry among the Indians at Catacoas (Piura) and Eten (Lambayeque).
The gathering and preparation of "ixtle" fibres from the agave and yucca forms another important industry, the fibre being sent to Tampico for export.
If a charged condenser is suddenly discharged and then insulated, the reappearance of a potential difference between its coatings is analogous to the reappearance of a torque In the case of a glass fibre which has been twisted, released suddenly, and then gripped again at the ends.
Around the cottages in the mountains the land is cleared for cultivation, and produces thriving crops of barley, wheat, buckwheat, millet, mustard, chillies, etc. Turnips of excellent quality are extensively grown; they are free from fibre and remarkably sweet.
In practice the solid or plummet is suspended from the balance arm by a fibre - silk, platinum, &c. - and carefully weighed.
The weighing is conducted in the usual way by vibrations, except when the weight be small; it is then advisable to bring the pointer to zero, an operation rendered necessary by the damping due to the adhesion of water to the fibre.
He held that the people, as distinguished from the nobles and the clergy, were the pith and fibre of nations; yet this same people had to become wax in the hands of the politician - their commerce and their comforts, the arts which give a dignity to life and the pleasures which make life liveable, neglected - their very liberty subordinated to the one tyrannical conception.
Usually it occurs in compact beds of alternating bright and dark bands in which impressions of leaves, woody fibre and other vegetable remains are commonly found.
Coal is the result of the transformation of woody fibre and other vegetable matter by the elimination of oxygen and hydrogen in proportionally larger quantity than carbon, so that the percentage of the latter element is increased in the manner shown in Table III., given by J.
In Belgium and the north of France flat ropes of aloe fibre (Manila hemp or plantain fibre) are in high repute, being considered preferable by many colliery managers to wire, in spite of their great weight.
The peculiar plants of the Rocky Mountain plateaus penetrate into the Trans-Pecos region, which the north Mexican flora, including the Agave lecheguilla, a valuable commercial fibre, is found along the Rio Grande.
From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).
The chief exports are sisal fibre, rubber, hides and skins, wax, ivory, copra, coffee, ground-nuts and cotton.
The flax is cultivated for the seed, and only slightly for the fibre.
Many of his predecessors, too, were men of different fibre from the ordinary Oriental sovereign, while his son Chulalong Korn, who succeeded him in 1868, showed himself an administrator of the highest capacity.
(according to size) below the surface, which should at once be mulched over with half-decayed leaves or coconut fibre to keep out frost.
Imports consist of cotton, linen and woollen fabrics, hardware, cutlery and machinery, kerosene, glass and earthenware; and the exports of cattle, sugar, tobacco, coffee, coco-nuts and fibre, dividivi and dye-woods, vegetable ivory, rubber, hides and skins, medicinal forest products, gold, silver and platinum.
The terrible tragedy which was consummated on the 23rd of May 1498 before the Palazzo Vecchio, in Florence, casts a lurid light upon the irreconcilable opposition in which the wearers of the papal dignity stood to medieval piety; for Girolamo Savonarola was in every fibre a loyal son of the medieval Church.
Vinen, loc. cit.), with gallic and ellagic acids, ligneous fibre, water, and minute quantities of proteids, chlorophyll, resin, free sugar and, in the cells around the inner shelly chamber, calcium oxalate.
in length, and are grey-green in colour; on account of their tenacity of fibre and flexibility they have for centuries been employed for the making of ropes, sandals, baskets, mats and other articles.
Esparto leaves contain 56% by weight of fibre, or about ro% more than straw, and hence have come into requisition as a substitute for linen rags in the manufacture of paper.
Large quantities of crin vegetal (vegetable horse-hair) an excellent fibre, are made from the leaves of the dwarf palm.
The principal plateau agaves producing fibre are the A.
univittata of the Jaumave Valley, Tamaulipas, which furnish what may be termed the genuine ixtle fibre.
The " tapemete " fibre of western Mexico is credited by Mr E.
elongata which produces the " henequen " fibre, or sisal hemp, of Yucatan, silk or tree-cotton (Ceiba casearia), sugar-cane, cotton (Gossypium), indigo and " canaigre " (Rumex hymenosepalus) whose root contains a large percentage of tannin.
