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ferrous

ferrous

ferrous Sentence Examples

  • It forms dark red crystals isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, and readily soluble in water.

  • The aqueous solution is turned bluish black by ferrous sulphate containing a ferric salt.

  • It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.

  • In the van Ruymbeke process the spent lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates.

  • For example, positive iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate.

  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.

  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.

  • Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) of compounds possess the same heat capacity.

  • Magnesium sulphate (orthorhombic) takes up ferrous sulphate (monoclinic) to the extent of 19%, forming isomorphous orthorhombic crystals; ferrous sulphate, on the other hand, takes up magnesium sulphate to the extent of 54% to form monoclinic crystals.

  • By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals as ordinates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corresponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous: the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, the lower line isomor phous crystals of stable monoclinic ferrous sulphate and unstable monoclinic magnesium sulphate.

  • In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.

  • If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.

  • The putrefaction of the latter sets free sulphuretted hydrogen, which then acts on the iron compounds, precipitating ferrous sulphide.

  • On the surface, where the sand is bathed by the tidal water, the ferrous sulphide becomes oxidized and the sand is bleached, but underneath it is dense black or grey, as the case may be.

  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.

  • In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).

  • If W is the weight of iron present per c.c. at about io° C., then for ferric salts Io 6 K =266W-0'77 and for ferrous salts 10 6 K =206W - 077, the quantity - 0.77 arising from the diamagnetism of the water of solution.

  • This solution is allowed to stand for some time (in order that any calcium sulphate and basic ferric sulphate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulphate crystallizes on cooling; it is then drawn off and evaporated until it attains a specific gravity of 1.40.

  • Columbium compounds are usually prepared by fusing columbite with an excess of acid potassium sulphate, boiling out the fused mass with much water, and removing tin and tungsten from the residue by digestion with ammonium sulphide, any iron present being simultaneously converted into ferrous sulphide.

  • The filtrate contains the uranium as uranous and the iron as ferrous salt.

  • Ferrous oxide produces an olive green or a pale blue according to the glass with which it is mixed.

  • Ferric oxide gives a yellow colour, but requires the presence of an oxidizing agent to prevent reduction to the ferrous state.

  • Ferrous oxide is the usual cause of discoloration.

  • By converting ferrous into ferric oxide the green tint is changed to yellow, which is less noticeable.

  • Manganese dioxide not only acts as a source of oxygen, but develops a pink tint in the glass, which is complementary to and neutralizes the green colour due to ferrous oxide.

  • hydrogen peroxide and a trace of a ferrous salt: C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH OH) CHO-->C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH OH) C02H->C4H904 CHO Hexose -> Acid -* Pentose.

  • Potassium ferrous oxalate, FeK2(C204)2 H20, is a strong reducing agent and is used as a photographic developer.

  • The specific gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72.

  • - In this process moistened gold ores are treated with chlorine gas, the resulting gold chloride dissolved out with water, and the gold precipitated with ferrous sulphate, charcoal, sulphuretted hydrogen or otherwise.

  • The precipitants in use are: ferrous sulphate, charcoal and sulphuretted hydrogen, either alone or mixed with sulphur dioxide; the use of copper and iron sulphides has been suggested, but apparently these substances have achieved no success.

  • In the case of ferrous sulphate, prepared by dissolving iron in dilute sulphuric acid, the reaction follows the equation AuCl 3 +3FeS04 = FeC13-I-Fe2(S04)3+Au.

  • Or the alloy is dissolved in aqua regia, the solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold precipitated by ferrous chloride.

  • Or Gutzkow's method of precipitating the metal with ferrous sulphate may be employed.

  • The blue colouring substance is ferrous sulphide, the upper reddish layer contains more ferric oxide, which the predominance of decomposing organic matter in the substance of the mud reduces to ferrous oxide and subsequently by further action to sulphide.

  • Marcasite readily oxidizes on exposure to moist air, with the production of sulphuric acid and a white fibrous efflorescence of ferrous sulphate, and in course of time specimens in collections often became completely disintegrated.

  • It is abundant, for example, in the plastic clay of the Brown Coal formation at Littmitz, near Carlsbad, in Bohemia, at which place it has been extensively mined for the manufacture of sulphur and ferrous sulphate.

  • As a rule it is preferable to use iodine in the presence of a carrier, such as amorphous phosphorus or ferrous iodide or to use it with a solvent.

  • Ferrous and ferric acetates are used as mordants; normal lead acetate is known in commerce as sugar of lead; basic copper acetates are known as verdigris.

  • Potassium ferrocyanide, K 4 Fe(NC) 6, (yellow prussiate of potash), was first obtained by decomposing Prussian blue with caustic potash: Fe4[Fe(NC)6]3 + 12KHO = 3K 4 Fe(NC) 6 +4Fe(OH) 3; it may be also obtained by warming a solution of ferrous sulphate with an excess of potassium cyanide: FeS04-I-6KNC = K4Fe(NC)6+ K2S04.

