Fetal sentence example

fetal
  • Therefore the ideal fetal microphone does not load the maternal abdomen.
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  • Life has been smart to focus on the issue of abortion for fetal abnormality.
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  • Those who oppose abortion for fetal abnormality have been allowed to assume the moral high ground in the discussion.
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  • Testing for fetal abnormality is now routine during pregnancy.
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  • Stillbirths and fetal deaths/spontaneous abortions from 20 weeks are registered.
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  • Fetal: Maternal catecholamines secreted as a result of labor pain may cause fetal acidosis due to low placental blood flow 8.
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  • However, this approach is not suitable for the analysis of fetal genetic traits that do not differ largely from the maternal alleles.
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  • They asked my permission to do an amniocentesis to check for fetal lung maturity.
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  • Consensus is not yet apparent in the diagnosis of fetal asphyxia.
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  • The frequency of an opening between the right and left auricles at the seat of the fetal foramen ovale.
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  • Urinalysis, blood pressure and weight checks, fundal height measurement and fetal heart auscultation are performed routinely at each office visit.
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  • This will include the use of bovine material in nutrient broths, fetal calf serum and the use of bovine serum albumin.
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  • The only reported predictable feature of fetal heart rate patterns in response to uterine rupture is the sudden onset of fetal bradycardia.
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  • In later pregnancy ultrasound assessment of the fetal abdominal circumference is the most sensitive predictor of fetal weight.
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  • Fetal abnormalities, including cleft palate, have been linked to Vitamin B6 deficiency.
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  • A baby born with fetal alcohol syndrome, or addicted to crack cocaine, is easy to identify.
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  • Steven's terrified crumpled figure cowered in a tight fetal position beside the fireplace.
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  • Fetal material and IVF involving NHS patients Recently deceased in NHS premises.
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  • Sadly, fetal distress still causes babies to die or develop permanent disabilities.
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  • The first indication of fetal distress is an abnormal heart rate.
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  • The fetal heart rate should be monitored and where available a fetal scalp electrode should be placed.
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  • The idea that abortion for abnormality represents discrimination against the disabled also elides the difference between fetal life, and our respect for persons.
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  • And I discovered that the fetal position is not a good fallback when you're all alone in deep water.
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  • She is a transgenic sheep produced by transfer of the nucleus of a cultured fetal fibroblast.
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  • So if you take a swab, and analyze the fluid for fetal fibronectin, then presto!
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  • The fetal kidneys become functional by the 11th week.
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  • Early in development of the fetal germ cells in both sexes, the germ-cell genomes are erased of methylation marks on the imprinted genes.
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  • You can also opt for regular ultrasound scans and fetal heart monitoring if you do not want an induction.
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  • A test confirmed that there was no fetal heartbeat.
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  • The natural course of chronic fetal hypoxia is slow.
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  • Cases of neonatal thrombocytopenia, of fetal or neonatal jaundice have been reported with maternal thiazide therapy.
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  • This is why they are extremely wary of any invasive fetal karyotyping.
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  • Barbiturates readily cross the placental barrier and are distributed throughout fetal tissues with highest concentrations in placenta, fetal liver and brain.
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  • Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity including fetal malformations (see section 5.3 ).
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  • Termination or fetal malformation is legal up to 24 weeks gestation.
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  • The kidneys begin to develop around the 3rd week of fetal life from the intermediate mesoderm.
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  • Fetal monitoring using phonography involves the transcription and analysis of vibrations originating in the fetus.
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  • Taken together, these factors have given rise to the conce pt of wide bandwidth fetal phonography.
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  • There is a case for treatment of all SLE pregnancies with aspirin to prevent fetal growth retardation.
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  • Before performing fetal sampling and requesting these investigations, please contact the platelet immunology laboratory.
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  • Local guidelines regarding the setting and standards of intrapartum fetal and maternal surveillance in women with uterine scar.
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  • No infectivity was shown in these tests of fetal calf serum.
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  • The majority of the cell lines to be tested are normally grown in media containing fetal bovine serum.
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  • These kinetic differences were confirmed by short-term in vitro culture both in fetal calf serum and in AS.
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  • Four studies are now close to publication and I currently have funding for further work on the human fetal testis.
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  • Norcuron does not affect Apgar score, fetal muscle tonus nor cardiorespiratory adaptation.
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  • In a healthy pregnancy, fetal cells called trophoblasts do this by ' invading ' the uterus, while communicating with maternal immune cells.
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  • Maternal rubella infection in the first eight to ten weeks of pregnancy results in fetal damage in up to 90% of infants.
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  • Stillbirth definition and early fetal deaths The official stillbirth definition is: fetal death after 24 completed weeks.
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  • In relation to selective termination for fetal abnormality this point is especially important.
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  • Congenital thyrotoxicosis is due to the passage from the mother to the fetus of maternal immunoglobulins that stimulate the fetal thyroid.