A peculiar and highly profitable branch of Mexican agriculture is the cultivation of the Agave for two widely different purposes - one for its fibre, which is exported, and the other for its sap, which is manufactured into intoxicating liquors called "pulque " and " mescal."
elongata are cultivated, from which large quantities of " henequen " or " sisal," as the fibre is called, are exported.
The natural and forest products of Mexico include the agave and yucca (ixtle) fibres already mentioned; the " ceibon " fibre derived from the silk-cotton tree (Bombax pentandria); rubber and vanilla in addition to the cultivated products; palm oil; castor beans; ginger; chicle, the gum extracted from the " chico-zapote " tree (Achras sapota); logwood and other dye-woods; mahogany, rosewood, ebony, cedar and other valuable woods; " cascalote " or divi-divi; jalap root (Ipomaea); sarsaparilla (Smilax); nuts and fruits.
About one-half the raw cotton consumed was produced in Mexico, and the balance imported in fibre or as yarn.
was of skins of woven aloe and palm fibre, but at the time of the conquest cotton was largely cultivated in the hot lands, spun with a spindle, and woven in a rudimentary loom without a shuttle into the mantles and breech-cloths of the men and the chemises and skirts of the women, garments often of fine texture and embroidered in colours.
The eyes are refractive globules set in a cup of red pigment traversed by a nerve fibre, and lie on the proximal side of the body, directly on the postero-dorsal surface of the brain, or at a little distance from it, on the neck, often within the circle on the corona, and usually well within the transparent body.
It bears a group of long setose hairs the bases of which are connected with the nerve fibre.
The exports also include hides, mangabeira rubber, piassava fibre, diamonds, cabinet woods and rum.
They are of a tougher fibre than the Aroras; sturdy and self-reliant, slow to speak but quick to strike.
His murderers evidently found out their mistake and repented of it, for the bishop's body was found at sea floating in a canoe, covered with a palm fibre matting, and a palm-branch in his hand.
The single adductor muscle of the Monomya is separated by a difference of fibre into two portions, but neither of these can be regarded as possibly representing the anterior adductor of the other Lamellibranchs.
Among the Chinese the name of the silkworm is " si, " Korean " soi "; to the ancient Greeks it became known as Q?p, the nation whence it came was to them ?r?pE S and the fibre itself o ptKc v, whence the Latin sericum, the French soie, the German Seide and the English silk.
Silk fibre consists essentially of a centre or core of fibroin, with a covering of sericin or silk albumen, and a little waxy and colouring matter.
gres) of the fibre, is a gelatinous body which dissolves readily in warm soapy solutions, and in hot water, in which on cooling it forms a jelly with even as little as 1% of the substance.
The rod-like appearance of silk and its absence of markings under the microscope are also easily recognizable features of the fibre.
Then the uninjured cocoons are by themselves sorted into classes having similar shades of colour, size and quality of fibre.
This assortment is of great consequence for the success of the reeling operations, as uniformity of quality and evenness and regularity of fibre are the most valuable features in raw silk.
In this way a continuous uniform fibre or strand of raw silk of indefinite length is produced.
The object of crossing (croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated into a compact single fibre of raw silk.
To keep the strands from directly overlaying each other and so adhering, the last guide through which the silk passes has a reciprocating motion whereby the fibre is distributed within certain limits over the reel.
he winds it on bobbins with a rapid reciprocating motion, so as to lay the fibre in diagonal lines.
These bobbins are then in general taken to the first spinning frame, and there the single strands receive their first twist, which rounds them, and prevents the compound fibre from splitting up and separating when, by the subsequent scouring operations, the gum is removed which presently binds them into one.
Each separate strand passes through the eye of a faller, which, should the fibre break, falls down and instantly stops the machine, thus effectually calling attention to the fact that a thread has failed.
To the weight 11% is added as the normal proportion of water held by the fibre.
Up to this point the silk fibre continues to be comparatively lustreless, stiff and harsh, from the coating of albuminous matter (gum or gres) on its surface.
