Ferric sentence example

ferric
  • In aqueous solution it gives a red colour with ferric chloride.
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  • To tin cast-iron articles they must be decarburetted superficially by ignition within a bath of ferric oxide (powdered haematite or similar material), then cleaned with acid, and tinned by immersion, as explained above.
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  • The word "flocculent" is used of many substances which have a fleecy or "flock"-like appearance, such as a precipitate of ferric hydrate.
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  • The aqueous solution is turned bluish black by ferrous sulphate containing a ferric salt.
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  • It is obtained by the oxidation of orthophenylene diamine with ferric chloride; when a mixture of para-aminodimethylaniline and meta-toluylenediamine is oxidized in the cold, toluylene blue, an indamine, being formed as an intermediate product and passing into the red when boiled; and also by the oxidation of dimethylparaphenylene diamine with metatoluylene diamine.
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  • PHARMACOSIDERITE, a mineral species consisting of hydrated basic ferric arsenate, 2FeAs04 Fe(OH)3.5H20.
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  • With ferric chloride it gives a violet coloration, and with bromine water a white precipitate of tribromphenol.
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  • Ferric thiocyanate has been suggested, and sulphur is said to have been detected in the mineral.
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  • It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.
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  • They form many double salts and give a dark violet coloration with ferric chloride solution, this colour, however, gradually disappearing on standing, sulphur being precipitated.
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  • Soc., 1902, 81, p. I) showed that this can be almost entirely avoided by replacing the manganese oxide by hydrated ferric oxide, the reaction proceeding according to the equation: 2Fe(OH) 3 3S0 2 = FeS 2 0 6 FeS0 3 3H 2 0.
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  • He points out that the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SO 2 + H 2 O ?-- O = H 2 SO 4 or as 2S0 2 -IH20 + 0 = H 2 S 2 0 6; and that in the case of ferric oxide 96% of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%.
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  • In the van Ruymbeke process the spent lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates.
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  • Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.
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  • For example, when a solution of a ferric salt is added to a solution of potassium thiocyanate, a deep red coloration is produced, owing to the formation of ferric thiocyanate.
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  • Theoretically the reaction takes place in the case of ferric nitrate in the manner represented by the equation Fe(NOs) 3 + 3KCNS = Fe(CNS) 3 + 3KNOs; Ferric nitrate.
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  • Ferric thiocyanate.
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  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
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  • If silica be present, it gives the iron bead when heated with a little ferric oxide; if tin is present there is no change.
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  • If phosphoric acid is absent, aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates are precipitated.
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  • If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates.
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  • In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.
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  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.
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  • The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides.
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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
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  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.
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  • Ferric chloride colours its aqueous solution violet.
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  • In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.
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  • They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
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  • It appears, therefore, that liquid oxygen is by far the most strongly paramagnetic liquid known, its susceptibility being more than four times greater than that of a saturated solution of ferric chloride.
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  • If W is the weight of iron present per c.c. at about io° C., then for ferric salts Io 6 K =266W-0'77 and for ferrous salts 10 6 K =206W - 077, the quantity - 0.77 arising from the diamagnetism of the water of solution.
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  • It is volatile (para-oxybenzaldehyde is not) and gives a violet coloration with ferric chloride.
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  • is the sign of an alkali metal (potassium, sodium, rubidium, caesium), silver or ammonium, and M 111 denotes one of the trivalent metals, aluminium, chromium or ferric iron.
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  • This solution is allowed to stand for some time (in order that any calcium sulphate and basic ferric sulphate may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulphate crystallizes on cooling; it is then drawn off and evaporated until it attains a specific gravity of 1.40.
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  • It is a colourless oily liquid which boils at 225°-227° C., is somewhat soluble in water, and does not give a coloration with ferric chloride.
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  • It is probably a hydroxy-compound, since it gives a red-brown colour with ferric chloride, reacts with phenyl isocyanate and with phosphorus pentachloride, and with benzoyl chloride yields dibenzhydroxamic acid, C 6 H 5 CO NH O.
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  • Berzelius about 1823 found that the yellow oxide, when treated with excess of sulphuric acid, gave a sulphate not unlike the ferric salt.