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  • Research is needed on the long-term follow-up of infants who have developed fetal varicella syndrome.
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  • Fetal Monitors-Actually, you would use these before your baby is born, but for those who are too impatient to wait for each doctor's visit, you can hear your baby's heartbeat whenever you like!
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  • Ketosis can be fatal to people with diabetes, and during pregnancy, can cause fetal death or birth defects.
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  • While research suggests Paxil may cause fetal heart defects, Wellbutrin is generally thought to be safe for pregnant women.
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  • After a walk, a Greyhound has a remarkable ability to curl up into a fetal position and snuggle into a small spot on the couch.
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  • Side sleepers who curl up in the fetal position are more likely to be female and to be sensitive.
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  • Get on the ground and curl up in a fetal position, with your hands laced behind your head.
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  • If the bear does not stop attacking you even when you are in this fetal position, get up and fight back with your hands and feet and anything you can lay your hands on.
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  • Neural crest cells are primitive cells that are present as part of the nervous system during fetal development.
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  • Fetal monitoring and close observation of the progress of labor are also important.
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  • Dysfunctional labor is commonly caused by one of the three following conditions: maternal structural abnormalities; abnormal fetal presentations; failure to progress.
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  • Non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracings represent a condition in which the fetus may not be tolerating labor and oxygen deprivation can occur.
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  • Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) involves the use of an electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitor to record the baby's heart rate.
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  • Electronic fetal monitoring is frequently used during labor to assess fetal well-being.
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  • Research on the use of intermittent monitoring and continuous monitoring found no difference in fetal outcomes with intermittent monitoring.
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  • This type of anesthesia does require an IV and fetal monitor.
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  • See also Apgar testing; Electronic fetal monitoring; Cesarean section.
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  • The rate of fetal infection varies according to the timing of the mother's infection during pregnancy.
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  • This destroys any Rh-positive fetal blood cells in the mother's circulation before her immune system can produce antibodies against them.
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  • An amniocentesis may be performed in which fetal cells are removed from the amniotic fluid and enzyme activity is measured.
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  • Drug research is focused on identifying drugs, such as hydroxyurea, that can increase the level of fetal hemoglobin in the blood.
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  • Fetal hemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin that all humans produce before birth, but most stop producing it after birth.
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  • It has been observed that some children with sickle cell anemia continue to produce large amounts of fetal hemoglobin after birth, and studies have shown that these children have less severe cases of the disease.
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  • Fetal hemoglobin seems to prevent "sickling" of red cells, and cells containing fetal hemoglobin tend to survive longer in the bloodstream.
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  • Butyrate, a substance widely used as a food additive, was also being investigated as of 2004 as an agent that may increase fetal hemoglobin production.
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  • H. "Therapies to increase fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell disease."
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  • Similarly, there is no reliable prenatal test, although some physicians have used ultrasound to try to determine the length of fetal limbs in at-risk pregnancies.
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  • Outside the United States, fetal infection rates tend to be higher, although the number of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis was as of 2004 declining worldwide.
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  • It assists with dating the pregnancy, determining the number of fetuses, detecting fetal anomalies, following the growth and development of each fetus, and serves to monitor the length of the cervix in anticipation of preterm labor.
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  • Fetal alcohol syndrome affects one in 600 children in the United States.
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  • Ultrasonography is often used to diagnose fetal abnormalities, gallstones, heart defects, and tumors.
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  • Alpha-fetoproteins are fetal proteins that are usually produced during fetal development but may persist at high blood levels after birth.
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  • Fetal proteins-Proteins that are usually produced during fetal development but may persist at high blood levels in some conditions (such as A-T) after birth.
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  • During normal development of the fetal heart, there is an opening in the wall (septum) separating the left and right upper chambers of the heart.
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  • Certain maternal or fetal problems may require the physician to deliver a baby early or to choose a surgical delivery (cesarean section) rather than a vaginal delivery.
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  • Such monitoring may include frequent visits with the primary caregiver, tests to monitor the medical problem, blood tests to check the levels of medication, amniocentesis, serial ultrasound examination, and fetal monitoring.
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  • Fetal heart rate monitoring may be necessary, or amniocentesis may be required.
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  • As a result, fetal intrauterine growth becomes restricted (IUGR).
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  • Listeria-An uncommon food-borne, life-threatening pathogen that can cause perinatal infection, which is associated with a high rate of fetal loss (including full-term stillbirths) and serious neonatal disease.
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  • Fetal echocardiography is used to diagnose congenital cardiovascular defects in utero, usually after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
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  • It is also necessary for the proper differentiation and growth of cells in fetal development.
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  • Amniotic fluid also contains fetal cells.
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  • If the Montevideo units are less than this ten-minute sum and the fetal heart rate is reassuring, augmentation of labor with pitocin may be necessary.