Both in the gum and in the boiled-off state silk has the peculiar property of imbibing certain metallic salts largely and combining very firmly with them, the fibre remaining to external appearance undiminished in strength and lustre, but much added to in size and weight.
Thus the protoand per-salts of iron, as well as the protoand per-salts of tin, including also a large variety of tannin, sumac, divi-divi, chestnut, valonia, the acacias (Areca Catechu and Acacia Catechu from India), from which are obtained cutch and gambier, &c., are no longer used solely as mordants or tinctorial matters, but mainly to serve the object of converting the silk into a greatly-expanded fibre, consisting of a conglomeration of more or less of these substances."
Bichloride of tin, having chemical affinity for silk fibre, bids fair to extinguish the use of sugar, which, from its hygrometric qualities, has a tendency to ruin the silk to which it is applied, if great care be not taken to regulate the quantity.
Moreover, the chemical character of the tussur silk differs from that of the mulberry silk, and the fibre has much less affinity for tinctorial substances, which it takes up unevenly, requiring a large amount of dye-stuffs.
After protracted experimenting Sir Thomas Wardle was able in 1873 to show a series of tussurs well dyed in all the darker shades of colour, but the lighter and bright blues, pinks, scarlets, &c., he could not produce, Subsequently Tessie du Motay found that the fawn colour of natural tussur could be discharged by solution of permanganate of potash, but the oxidizing action was so rapid and violent that it destroyed the fibre itself.
Moonga silk from Antheraea assama has generally a rather darkbrown colour, but that appears to be much influenced by the leaves on which the worm feeds, the cocoons obtained on the champaca tree (Michelia champaca) giving a fine white fibre much valued in Assam.
A silk " throwster " receives his silk in skein form, the thread of which consists of a number of silk fibres wound together to make a certain diameter or size, the separate fibre having actually been spun by the worm, and this fibre may measure anything from Soo to woo yds.
The silk-waste spinner receives his silk in quite a different form: merely the raw material, packed in bales of various sizes and weights, the contents being a much-tangled mass of all lengths of fibre mixed with much foreign matter, such as ends of straws, twigs, leaves, worms and chrysalis.
After the beating, the silk presents a more loose appearance, but is still tangled and mixed in length of fibre.
Its purpose is to sort out the different lengths of fibre, and to clear such fibres of their nibs and noils.
These teeth retain a certain proportion of shorter fibre and rough places and tangled portions of silk, which are taken off the combs in a book-board or wrapped round a stick and again presented to the combs.
This fibre again yields combings which will also be combed, and so on for five or six times until the combings are too short, and are taken from the machine and known as noils.
The productions from these several combings are known as " drafts " and are of different lengths: the product of the filled silk first placed in the dressing frame being the longest fibre and of course the most valuable.
The drafts from the dressing frame are valued in accordance with their length of fibre, the longest being known as A or 1st drafts and so on: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Drafts.
The foregoing processes are all peculiar to the silk waste trade, no other fibre having to go through such processes, nor needing such machinery.
Short fibre silks are still put through cards and treated like cotton; but the value of silk is in its lustre, elasticity and strength, which characteristics are obtained by keeping fibres as long as possible.
Following the process of dressing, the drafts have to go through a series of machines known as preparing machines: the object being to piece up the lengths of fibre, and to prepare the silk for spinning.
All these doublings of the sliver and re-drawing are for the purpose of getting each fibre to lie parallel and to make the sliver of an equal weight over every yard of its length.
The fibre and nibs have to be cleaned off by means of a gassing machine so constructed that the end of silk (silk yarn) is frictioned to throw off the nibs, and at the same time is run very rapidly through a gas flame a sufficient number of times to burn off the hairy and fibrous matter without injuring the main thread.
a warp of silk and weft of some other fibre or weft of silk and a warp of cotton or other fibre.
When making a determination of declination a brass plummet having the same weight as the magnet is first suspended in its place, and the torsion of the fibre is taken out.
