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fetal

fetal

fetal Sentence Examples

  • The only business experience she had was the goat dairy, the non-functional farm and a horse ranch that had been in the fetal stage for years.

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  • Therefore the ideal fetal microphone does not load the maternal abdomen.

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  • Life has been smart to focus on the issue of abortion for fetal abnormality.

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  • Testing for fetal abnormality is now routine during pregnancy.

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  • Those who oppose abortion for fetal abnormality have been allowed to assume the moral high ground in the discussion.

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  • Lord Alton had written to Mr Blair about fetal experimentation and eugenic abortion.

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  • Stillbirths and fetal deaths/spontaneous abortions from 20 weeks are registered.

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  • abortion for fetal abnormality.

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  • Fetal: Maternal catecholamines secreted as a result of labor pain may cause fetal acidosis due to low placental blood flow 8.

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  • However, this approach is not suitable for the analysis of fetal genetic traits that do not differ largely from the maternal alleles.

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  • They asked my permission to do an amniocentesis to check for fetal lung maturity.

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  • androgens secreted by the fetal or neonatal testis.

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  • Consensus is not yet apparent in the diagnosis of fetal asphyxia.

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  • Percutaneous fetal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum New NICE guideline.

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  • The frequency of an opening between the right and left auricles at the seat of the fetal foramen ovale.

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  • Urinalysis, blood pressure and weight checks, fundal height measurement and fetal heart auscultation are performed routinely at each office visit.

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  • This will include the use of bovine material in nutrient broths, fetal calf serum and the use of bovine serum albumin.

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  • The only reported predictable feature of fetal heart rate patterns in response to uterine rupture is the sudden onset of fetal bradycardia.

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  • fetal Echo Courses: BMUS, UKAS & most main fetal medicine (fetal cardiology) centers run courses in fetal heart scanning.

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  • catecholamines secreted as a result of labor pain may cause fetal acidosis due to low placental blood flow 8.

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  • In later pregnancy ultrasound assessment of the fetal abdominal circumference is the most sensitive predictor of fetal weight.

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  • Fetal abnormalities, including cleft palate, have been linked to Vitamin B6 deficiency.

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  • A baby born with fetal alcohol syndrome, or addicted to crack cocaine, is easy to identify.

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  • Steven's terrified crumpled figure cowered in a tight fetal position beside the fireplace.

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  • cultured fetal fibroblast.

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  • Fetal material and IVF involving NHS patients Recently deceased in NHS premises.

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  • Sadly, fetal distress still causes babies to die or develop permanent disabilities.

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  • The first indication of fetal distress is an abnormal heart rate.

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  • The accuracy of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease.

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  • The fetal heart rate should be monitored and where available a fetal scalp electrode should be placed.

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  • The idea that abortion for abnormality represents discrimination against the disabled also elides the difference between fetal life, and our respect for persons.

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  • The imprinting phenotypes generally involve early embryonic, fetal or neonatal lethality, and alterations in fetal and placental growth (reviewed in Ref.

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  • And I discovered that the fetal position is not a good fallback when you're all alone in deep water.

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  • fetal heart abnormalities were observed in all cases in which the uterus ruptured during labor.

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  • fetal distress due to hypoxia is a major risk.

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  • fetal malformations are included in the registry.

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  • fetal beta globins G and A gamma from Shen, Slightom and Smithies, Cell 26; 191-203.

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  • fetal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum New NICE guideline.

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  • fetal hypoxia is slow.

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  • She is a transgenic sheep produced by transfer of the nucleus of a cultured fetal fibroblast.

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  • So if you take a swab, and analyze the fluid for fetal fibronectin, then presto!

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  • The fetal kidneys become functional by the 11th week.

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  • Early in development of the fetal germ cells in both sexes, the germ-cell genomes are erased of methylation marks on the imprinted genes.

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  • radial glia are only found during fetal development, but these insights indicate that they may have the potential to convert into stem cells.

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  • Human fetal beta globins G and A gamma from Shen, Slightom and Smithies, Cell 26; 191-203.

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  • You can also opt for regular ultrasound scans and fetal heart monitoring if you do not want an induction.

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  • fetal heartbeat Your baby's heartbeat will be monitored at each visit to check it is alive and that the heartbeat is normal.