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  • Fetal distress or the more appropriate term, nonreassuring fetal heart rate, accounts for almost 9 percent of c-sections.
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  • With the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in the 1970s, doctors had more information for assessing fetal well-being.
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  • It was assumed that fetal monitoring would transmit signals of distress, thus, the EFM tracing became a legal document.
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  • See also Apgar testing; Electronic fetal monitoring.
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  • If the fetal heartbeat is best heard below the level of the mother's navel, it is likely to be positioned head first.
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  • Most babies will do very well during a breech delivery, but there is a risk of fetal injury.
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  • The fetus should be monitored with a fetal monitor before and after the version.
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  • Research is continuing into in utero treatment options, and some in utero treatments have been successfully carried out, so fetal screening may be helpful if there is a possibility that the child has SCID.
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  • The first stage of breast development begins at about six weeks of fetal development with a thickening called the mammary ridge or the milk line.
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  • By the final months of fetal development, these columns have become hollow, and by the time a female infant is born, a nipple and the beginnings of the milk-duct system have formed.
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  • A burst blood vessel in the brain followed by uncontrolled bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage) can cause a fetal stroke, or a clot (embolism) can obstruct a cerebral blood vessel.
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  • Any substance that might affect fetal brain development, directly or indirectly, can increase the risk for CP.
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  • Certain conditions in the mother during pregnancy might pose a risk to fetal development leading to CP.
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  • Cytokines are proteins associated with inflammation, such as from infection or autoimmune disorders, and they may be toxic to neurons in the fetal brain.
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  • Serious physical trauma to the mother during pregnancy could result in direct trauma to the fetus as well, or injuries to the mother could compromise the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetal brain.
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  • Although rare in healthy infants born at or near term, intracerebral hemorrhage and brain embolism, like fetal stroke, are sometimes genetic.
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  • Open fetal surgery has been performed for spina bifida during the last half of pregnancy.
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  • Fetal surgery is considered experimental, and results have been mixed.
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  • The total cost of alcohol use by young people, including automobile crashes, violent crime, alcohol poisoning, burns, drowning, suicide attempts, and fetal alcohol syndrome is more than 58 billion dollars each year.
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  • Other contributing factors may be the use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring and inductions before 41 weeks gestation.
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  • On the other hand, the perinatal mortality rate (the number of late fetal deaths [28 weeks or more gestation] and early neonatal deaths [less than 7 days] per 1,000 live births) remain unchanged.
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  • Perinatal mortality-The number of late fetal deaths, 28 weeks or more gestation, and neonatal deaths that occur in the first seven days.
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  • However, a small percentage of these tumors are large, hard, and full of blood vessels and may stress the fetal heart.
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  • Spina bifida occurs during the first month of fetal development when a small bit of bone and skin fails to fully enclose the nerves of the spinal cord, leaving a hole or lesion.
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  • Since the damage from spina bifida occurs during fetal development, prenatal surgery may reduce the damage.
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  • However, prenatal surgery for spina bifida has become enmeshed in the politics of reproductive rights and fetal rights.
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  • The decision to have prenatal surgery is made on the basis of detailed ultrasound imaging of the fetus, including an echocardiogram that uses ultrasound to obtain images of the fetal heart, as well as other diagnostic tools.
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  • Using ultrasound as a guide, the surgeon feels for the affected fetal part.
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  • The first successful open fetal surgery was performed in 1981 for a urinary tract obstruction.
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  • The first successful open fetal surgery for CDH was performed in 1989.
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  • Prenatal open surgery for CCAM requires opening the fetal chest.
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  • The first successful resection (removal) of a CCAM from a fetal lung was performed in 1990.
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  • The first resectioning of a fetal SCT was performed in 1992.
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  • For urinary tract obstructions a needle may be used to insert a catheter through the mother's abdomen and uterus and into the fetal bladder where it drains the urine into the amniotic fluid.
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  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is treated by passing a needle, guided by ultrasound, through the mother's abdominal wall, into the uterus and the fetal heart.
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  • Fetoscopic surgeries are less dangerous and traumatic than open fetal surgery and reduce the risk of premature labor.
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  • Subsequent children of a mother who has undergone fetal surgery usually are delivered by cesarean section because of scarring of the uterus.
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  • If all of the amniotic fluid is lost, the fetal lungs may not develop properly.
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  • Although fetal surgeries heal without scarring, they are rare and risky, and it is difficult to predict the outcome.
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  • Fetal surgery for CDH lessens the severity of the condition so that the fetus usually survives delivery and lives long enough to undergo corrective surgery.
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  • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)-A condition in which one or more lobes of the fetal lungs develop into fluid-filled sacs called cysts.
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  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)-A condition in which the fetal diaphragm (the muscle dividing the chest and abdominal cavity) does not close completely.