The chief uncertainty in declination observations, at any rate at a fixed observatory, lies in the variable torsion of the silk suspension, as it is found that, although the fibre may be entirely freed from torsion before beginning the declination observations, yet at the conclusion of these observations a considerable amount of torsion may have appeared.
Soaking the fibre with glycerine, so that the moisture it absorbs does not change so much with the hygrometric state of the air, is of some advantage, but does not entirely remove the difficulty.
Mag., 1904 , 7, p. 113.) In the case of the vibration experiment correction terms have to be introduced to allow for the temperature of the magnet, for the inductive effect of the earth's field, which slightly increases the magnetic moment of the magnet, and for the torsion of the suspension fibre, as well as the rate of the chronometer.
The essence of the raising-cloth is a weft that will provide plenty of nap and yet have sufficient fibre to maintain the strength of the web.
In 1847 Michael Nairn conceived the notion of utilizing the fibre of cork and oil-paint in such a way as to produce a floor-covering more lasting than carpet and yet capable of taking a pattern.
The Fox river furnishes about 10,000 h.p., which is largely utilized for the manufacture of paper (of which Appleton is one of the largest producers in the United States), wood-pulp, sulphite fibre, machinery, wire screens, woollen goods, knit goods, furniture, dyes and flour.
The Plant Stove differs in no respect from the greenhouse except in having a greater extent of hot-water pipes for the purpose, of securing a greater degree of heat, although, as the plants in stove houses often attain a larger size, and many of them require a bed of coco-nut fibre, tan or leaf mould to supply with bottom heat, b: !, b a somewhat greater elevation may perhaps be occasionally required in some of the houses.
For tying plants to trellises and stakes soft tarred string or raffia (the fibre from the Raphia palm of Madagascar) is used.
Bast fibre and raffia fibre are to be preferred for light subjects of this character, as they can be split to any degree of fineness.
For potting or basketing purposes, or for plants requiring blockculture, the materials used are light fibrous peat, special leaf-mould, osmunda or polypodium fibre and living sphagnum moss, which supply free drainage for the copious supply of water required.
The Levels, as this district is generally named, are of remarkable fertility, and Thorne, having water communication with Goole and the Humber, is consequently an agricultural centre of importance; while some barge-building and a trade in peat fibre are also carried on.
The forests of northern New England and of the province of Quebec supply the raw material for the extensive saw-mills and planing-mills, the pulpand paper-mills, and the sulphite fibre mills, said to be the largest in existence.
Fifteen plants are known to furnish dyes, and eight are sources of fibre - the caraguatay especially being employed in the manufacture of the exquisite nanduty or spider web lace of the natives.
PHORMIUM, or NEW Zealand Flax (also called "New Zealand hemp"), a fibre obtained from the leaves of Phormium tenax (nat.
Among these people the fibre has always been an article of considerable importance, yielding cloaks, mats, cordage, fishing-lines, &c., its valuable properties having attracted the attention of traders even before colonists settled in the islands.
These are collected in water, scraped over the edge of a shell to free them from adhering cellular tissue and epidermis, and more than once washed in a running stream, followed by renewed scraping till the desired purity of fibre is attained.
But up till 1860 it was only native-prepared phormium that was known in the market, and it was on the material so carefully, but wastefully, selected that the reputation of the fibre was built up. The troubles with the Maoris at that period led the colonists to engage in the industry, and the sudden demand for all available fibres caused soon afterwards by the Civil War in America greatly stimulated their endeavours.
Machinery was invented for disintegrating the leaves and freeing the fibre, and at the same time experiments were made with the view of obtaining it by water-retting, and by means of alkaline solutions and other chemical agencies.
But the fibre produced by these rapid and economical means was very inferior in quality to the product of Maori handiwork, mainly because weak and undeveloped strands are, by machine preparation, unavoidably intermixed with the perfect fibres, which alone the Maoris select, and so the uniform quality and strength of the material are destroyed.
The New Zealand government in 1893 offered a premium of £1750 for a machine which would treat the fibre satisfactorily, and a further £250 for a process of treating the tow; and with a view to creating further interest in the matter a member of a commission of inquiry visited England during 1897.
