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ferrite

ferrite

ferrite Sentence Examples

  • In the former case there is no later chance to remove sulphur, a minute quantity of which does great harm by leading to the formation of cementite instead of graphite and ferrite, and thus making the cast-iron castings too hard to be cut to exact shape with steel tools; in the latter case the converting or purifying processes, which are essentially oxidizing ones, though they remove the other impurities, carbon, silicon, phosphorus and manganese, are not well adapted to desulphurizing, which needs rather deoxidizing conditions, so as to cause the formation of calcium sulphide, than oxidizing ones.

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  • If this carbon is all present as graphite, so that in cooling the graphite-austenite diagram has been followed strictly (§ 26), the constitution is extremely simple; clearly the mass consists first of a metallic matrix, the carbonless iron itself with whatever silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur happen to be present, in short an impure ferrite, encased in which as a wholly distinct foreign body is the graphite.

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  • the iron of the original ferrite matrix, it will have changed this matrix from pure carbon (more accurately 0.40 X I oo --96 4 = 0.415%), a rail steel, because it is of just such a mixture of ferrite and cementite in the But this matrix is itself equivalent to a steel of about 0.40% of ratio of 90.4:6 or 94% and 6%, that such a rail steel consists.

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  • 2) 100.0 The constitution and properties of such a series of cast irons, all containing 4% of carbon but with that carbon shifting pro o v,,3 950 R portion of ferrite and cementite respectively in the matrix, DEF, KS and TU reproduced from fig.

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  • Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.

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  • (Sectional Elevation.) heat for some hours in order to settle out 'the ferric oxide which it always contains, and which becomes insoluble (through the destruction of the sodium ferrite) only at high temperatures.

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  • It was, however, found that the behaviour of this alloy was in part due to a layer of pure iron (" ferrite ") averaging o 1 mm.

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  • that to which the hardened steel is thus reheated, the more is the molecular rigidity relaxed, the farther on does the transformation go, and the softer does the steel become; so that, if the reheating reaches a dullred heat, the transformation from austenite into ferrite and cementite completes itself slowly, and when now cooled the steel is as soft and ductile as if it had never been hardened.

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  • would have consisted chiefly of graphite with pearlite and ferrite (which are all relatively soft bodies), if thus chilled and annealed consists of cementite and pearlite.

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  • The molecular freedom which this high temperature gives enables the cementite to change gradually into a mixture of graphite and austenite with the result that, after the castings have been cooled and their austenite has in cooling past Aci changed into pearlite and ferrite, the mixture of cementite and pearlite of which they originally consisted has now given place to one of fine or " temper " graphite and ferrite, with more or less pearlite according to the completeness of the transfer of the carbon to the state of graphite.

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  • Whites, ferrite; blacks, carbide.

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  • - (Stoughton.) Meshes of pearlite in a netv.-ork of ferrite, from hypo-eutectoid steel.

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  • These are cementite, a definite iron carbide, Fe 3 C, harder than glass and nearly as brittle, but probably very strong under gradually and axially applied stress; and ferrite, pure or nearly pure metallic a-iron, soft, weak, with high electric conductivity, and in general like copper except in colour.

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  • In view of the fact that the presence of 1% of carbon implies that 15% of the soft ductile ferrite is replaced by the glass-hard cementite, it is not surprising that even a little carbon influences the properties of the metal so profoundly.

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  • On cooling into region 6 or 8 austenite should normally split up into ferrite and cementite, after passing through the successive stages of martensite, troostite and sorbite, Fe 0 C= Fe 3 C +Fe(i 3).

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  • Pearli te T v 3 A here splits up '(and cementite 140 C C P Ferrite ?

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  • Beta (13) iron, an unmagnetic, intensely hard and brittle allotropic form of iron, though normal and stable only in the little triangle GHM, is yet a state through which the metal seems always to pass when the austenite of region 4 changes into the ferrite and cementite of regions 6 and 8.

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  • Martensite, Troostite and Sorbite are the successive stages through which the metal passes in changing from austenite into ferrite and cementite.

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  • Ferrite and cementite, already described in § 10, are the final products of the transformation of austenite in slow-cooling.

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  • I 1), in the ratio of about 6 parts of ferrite to I of cementite, and hence containing about 0.90% of carbon.

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  • The percentage of pearlite and of free ferrite or cementite in these products is shown in fig.

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  • measures the percentage of the excess of ferrite or cementite for hypoand hyper-eutectic steel and white cast iron respectively.

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  • the Ratio of Ferrite to Cementite, of certain typical Steels.