  • 9474 (1892)] passes the gas (after freeing it from ammonia) through a solution of potassium carbonate containing ferric oxide or ferrous carbonate (actually ferrous sulphate and potassium carbonate) in suspension; the sulphuretted hydrogen in the gas probably converts the iron salts into ferrous sulphide which then, in the presence of the hydrocyanic acid in the gas, and the alkaline carbonate, forms the ferrocyanide, thus: FeS+6HCN+ 2K 2 CO 3 = K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + H 2 S + 2CO 2 + 2H 2 0.

  • Bueb (Congress of German Gas Industries, March 1900) brings gas (free from tar) into intimate contact with a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate, when a "cyanogen mud" is obtained.

  • On the small scale it may be prepared by adding an acid solution of a ferrous salt to a solution of potassium ferrocyanide.

  • Soluble Prussian blue, K2Fe2[Fe(NC)6]2, potassium ferric ferrocyanide, is formed when a solution of potassium ferrocyanide is added to an insufficiency of a solution of a ferric salt (t), or when potassium ferricyanide is added to a ferrous salt (2): (t) 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 2FeC1 3 = 6KC1 + K2Fe2[Fe(NC)6]2 (2) 2K 3 Fe(NC)s + 2FeC1 2 = 4KC1 -{- K2Fe2[Fe(NC)s]z.

  • Turnbull's blue, Fe5(NC)12 or Fe3[Fe(NC)6]2, ferrous ferricyanide, is best obtained by adding a hot solution of potassium ferricyanide to a ferrous salt, and allowing the mixture to stand some time in the presence of an iron salt: 2K 3 Fe(NC)s+3FeSO 4 = Fe3[Fe(NC)s]z+ 3K 2 SO 4.

  • The potassium salt may be prepared by adding potassium cyanide to ferrous sulphate solution, the brown precipitate so formed being then heated with potassium nitrite: 5 KNC + 2 FeSO 4 = 2 K 2 SO 4 + KFe2(NC)5, 2 KFe 2 (NC) 5 + 2 KNO 2 = 2 FeO + 2 K2Fe(NC)5 NO.

  • The metallic cyanides may be detected by adding ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, and hydrochloric acid to their solution, when a precipitate of Prussian blue is produced; if the original solution contains free acid it must be neutralized by caustic potash before the reagents are added.

  • Chromous sulphate, CrS04 7H 2 0, isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, results on dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid or, better, by dissolving chromous acetate in dilute sulphuric acid, when it separates in blue crystals on cooling the solution.

  • By the reduction of ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with ferrous sulphate and ammonia, ortho-aminobenzaldehyde is obtained.

  • Many deposits of limonite have been found, on being worked, to pass downwards into ferrous carbonate; and crystals of chalybite converted superficially into limonite are well known.

  • Minerals, like glauconite, which contain ferrous silicate, may in like manner yield limonite, on weathering.

  • Blue or Roman vitriol ' is copper sulphate; green vitriol, ferrous sulphate (copperas); white vitriol, zinc sulphate; and vitriol of Mars is a basic iron sulphate.

  • They may be recognized by the fact that on the addition of a solution of ferrous sulphate, followed by that of concentrated sulphuric acid (the mixture being kept quite cold), the ferrous sulphate solution becomes of a deep brown colour, owing to the reducing action of the ferrous sulphate on the nitric acid which is liberated by the action of the sulphuric acid on the nitrate.

  • Since then (1904) Miss Florence Durham has shown that if the skins of young or embryonic mammals (rats, rabbits and guinea-pigs) be ground up and extracted in water, and the expressed juice be then incubated with solid tyrosin for twentyfour hours, with the addition of a very small amount of ferrous sulphate to act as an activator, a pigmentary substance is thrown down.

  • Another kind of alteration which pyrites may suffer has been termed "vitriolization," since the products are ferrous sulphate, with free sulphuric acid and sometimes a basic ferric sulphate.

  • Many fossils are mineralized with pyrites, which has evidently been reduced by the action of decomposing organic matter on a solution of ferrous sulphate, or perhaps less directly on ferrous carbonate dissolved in water containing carbonic acid, in the presence of certain sulphates.

  • Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.

  • Oxygen, probably dissolved in the iron as ferrous oxide FeO, also makes the metal red-short.

  • With oxygen it probably forms manganous oxide, which is less harmful than ferrous oxide.

  • that it shall have a great excess of the strong base, ferrous oxide, FeO, for the phosphoric acid to unite with, lest it be deoxidized by the carbon of the iron as fast as it forms, and so return to the iron, following the general rule that oxidized bodies enter the slag and unoxidized ones the metallic iron.

  • Where the carbon, in thus diffusing inwards, meets particles of the slag, a basic ferrous silicate which is always present in wrought iron, it forms carbonic oxide, FeO+ C = Fe+CO, which puffs the pliant metal up and forms blisters.

  • Jeweller's rouge for polishing plate is a fine red iron oxide prepared by calcination from ferrous sulphate (green vitriol).

  • Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.

  • cupri rosa, the flower of copper), green vitriol, or ferrous sulphate, FeSO 4.7H 2 0, having a bluish-green colour and an astringent, inky and somewhat sweetish taste.

  • Black blende containing ferrous sulphide, in amounts up to 15 or 20% isomorphously replacing zinc sulphide, is known as marmatite (from Marmato near Guayabal in Colombia, South America) and christophite (from St Christophe mine at Breitenbrunn near Eibenstock in Saxony).