In 1903 it was stated that a German chemist had discovered a method of working and spinning the New Zealand fibre.
An idea of the extent of the growth of the fibre may be gathered from the fact that the exports for 1905 amounted to 28,877 bales at a value of nearly £700,000.
Phormium is a cream-coloured fibre with a fine silky gloss, capable of being spun and woven into many of the heavier textures for which flax is used, either alone or in combination with flax.
It is, however, principally a cordage fibre, and in tensile strength it is second only to manila hemp; but it does not bear well the alternations of wet and dry to which ship-ropes are subject.
The fibre has come into use as a suitable material for binder-twine as used in self-binding reaping machines.
24202 3 10 0.75 3 6 7 20.25 about half as much again as in black, and the former always yield less moisture, doubtless because of the harder fibre produced by the method of manufacture and the frequent use of a facing medium.
Melksham possesses cloth-mills where coco-nut fibre and hair cloth are woven, flour-mills and dye-works.
A simple form, which is sometimes referred to as a conical pen dulum, may be con structed with a large sewing needle carrying a galvanometer mirror, suspended by means of a silk or quartz fibre as shown in fig.
If we wish to obtain mechanical registration from a horizontal pendulum of the above type, we may minimize the effect of the friction of the writing index - say a glass fibre touching the smoked surface of moderately smooth paper - by using a considerable weight and placing it near to the outer end of the boom.
Naevius and Plautus were men of thoroughly popular fibre.
The principal fruit trees were the date palm, useful also for its wood and fibre, the pomegranate, fig and fig-sycamore.
Just as in a nerve fibre, when excited by a localized stimulus, the excited state spreads from the excited point to the adjacent unexcited ones, so in muscle the "contraction," when excited at a point, spreads to the adjacent uncontracted parts.
The disturbance travels as a wave of contraction, and the whole extent of the wave-like disturbance measures in ordinary muscles much more than the whole length of any single muscle fibre.
That the excited state spreads only to previously unexcited portions of the muscle fibre shows that even in the skeletal variety of muscle there exists, though only for a very brief time, a period of inexcitability.
The alkaloid curarin causes motor paralysis by attacking in a selective way this junction of motor nerve cell and striped muscular fibre.
The chemical changes that accompany activity in the nerve fibre must be very small, for the production of CO 2 is barely measurable, and no production of heat is observable as the result of the most forced tetanic activity.
In cases of whooping-cough or any other condition in which there is spasmodic action of the muscular fibre in the bronchia definition which includes nearly every form of asthma and many cases of bronchitis - atropine is an almost invaluable drug.
In 1890 the operatives in the jute and hemp industry numbered 39,885, and in 1901 they were (including workers in canvas, sacking, sailcloth, rope, twine, mats, cocoa fibre) 46,550.
The men are usually ' Coco-nut fibre and the gum which exudes from the bread-fruit tree are generally used for " caulking " and " pitching " canoes.
Besides rubber, the forests produce a great variety of cabinet and construction woods, ivory-nuts (from the " tagua " palm, Phytelephas macrocarpa), " toquilla " fibre (Carludovica palmata) for the manufacture of so-called Panama hats, cabbage palms, several species of cinchona, vanilla and dyewoods.
A characteristic growth of the open plateau and upland valleys is the cabulla, cabaya or maguey (Agave americana), whose fibre is much used by the natives in the manufacture of cordage, sandals (alpargatas) and other useful articles.
The latter are usually constructed from the tough fibre of the Agave americana and consist of one or more cables.
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
Hats and hammocks are made from the fibres of the mocora and toquilla palms, and sandals from the fibre of the Agave americana.
A piece of cast iron, or steel or bronze, shows on rupture a granular, crystalline surface destitute of any fibre.
Besides agriculture the only industry is basket and mat making - from palm leaves and fibre.
The "grain" of leather is the side of a skin showing the fibre after the hair has been removed.
The making of Panama hats from the fibre of the "toquilla" palm is a household industry.
Plants valuable for their fibre number about 300, and among them is the abaca (Musa texilis), from the leaves of which Manila hemp is made.