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  • A test confirmed that there was no fetal heartbeat.

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  • The natural course of chronic fetal hypoxia is slow.

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  • intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed.

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  • Definitions 2 Incomplete trophoblast invasion: the evidence 3 Mechanisms underlying failure of trophoblast invasion: a maternal or fetal problem?

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  • Cases of neonatal thrombocytopenia, of fetal or neonatal jaundice have been reported with maternal thiazide therapy.

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  • jellyfish genes into fetal pig cells grown in the laboratory.

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  • This is why they are extremely wary of any invasive fetal karyotyping.

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  • The fetal kidneys become functional by the 11th week.

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  • Barbiturates readily cross the placental barrier and are distributed throughout fetal tissues with highest concentrations in placenta, fetal liver and brain.

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  • Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity including fetal malformations (see section 5.3 ).

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  • Termination or fetal malformation is legal up to 24 weeks gestation.

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  • References: Effect of corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes.

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  • The kidneys begin to develop around the 3rd week of fetal life from the intermediate mesoderm.

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  • ovum above, we do not accept research as legitimate if it involves fertilization of fetal ova or ovarian tissue.

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  • palpaterogress of labor can be monitored by palpating the lower part of the uterus to detect the descent of the fetal head.

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  • percutaneous fetal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum New NICE guideline.

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  • Fetal monitoring using phonography involves the transcription and analysis of vibrations originating in the fetus.

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  • Taken together, these factors have given rise to the conce pt of wide bandwidth fetal phonography.

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  • Insufficient trophoblast invasion, in contrast, results in poor placentation and problems in pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

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  • There is a case for treatment of all SLE pregnancies with aspirin to prevent fetal growth retardation.

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  • rubella infection in the first eight to ten weeks of pregnancy results in fetal damage in up to 90% of infants.

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  • Before performing fetal sampling and requesting these investigations, please contact the platelet immunology laboratory.

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  • Local guidelines regarding the setting and standards of intrapartum fetal and maternal surveillance in women with uterine scar.

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  • No infectivity was shown in these tests of fetal calf serum.

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  • The majority of the cell lines to be tested are normally grown in media containing fetal bovine serum.

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  • These kinetic differences were confirmed by short-term in vitro culture both in fetal calf serum and in AS.

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  • stillbirth definition and early fetal deaths The official stillbirth definition is: fetal death after 24 completed weeks.

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  • termination for fetal abnormality this point is especially important.

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  • Four studies are now close to publication and I currently have funding for further work on the human fetal testis.

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  • 3-D rendering of a fetal liver.

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  • Cases of neonatal thrombocytopenia, of fetal or neonatal jaundice have been reported with maternal thiazide therapy.

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  • congenital thyrotoxicosis is due to the passage from the mother to the fetus of maternal immunoglobulins that stimulate the fetal thyroid.

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  • Norcuron does not affect Apgar score, fetal muscle tonus nor cardiorespiratory adaptation.

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  • In a healthy pregnancy, fetal cells called trophoblasts do this by ' invading ' the uterus, while communicating with maternal immune cells.

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  • Definitions 2 Incomplete trophoblast invasion: the evidence 3 Mechanisms underlying failure of trophoblast invasion: the evidence 3 Mechanisms underlying failure of trophoblast invasion: a maternal or fetal problem?

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  • There is a case for treatment of all SLE pregnancies with aspirin to prevent fetal growth retardation.

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  • Maternal rubella infection in the first eight to ten weeks of pregnancy results in fetal damage in up to 90% of infants.

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  • Before performing fetal sampling and requesting these investigations, please contact the platelet immunology laboratory.

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  • Local guidelines regarding the setting and standards of intrapartum fetal and maternal surveillance in women with uterine scar.

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  • The majority of the cell lines to be tested are normally grown in media containing fetal bovine serum.

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  • These kinetic differences were confirmed by short-term in vitro culture both in fetal calf serum and in AS.

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  • Stillbirth definition and early fetal deaths The official stillbirth definition is: fetal death after 24 completed weeks.

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  • In relation to selective termination for fetal abnormality this point is especially important.

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  • Four studies are now close to publication and I currently have funding for further work on the human fetal testis.

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  • A placental perfusion map for a patient with intrauterine growth restriction 3-d rendering of a fetal liver.