  • The bark possesses tanning properties, and in Scotland in past times yielded with ferrous sulphate a black dye for wool.

  • The operation is finished when all the sodium sulphide has been converted into normal sodium carbonate, partly also into acid sodium carbonate (bicarbonate) NaHCO 3; at the same time a precipitate is formed, consisting of ferrous sulphide, alumina and silica, which is removed by another settling tank, and the clear liquor is now ready either for boiling down in a " fishing-pan " for the manufacture of white soda-ash, or for the process of causticizing.

  • They are made by dissolving ordinary soda-ash in hot water, adding a small quantity of chloride of lime for the destruction of colouring matter and the oxidation of any ferrous salts present, carefully settling the solution, without allowing its temperature to fall below the point of maximum solubility (34° C.), and running the clarified liquid into cast-iron crystallizers or " cones," where, on cooling down, most of the sodium carbonate is separated in large crystals of the decahydrated form.

  • Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.

  • Ores in which the copper is present as oxide or carbonate are soluble in sulphuric or hydrochloric acids, ferrous chloride, ferric sulphate, ammoniacal compounds and sodium thiosulphate.

  • Ferrous chloride is not much used; the Douglas-Hunt process uses a mixture of salt and ferrous sulphate which involves the formation of ferrous chloride, and the new Douglas-Hunt process employs sulphuric acid in which ferrous chloride is added after leaching.

  • The solubility of copper carbonate in ferrous chloride solution was pointed out by Max Schaffner in 1862, and the subsequent recognition of the solubility of the oxide in the same solvent by James Douglas and Sterry Hunt resulted in the " Douglas-Hunt " process for the wet extraction of copper.

  • Ferrous chloride decomposes the copper oxide and carbonate with the formation of cuprous and cupric chlorides (which remain in solution), and the precipitation of ferrous oxide, carbon dioxide being simultaneously liberated from the carbonate.

  • In the original form of the Douglas-Hunt process, ferrous chloride was formed by the interaction of sodium chloride (common salt) with ferrous sulphate (green vitriol), the sodium sulphate formed at the same time being removed by crystallization.

  • The liquor was then filtered from the iron oxides, and the filtrate treated with scrap iron, which precipitated the copper and reformed ferrous chloride, which could be used in the first stage of the process.

  • The ore is first treated with dilute sulphuric acid, and then ferrous or calcium chloride added, thus forming copper chlorides.

  • Hot air is blown into the filtrate, which contains ferrous or calcium chlorides, to expel the excess of sulphur dioxide, and the liquid can then be used again.

  • It may also be accomplished by calcination with ferrous sulphate, or other easily decomposable sulphates, such as aluminium sulphate.

  • Calcination with ferrous sulphate converts all the copper sulphide into sulphate.

  • The conversion of copper sulphide into the chlorides may be accomplished by calcining with common salt, or by treating the ores with ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid or with ferric chloride.

  • The ferrous chloride formed at the same time is converted into ferric chloride which can be used to moisten the heaps.

  • This conversion is effected by allowing the ferrous chloride liquors slowly to descend a tower, filled with pieces of wood, coke or quartz, where it meets an ascending current of chlorine.

  • It should be observed that the free acid is gradually neutralized, partly by chemical action on certain constituents of the slime, partly by local action between different metals of the anode, both of which effect solution independently of the current, and partly by the peroxidation (or aeration) of ferrous sulphate formed from the iron in the anode.

  • They are soluble in water, their solutions having an acid reaction and an astringent taste; the solutions are coloured dark blue or green by ferrous salts, a property utilized in the manufacture of ink.

  • This iron deposit is not merely mechanical but is due to the physiological activity of the organism which, according to Winogradsky, liberates energy by oxidizing ferrous and ferric oxide in its protoplasm - a view not accepted by H.

  • The methods used in the assay for iron are volumetric, and are all based on the property possessed by certain reagents of oxidizing iron from the ferrous to the ferric state.

  • It is necessary in the first place, after the ore is in solution, to reduce all the iron to the ferrous condition; then the carefully standardized solution of the oxidizing reagent is added until all the iron is in the ferric state, the volume of the standard solution used being the measure of the iron contained in the ore.

  • So long as the solution contains a ferrous salt, the drop on the tile changes to blue; hence the absence of a blue coloration indicates the complete oxidation of all the ferrous salt and the end of the reaction.

  • Pure Oxalic Acid May Also Be Used, Which, In The Presence Of Sulphuric Acid, Is Oxidized By The Standard Solution According To The Reaction: 5(H2C2042H20) 3H 2 So 4 2Kmn04 =10002 2Mns04 K2S04 18H20 The Reaction In Case Of Ferrous Sulphate Is: 10Fes04 2Kmn04 8H2S04 = 5Fe2(S04)3 K2S04 2Mns04 8H20; That Is, The Same Amount Of Potassium Permanganate Is Required To Oxidize 5 Molecules Of Oxalic Acid That Is Necessary To Oxidize I O Molecules Of Iron In The Form Of Ferrous Sulphate To Ferric Sulphate, Or 63 Parts By Weight Of Oxalic Acid Equal 56 Parts By Weight Of Metallic Iron.

  • Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate May Also Be Used; It Contains One Seventh Of Its Weight Of Iron.

  • Colloidal silver is the name given by Carey Lea to the precipitates obtained by adding reducing solutions, such as ferrous sulphate, tartrates, citrates, tannin, &c., or to silver solutions.

  • The crude bromine is purified by repeated shaking with potassium, sodium or ferrous bromide and subsequent redistillation.

  • With ferric salts its solution gives a deep blue colour, and with ferrous salts, after exposure to the air, an insoluble, blue-black, ferroso-ferric gallate.

  • The acid so obtained from ferrous sulphate (green vitriol) fumes strongly in moist air, hence its name "fuming sulphuric acid"; another name for the same product is "Nordhausen sulphuric acid," on account of the long-continued practice of this process at Nordhausen.

  • Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.

  • 4.1 Chemical Reactivity 4.2 Solubility 4.3 Compounds 4.4 Ferrous Oxide 4.5 Magnetite 4.6 Ferric Acid 4.7 Halogen Compounds 4.8 Ferric Chloride 4.9 Ferrous Bromide 4.10 Sulfur(Sulphur)Compounds 4.11 Nitrides and Nitrates 4.12 Phosphides, Phosphates 4.13 Arsenides and Arsenites 4.14 Carbides, Carbonates 4.15 Medical Uses

  • The perfectly pure metal may be prepared by heating the oxide or oxalate in a current of hydrogen; when obtained at a low temperature it is a black powder which oxidizes in air with incandescence; produced at higher temperatures the metal is not pyrophoric. Peligot obtained it as minute tetragonal octahedra and cubes by reducing ferrous chloride in hydrogen.

  • It may be obtained electrolytically from solutions of ferrous and magnesium sulphates and sodium bicarbonate, a wrought iron anode and a rotating cathode of copper, thinly silvered and iodized, being employed (S.

  • It dissolves in dilute cold nitric acid with the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates, no gases being liberated; when heated or with stronger acid ferric nitrate is formed with evolution of nitrogen oxides.

  • Oxides and Hydroxides.-Iron forms three oxides: ferrous oxide, FeO, ferric oxide, Fe2O3, and ferroso-ferric oxide, Fe304.

  • The first two give origin to well-defined series of salts, the ferrous salts, wherein the metal is divalent, and the ferric salts, wherein the metal is trivalent; the former readily pass into the latter on oxidation, and the latter into the former on reduction.

  • Ferrous oxide is obtained when ferric oxide is reduced in hydrogen at 300 as a black pyrophoric powder.

  • It may also be prepared as a black velvety powder which readily takes up oxygen from the air by adding ferrous oxalate to boiling caustic potash.

  • Ferrous hydrate, Fe(OH)2, when prepared from a pure ferrous salt and caustic soda or potash free from air, is a white powder which may be preserved in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

  • It oxidizes on exposure with considerable evolution of heat; it rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide; and readily dissolves in acids to form ferrous salts, which are usually white when anhydrous, but greenish when hydrated.

  • Two series of synthetic hydrates were recognized by Muck and Tommasi: the " red " hydrates, obtained by precipitating ferric salts with alkalis, and the " yellow " hydrates, obtained by oxidizing moist ferrous hydroxide or carbonates.

  • Red ferric hydroxide dissolves in acids to form a well-defined series of salts, the ferric salts, also obtained by oxidizing ferrous salts; they are usually colourless when anhydrous, but yellow or brown when hydrated.

  • Magnetite, Fe304, may be regarded as ferrous ferrite, FeO-Fe2O3.

  • It dissolves in acids to form a mixture of a ferrous and ferric salt,' and if an alkali is added to the solution a black precipitate is obtained which dries to a dark brown mass of the composition Fe(OH)2Fe203; this substance is attracted by a magnet, and thus may be separated from the admixed ferric oxide.

  • Ferrous fluoride, FeF21 is obtained as colourless prisms (with 8H2O) by dissolving iron in hydrofluoric acid, or as anhydrous colourless rhombic prisms by heating iron or ferric chloride in dry hydrofluoric acid gas.

  • Ferrous chloride, FeC1 21 is obtained as shining scales by passing chlorine, or, better, hydrochloric acid gas, over red-hot iron, or by reducing ferric chloride in a current of hydrogen.

  • By adding ammonium chloride to the solution, evaporating in vacuo, and then volatilizing the ammonium chloride, anhydrous ferrous chloride is obtained.

  • The solution, in common with those of most ferrous salts, absorbs nitric oxide with the formation of a brownish solution.

  • Vapour density determinations at 448° indicate a partial dissociation of the double molecule Fe2Cl6I on stronger heating it splits into ferrous chloride and chlorine.

  • Many oxychlorides are known; soluble forms are obtained by dissolving precipitated ferric hydrate in ferric chloride, whilst insoluble compounds result when ferrous chloride is oxidized in air, or by boiling for some time aqueous solutions of ferric chloride.

  • Ferrous bromide, FeBr2, is obtained as yellowish crystals by the union of bromine and iron at a dull red-heat, or as bluish-green rhombic tables of the composition FeBr26H2O by crystallizing a solution of iron in hydrobromic acid.