Nipa, made from the fibre of the agave or maguey plant and worn by women, is less common.
In the United Kingdom, under the name of "coir" matting, a large amount of a coarse kind of carpet is made from coco-nut fibre; and the same material, as well as strips of cane, Manila hemp, various grasses and rushes, is largely employed in various forms for making door mats.
Large quantities of the coco-nut fibre are woven in heavy looms, then cut up into various sizes, and finally bound round the edges by a kind of rope made from the same material.
The changes in declination are obtained by means of a magnet which is suspended by a long fibre and carries a mirror, immediately below which a fixed mirror is attached to the base of the instrument.
5 gram each, and the suspension consisting of a very fine quartz fibre.
The variation of the horizontal force is obtained by the motion of a magnet which is carried either by a bifilar suspension or by a fairly stiff metal wire or quartz fibre.
In the Eschenhagen pattern instrument, in which a single quartz fibre is used for the suspension, two magnets are placed in the vicinity of the suspended magnet and are so arranged that their field partly neutralizes the earth's field; thus the torsion required to hold the magnet with its axis perpendicular to the earth's field is reduced, and the arrangement permits of the sensitiveness being altered by changing the position of the deflecting magnets.
Further, by suitably choosing the positions of the deflectors and the coefficient of torsion of the fibre, it is possible to make the temperature coefficient vanish.
Mag., 1904 [6 ], 7, 393) designed a form of vertical force balance in which the magnet with its mirror is attached to the mid point of a horizontal stretched quartz fibre.
The temperature compensation is obtained by attaching a small weight to the magnet, and then bringing it back to the horizontal position by twisting the fibre.
Although its manufacturing importance is now small in comparison with that of several other Yorkshire towns, it possesses mills for spinning worsted and carpet yarns, coco-nut fibre and China grass.
Washington's retreat through New Jersey; the manner in which he turned and struck his pursuers at Trenton and Princeton, and then established himself at Morristown, so as to make the way to Philadelphia impassable; the vigour with which he handled his army at the Brandywine and Germantown; the persistence with which he held the strategic position of Valley Forge through the dreadful winter of 1777-1778, in spite of the misery of his men, the clamours of the people and the impotence and meddling of the fugitive Congress - all went to show that the fibre of his public character had been hardened to its permanent quality.
Abandoning the long and somewhat heavy magnetic needles that had been used up to that date in galvanometers, he attached to the back of a very small mirror made of microscopic glass a fragment of magnetized watch-spring, and suspended the mirror and needle by means of a cocoon fibre in the centre of a coil of insulated wire.
Its terse, epigrammatic phrases sink into the fibre of the mind, and are a healthy warning against crude, immature generalization.
linum) are employed at once to denote the fibre so called, and the plant from which it is prepared.
Especially in ancient Egypt the fibre occupied a most important place, linen having been there not only generally worn by all classes, but it was the only material the priestly order was permitted to wear, while it was most extensively used as wrappings for embalmed bodies and for general purposes.
The preparation of the fibre as conducted in Egypt is illustrated by Pliny, who says: " The stalks themselves are immersed in water, warmed by the heat of the sun, and are kept down by weights placed upon them, for nothing is lighter than flax.
Among Western nations it was, without any competitor, the most important of all vegetable fibres till towards the close of the 18th century, when, after a brief struggle, cotton took its place as the supreme vegetable fibre of commerce.
It is usually inexpedient to apply manure directly to the flax crop, as the tendency of this is to produce over-luxuriance, and thereby to mar the quality of the fibre, on which its value chiefly depends.
When flax is cultivated primarily on account of the fibre, the crop ought to be pulled before the capsules are quite ripe, when they are just beginning to change from a green to a pale-brown colour, and when the stalks of the plant have become yellow throughout about two-thirds of their height.
For this - the process by which flax is generally prepared - pure soft water, free from iron and other materials which might colour the fibre, is essential.
If allowed to remain under water too long, the fibre is weakened by what is termed " over-retting," a condition which increases the amount of codilla in the scutching process; whilst " under-retting " leaves part of the gummy or resinous matter in the material, which hinders the subsequent process of manufacture.