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  • Congenital thyrotoxicosis is due to the passage from the mother to the fetus of maternal immunoglobulins that stimulate the fetal thyroid.

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  • Norcuron does not affect Apgar score, fetal muscle tonus nor cardiorespiratory adaptation.

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  • In a healthy pregnancy, fetal cells called trophoblasts do this by ' invading ' the uterus, while communicating with maternal immune cells.

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  • Research is needed on the long-term follow-up of infants who have developed fetal varicella syndrome.

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  • Fetal Monitors-Actually, you would use these before your baby is born, but for those who are too impatient to wait for each doctor's visit, you can hear your baby's heartbeat whenever you like!

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  • Ketosis can be fatal to people with diabetes, and during pregnancy, can cause fetal death or birth defects.

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  • While research suggests Paxil may cause fetal heart defects, Wellbutrin is generally thought to be safe for pregnant women.

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  • After a walk, a Greyhound has a remarkable ability to curl up into a fetal position and snuggle into a small spot on the couch.

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  • Side sleepers who curl up in the fetal position are more likely to be female and to be sensitive.

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  • Get on the ground and curl up in a fetal position, with your hands laced behind your head.

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  • If the bear does not stop attacking you even when you are in this fetal position, get up and fight back with your hands and feet and anything you can lay your hands on.

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  • Neural crest cells are primitive cells that are present as part of the nervous system during fetal development.

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  • Fetal monitoring and close observation of the progress of labor are also important.

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  • Dysfunctional labor is commonly caused by one of the three following conditions: maternal structural abnormalities; abnormal fetal presentations; failure to progress.

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  • Non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracings represent a condition in which the fetus may not be tolerating labor and oxygen deprivation can occur.

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  • Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) involves the use of an electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitor to record the baby's heart rate.

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  • Electronic fetal monitoring is frequently used during labor to assess fetal well-being.

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  • Research on the use of intermittent monitoring and continuous monitoring found no difference in fetal outcomes with intermittent monitoring.

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  • This type of anesthesia does require an IV and fetal monitor.

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  • See also Apgar testing; Electronic fetal monitoring; Cesarean section.

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  • The rate of fetal infection varies according to the timing of the mother's infection during pregnancy.

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  • This destroys any Rh-positive fetal blood cells in the mother's circulation before her immune system can produce antibodies against them.

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  • An amniocentesis may be performed in which fetal cells are removed from the amniotic fluid and enzyme activity is measured.

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  • Drug research is focused on identifying drugs, such as hydroxyurea, that can increase the level of fetal hemoglobin in the blood.

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  • Fetal hemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin that all humans produce before birth, but most stop producing it after birth.

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  • It has been observed that some children with sickle cell anemia continue to produce large amounts of fetal hemoglobin after birth, and studies have shown that these children have less severe cases of the disease.

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  • Fetal hemoglobin seems to prevent "sickling" of red cells, and cells containing fetal hemoglobin tend to survive longer in the bloodstream.

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  • Butyrate, a substance widely used as a food additive, was also being investigated as of 2004 as an agent that may increase fetal hemoglobin production.

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  • H. "Therapies to increase fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell disease."

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  • Similarly, there is no reliable prenatal test, although some physicians have used ultrasound to try to determine the length of fetal limbs in at-risk pregnancies.

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  • Outside the United States, fetal infection rates tend to be higher, although the number of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis was as of 2004 declining worldwide.

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  • It assists with dating the pregnancy, determining the number of fetuses, detecting fetal anomalies, following the growth and development of each fetus, and serves to monitor the length of the cervix in anticipation of preterm labor.

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  • Evans, M.I., et al., "Fetal Reduction from Twins to a Singleton."

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  • Fetal Diagnostic Therapy 19, no. 3 (2004): 232-40.

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  • Fetal alcohol syndrome affects one in 600 children in the United States.

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  • Ultrasonography is often used to diagnose fetal abnormalities, gallstones, heart defects, and tumors.

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  • About 44 percent of brachial plexopathies occur in newborns who experienced fetal distress.

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  • Ultrasonography is often used to diagnose fetal abnormalities, gallstones, heart defects, and tumors.