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  • Ferric oxide gives a yellow colour, but requires the presence of an oxidizing agent to prevent reduction to the ferrous state.
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  • By converting ferrous into ferric oxide the green tint is changed to yellow, which is less noticeable.
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  • In the case of iron, ferric sulphate, Fe2(S04) 3, is produced; tin yields a somewhat indefinite sulphate of its oxide Sn02.
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  • Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
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  • Both are easily removed by passing chlorine through the cold solution, to produce ferric and manganic salt, and then digesting the liquid with a washed precipitate of basic carbonate, produced from a small portion of the solution by means of sodium carbonate.
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  • It solidifies in a freezing mixture, on the addition of a crystal of phenol, and then melts at 3 0 -4° C. It boils at 202° 8 C. Its aqueous solution is coloured bluish-violet by ferric chloride.
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  • It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 36° C. and boil at 201 0.8 C. It is soluble in water, and the aqueous solution gives a blue coloration with ferric chloride.
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  • Titanic oxide separates out as a white hydrate, which, however, is generally contaminated with ferric hydrate and often with tin oxide.
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  • Potassium ferric oxalate, FeK3(C204)3, is used in the preparation of platinotypes, owing to the fact that its solution is rapidly decomposed by sunlight, 2FeK3(0204) 3 = 2FeK2(C204) 2+ K2C204+2C02.
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  • In solution minute quantities of gold may be detected by the formation of " purple of Cassius," a bluish-purple precipitate thrown down by a mixture of ferric and stannous chlorides.
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  • Oxidizing agents (ferric chloride, &c.) give a blue precipitate with solutions of its salts.
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  • Weith, Ber., 1880, 13, 1300); or in the form of its acetyl derivative by heating /3-naphthol with ammonium acetate to 270-280° C. It forms odourless, colourless plates which melt at 111-112° C. It gives no colour with ferric chloride.
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  • The blue colouring substance is ferrous sulphide, the upper reddish layer contains more ferric oxide, which the predominance of decomposing organic matter in the substance of the mud reduces to ferrous oxide and subsequently by further action to sulphide.
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  • Red mud may be classed as a variety of blue mud, from which it differs on account of the larger proportion of ochreous substance and the absence of sufficient organic matter to reduce the whole of the ferric oxide.
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  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.
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  • Quinhydrone, C 6 H40 2 -C 6 H 4 (OH) 2, is formed by the direct union of quinone and hydroquinone or by careful oxidation of hydroquinone with ferric chloride solution.
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  • Ferrous and ferric acetates are used as mordants; normal lead acetate is known in commerce as sugar of lead; basic copper acetates are known as verdigris.
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  • 9474 (1892)] passes the gas (after freeing it from ammonia) through a solution of potassium carbonate containing ferric oxide or ferrous carbonate (actually ferrous sulphate and potassium carbonate) in suspension; the sulphuretted hydrogen in the gas probably converts the iron salts into ferrous sulphide which then, in the presence of the hydrocyanic acid in the gas, and the alkaline carbonate, forms the ferrocyanide, thus: FeS+6HCN+ 2K 2 CO 3 = K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + H 2 S + 2CO 2 + 2H 2 0.
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  • A large quantity of the salt is now prepared from the "spent oxide" of the gas works, the cyanogen compounds formed in the manufacture of the gas combining with the ferric oxide in the purifiers to form insoluble iron ferrocyanides.
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  • The grey precipitate first formed is allowed to stand for some hours, well washed, and then oxidised by a warm solution of ferric chloride: 6K 2 Fe[Fe(NC) 6] + 30 = Fe7(NC)18 + 3K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + Fe203.
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  • Soluble Prussian blue, K2Fe2[Fe(NC)6]2, potassium ferric ferrocyanide, is formed when a solution of potassium ferrocyanide is added to an insufficiency of a solution of a ferric salt (t), or when potassium ferricyanide is added to a ferrous salt (2): (t) 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 2FeC1 3 = 6KC1 + K2Fe2[Fe(NC)6]2 (2) 2K 3 Fe(NC)s + 2FeC1 2 = 4KC1 -{- K2Fe2[Fe(NC)s]z.
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  • With a pure ferric salt it only gives a brown coloration.