When it is found that the fibre separates readily from the woody shove " or core, the beets or small bundles are ready for removing from the dams. It is drained, and then spread, evenly and equally, over a grassy meadow to dry.
It is ready for gathering when the core cracks and separates easily from the fibre.
At this point advantage is taken of fine dry weather to gather up the flax, which is now ready for scutching, but the fibre is improved by stooking and stacking it for some time before it is taken to the scutching mill.
The process is tedious, the resulting fibre is brown in colour, and it is said to be peculiarly liable to undergo heating (probably owing to the soft heavy quality of the flax) if exposed to moisture and kept close packed with little access of air.
Archangel flax is, however, peculiarly soft and silky in structure, although in all probability water-retting would result in a fibre as good or even better in quality.
He proposed to separate the fibre by purely mechanical means without any retting whatever; but after the Irish Linen Board had expended many thousands of pounds and much time in making experiments and in erecting his machinery, his entire scheme ended in complete failure.
Claussen's process consisted in steeping flax fibre or tow for twenty-four hours in a weak solution of caustic soda, next boiling it for about two hours in a similar solution, and then saturating it in a solution containing 5% of carbonate of soda, after which it was immersed in a vat containing water acidulated with z% of sulphuric acid.
The action of the acid on the carbonate of soda with which the fibre was impregnated caused the fibre to split up into a fine cotton-like mass, which it was intended to manufacture in the same manner as cotton.
The system possessed the advantages of rapidity, being completed in about ten hours, and freedom from any noxious odour; but it yielded only a harsh, ill-spinning fibre, and consequently failed to meet the sanguine expectations of its promoters.
That the system of retting (Loppens and Deswarte's patent) is at least equal to the Lys, as to quality and yield of fibre produced."
Scutching is the process by which the fibre is freed from its woody core and rendered fit for the market.
The breaking is done by passing the stalks between grooved or fluted rollers of different pitches; these rollers, of which there may be from 5 to 7 pairs, are sometimes arranged to work alternately forwards and backwards in order to thoroughly break the woody material or " boon " of the straw, while the broken " shoves " are beaten out by suspending the fibre in a machine fitted with a series of revolving blades, which, striking violently against the flax, shake out the bruised and broken woody cores.
A great many modified scutching machines and processes have been proposed and introduced with the view of promoting economy of labour and improving the turn-out of fibre, both in respect of cleanness and in producing the least proportion of codilla or scutching tow.
Thus the weight of the fibre was equal to about 9% of the dried flax with the bolls, 12% of the boiled straw, and over 16% of the retted straw.
One hundred tons treated by Schenck's method gave 33 tons bolls, with 27.50 tons of loss in steeping; 32.13 tons were separated in scutching, leaving 5.90 tons of finished fibre, with 1.47 tons of tow and pluckings.
The following analysis of two varieties of heckled Belgian flax is by Dr Hugo Miller (Hoffmann's Berichte fiber die Entwickelung der chemischen Industrie): - According to the determinations of Julius Wiesner (Die Rohstoffe des Pflanzenreiches), the fibre ranges in length from 20 to 140 centimetres, the length of the individual cells being from 2.0 to 4.0 millimetres, and the limits of breadth between 0 012 and 0.025 mm., the average being o 016 mm.
The cultivation of the plant and the preparation of the fibre have therefore, even at the present day, not come under the influence (except in certain favoured localities) of scientific knowledge and experience.
The approximate number of acres (1905) under cultivation in the principal flax-growing countries is as follows: - Although the amount grown in Russia exceeds considerably the combined quantity grown in the rest of the above-mentioned countries, the quality of the fibre is inferior.
The fibre is cultivated in the Russian provinces of Archangel, Courland, Esthonia, Kostroma, Livonia, Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, Tver, Vyatka, Vitebsk, Vologda and Yaroslav or Jaroslav, while the bulk of the material is exported through the Baltic ports.