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  • Alpha-fetoproteins are fetal proteins that are usually produced during fetal development but may persist at high blood levels after birth.

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  • Fetal proteins-Proteins that are usually produced during fetal development but may persist at high blood levels in some conditions (such as A-T) after birth.

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  • During normal development of the fetal heart, there is an opening in the wall (septum) separating the left and right upper chambers of the heart.

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  • Abnormal openings in the atrial septum occur during fetal development.

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  • Certain maternal or fetal problems may require the physician to deliver a baby early or to choose a surgical delivery (cesarean section) rather than a vaginal delivery.

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  • Such monitoring may include frequent visits with the primary caregiver, tests to monitor the medical problem, blood tests to check the levels of medication, amniocentesis, serial ultrasound examination, and fetal monitoring.

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  • Fetal heart rate monitoring may be necessary, or amniocentesis may be required.

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  • As a result, fetal intrauterine growth becomes restricted (IUGR).

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  • Listeria-An uncommon food-borne, life-threatening pathogen that can cause perinatal infection, which is associated with a high rate of fetal loss (including full-term stillbirths) and serious neonatal disease.

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  • See also Amniocentesis; Cesarean section; Electronic fetal monitoring.

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  • Fetal echocardiography is used to diagnose congenital cardiovascular defects in utero, usually after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

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  • It is also necessary for the proper differentiation and growth of cells in fetal development.

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  • Amniotic fluid also contains fetal cells.

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  • If the Montevideo units are less than this ten-minute sum and the fetal heart rate is reassuring, augmentation of labor with pitocin may be necessary.

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  • Fetal distress or the more appropriate term, nonreassuring fetal heart rate, accounts for almost 9 percent of c-sections.

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  • With the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in the 1970s, doctors had more information for assessing fetal well-being.

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  • It was assumed that fetal monitoring would transmit signals of distress, thus, the EFM tracing became a legal document.

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  • See also Apgar testing; Electronic fetal monitoring.

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  • If the fetal heartbeat is best heard below the level of the mother's navel, it is likely to be positioned head first.

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  • Most babies will do very well during a breech delivery, but there is a risk of fetal injury.

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  • The fetus should be monitored with a fetal monitor before and after the version.

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  • Research is continuing into in utero treatment options, and some in utero treatments have been successfully carried out, so fetal screening may be helpful if there is a possibility that the child has SCID.

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  • The first stage of breast development begins at about six weeks of fetal development with a thickening called the mammary ridge or the milk line.

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  • By the final months of fetal development, these columns have become hollow, and by the time a female infant is born, a nipple and the beginnings of the milk-duct system have formed.

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  • A burst blood vessel in the brain followed by uncontrolled bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage) can cause a fetal stroke, or a clot (embolism) can obstruct a cerebral blood vessel.

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  • Any substance that might affect fetal brain development, directly or indirectly, can increase the risk for CP.

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  • Certain conditions in the mother during pregnancy might pose a risk to fetal development leading to CP.

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  • A potentially important clue points toward high levels of cytokines in the maternal and fetal circulation as a possible risk for CP.

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  • Cytokines are proteins associated with inflammation, such as from infection or autoimmune disorders, and they may be toxic to neurons in the fetal brain.

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  • Serious physical trauma to the mother during pregnancy could result in direct trauma to the fetus as well, or injuries to the mother could compromise the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetal brain.

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  • Although rare in healthy infants born at or near term, intracerebral hemorrhage and brain embolism, like fetal stroke, are sometimes genetic.

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  • Open fetal surgery has been performed for spina bifida during the last half of pregnancy.

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  • Fetal surgery is considered experimental, and results have been mixed.

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  • The total cost of alcohol use by young people, including automobile crashes, violent crime, alcohol poisoning, burns, drowning, suicide attempts, and fetal alcohol syndrome is more than 58 billion dollars each year.

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  • Other contributing factors may be the use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring and inductions before 41 weeks gestation.

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  • On the other hand, the perinatal mortality rate (the number of late fetal deaths [28 weeks or more gestation] and early neonatal deaths [less than 7 days] per 1,000 live births) remain unchanged.

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  • Perinatal mortality-The number of late fetal deaths, 28 weeks or more gestation, and neonatal deaths that occur in the first seven days.