  • Ferrous iodide, FeI2, is obtained as a grey crystalline mass by the direct union of its components.

  • - Ferrous sulphide, FeS, results from the direct union of its elements, best by stirring molten sulphur with a white-hot iron rod, when the sulphide drops to the bottom of the crucible.

  • Heated in air it at first partially oxidizes to ferrous sulphate, and at higher temperatures it yields sulphur dioxide and ferric oxide.

  • Another black amorphous form results when ferrous salts are precipitated by ammonium sulphide.

  • It is also prepared by precipitating a ferric salt with ammonium sulphide; unless the alkali be in excess a mixture of ferrous sulphide and sulphur is obtained.

  • Pyrite may be prepared artificially by gently heating ferrous sulphide with sulphur, or as brassy octahedra and cubes by slowly heating an intimate mixture of ferric oxide, sulphur and salammoniac. It is insoluble in dilute acids, but dissolves in nitric acid with separation of sulphur.

  • Ferrous sulphite, FeS03.

  • Iron dissolves in a solution of sulphur dioxide in the absence of air to form ferrous sulphite and thiosulphate; the former, being less soluble than the latter, separates out as colourless or greenish crystals on standing.

  • Ferrous sulphate, green vitriol or copperas, FeSO47H2O, was known to, and used by, the alchemists; it is mentioned in the writings of Agricola, and its preparation from iron and sulphuric acid occurs in the Tractatus chymico-philosophicus ascribed to Basil Valentine.

  • It is manufactured by piling pyrites in heaps and exposing to atmospheric oxidation, the ferrous sulphate thus formed being dissolved in water, and the solution run into tanks, where any sulphuric acid which may be formed is decomposed by adding scrap iron.

  • Ferrous sulphate forms large green crystals belonging to the monoclinic system; rhombic crystals, isomorphous with zinc sulphate, are obtained by inoculating a solution with a crystal of zinc sulphate, and triclinic crystals of the formula FeSO 4.5H 2 O by inoculating with copper sulphate.

  • The monohydrate also results as a white precipitate when concentrated sulphuric acid is added to a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate.

  • Ferrous sulphate forms double salts with the alkaline sulphates.

  • The most important is ferrous ammonium sulphate, FeS04(NH4)2S04,6H20, obtained by dissolving equivalent amounts of the two salts in water and crystallizing.

  • Ferric sulphate, Fe2(S04)3, is obtained by adding nitric acid to a hot solution of ferrous sulphate containing sulphuric acid, colourless crystals being deposited on evaporating the solution.

  • rend., 1902, 1 35, P. 73 8) obtained ferrous nitride, Fe3N2, and ferric nitride, FeN, as black powders by heating lithium nitride with ferrous potassium chloride and ferric potassium chloride respectively.

  • Soc., 1901, p. 285) obtained a nitride Fe2N by acting upon anhydrous ferrous chloride or bromide, finely divided reduced iron, or iron amalgam with ammonia at 420°; and, also, in a compact form, by the action of ammonia on red hot iron wire.

  • It oxidizes on heating in air, and ignites in chlorine; on solution in mineral acids it yields ferrous and ammonium salts, hydrogen being liberated.

  • Ferrous nitrate, Fe(NO3)2.6H2O, is a very unstable salt, and is obtained by mixing solutions of ferrous sulphate and barium nitrate, filtering, and crystallizing in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

  • Ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3) 3, is obtained by dissolving iron in nitric acid (the cold dilute acid leads to the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates) and crystallizing, when cubes of Fe(NO3)3.6H20 or monoclinic crystals of Fe(N03)3.9H20 are obtained.

  • Ferrous solutions absorb nitric oxide, forming dark green to black solutions.

  • The coloration is due to the production of unstable compounds of the ferrous salt and nitric oxide, and it seems that in neutral solutions the compound is made up of one molecule of salt to one of gas; the reaction, however, is reversible, the composition varying with temperature, concentration and nature of the salt.

  • Ferrous chloride dissolved in strong hydrochloric acid absorbs two molecules of the gas (Kohlschiitter and Kutscheroff, Ber., 1907, 40, p. 873).

  • Complicated compounds, discovered by Roussin in 1858, are obtained by the interaction of ferrous sulphate and alkaline nitrites and sulphides.

  • Ferrous phosphate, Fe3(P04)2.8H20, occurs in nature as the mineral vivianite.

  • It may be obtained artificially as a white precipitate, which rapidly turns blue or green on exposure, by mixing solutions of ferrous sulphate and sodium phosphate.

  • Ferrous carbonate, FeCO3, or spathic iron ore, may be obtained as microscopic rhombohedra by adding sodium bicarbonate to ferrous sulphate and heating to 150° for 36 hours.

  • Ferrous sulphate and sodium carbonate in the cold give a flocculent precipitate, at first white but rapidly turning green owing to oxidation.

  • 1910, p. 798) by treating iron from ferrous oxalate with carbon monoxide, and heating at 150°, is a pale yellow liquid which freezes at about - 20°, and boils at 102.5°.

  • The halogens give ferrous and ferric haloids and carbon monoxide; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids have no action, but hydriodic decomposes it.