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  • The metallic cyanides may be detected by adding ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, and hydrochloric acid to their solution, when a precipitate of Prussian blue is produced; if the original solution contains free acid it must be neutralized by caustic potash before the reagents are added.
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  • The excess of reagent is removed by evaporation and a small quantity of a ferric salt added, when a deep red colour is produced.
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  • It is basic in character, and gives a red coloration on the addition of ferric chloride.
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  • He mentioned as an important exception the case of ferric ferrocyanide, which, when dissolved in oxalic acid, transmits the rays in great abundance, though the same rays be absorbed both by ferrocyanides and by ferric salts.
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  • A good example is the too° equilibrium of ferric chloride arid water, studied by B.
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  • At A we 66 have the freezing point of pure water, which is lowered by the gradual addition of 46 ferric chloride in the manner shown by the curve AB.
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  • Let us now trace the behaviour of a solution of ferric chloride which is evaporated to dryness at a constant temperature of 31 °.
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  • LIMONITE, or Brown Iron Ore, a natural ferric hydrate named from the Gr.
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  • Limonite is a ferric hydrate, conforming typically with the formula Fe 4 0 3 (OH) 6, or 2Fe 2 O 3.3H 2 O.
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  • The ferric hydrate is also readily deposited from ferruginous waters, often by means of organic agencies.
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  • On the other hand there are certain forms of ferric hydrate containing less water than limonite and approaching to haematite in their red colour and streak: such is the mineral which was called hydrohaematite by A.
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  • After being dried at loo° C., Antrim bauxite contains from 33 to 60% of alumina, from 2 to 30% of ferric oxide, and from 7 to 24% of silica, the balance being titanic acid and water of combination.
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  • The American bauxites contain from 38 to 67% of alumina, from 1 to 23% of ferric oxide, and from 1 to 32% of silica.
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  • After two or three hours the liquid is diluted till its density falls to 1.23, when it is passed through filter-presses to remove the insoluble ferric oxide and silica.
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  • These exhibit, in certain cases, marked crystallographical and other analogies with the corresponding salts of chromium and ferric iron.
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  • On exposure to meteoric influences pyrites commonly becomes brown, by formation of ferric hydrate or limonite, whence the change is called "limonitization."
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  • Another kind of alteration which pyrites may suffer has been termed "vitriolization," since the products are ferrous sulphate, with free sulphuric acid and sometimes a basic ferric sulphate.
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  • At Rio Tinto the ore is divided into three classes: (I) The poorest, containing an average of about I i% of copper, which is treated locally by leaching with water and liquor containing ferric sulphate, whereby the copper is dissolved out and afterwards precipitated by pig-iron, whilst the residue is exported as ordinary iron-pyrites.
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  • Soc., 1886, 49, p. 322); by the action of anhydrous ferric chloride on acid chlorides (J.
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  • (-Naphthoquinone is formed by oxidizing 2amino-a-naphthol (from 0-naphthol-orange by reduction) with ferric chloride.
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  • With ferric chloride it gives a dark-blue precipitate of a-dinaphthol, HO C10H6 C10H6.
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  • With ferric chloride it gives a blue coloration.
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  • 0-Naphthol, C 1 oH 7 OH, prepared by fusing sodium 0-naphthalene sulphonate with caustic soda, crystallizes in plates which melt at 122° C. With ferric chloride it gives a green colouration, and after a time a white flocculent precipitate of a dinaphthol.
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  • Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.
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  • It is necessary that it should be as pure as possible since the commercial product usually contains traces of ferric, manganic and aluminium oxides, together with some silica.
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  • Soc., 1900, 77, p. 69), and sugars are readily oxidized in the presence of ferric chloride (0.
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  • It may be recognized by the violet coloration it gives when added to a very dilute solution of potassium bichromate in the presence of hydrochloric acid; by the orange-red colour it gives with a solution of titanium dioxide in concentrated sulphuric acid; and by the precipitate of Prussian blue formed when it is added to a solution containing ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide.
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  • The iron and aluminium precipitates are filtered off, and the filtrate boiled, when a basic beryllium hydroxide containing a little ferric oxide is precipitated.
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  • Primarily but a slight deposit is formed (none until the concentration arrives at specific gravity 1.0509), this deposit consisting for the most part of calcium carbonate and ferric oxide.