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  • However, a small percentage of these tumors are large, hard, and full of blood vessels and may stress the fetal heart.

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  • Spina bifida occurs during the first month of fetal development when a small bit of bone and skin fails to fully enclose the nerves of the spinal cord, leaving a hole or lesion.

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  • Since the damage from spina bifida occurs during fetal development, prenatal surgery may reduce the damage.

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  • However, prenatal surgery for spina bifida has become enmeshed in the politics of reproductive rights and fetal rights.

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  • The decision to have prenatal surgery is made on the basis of detailed ultrasound imaging of the fetus, including an echocardiogram that uses ultrasound to obtain images of the fetal heart, as well as other diagnostic tools.

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  • Using ultrasound as a guide, the surgeon feels for the affected fetal part.

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  • The first successful open fetal surgery was performed in 1981 for a urinary tract obstruction.

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  • The first successful open fetal surgery for CDH was performed in 1989.

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  • Prenatal open surgery for CCAM requires opening the fetal chest.

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  • The first successful resection (removal) of a CCAM from a fetal lung was performed in 1990.

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  • The first resectioning of a fetal SCT was performed in 1992.

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  • For urinary tract obstructions a needle may be used to insert a catheter through the mother's abdomen and uterus and into the fetal bladder where it drains the urine into the amniotic fluid.

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  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is treated by passing a needle, guided by ultrasound, through the mother's abdominal wall, into the uterus and the fetal heart.

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  • Fetoscopic surgeries are less dangerous and traumatic than open fetal surgery and reduce the risk of premature labor.

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  • Subsequent children of a mother who has undergone fetal surgery usually are delivered by cesarean section because of scarring of the uterus.

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  • If all of the amniotic fluid is lost, the fetal lungs may not develop properly.

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  • Although fetal surgeries heal without scarring, they are rare and risky, and it is difficult to predict the outcome.

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  • Fetal surgery for CDH lessens the severity of the condition so that the fetus usually survives delivery and lives long enough to undergo corrective surgery.

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  • Amniotic fluid also contains fetal cells.

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  • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)-A condition in which one or more lobes of the fetal lungs develop into fluid-filled sacs called cysts.

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  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)-A condition in which the fetal diaphragm (the muscle dividing the chest and abdominal cavity) does not close completely.

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  • Ultrasonography is often used to diagnose fetal abnormalities, gallstones, heart defects, and tumors.

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  • Bianchi, Diana W., et al. Fetology: Diagnosis and Management of the Fetal Patient.

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  • Hedrick, Holly L., et al. "History of Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Experience."

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  • Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 18, no. 2 (March-April 2003): 65-82.

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  • Paek, Bettina W., et al. "Advances in Fetal Surgery."

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  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a set of physical and mental birth defects that can result from a woman drinking alcohol during her pregnancy.

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  • Fetal alcohol effect (FAE) is a term used to describe alcohol-exposed individuals whose condition does not meet the full criteria for an FAS diagnosis.

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  • Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder.

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  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome No. V: Index to New Information.

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  • Message in a Bottle: The Making of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

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  • Kleinfeld, Judith, et al. Fantastic Antone Grows Up: Adolescents and Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

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  • "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders."

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  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Family Resource Institute.

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  • National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (NOFAS). 900 17th Street, NW, Suite 910, Washington, DC 20006.

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  • Ultrasonography is often used to diagnose fetal abnormalities, gallstones, heart defects, and tumors.

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  • In newborns, congenital duodenal obstruction can occur when the duodenal channel (duodenal lumen) is not correctly formed (recanalized) during fetal development.

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  • An amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling can be used to obtain fetal cells which can be analyzed for the RB1 gene change/deletion or chromosomal abnormality.

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  • In thalassemia minor, fetal hemoglobin (HbF), the hemoglobin form that circulates in the fetus, does not decrease normally after birth and may remain high in later life.

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  • Ninety-five percent of fetal weight gain occurs during the last 20 weeks of gestation.

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  • Growth inhibition during stage two and three causes a decrease of cell size and fetal weight with less effect on total cell number and fetal length and head circumference, causing asymmetric IUGR.

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  • In general, most physicians believe that IUGR is the consequence of a disease process within one or more of the three partitions that maintain and regulate fetal growth, i.e., the maternal compartment, the placenta, or the fetus.