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  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a set of physical and mental birth defects that can result from a woman drinking alcohol during her pregnancy.
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  • Fetal alcohol effect (FAE) is a term used to describe alcohol-exposed individuals whose condition does not meet the full criteria for an FAS diagnosis.
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  • Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder.
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  • Kleinfeld, Judith, et al. Fantastic Antone Grows Up: Adolescents and Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
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  • In newborns, congenital duodenal obstruction can occur when the duodenal channel (duodenal lumen) is not correctly formed (recanalized) during fetal development.
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  • An amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling can be used to obtain fetal cells which can be analyzed for the RB1 gene change/deletion or chromosomal abnormality.
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  • In thalassemia minor, fetal hemoglobin (HbF), the hemoglobin form that circulates in the fetus, does not decrease normally after birth and may remain high in later life.
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  • Ninety-five percent of fetal weight gain occurs during the last 20 weeks of gestation.
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  • Growth inhibition during stage two and three causes a decrease of cell size and fetal weight with less effect on total cell number and fetal length and head circumference, causing asymmetric IUGR.
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  • In general, most physicians believe that IUGR is the consequence of a disease process within one or more of the three partitions that maintain and regulate fetal growth, i.e., the maternal compartment, the placenta, or the fetus.
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  • The grading of the placenta indicates whether it may be inappropriately aging, but this is not as accurate as fetal measurements.
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  • Doppler studies on the umbilical cord artery and the middle cerebral artery also provide information regarding fetal growth.
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  • Circumvallate placenta-The existence of a thick, round, white, opaque ring around the periphery of the placenta that limits the expansion of the fetal vessels.
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  • An individual's stage in development determines whether he or she makes primarily embryonic, fetal, or adult hemoglobins.
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  • Alpha globin is also a component of fetal hemoglobin.
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  • This fluid contains fetal cells that can be tested.
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  • Hydroxyurea-A drug that has been shown to induce production of fetal hemoglobin.
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  • Fetal hemoglobin has a pair of gamma-globin molecules in place of the typical beta-globins of adult hemoglobin.
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  • Higher-than-normal levels of fetal hemoglobin can ameliorate some of the symptoms of thalassemia.
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  • Electronic fetal monitoring is performed late in pregnancy or continuously during labor to ensure normal delivery of a healthy baby.
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  • All electronic fetal monitors detect the FHR and maternal uterine activity (UA), and both are displayed for interpretation since the pattern of the baby's heartbeat during labor often reflects the baby's condition.
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  • Fetal asphyxia (an impaired exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide) is recognized as an important cause of stillbirth and neonatal death.
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  • Fetal monitoring can be helpful in a variety of different situations.
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  • During pregnancy, fetal monitoring can be used as a part of antepartum testing.
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  • If the practitioner feels that a baby may be at risk for problems during pregnancy, non-stress tests, biophysical profiles, or even contraction stress tests are performed twice a week to monitor fetal well-being.
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  • Using the external fetal monitor is simple and painless.
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  • A water-soluble gel is placed on the underside of the transducer to permit the conduction of fetal heart sounds.
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  • When the transducer is placed correctly on the maternal abdomen, the sound waves bounce off the fetal heart and are picked up by the electronic monitor.
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  • The measurement of fetal heart activity is performed most accurately by attaching an electrode directly to the fetal scalp.
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  • It is used to relieve cord compression, reduce fetal distress caused by meconium staining, and as a correction of decreased amniotic fluid.
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  • There are no special preparations needed for fetal monitoring.
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  • Generally the insertion of a fetal scalp electrode is a safe procedure, but it may occasionally cause umbilical cord prolapse or infection due to early amniotomy.
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  • Problems could also occur if the electrode or IUPC causes trauma to the eye, fetal vessels, umbilical cord, or placenta.
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  • The average fetal heart rate is in the range of 110 to 160 beats per minute (bpm).
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  • Other indicators of fetal well-being include short term variability (STV), which constitutes changes in the FHR from one beat to another, and long term variability (LTV), which is changes in the FHR over a long period of time.
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  • One of the worst indications of fetal distress, however, is a tracing that shows no variability at all.
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  • The mother may report that she has experienced decreased fetal movement as the baby has only enough oxygen to keep the heart beating.
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  • It is for this reason that all pregnant women should be taught to keep track of fetal movement every day and to report any significant changes.
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  • Deceleration-A decrease in the fetal heart rate that can indicate inadequate blood flow through the placenta.
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  • During fetal development, folds enclose tissues and organs and eventually fuse at the edges to form sealed compartments.
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  • Examination of fetal collagen proteins in the tissue can reveal information about the quantitative or qualitative collagen defects that leads to OI.
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  • Genetic material can be extracted from the fetal cells contained in the amniotic fluid and tested for the specific mutation known to cause OI in that family.