The following names amongst others are given to the fibre: - Archangel, Bajetsky, Courish, Dorpat, Drogobusher, Dunaberg, Fabrichnoi, Fellin, Gjatsk, Glazoff, Griazourtz, Iwashkower, Jaransk, Janowitz, Jaropol, Jaroslav, Kama, Kashin, Konigsberg, Kostroma, Kotelnitch, Kowns, Krasnoholm, Kurland (Courland), Latischki, Livonian Crowns, Malmuish, Marienberg, Mochenetz, Mologin, Newel, Nikolsky, Nolinsk, Novgorod, Opotchka, Ostroff, Ostrow, Otbornoy, Ouglitch, Pernau, Pskoff, Revel, Riga, Rjeff, St Petersburg, Seretz, Slanitz, Slobodskoi, Smolensk, Sytcheffka, Taroslav, Tchesna, Totma, Twer, Ustjuga, Viatka, Vishni, Vologda, Werro, Wiasma, Witebsk.
Undoubtedly the Indians of Peru employed this fibre in the manufacture of many styles of fabrics for centuries before its introduction into Europe as a commercial product.
Spain, however, transferred the fibre to Germany and France.
In 1830 Benjamin Outram, of Greetland, near Halifax, appears to have again attempted the spinning of this fibre, and for the second time alpaca was condemned.
JUTE, a vegetable fibre now occupying a position in the manufacturing scale inferior only to cotton and flax.
Roxburgh sent to the directors of the East India Company a bale of the fibre which he described as "the jute of the natives."
Importations of the substance had been made at earlier times under the name of pat, an East Indian native term by which the fibre continued to be spoken of in England till the early years of the 19th century, when it was supplanted by the name it now bears.
The fibre is obtained from two species of Corchorus (nat.
The two species cultivated for jute fibre are in all respects very similar to each other, except in their fructification and the relatively greater size attained by C. capsularis.
Both species are cultivated in India, not only on account of their fibre, but also for the sake of their leaves, which are there extensively used as a pot-herb.
The fibre known as China jute or Tien-tsin jute is the product of another plant, Abutilon Avicennae, a member of the Mallow family.
- Attempts have been made to grow the jute plant in America, Egypt, Africa and other places, but up to the present the fibre has proved much inferior to that obtained from plants grown in India.
The quality of the fibre and the produce per acre depend in a measure on the preparation of the soil.
The crop is said to be ready for gathering when the flowers appear; if gathered before, the fibre is weak, while if left until the seed is ripe, the fibre is stronger, but is coarser and lacks the characteristic lustre.
The fibre is separated from the stalks by a process of retting similar to that for flax and hemp. In certain districts of Bengal it is the practice to stack the crop for a few days previous to retting in order to allow the leaves to dry and to drop off the stalks.
It is stated that the colour of the fibre is darkened if the leaves are allowed to remain on during the process of retting.
It is also thought that the drying of the plants before retting facilitates the separation of the fibre.
Any simple operation which improves the colour of the fibre or shortens the operation of retting is worthy of consideration.
The following description of the retting of jute is taken from Royle's Fibrous Plants of India:- " The proper point being attained, the native operator, standing up to his middle in water, takes as many of the sticks in his hands as he can grasp, and removing a small portion of the bark from the ends next the roots, and grasping them together, he strips off the whole with a little management from end to end, without breaking either stem or fibre.
The separated fibre is then made up into bundles ready for sending to one of the jute presses.
The crop naturally depends upon the quality of the soil, and upon the attention which the fibre has received in its various stages; the yield per acre varies in different districts.
The best qualities are of a clear whitish-yellow colour, with a fine silky lustre, soft and smooth to the touch, and fine, long and uniform in fibre.
When the fibre is intended for goods in the natural colour it is essential that it should be of a light shade and uniform, but if intended for yarns which are to be dyed a dark shade, the colour is not so important.
The cultivated plant yields a fibre with a length of from 6 to so ft., but in exceptional cases it has been known to reach 14 or 15 ft.
The fibre is decidedly inferior to flax and hemp in strength and tenacity; and, owing to a peculiarity in its microscopic structure, by which the walls of the separate cells composing the fibre vary much in thickness at different points, the single strands of fibre are of unequal strength.
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