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  • 3 shows how, as the carbon-content rises from O to 4.5%, the percentage of the glass-hard cementite, which is 15 times that of the carbon itself, rises, and that of the soft copperlike ferrite falls, with consequent continuous increase of hardness and loss of malleableness and ductility.

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  • The presence of a small quantity of the hard cementite ought naturally to strengthen the mass, by opposing the tendency of the soft ferrite to flow under any stress applied to it; but more cementite by its brittleness naturally weakens the mass, causing it to crack open under the distortion which stress inevitably causes.

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  • 13) should be much more effective in starting cracks under distortion than that of the far more minute particles of cementite which lie embedded, indeed drowned, in the sixfold greater mass of ferrite with which they are associated in the pearlite itself.

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  • The large massive plates of cementite which form the network or skeleton in hyper-eutectoid steels should, under distortion, naturally tend to cut, in the softer pearlite, chasms too serious to be healed by the inflowing of the plastic ferrite, though this ferrite flows around and Steel White Cast Iron 100 75 K 0 ?

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  • By " total ferrite " is meant both that which forms part of the pearlite and that which is in excess of the pearlite, taken jointly.

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  • of as nearly pure ferrite, as is practicable.

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  • Carbon-Content of Hardened Steels.-Turning from these cases in which the steel is used in the slowly cooled state, so that it is a mixture of pearlite with ferrite or cementite, i.e.

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  • As the temperature now falls past 690°, this hardenite mother-metal in turn splits up, after the fashion of eutectics, into alternate layers of ferrite and cementite grouped together as pearlite, so that the mass as a whole now becomes a mixture of pearlite with cementite.

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  • The iron thus liberated, as the ferrite of this pearlite, changes simultaneously to a-ferrite.

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  • This change from austenite to ferrite and cementite, from the y through the # to the a state, is of course accompanied by the loss of the " hardening power," i.e.

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  • At the second retardation, K" (Ar2, about 770°) this ferrite changes to the normal magnetic a-ferrite, so that the mass as a whole becomes magnetic. Moreover, the envelopes of ferrite which began forming at Ar 3 continue to broaden by the accession of more and more ferrite born from the austenite progressively as the temperature sinks, till, by the time when Ar t (about 690°) is reached, so much free ferrite has been formed that the remaining mother-metal has been enriched to the composition of hardenite, i.e.

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  • Again, as the temperature in turn falls past Ar l this hardenite mother-metal splits up into cementite and ferrite grouped together as pearlite, with the resulting recalescence, and the mass, as shown in Alloys, Pl., fig.

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  • 12, then consists of kernels of pearlite surrounded by envelopes of ferrite.

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  • In short, from Ar 3 to Ar t the excess substance ferrite or cementite, in hypoand hyper-eutectoid steels respectively, progressively crystallizes out as a network or skeleton within the austenite mothermetal, which thus progressively approaches the composition of hardenite, reaching it at Ar t, and there splitting up into ferrite and cementite interstratified as pearlite.

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  • Further, any ferrite liberated at Ar 3 changes there from -y to a, and any present at Ar 2 changes from (3 to a.

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  • Next let us imagine that, in a series of cast irons all containing 4% of carbon, the graphite of the initial skeleton changes gradually into cementite and thereby becomes part of the matrix, a change which of course has two aspects, first, a gradual thinning of the graphite skeleton and a decrease of its continuity, and second, a gradual introduction of cementite into the originally pure ferrite matrix.

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  • As, in succeeding members of this same series of cast irons, more of the graphite of the initial skeleton changes into cementite and thereby becomes part of the metallic matrix, so the graphite skeleton becomes progressively thinner and more discontinuous, and the matrix richer in cementite and hence in carbon and hence equivalent first to higher and higher carbon steel, such as tool steel of I carbon, file steel of 1.50%, wire-die steel of 2% carbon and then to white cast iron, which consists essentially of much cementite with little ferrite.

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  • First, the hardness (VU) should increase progressively as the soft ferrite and graphite are replaced by the glass-hard cementite.

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  • Magnetite, Fe304, may be regarded as ferrous ferrite, FeO-Fe2O3.

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  • Calcium ferrite, magnesium ferrite and zinc ferrite, ROFe203(R=Ca, Mg, Zn), are obtained by intensely heating mixtures of the oxides; magnesium ferrite occurs in nature as the mineral magnoferrite, and zinc ferrite as franklinite, both forming black octahedra.

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  • When concentrated the solution is nearly black, and on heating it yields a yellow solution of potassium ferrite, oxygen being evolved.