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  • Rock-salt when pure is colourless and transparent, but is usually red or brown by mechanical admixture with ferric oxide or hydroxide.
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  • Thus the silica may range from 19 to 27%, the alumina and ferric oxide jointly from 7 to 14%, the lime from 60 to 67%.
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  • The remaining silicates and aluminates present, and ferric oxide and magnesia, if existing in the moderate quantities which are usual in Portland cement of good quality, are of minor importance and may be regarded as little more than impurities.
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  • The function of the ferric oxide present in ordinary cement is little more than that of a flux to aid the union of silica, alumina and lime in the clinker; its role in the setting of the cement is altogether secondary.
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  • English hydraulic limes are of a different class; they contain a good deal of alumina and ferric oxide, and in composition resemble somewhat irregular Portland cement.
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  • They are readily decomposed by mineral acids with the production of benzoic acid, and on addition of ferric chloride to their neutral solutions give a reddish-brown precipitate of ferric benzoate.
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  • It is a thick oil which sets at - 20° C. to a mass of crystals of melting point o C, and boiling point 236-237°C. Oxidation with ferric chloride converts it into dicarvacrol, whilst phosphorus pentachloride transforms it into chlorcymol.
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  • The ferric and aluminium sulphates present are thus converted into insoluble basic salts, and the residue yields manganous sulphate when extracted with water.
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  • Here the free hydrochloric acid is converted into calcium chloride, and at the same time any ferric chloride present is converted into insoluble ferric hydroxide: 2FeC1 3 +3CaCO 3 +3H 2 0 = 2Fe(OH) 3 +3CaC1 2 -1-3CO 2.
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  • (Sectional Elevation.) heat for some hours in order to settle out 'the ferric oxide which it always contains, and which becomes insoluble (through the destruction of the sodium ferrite) only at high temperatures.
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  • With ferric chloride it forms a deep red colour.
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  • Chalcopyrite is decomposed by nitric acid with separation of sulphur and formation of a green solution; ammonia added in excess to this solution changes the green colour to deep blue and precipitates red ferric hydroxide.
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  • Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.
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  • The commercial acid is usually yellow in colour and contains many impurities, such as traces of arsenic, sulphuric acid, chlorine, ferric chloride and sulphurous acid; but these do not interfere with its application to the preparation of bleaching powder, in which it is chiefly consumed.
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  • Numerous salts of the acid are known, the basic ferric salt being occasionally used in quantitative analysis for the separation of iron from aluminium.
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  • It may be distinguished from the isomeric ethylene succinic acid by the fact that its sodium salt does not give a precipitate with ferric chloride.
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  • Verdet (1824-1860) made a study of the subject and discovered that a solution of ferric perchioride in methyl alcohol rotated the plane of polarization in an opposite direction to heavy glass (Ann.
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  • Ores in which the copper is present as oxide or carbonate are soluble in sulphuric or hydrochloric acids, ferrous chloride, ferric sulphate, ammoniacal compounds and sodium thiosulphate.
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  • When using iron as the precipitant, it is desirable that the solution should be as neutral as possible, and the quantity of ferric salts present should be reduced to a minimum; otherwise, a certain amount of iron would be used up by the free acid and in reducing the ferric salts.
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  • The conversion of copper sulphide into the chlorides may be accomplished by calcining with common salt, or by treating the ores with ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid or with ferric chloride.
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  • This consists in stacking the broken ore in heaps and adding a mixture of sodium sulphate and ferric chloride in the proportions necessary for the entire conversion of the iron into ferric sulphate.
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  • The heaps are moistened with ferric chloride solution, and the reaction is maintained by the liquid percolating through the heap. The liquid is run off at the base of the heaps into the precipitating tanks, where the copper is thrown down by means of metallic iron.
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  • The ferrous chloride formed at the same time is converted into ferric chloride which can be used to moisten the heaps.
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  • The tannin of oak, C/9H16010, which is found, mixed with gallic acid, ellagic acid and quercite, in oak bark, is a red powder; its aqueous solution is coloured dark blue by ferric chloride, and boiling with dilute sulphuric acid gives oak red or phlobaphene.