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  • The grading of the placenta indicates whether it may be inappropriately aging, but this is not as accurate as fetal measurements.

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  • Doppler studies on the umbilical cord artery and the middle cerebral artery also provide information regarding fetal growth.

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  • Circumvallate placenta-The existence of a thick, round, white, opaque ring around the periphery of the placenta that limits the expansion of the fetal vessels.

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  • The Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment.

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  • "Gastroschisis." The Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment.

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  • An individual's stage in development determines whether he or she makes primarily embryonic, fetal, or adult hemoglobins.

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  • Alpha globin is also a component of fetal hemoglobin.

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  • This fluid contains fetal cells that can be tested.

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  • Hydroxyurea-A drug that has been shown to induce production of fetal hemoglobin.

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  • Fetal hemoglobin has a pair of gamma-globin molecules in place of the typical beta-globins of adult hemoglobin.

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  • Higher-than-normal levels of fetal hemoglobin can ameliorate some of the symptoms of thalassemia.

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  • Ultrasonography is often used to diagnose fetal abnormalities, gallstones, heart defects, and tumors.

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  • Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) involves the use of an electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitor to record the baby's heart rate.

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  • Electronic fetal monitoring is performed late in pregnancy or continuously during labor to ensure normal delivery of a healthy baby.

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  • All electronic fetal monitors detect the FHR and maternal uterine activity (UA), and both are displayed for interpretation since the pattern of the baby's heartbeat during labor often reflects the baby's condition.

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  • Fetal asphyxia (an impaired exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide) is recognized as an important cause of stillbirth and neonatal death.

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  • Fetal monitoring can be helpful in a variety of different situations.

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  • During pregnancy, fetal monitoring can be used as a part of antepartum testing.

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  • If the practitioner feels that a baby may be at risk for problems during pregnancy, non-stress tests, biophysical profiles, or even contraction stress tests are performed twice a week to monitor fetal well-being.

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  • Using the external fetal monitor is simple and painless.

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  • A water-soluble gel is placed on the underside of the transducer to permit the conduction of fetal heart sounds.

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  • When the transducer is placed correctly on the maternal abdomen, the sound waves bounce off the fetal heart and are picked up by the electronic monitor.

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  • The measurement of fetal heart activity is performed most accurately by attaching an electrode directly to the fetal scalp.

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  • It is used to relieve cord compression, reduce fetal distress caused by meconium staining, and as a correction of decreased amniotic fluid.

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  • There are no special preparations needed for fetal monitoring.

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  • Generally the insertion of a fetal scalp electrode is a safe procedure, but it may occasionally cause umbilical cord prolapse or infection due to early amniotomy.

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  • Problems could also occur if the electrode or IUPC causes trauma to the eye, fetal vessels, umbilical cord, or placenta.

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  • The average fetal heart rate is in the range of 110 to 160 beats per minute (bpm).

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  • Other indicators of fetal well-being include short term variability (STV), which constitutes changes in the FHR from one beat to another, and long term variability (LTV), which is changes in the FHR over a long period of time.

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  • One of the worst indications of fetal distress, however, is a tracing that shows no variability at all.

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  • The mother may report that she has experienced decreased fetal movement as the baby has only enough oxygen to keep the heart beating.

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  • It is for this reason that all pregnant women should be taught to keep track of fetal movement every day and to report any significant changes.

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  • Amniotic fluid also contains fetal cells.

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  • Deceleration-A decrease in the fetal heart rate that can indicate inadequate blood flow through the placenta.

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  • Freeman, Roger, et al. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.

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  • Pocket Guide to Fetal Monitoring and Assessment, 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2000.

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  • During fetal development, folds enclose tissues and organs and eventually fuse at the edges to form sealed compartments.

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  • T., et al. "MRI of fetal genitourinary anomalies."

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  • Examination of fetal collagen proteins in the tissue can reveal information about the quantitative or qualitative collagen defects that leads to OI.

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  • Genetic material can be extracted from the fetal cells contained in the amniotic fluid and tested for the specific mutation known to cause OI in that family.

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  • A fetal hemoglobin test (Hgb electrophoresis) measures the level of fetal hemoglobin (Hemoglobin F or HbF) in the blood of infants and children.

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