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  • Steel differs in many ways from iron in respect of atmospheric corrosion; the heterogeneous nature of steel gives occasion to a selective rusting, ferrite is much more readily attacked than the cementite and pearlite; moreover, the introduction of other elements may retard rusting; this is particularly the case with the nickel-steels.

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  • EMC testing: Ferrite lined anechoic chamber The latest addition to our suite of test facilities is a shielded fully anechoic EMC chamber.

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  • All antennas built-in: telescopic antenna for FM and SW; internal ferrite bar antenna for AM.

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  • The material retains the nodular graphite distribution of ductile iron, but the matrix is acicular ferrite in a high carbon austenite.

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  • Transmission line transformer using low-permeability ferrite cores gives amazingly flat response 1.8 to 30 MHz.

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  • Also the temperature range within which austenite decomposes to form ferrite and carbide on cooling.

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  • The material retains the nodular graphite distribution of ductile iron, but the matrix is acicular ferrite in a high carbon austenite.

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  • ferrite transformer kits is available as well as tapes and adhesives suitable for use on windings.

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  • ferrite magnets contained in Aquamag produce a super field of high magnetic flux.

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  • ferrite bar antenna for AM.

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  • ferrite beads on the 2m long cable.

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  • ferrite core around the coax inner only, with 50W into the load.

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  • ferrite rod.

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  • Most of the manganese in alloy steels dissolves in the alpha ferrite.

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  • intrinsic coercivity of ferrite decreases as the temperature falls.

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  • The powerful curved ceramic ferrite magnets contained in Aquamag produce a super field of high magnetic flux.

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  • The powerful curved ceramic ferrite magnets contained in Aquamag produce a super field of high magnetic flux.

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  • A range of iron and ferrite transformer kits is available as well as tapes and adhesives suitable for use on windings.

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  • It was, however, found that the behaviour of this alloy was in part due to a layer of pure iron (" ferrite ") averaging o 1 mm.

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  • Whites, ferrite; blacks, carbide.

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  • - (Stoughton.) Meshes of pearlite in a netv.-ork of ferrite, from hypo-eutectoid steel.

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  • These are cementite, a definite iron carbide, Fe 3 C, harder than glass and nearly as brittle, but probably very strong under gradually and axially applied stress; and ferrite, pure or nearly pure metallic a-iron, soft, weak, with high electric conductivity, and in general like copper except in colour.

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  • In view of the fact that the presence of 1% of carbon implies that 15% of the soft ductile ferrite is replaced by the glass-hard cementite, it is not surprising that even a little carbon influences the properties of the metal so profoundly.

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  • On cooling into region 6 or 8 austenite should normally split up into ferrite and cementite, after passing through the successive stages of martensite, troostite and sorbite, Fe 0 C= Fe 3 C +Fe(i 3).

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  • Pearli te T v 3 A here splits up '(and cementite 140 C C P Ferrite ?

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  • Beta (13) iron, an unmagnetic, intensely hard and brittle allotropic form of iron, though normal and stable only in the little triangle GHM, is yet a state through which the metal seems always to pass when the austenite of region 4 changes into the ferrite and cementite of regions 6 and 8.

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  • Again, (3-iron may be preserved incompletely as in the " hardening of steel," which consists in heating the steel into the austenite state of region 4, and then cooling it so rapidly, by quenching it in cold water, that, for lack of the time needed for the completion of the change from austenite into ferrite and cementite, much of the iron is caught in transit in the (3 state.

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  • Martensite, Troostite and Sorbite are the successive stages through which the metal passes in changing from austenite into ferrite and cementite.

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  • Troostite and Sorbite, indeed, seem to be chiefly very finely divided mixtures of ferrite and cementite, and it is probably because of this fineness that sorbitic steel has its remarkable combination of strength and elasticity with ductility which fits it for resisting severe vibratory and other dynamic stresses, such as those to which rails and shafting are exposed.

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  • Ferrite and cementite, already described in § 10, are the final products of the transformation of austenite in slow-cooling.

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  • Ferrite and cementite are thus the normal and usual constituents of slowly cooled steel, including all structural steels, rail steel, &c., and of white cast iron (see § 18).

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  • The ferrite and cementite present interstratify habitually as a " eutectoid " 1 called " pearlite " (see Alloys, Pl., fig.

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  • I 1), in the ratio of about 6 parts of ferrite to I of cementite, and hence containing about 0.90% of carbon.

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  • Steel containing less than this quantity of carbon consists typically of kernels of pearlite surrounded by envelopes of ferrite (see Alloys, Pl., fig.

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  • The percentage of pearlite and of free ferrite or cementite in these products is shown in fig.