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  • In many of the lakes of Sweden there is still in progress the formation of an iron ore, called sjomalm, ferric hydroxide, deposited in forms resembling peas, coins, &c., and used for the manufacture of iron.
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  • Chalybeate waters, pools in marshes near irons one, &c., abound in bacteria,, some of which belong to the remarkable genera Crenothrix, Cladothrix and Leptothrix, and contain ferric oxide, i.e.
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  • This iron deposit is not merely mechanical but is due to the physiological activity of the organism which, according to Winogradsky, liberates energy by oxidizing ferrous and ferric oxide in its protoplasm - a view not accepted by H.
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  • The ferric hydroxide accumulates in the sheath, and gradually passes into the more insoluble ferric oxide.
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  • Ferric chloride colours its aqueous solution a dark violet, and bromine water precipitates tribromresorcin.
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  • The methods used in the assay for iron are volumetric, and are all based on the property possessed by certain reagents of oxidizing iron from the ferrous to the ferric state.
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  • It is necessary in the first place, after the ore is in solution, to reduce all the iron to the ferrous condition; then the carefully standardized solution of the oxidizing reagent is added until all the iron is in the ferric state, the volume of the standard solution used being the measure of the iron contained in the ore.
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  • This solution, which should not exceed 50 cc. or 75 cc. in volume, contains the iron in the ferric state and is ready for reduction.
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  • Pure Oxalic Acid May Also Be Used, Which, In The Presence Of Sulphuric Acid, Is Oxidized By The Standard Solution According To The Reaction: 5(H2C2042H20) 3H 2 So 4 2Kmn04 =10002 2Mns04 K2S04 18H20 The Reaction In Case Of Ferrous Sulphate Is: 10Fes04 2Kmn04 8H2S04 = 5Fe2(S04)3 K2S04 2Mns04 8H20; That Is, The Same Amount Of Potassium Permanganate Is Required To Oxidize 5 Molecules Of Oxalic Acid That Is Necessary To Oxidize I O Molecules Of Iron In The Form Of Ferrous Sulphate To Ferric Sulphate, Or 63 Parts By Weight Of Oxalic Acid Equal 56 Parts By Weight Of Metallic Iron.
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  • HAEMATITE, or Hematite, a mineral consisting of ferric oxide (Fe203), named from the Greek word -aiµa, "blood," in allusion to its typical colour, whence it is called also red iron ore.
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  • It seems to be a sublimation-product formed in volcanoes by the interaction of the vapour of ferric chloride and steam.
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  • Ferric chloride gives a green coloration with the aqueous solution, whilst the alkaline solution rapidly changes to a green and finally to a black colour on exposure to the air.
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  • The action of bromine is sometimes accelerated by the use of compounds which behave catalytically, the more important of these substances being iodine, iron, ferric chloride, ferric bromide, aluminium bromide and phosphorus.
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  • With ferric salts its solution gives a deep blue colour, and with ferrous salts, after exposure to the air, an insoluble, blue-black, ferroso-ferric gallate.
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  • Flue-dust contains principally ferric oxide, zinc oxide, arsenious and sulphuric acids, and small quantities of the various metals occurring in the raw ore.
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  • Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.
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  • some of which ferric oxide is employed as contact substance, but we must refrain from describing these in detail.
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  • It crystallizes in prisms, which melt at 218° C. With ferric chloride it gives a dark violet coloration.
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  • It crystallizes in needles or prisms, and dissolves in alcohol to form a bright blue fluorescent liquid, which on the addition of ferric chloride becomes and A4 Tetraiiydro< cherry red.
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  • 4.1 Chemical Reactivity 4.2 Solubility 4.3 Compounds 4.4 Ferrous Oxide 4.5 Magnetite 4.6 Ferric Acid 4.7 Halogen Compounds 4.8 Ferric Chloride 4.9 Ferrous Bromide 4.10 Sulfur(Sulphur)Compounds 4.11 Nitrides and Nitrates 4.12 Phosphides, Phosphates 4.13 Arsenides and Arsenites 4.14 Carbides, Carbonates 4.15 Medical Uses
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  • It dissolves in dilute cold nitric acid with the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates, no gases being liberated; when heated or with stronger acid ferric nitrate is formed with evolution of nitrogen oxides.