  • Ferrous salts give a greenish precipitate with an alkali, whilst ferric give a characteristic red one.

  • Ferrous salts also give a bluish white precipitate with ferrocyanide, which on exposure turns to a dark blue; ferric salts are characterized by the intense purple coloration with a thiocyanate.

  • Chem., 1900, 23, p. 2 45; 1904, 38, p. 232), who found the amount of silver bromide given by ferrous bromide, gave the value 55.44 (0 = 16).

  • Ferri sulphas exsiccatus, which has two subpreparations: (a) Pilula ferri, " Blaud's pill " (exsiccated ferrous sulphate 150, exsiccated sodium carbonate 95, gum acacia 50, tragacanth 15, glycerin 10, syrup 150, water 20, each to contain about I grain of ferrous carbonate); (b) Pilula aloes et ferri (Barbadoes aloes 2, exsiccated ferrous sulphate I, compound powder of cinnamon 3, syrup of glucose 3).

  • Ferri arsenas, iron arsenate, ferrous and ferric arsenates with some iron oxides, a greenish powder.

  • Ferri phosphas, a slate-blue powder of ferrous and ferric phosphates with some oxide.

  • of ferrous phosphate in each fluid drachm); (b) Syrupus ferri phosphatis cum quinina et strychnina, " Easton's syrup " (iron wire 75 grs., concentrated phosphoric acid 10 fl.

  • of ferrous phosphate, t gr.

  • of ferrous iodide in one fl.

  • Alkalis and their carbonates, lime water, carbonate of calcium, magnesia and its carbonate give green precipitates with ferrous and brown with ferric salts.

  • In the intestine the ferric chloride becomes changed into an oxide of iron; the sub-chloride is converted into a ferrous carbonate, which is soluble.

  • Lower down in the bowel these compounds are converted into ferrous sulphide and tannate, and are eliminated with the faeces, turning them black.

  • in a pill), a mixture of ferrous and ferric arsenates with some iron oxide, is of great use in certain cases.

  • It also appears that rust changes in composition on exposure to the atmosphere, both the ferrous oxide and carbonate being in part oxidized to ferric oxide.

  • Modern steels and ferrous alloys have mostly been developed since the Industrial Revolution.

  • Casting uses a range of casting technologies on ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.

  • Ferrous iron (e.g. ferrous sulfate) is much better absorbed than ferric iron (e.g. ferric citrate ).

  • One process involves the electrolytic deposition of tin on to ferrous materials.

  • To sum up, all cars will have some amount of industrial fallout or ferrous metal contamination.

  • ferrous sulfate are not included.

  • ferrous metallurgy aimed at students and industry.

  • ferrous metal foundries with a production capacity exceeding 20 tons per day 2.5.

  • ferrous metal.

  • ferrous alloys, Copper alloys, Aluminum alloys, Tin alloys, Magnesium alloys etc can all be cast.

  • ferrous scrap.

  • foundry>Ferrous metal foundries with a production capacity exceeding 20 tons per day 2.5.

  • The two main reasons for iron gall ink corrosion have been identified to be acid hydrolysis and oxidation, catalyzed by ferrous ions.

  • How Magnetic Sensors Work - The Basics anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) occurs in ferrous materials.

  • Corrosion destroys one-fifth of the world's production of ferrous metals annually!

  • The site contains a collection of resources on steel and ferrous metallurgy aimed at students and industry.

  • We are an established research group with an international reputation in both ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy.

  • Several timber buildings were identified, both round and rectangular, and there was evidence of ferrous and non-ferrous metalworking at the site.

  • Speed sensors can be of the Hall Effect type, magnetic pickup or ferrous detection.

  • Copperas is hydrated ferrous sulfate, also known as green vitriol.

  • It forms dark red crystals isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, and readily soluble in water.

  • The aqueous solution is turned bluish black by ferrous sulphate containing a ferric salt.

  • Chlorosis is a form of pallor where the chlorophyll remains in abeyance owing to a want of iron, and can be cured by adding ferrous salts.

  • Chem., 18 99, 2 9, p. 315); by heating some metallic sulphides in a current of hydrogen; by the action of acids on various metallic sulphides (ferrous sulphide and dilute sulphuric acid being most generally employed); by the action of sulphur on heated paraffin wax or vaseline, or by heating a solution of magnesium sulphydrate.

  • It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.

  • In the van Ruymbeke process the spent lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates.

  • On weathering, magnetite commonly passes into limonite, the ferrous oxide having probably been removed by carbonated waters.

  • For example, at first he represented ferrous and ferric oxides by the formulae Fe02, Fe03, and by the analogy of zinc and other basic oxides he regarded these substances as constituted similarly to Fe02, and the acidic oxides alumina and chromium oxide as similar to FeO 3.

  • For example, positive iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate.

  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.

  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.

  • Neumann, who, in 1831, deduced from observations on many carbonates (calcium, magnesium, ferrous, zinc, barium and lead) that stoichiometric quantities (equimolecular weights) of compounds possess the same heat capacity.