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  • measures the percentage of the excess of ferrite or cementite for hypoand hyper-eutectic steel and white cast iron respectively.

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  • the Ratio of Ferrite to Cementite, of certain typical Steels.

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  • 3 shows how, as the carbon-content rises from O to 4.5%, the percentage of the glass-hard cementite, which is 15 times that of the carbon itself, rises, and that of the soft copperlike ferrite falls, with consequent continuous increase of hardness and loss of malleableness and ductility.

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  • The presence of a small quantity of the hard cementite ought naturally to strengthen the mass, by opposing the tendency of the soft ferrite to flow under any stress applied to it; but more cementite by its brittleness naturally weakens the mass, causing it to crack open under the distortion which stress inevitably causes.

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  • 13) should be much more effective in starting cracks under distortion than that of the far more minute particles of cementite which lie embedded, indeed drowned, in the sixfold greater mass of ferrite with which they are associated in the pearlite itself.

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  • The large massive plates of cementite which form the network or skeleton in hyper-eutectoid steels should, under distortion, naturally tend to cut, in the softer pearlite, chasms too serious to be healed by the inflowing of the plastic ferrite, though this ferrite flows around and Steel White Cast Iron 100 75 K 0 ?

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  • By " total ferrite " is meant both that which forms part of the pearlite and that which is in excess of the pearlite, taken jointly.

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  • of as nearly pure ferrite, as is practicable.

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  • Carbon-Content of Hardened Steels.-Turning from these cases in which the steel is used in the slowly cooled state, so that it is a mixture of pearlite with ferrite or cementite, i.e.

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  • As the temperature now falls past 690°, this hardenite mother-metal in turn splits up, after the fashion of eutectics, into alternate layers of ferrite and cementite grouped together as pearlite, so that the mass as a whole now becomes a mixture of pearlite with cementite.

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  • The iron thus liberated, as the ferrite of this pearlite, changes simultaneously to a-ferrite.

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  • This change from austenite to ferrite and cementite, from the y through the # to the a state, is of course accompanied by the loss of the " hardening power," i.e.

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  • At the second retardation, K" (Ar2, about 770°) this ferrite changes to the normal magnetic a-ferrite, so that the mass as a whole becomes magnetic. Moreover, the envelopes of ferrite which began forming at Ar 3 continue to broaden by the accession of more and more ferrite born from the austenite progressively as the temperature sinks, till, by the time when Ar t (about 690°) is reached, so much free ferrite has been formed that the remaining mother-metal has been enriched to the composition of hardenite, i.e.

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  • Again, as the temperature in turn falls past Ar l this hardenite mother-metal splits up into cementite and ferrite grouped together as pearlite, with the resulting recalescence, and the mass, as shown in Alloys, Pl., fig.

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  • 12, then consists of kernels of pearlite surrounded by envelopes of ferrite.

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  • In short, from Ar 3 to Ar t the excess substance ferrite or cementite, in hypoand hyper-eutectoid steels respectively, progressively crystallizes out as a network or skeleton within the austenite mothermetal, which thus progressively approaches the composition of hardenite, reaching it at Ar t, and there splitting up into ferrite and cementite interstratified as pearlite.

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  • Further, any ferrite liberated at Ar 3 changes there from -y to a, and any present at Ar 2 changes from (3 to a.

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  • i, and then quenching it, usually in cold water, so as to cool it very suddenly, and thus to deny the time which the complete transformation of the austenite into ferrite and cementite requires, and thereby to catch much of the iron in transit in the hard brittle state.

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  • that to which the hardened steel is thus reheated, the more is the molecular rigidity relaxed, the farther on does the transformation go, and the softer does the steel become; so that, if the reheating reaches a dullred heat, the transformation from austenite into ferrite and cementite completes itself slowly, and when now cooled the steel is as soft and ductile as if it had never been hardened.

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  • would have consisted chiefly of graphite with pearlite and ferrite (which are all relatively soft bodies), if thus chilled and annealed consists of cementite and pearlite.

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  • The molecular freedom which this high temperature gives enables the cementite to change gradually into a mixture of graphite and austenite with the result that, after the castings have been cooled and their austenite has in cooling past Aci changed into pearlite and ferrite, the mixture of cementite and pearlite of which they originally consisted has now given place to one of fine or " temper " graphite and ferrite, with more or less pearlite according to the completeness of the transfer of the carbon to the state of graphite.

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  • In the former case there is no later chance to remove sulphur, a minute quantity of which does great harm by leading to the formation of cementite instead of graphite and ferrite, and thus making the cast-iron castings too hard to be cut to exact shape with steel tools; in the latter case the converting or purifying processes, which are essentially oxidizing ones, though they remove the other impurities, carbon, silicon, phosphorus and manganese, are not well adapted to desulphurizing, which needs rather deoxidizing conditions, so as to cause the formation of calcium sulphide, than oxidizing ones.