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  • A fetal hemoglobin test (Hgb electrophoresis) measures the level of fetal hemoglobin (Hemoglobin F or HbF) in the blood of infants and children.
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  • Fetal hemoglobin, an alkali-resistant form of hemoglobin, is the major hemoglobin component in the bloodstream of the fetus.
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  • Fetal hemoglobin is one of six types of hemoglobin measured in the clinical laboratory by a method called hemoglobin electrophoresis.
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  • The determination of fetal hemoglobin in the blood of infants and children identifies normal and abnormal levels, defining what percentage of total hemoglobin is made up of fetal hemoglobin.
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  • Knowing this level may help doctors evaluate low concentrations of normal hemoglobin in red blood cells (anemia), as well as higher-than-normal levels of fetal hemoglobin or its hereditary persistence.
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  • Fetal hemoglobin measurement helps diagnose a group of inherited disorders that affect hemoglobin production, among which are the thalassemias and sickle cell anemia.
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  • Among the six types of hemoglobin, HbA is the normal adult hemoglobin, and HbF is the major fetal hemoglobin.
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  • At birth, the newborn's blood is composed of about 70 percent fetal hemoglobin.
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  • As the infant's bone marrow begins to produce new red cells, fetal hemoglobin begins to decrease rapidly.
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  • Normally, only 2 percent or less of total hemoglobin is found as fetal hemoglobin after six months and throughout childhood; in adulthood, only traces (0.5% or less) are found in total hemoglobin.
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  • In some diseases associated with abnormal hemoglobin production (hemoglobinopathy), fetal hemoglobin may persist in larger amounts.
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  • When this occurs, the increased amounts of fetal hemoglobin raise questions of possible underlying dysfunction or disease.
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  • Testing for levels of fetal hemoglobin and other types of hemoglobin may be a first, important step in the investigation of possible hemoglobinopathies.
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  • Testing for fetal hemoglobin requires that a blood sample be drawn from the child.
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  • No preparation is needed before performing fetal hemoglobin tests, and fasting (nothing to eat or drink for a period of hours before the test) is not required.
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  • The more severe the fetal asphyxia, the longer it will take before the infant starts to breathe spontaneously.
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  • This event takes place late in fetal development, during the eighth month of gestation.
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  • In humans, the fetal period extend from the end of the eight week of pregnancy to birth.
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  • In 1-5 percent of children, a hernia results when a feature of fetal anatomy in the inguinal area of the groin (processus vaginalis, the space through which the testis or ovaries descend) fails to close normally after birth.
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  • Amniocentesis is a procedure used to diagnose fetal defects in the early second trimester of pregnancy.
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  • Tests performed on fetal cells found in the sample can reveal the presence of many types of genetic disorders, thus allowing doctors and prospective parents to make important decisions about early treatment and intervention.
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  • Levels that are too high or too low may signal possible fetal defects.
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  • The physician uses ultrasound images to guide needle placement and collect the sample, thereby minimizing the risk of fetal injury and the need for repeated needle insertions.
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  • The sample of amniotic fluid is sent to a laboratory where fetal cells contained in the fluid are isolated and grown in order to provide enough genetic material for testing.
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  • Professional counseling may also prove necessary, particularly if a fetal defect is discovered.
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  • Laboratory tests are not 100% accurate at detecting targeted conditions, nor can every possible fetal condition be tested for.
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  • Abnormally high levels of this substance suggests there may be defects in the fetal neural tube, a structure that will include the brain and spinal cord when completely developed.
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  • Abnormal amounts of certain proteins in a pregnant woman's blood raise the probability of fetal defects.
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  • Positive results on an amnio analysis indicate the presence of the fetal defect being tested for, with an accuracy approaching 100%.
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  • Turner syndrome usually occurs sporadically, which means that the mutation occurs during fetal development and is not inherited from either parent.
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  • This defect is thought to be a result of an obstructed lymphatic system compressing the aorta during fetal development.
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  • These features appear to be due to obstruction of the lymphatic system during fetal development.
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  • Amniocentesis is a method of withdrawing amniotic fluid from the placenta to allow examination of fetal cell DNA shed into the amniotic fluid, helping to identify genetic mutations.
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  • Indirect inguinal hernia occurs when part of the bowel protrudes through the muscles of the groin into a sac left over from fetal development.
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  • During fetal development the presence of abdominal organs in the fetal chest cavity prevents the lungs from growing normally.
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  • An indirect inguinal hernia is caused when remnants of early fetal genital development stay within the body after this development is complete.
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  • In early fetal development male and female genitalia are identical.
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  • Like inguinal hernias, diaphragmatic hernias are caused early in fetal development.
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  • Once the baby's gestational age and weight are determined, further tests and electronic fetal monitoring may need to be used to diagnose problems or to track the baby's condition.