  • Magnesium sulphate (orthorhombic) takes up ferrous sulphate (monoclinic) to the extent of 19%, forming isomorphous orthorhombic crystals; ferrous sulphate, on the other hand, takes up magnesium sulphate to the extent of 54% to form monoclinic crystals.

  • By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals as ordinates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corresponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous: the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, the lower line isomor phous crystals of stable monoclinic ferrous sulphate and unstable monoclinic magnesium sulphate.

  • In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.

  • If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.

  • The putrefaction of the latter sets free sulphuretted hydrogen, which then acts on the iron compounds, precipitating ferrous sulphide.

  • On the surface, where the sand is bathed by the tidal water, the ferrous sulphide becomes oxidized and the sand is bleached, but underneath it is dense black or grey, as the case may be.

  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.

  • In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).

  • If W is the weight of iron present per c.c. at about io° C., then for ferric salts Io 6 K =266W-0'77 and for ferrous salts 10 6 K =206W - 077, the quantity - 0.77 arising from the diamagnetism of the water of solution.

  • This solution is allowed to stand for some time (in order that any calcium sulphate and basic ferric sulphate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulphate crystallizes on cooling; it is then drawn off and evaporated until it attains a specific gravity of 1.40.

  • Columbium compounds are usually prepared by fusing columbite with an excess of acid potassium sulphate, boiling out the fused mass with much water, and removing tin and tungsten from the residue by digestion with ammonium sulphide, any iron present being simultaneously converted into ferrous sulphide.

  • The filtrate contains the uranium as uranous and the iron as ferrous salt.

  • The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.

  • Haemosiderin, an iron-containing pigment (probably an hydrated ferrous oxide), is found in more or less loose combination with protein substances in an amorphous form as brownish or black granules.

  • Ferrous oxide produces an olive green or a pale blue according to the glass with which it is mixed.

  • Ferric oxide gives a yellow colour, but requires the presence of an oxidizing agent to prevent reduction to the ferrous state.

  • Ferrous oxide is the usual cause of discoloration.

  • By converting ferrous into ferric oxide the green tint is changed to yellow, which is less noticeable.

  • Manganese dioxide not only acts as a source of oxygen, but develops a pink tint in the glass, which is complementary to and neutralizes the green colour due to ferrous oxide.

  • hydrogen peroxide and a trace of a ferrous salt: C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH OH) CHO-->C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH OH) C02H->C4H904 CHO Hexose -> Acid -* Pentose.

  • Potassium ferrous oxalate, FeK2(C204)2 H20, is a strong reducing agent and is used as a photographic developer.

  • The specific gravity of gold obtained by precipitation from solution by ferrous sulphate is from 19.55 to 20.72.

  • - In this process moistened gold ores are treated with chlorine gas, the resulting gold chloride dissolved out with water, and the gold precipitated with ferrous sulphate, charcoal, sulphuretted hydrogen or otherwise.

  • The precipitants in use are: ferrous sulphate, charcoal and sulphuretted hydrogen, either alone or mixed with sulphur dioxide; the use of copper and iron sulphides has been suggested, but apparently these substances have achieved no success.

  • In the case of ferrous sulphate, prepared by dissolving iron in dilute sulphuric acid, the reaction follows the equation AuCl 3 +3FeS04 = FeC13-I-Fe2(S04)3+Au.

  • Or the alloy is dissolved in aqua regia, the solution filtered from the insoluble silver chloride, and the gold precipitated by ferrous chloride.

  • Or Gutzkow's method of precipitating the metal with ferrous sulphate may be employed.

  • The blue colouring substance is ferrous sulphide, the upper reddish layer contains more ferric oxide, which the predominance of decomposing organic matter in the substance of the mud reduces to ferrous oxide and subsequently by further action to sulphide.

  • Marcasite readily oxidizes on exposure to moist air, with the production of sulphuric acid and a white fibrous efflorescence of ferrous sulphate, and in course of time specimens in collections often became completely disintegrated.

  • It is abundant, for example, in the plastic clay of the Brown Coal formation at Littmitz, near Carlsbad, in Bohemia, at which place it has been extensively mined for the manufacture of sulphur and ferrous sulphate.

  • As a rule it is preferable to use iodine in the presence of a carrier, such as amorphous phosphorus or ferrous iodide or to use it with a solvent.

  • Ferrous and ferric acetates are used as mordants; normal lead acetate is known in commerce as sugar of lead; basic copper acetates are known as verdigris.

  • Potassium ferrocyanide, K 4 Fe(NC) 6, (yellow prussiate of potash), was first obtained by decomposing Prussian blue with caustic potash: Fe4[Fe(NC)6]3 + 12KHO = 3K 4 Fe(NC) 6 +4Fe(OH) 3; it may be also obtained by warming a solution of ferrous sulphate with an excess of potassium cyanide: FeS04-I-6KNC = K4Fe(NC)6+ K2S04.

  • 9474 (1892)] passes the gas (after freeing it from ammonia) through a solution of potassium carbonate containing ferric oxide or ferrous carbonate (actually ferrous sulphate and potassium carbonate) in suspension; the sulphuretted hydrogen in the gas probably converts the iron salts into ferrous sulphide which then, in the presence of the hydrocyanic acid in the gas, and the alkaline carbonate, forms the ferrocyanide, thus: FeS+6HCN+ 2K 2 CO 3 = K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + H 2 S + 2CO 2 + 2H 2 0.