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  • When the mass is cooled, the carbon changes over into the condition of cementite as usual, partly interstratified with ferrite in the form of pearlite, partly in the form of envelopes enclosing kernels of this pearlite (see Alloys, Pl.

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  • If this carbon is all present as graphite, so that in cooling the graphite-austenite diagram has been followed strictly (§ 26), the constitution is extremely simple; clearly the mass consists first of a metallic matrix, the carbonless iron itself with whatever silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur happen to be present, in short an impure ferrite, encased in which as a wholly distinct foreign body is the graphite.

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  • Now this matrix itself is equivalent to a very low-carbon steel, strictly speaking to a carbonless steel, because it consists of pure ferrite, which is just what such a steel consists of; and the cast iron as a whole is therefore equivalent to a matrix of very low-carbon content greater than r so%lest its 111E brittleness should be excessive, yet -(1 cast iron with be U H c ° ?

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  • Next let us imagine that, in a series of cast irons all containing 4% of carbon, the graphite of the initial skeleton changes gradually into cementite and thereby becomes part of the matrix, a change which of course has two aspects, first, a gradual thinning of the graphite skeleton and a decrease of its continuity, and second, a gradual introduction of cementite into the originally pure ferrite matrix.

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  • the iron of the original ferrite matrix, it will have changed this matrix from pure carbon (more accurately 0.40 X I oo --96 4 = 0.415%), a rail steel, because it is of just such a mixture of ferrite and cementite in the But this matrix is itself equivalent to a steel of about 0.40% of ratio of 90.4:6 or 94% and 6%, that such a rail steel consists.

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  • As, in succeeding members of this same series of cast irons, more of the graphite of the initial skeleton changes into cementite and thereby becomes part of the metallic matrix, so the graphite skeleton becomes progressively thinner and more discontinuous, and the matrix richer in cementite and hence in carbon and hence equivalent first to higher and higher carbon steel, such as tool steel of I carbon, file steel of 1.50%, wire-die steel of 2% carbon and then to white cast iron, which consists essentially of much cementite with little ferrite.

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  • Eventually, when the whole of the graphite of the skeleton has changed into cementite, the mass as a whole becomes typical or ultra white cast iron, consisting of nothing but ferrite and cementite, distributed as follows (see fig.

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  • 2) 100.0 The constitution and properties of such a series of cast irons, all containing 4% of carbon but with that carbon shifting pro o v,,3 950 R portion of ferrite and cementite respectively in the matrix, DEF, KS and TU reproduced from fig.

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  • First, the hardness (VU) should increase progressively as the soft ferrite and graphite are replaced by the glass-hard cementite.

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  • Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.

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  • BC and OH give the prothe cast iron the properties needed, is brought about chiefly by ferrite into a mixture of adjusting the silicon-content, because the presence of this element favours the formation of graphite.

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  • (Sectional Elevation.) heat for some hours in order to settle out 'the ferric oxide which it always contains, and which becomes insoluble (through the destruction of the sodium ferrite) only at high temperatures.

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  • Magnetite, Fe304, may be regarded as ferrous ferrite, FeO-Fe2O3.

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  • Calcium ferrite, magnesium ferrite and zinc ferrite, ROFe203(R=Ca, Mg, Zn), are obtained by intensely heating mixtures of the oxides; magnesium ferrite occurs in nature as the mineral magnoferrite, and zinc ferrite as franklinite, both forming black octahedra.

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  • When concentrated the solution is nearly black, and on heating it yields a yellow solution of potassium ferrite, oxygen being evolved.

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  • Steel differs in many ways from iron in respect of atmospheric corrosion; the heterogeneous nature of steel gives occasion to a selective rusting, ferrite is much more readily attacked than the cementite and pearlite; moreover, the introduction of other elements may retard rusting; this is particularly the case with the nickel-steels.

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  • Now this matrix itself is equivalent to a very low-carbon steel, strictly speaking to a carbonless steel, because it consists of pure ferrite, which is just what such a steel consists of; and the cast iron as a whole is therefore equivalent to a matrix of very low-carbon content greater than r so%lest its 111E brittleness should be excessive, yet -(1 cast iron with be U H c ° ?

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  • BC and OH give the prothe cast iron the properties needed, is brought about chiefly by ferrite into a mixture of adjusting the silicon-content, because the presence of this element favours the formation of graphite.

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