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  • Surfactant is normally produced in the fetal lungs in the last months of pregnancy, which helps the air sacs to open up at the time of birth so that the newborn infant can breathe freely.
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  • Many experts believe sexual orientation, whether homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual, is determined by a complex interaction between anatomical and hormonal influences during fetal development.
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  • Klinefelter syndrome usually is not inherited but occurs during fetal development, so there is no means of preventing the disease.
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  • This condition occurs during the fetal development and must be treated promptly after birth if the newborn is to survive.
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  • Transposition of the great arteries is a birth defect that occurs during fetal development.
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  • Foramen ovale-The foramen ovale is a fetal cardiac structure that allows the blood in both upper chambers (atria) of the heart to mix.
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  • When rubella infection occurs during pregnancy, fetal infection is likely and often causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), resulting in miscarriages, stillbirths, and severe birth defects.
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  • During pregnancy, the fetus excretes AFP in urine, and some of the protein crosses the fetal membranes to enter the mother's blood.
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  • If the tube that becomes the brain and spinal cord does not close correctly during fetal development, AFP may leak through this abnormal opening and enter the amniotic fluid.
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  • The three primary stages of prenatal development are the germinal stage, the embryonic stage, and the fetal stage.
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  • Prenatal development is most dramatic during the fetal stage.
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  • Although all of the organ systems were formed during embryonic development, they continue to develop and grow during the fetal stage.
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  • The fetus becomes more active, and the mother can sometimes begin to feel fetal movements at this stage.
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  • At the other end of the spectrum, abnormalities may be so severe that fetal demise is inevitable.
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  • Other environmental factors: Exposure to certain substances called teratogens (agents that may interfere with prenatal development) during pregnancy may cause embryonic or fetal malformations.
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  • Rabies vaccine adsorbed (RVA) is manufactured from virus grown in cell cultures of fetal rhesus monkey lung cells and then inactivated.
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  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart defect that occurs in infants when the ductus arteriosus (the temporary fetal blood vessel that connects the aorta and the pulmonary artery) does not close at birth.
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  • The ductus arteriosus is a temporary fetal blood vessel that connects the aorta and the pulmonary artery before birth.
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  • Environmental exposures that can increase the chance for a baby to be affected by PDA include fetal exposure to rubella before birth, preterm delivery, and birth at a high altitude location.
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  • Early in fetal development, a flat strip of tissue along the back of the fetus rolls up to form a tube.
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  • Other possible causes for this malformation include exposure to harmful substances during fetal development or genetic factors.
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  • The greatest risk of German measles is fetal malformations which occur when a mother is infected in the early months of pregnancy.
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  • The simplest technique is assuming the fetal position, with knees pulled up to the chest while hugging a heating pad or pillow to the abdomen.
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  • Global delays also are common in children with fetal alcohol syndrome.
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  • The child's developmental assessment should include the quality of the pregnancy, including the onset and vitality of fetal movements and problems during labor and delivery.
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  • The testing is done for pregnancies at risk for maternal and/or fetal complications.
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  • This can be indicated by the FHR pattern, amniotic fluid status, and fetal movement patterns.
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  • Fetal movement should be determined on a daily basis by all pregnant women regardless of risk status.
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  • The woman should be instructed to monitor fetal movement by selecting a consistent time of day to document how long it takes to feel 10 fetal movements.
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  • She should also be instructed to report significant decreases in fetal activity from the baby's normal pattern.
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  • The NST is performed with an electronic fetal monitor (EFM) that traces the fetal heart rate (FHR) and the presence of any contractions on a monitor strip.
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  • The NST indirectly provides information about fetal status by the observation of FHR accelerations that occur with fetal movement.
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  • If it is difficult to obtain fetal movements, a vibroacoustic stimulator (VAS) is sometimes used to provide a loud noise to awaken the fetus and produce the desired results.
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  • There must be no fetal parts or any umbilical cord present in any of these pockets of fluid in order to be counted.
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  • Many clinicians require their diabetic patients to have at least one CST/OCT a week to assure fetal well-being.
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  • The ultrasonographer/examiner looks for gross fetal movement, i.e., kicking and moving around; fetal tone, i.e., making a fist; breathing movements (which the mother can often perceive as hiccoughs); and amniotic fluid volume.
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  • In a similar manner, US is used with cordocentesis, but in this procedure a needle is guided into the umbilical cord to withdraw fetal blood for testing.
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  • Fetal echocardiography is a specialized ultrasound of a baby's heart.
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  • For NSTs/MBPPs/CSTs, the time period between tests should be no longer than three to four days under high-risk conditions with fetal movement counting taking place in between testing dates.
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  • Electronic fetal monitoring occurs after an amniocentesis or cordocentesis to assure fetal well-being.
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  • There are potential complications from an amniocentesis, i.e., preterm labor, spontaneous rupture of membranes, fetal or placental injury; and the clinician performing the procedure should explain what these are prior to the procedure.