  • It is now prepared from the calcium ferrocyanide formed in gas purifiers (see above) by decomposition with ferrous' sulphate.

  • Bueb (Congress of German Gas Industries, March 1900) brings gas (free from tar) into intimate contact with a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate, when a "cyanogen mud" is obtained.

  • On the small scale it may be prepared by adding an acid solution of a ferrous salt to a solution of potassium ferrocyanide.

  • Soluble Prussian blue, K2Fe2[Fe(NC)6]2, potassium ferric ferrocyanide, is formed when a solution of potassium ferrocyanide is added to an insufficiency of a solution of a ferric salt (t), or when potassium ferricyanide is added to a ferrous salt (2): (t) 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 2FeC1 3 = 6KC1 + K2Fe2[Fe(NC)6]2 (2) 2K 3 Fe(NC)s + 2FeC1 2 = 4KC1 -{- K2Fe2[Fe(NC)s]z.

  • Turnbull's blue, Fe5(NC)12 or Fe3[Fe(NC)6]2, ferrous ferricyanide, is best obtained by adding a hot solution of potassium ferricyanide to a ferrous salt, and allowing the mixture to stand some time in the presence of an iron salt: 2K 3 Fe(NC)s+3FeSO 4 = Fe3[Fe(NC)s]z+ 3K 2 SO 4.

  • The potassium salt may be prepared by adding potassium cyanide to ferrous sulphate solution, the brown precipitate so formed being then heated with potassium nitrite: 5 KNC + 2 FeSO 4 = 2 K 2 SO 4 + KFe2(NC)5, 2 KFe 2 (NC) 5 + 2 KNO 2 = 2 FeO + 2 K2Fe(NC)5 NO.

  • The metallic cyanides may be detected by adding ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, and hydrochloric acid to their solution, when a precipitate of Prussian blue is produced; if the original solution contains free acid it must be neutralized by caustic potash before the reagents are added.

  • Chromous sulphate, CrS04 7H 2 0, isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, results on dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid or, better, by dissolving chromous acetate in dilute sulphuric acid, when it separates in blue crystals on cooling the solution.

  • By the reduction of ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with ferrous sulphate and ammonia, ortho-aminobenzaldehyde is obtained.

  • Many deposits of limonite have been found, on being worked, to pass downwards into ferrous carbonate; and crystals of chalybite converted superficially into limonite are well known.

  • Minerals, like glauconite, which contain ferrous silicate, may in like manner yield limonite, on weathering.

  • Blue or Roman vitriol ' is copper sulphate; green vitriol, ferrous sulphate (copperas); white vitriol, zinc sulphate; and vitriol of Mars is a basic iron sulphate.

  • They may be recognized by the fact that on the addition of a solution of ferrous sulphate, followed by that of concentrated sulphuric acid (the mixture being kept quite cold), the ferrous sulphate solution becomes of a deep brown colour, owing to the reducing action of the ferrous sulphate on the nitric acid which is liberated by the action of the sulphuric acid on the nitrate.

  • Since then (1904) Miss Florence Durham has shown that if the skins of young or embryonic mammals (rats, rabbits and guinea-pigs) be ground up and extracted in water, and the expressed juice be then incubated with solid tyrosin for twentyfour hours, with the addition of a very small amount of ferrous sulphate to act as an activator, a pigmentary substance is thrown down.

  • Another kind of alteration which pyrites may suffer has been termed "vitriolization," since the products are ferrous sulphate, with free sulphuric acid and sometimes a basic ferric sulphate.

  • Many fossils are mineralized with pyrites, which has evidently been reduced by the action of decomposing organic matter on a solution of ferrous sulphate, or perhaps less directly on ferrous carbonate dissolved in water containing carbonic acid, in the presence of certain sulphates.

  • Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.

  • Oxygen, probably dissolved in the iron as ferrous oxide FeO, also makes the metal red-short.

  • With oxygen it probably forms manganous oxide, which is less harmful than ferrous oxide.

  • that it shall have a great excess of the strong base, ferrous oxide, FeO, for the phosphoric acid to unite with, lest it be deoxidized by the carbon of the iron as fast as it forms, and so return to the iron, following the general rule that oxidized bodies enter the slag and unoxidized ones the metallic iron.

  • Where the carbon, in thus diffusing inwards, meets particles of the slag, a basic ferrous silicate which is always present in wrought iron, it forms carbonic oxide, FeO+ C = Fe+CO, which puffs the pliant metal up and forms blisters.

  • Jeweller's rouge for polishing plate is a fine red iron oxide prepared by calcination from ferrous sulphate (green vitriol) .

  • Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.

  • In many cases it is found that hydrogen peroxide will only act as an oxidant when in the presence of a catalyst; for example, formic, glygollic, lactic, tartaric, malic, benzoic and other organic acids are readily oxidized in the presence of ferrous sulphate (H.

  • cupri rosa, the flower of copper), green vitriol, or ferrous sulphate, FeSO 4.7H 2 0, having a bluish-green colour and an astringent, inky and somewhat sweetish taste.

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