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  • A normal NST is reported as being reactive, which means the fetal heart is "reacting" to movement such that the FHR is accelerating 15 beats per minute above the baseline FHR for 15 seconds twice within a 20-minute period of time.
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  • Cleft lip occurs when the lip elements fail to come together during fetal development, thus creating an opening in the upper lip between the mouth and nose.
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  • Surfactant is produced starting at about 34 weeks of pregnancy and, by the time the fetal lungs mature at 37 weeks, a normal amount is present.
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  • The best way of preventing RDS is to delay delivery until the fetal lungs have matured and are producing enough surfactant, generally at about 37 weeks of pregnancy.
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  • If delivery cannot be delayed, the mother may be given a steroid hormone, similar to a natural substance produced in the body, which crosses the barrier of the placenta and helps the fetal lungs to produce surfactant.
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  • The digestive tract is unnecessary for fetal growth, since all nutrition comes from the mother through the placenta and umbilical cord.
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  • During fetal development, the enlarged esophagus may also have pressed on and narrowed the trachea, a condition in the fetus that can contribute to fistula development.
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  • Hirschsprung's disease occurs early in fetal development when, for unknown reasons, there is either failure of nerve cell development, failure of nerve cell migration, or arrest in nerve cell development in a segment of bowel.
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  • A physician may order an ultrasound scan to listen for a fetal heartbeat, determine a woman's precise due date, or check for twins, among other uses.
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  • In normal cases, the technician is able to identify a fetal heartbeat, which appears as a flashing light on the screen.
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  • Use during pregnancy may cause alterations in fetal bone development.
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  • Category A: Controlled human studies have demonstrated no fetal risk.
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  • Category B: Animal studies indicate no fetal risk, but no human studies, or adverse effects in animals, but not in well-controlled human studies.
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  • Transplantation of fetal cells into the basal ganglia has produced mixed results in Parkinson's disease and is being researched for application in other movement disorders.
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  • Fetal tissue transplantation-A method of treating Parkinson's and other neurological diseases by grafting brain cells from human fetuses onto the basal ganglia.
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  • Grafting fetal tissue stimulates the growth of new brain cells in affected adult brains.
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  • This therapy is started in the first trimester when fetal adrenal production of androgens begins but before prenatal diagnosis is done that would provide definitive information about the sex of the fetus and its disease status.
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  • A congenital arteriovenous fistula is a rare birth defect that formed during fetal development.
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  • Severe cases have been treated by transplantation of fetal thymus tissue or bone marrow.
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  • Because of an association between DiGeorge syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome, pregnant women should avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.
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  • In succeeding pregnancies, the antibodies reach the fetus via the placenta and destroy (lyse) the fetal RBCs.
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  • Reacting to the anemia, the fetal bone marrow may release immature RBCs, or erythroblasts, into the fetal peripheral circulation, causing erythroblastosis fetalis.
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  • Blood cells from the unborn baby (fetal red blood cells) can cross over into the mother's bloodstream, and this risk is higher at delivery.
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  • Usually, this incompatibility is not a factor in a first pregnancy, because few fetal blood cells reach the mother's bloodstream until delivery.
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  • The threat arises from the possibility that the mother's antibodies will attack the fetal red blood cells.
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  • If this condition develops in the fetus in utero, the pregnant woman will generally notice a decrease in fetal movement, which should be immediately reported to her clinician.
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  • Fetal assessment includes percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS) (cordocentesis), amniocentesis, amniotic fluid analysis, and ultrasound.
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  • Following that, serial ultrasounds and amniotic fluid analysis should be done to follow fetal progress.
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  • The original intrauterine fetal transfusion, an intraperitoneal transfusion technique was first performed around 1963.
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  • This immunoglobulin destroys any fetal blood cells in her bloodstream before her immune system can react to them.
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  • The anti-Rh antibodies from the preparation destroy fetal RBCs in the mother's blood before they can sensitize the maternal immune system.
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  • The placenta should not be removed manually to avoid squeezing fetal cells into the maternal circulation.
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  • Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS)-A technique used to obtain pure fetal blood from the umbilical cord while the fetus is in utero and also called cordocentesis.
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  • All newborn infants begin to destroy fetal red blood cells (RBCs) in their first few days of life, replacing them with new red blood cells.
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  • This situation results in jaundice in over 60 percent of newborns, usually due to the presence of fetal hemoglobin released into the blood during the normal destruction of fetal red blood cells.
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  • Parents may also decide to give the child a fetal nickname instead such as Peanut, Squirt, Wiggle Worm or Bean.
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  • Therefore, the office of Vital Statistics consists of approximately 21.5 million official vital records for birth, death, fetal death, marriage, and dissolution of marriage (divorce).
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  • Most of these pregnancies end in a fetal death within the first 13 weeks for pregnancy.
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  • Up to 50% of all early fetal deaths can be linked back to this cause.
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  • Physically, it takes up to a month for a woman's body to recover after a fetal loss.
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  • In turn, Childbirth.org suggests pitocin can make labor harder and more intense, decreasing blood flow to the baby which may cause the necessity for fetal monitoring.
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  • You or your baby have developed complications, including but not limited to preeclampsia, unreassuring fetal heart rate, or a decrease in fetal movement.
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  • Cervical ripening agents have been known to cause uterine over-stimulation, uterine rupture and fetal distress.
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  • At the time, no doctor would deliver a baby without a fetal monitor screwed into the baby's skull, and Mom was appalled at the idea.
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  • You will be required to stay in bed, be on a fetal monitor and have your blood pressure monitored.
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  • A large amount of medication is needed and this form of anesthesia may cause fetal distress if delivery is not eminent.
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  • Try to minimize the need for interventions like an amniotomy (artificially rupturing the bag of waters), continuous fetal monitoring, and internal monitoring.
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  • As you plan your birth, you may find out yourbaby'swell-being will be checked during by labor by a fetal monitor.
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  • A fetal monitor is one intervention you will absolutely have in a hospital birth.
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  • A fetal monitor is a machine that monitors your baby's heart rate and your contractions.
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  • A fetal monitor is usually hooked up to a computer, allowing you to see your baby's heart rate and your contractions on the screen.
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  • One of these panels is actually an ultrasound device that sends and receives sound waves to detect fetal heart rate.
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  • You do not have to be in bed while on the fetal monitor.
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  • One choice your caregiver may decide on is an internal fetal monitor.
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  • The Baby Gender Mentor Home DNA Testing Kit determines gender by tracing the amount of active genetic fetal chromosomal DNA in a sample of your blood.
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  • If your doctor doesn't have an ultrasound scheduled and you want to know your baby's gender, you may want to visit a Fetal Fotos location to receive a 3-D ultrasound and keepsake video or photograph of your unborn baby.
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  • Protect fetal and infant health by minimizing exposures to potentially harmful medications.
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  • Fetal alcohol syndrome disorder is a collection of birth defects caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
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  • There is a range of birth defects associated with drinking during pregnancy known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD).
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  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders can include neurological problems, behavior problems, defects in the heart, bones, kidneys, or hearing, and many other abnormalities.
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  • When several problems appear in a particular combination, the pattern is called Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS).
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  • In fetal alcohol syndrome, the baby's face does not develop normally.
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  • Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome disorder also have difficulty learning.
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  • Any baby whose mother drank alcohol while pregnant can be born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome disorder.
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  • Babies born to moms who drink are at risk of other problems in addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and FASD.
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  • Medications do cross the placenta and almost no medications have been proven 100 percent safe in relation to fetal development.
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  • Research is ongoing in a hope that there will one day be a blood test that will be able to identify fetal cells to determine the presence of genetic abnormality without the need for an invasive procedure that carries undesirable risk.
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  • There are several fetal heart rate health aspects that are often monitored during prenatal checkups and labor and delivery.
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  • In this method, a device known as the fetal scalp electrode is placed into the vagina and is placed on top of the baby's head, measuring the heart rate.
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  • Considering fetal heart rate health aspects are just one of the many things that health provides monitor throughout a pregnancy.
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  • Surprisingly, Mingwei's pregnancy seems to have gone rather smoothly with normal fetal development supported entirely by a male body.
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  • Any sign that the baby may not be doing well will trigger additional testing, such as a Biophysical Profile or a Fetal Non-Stress Test.
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  • Fetal exposure to medications, toxins, or chemicals in the first trimester of pregnancy may lead to genetic birth defects that may or may not be detected before birth.
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  • The fetal period is an exciting time because the embryo has transformed into a fetus that gradually develops into a baby.
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  • If you were trying to conceive and terminated your pregnancy due a fetal genetic defect, you should wait six to eight weeks before actively trying to conceive again.
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  • Since the synthetic opiate reaches the developing fetus, it can lead to fetal dependency on the drug.
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  • The withdrawal is so severe that it can lead to fetal distress, which makes abrupt detoxification too dangerous for the baby.
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  • Aside from fetal formation, folic acid plays many other roles in creating healthy adults, as well.
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  • The precise cause of Asperger syndrome remains unknown, although some theories point to brain abnormalities brought about by the unnatural migration of embryonic cells throughout fetal development.
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  • Fetal development and growth can be negatively affected.
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  • Lord Alton had written to Mr Blair about fetal experimentation and eugenic abortion.
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  • About 44 percent of brachial plexopathies occur in newborns who experienced fetal distress.
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  • The only business experience she had was the goat dairy, the non-functional farm and a horse ranch that had been in the fetal stage for years.
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