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  • Oxides and Hydroxides.-Iron forms three oxides: ferrous oxide, FeO, ferric oxide, Fe2O3, and ferroso-ferric oxide, Fe304.
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  • The first two give origin to well-defined series of salts, the ferrous salts, wherein the metal is divalent, and the ferric salts, wherein the metal is trivalent; the former readily pass into the latter on oxidation, and the latter into the former on reduction.
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  • Ferrous oxide is obtained when ferric oxide is reduced in hydrogen at 300 as a black pyrophoric powder.
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  • Ferric oxide or iron sesquioxide, Fe203, constitutes the valuable ores red haematite and specular iron; the minerals brown haematite or limonite, and gothite and also iron rust are hydrated forms. It is obtained as a steel-grey crystalline powder by igniting the oxide or any ferric salt containing a volatile acid.
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  • Small crystals are formed by passing ferric chloride vapour over heated lime.
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  • Ferric oxide is employed as a pigment, as jeweller's rouge, and for polishing metals.
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  • Two series of synthetic hydrates were recognized by Muck and Tommasi: the " red " hydrates, obtained by precipitating ferric salts with alkalis, and the " yellow " hydrates, obtained by oxidizing moist ferrous hydroxide or carbonates.
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  • By heating freshly prepared red ferric hydrate with water under 5000 atmospheres pressure Ruff (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 34 1 7) obtained definite hydrates corresponding to the minerals limonite (30°-42, 5°), gothite (4 2.5°-62, 5°), and hydrohaematite (above 62.5°).
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  • Thomas Graham obtained a soluble hydrate by dissolving the freshly prepared hydrate in ferric chloride and dialysing the solution, the soluble hydrate being left in the dialyser.
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  • Black scales, which dissolve in water to form a red solution, are obtained by adding a trace of hydrochloric acid to a solution of basic ferric nitrate which has been heated to 100° for three days.
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  • A similar compound, which, however, dissolves in water to form an orange solution, results by adding salt to a heated solution of ferric chloride.
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  • Red ferric hydroxide dissolves in acids to form a well-defined series of salts, the ferric salts, also obtained by oxidizing ferrous salts; they are usually colourless when anhydrous, but yellow or brown when hydrated.
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  • It dissolves in acids to form a mixture of a ferrous and ferric salt,' and if an alkali is added to the solution a black precipitate is obtained which dries to a dark brown mass of the composition Fe(OH)2Fe203; this substance is attracted by a magnet, and thus may be separated from the admixed ferric oxide.
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  • Ferric acid, H2FeO4.
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  • Fremy investigated this discovery, made by Stahl in 1702, and showed that the same solution resulted when chlorine is passed into strong potash solution containing ferric hydrate in suspension.
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  • It dissolves in acetic acid to form a red solution, is not decomposed by cold sulphuric acid, but with hydrochloric or nitric acid it yields barium and ferric salts, with evolution of chlorine or oxygen (Baschieri, Gazetta, 1906, 36, ii.
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  • Ferrous fluoride, FeF21 is obtained as colourless prisms (with 8H2O) by dissolving iron in hydrofluoric acid, or as anhydrous colourless rhombic prisms by heating iron or ferric chloride in dry hydrofluoric acid gas.
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  • Ferric fluoride, FeF 31 is obtained as colourless crystals (with 42H2O) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in hydrofluoric acid.
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  • When heated in air it yields ferric oxide.
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  • Ferrous chloride, FeC1 21 is obtained as shining scales by passing chlorine, or, better, hydrochloric acid gas, over red-hot iron, or by reducing ferric chloride in a current of hydrogen.
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  • Heated in air it yields a mixture of ferric oxide and chloride, and in steam magnetic oxide, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen.
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  • Ferric chloride, FeCl31 known in its aqueous solution to Glauber as oleum martis, may be obtained anhydrous by the action of dry chlorine on the metal at a moderate red-heat, or by passing hydrochloric acid gas over heated ferric oxide.
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  • Many oxychlorides are known; soluble forms are obtained by dissolving precipitated ferric hydrate in ferric chloride, whilst insoluble compounds result when ferrous chloride is oxidized in air, or by boiling for some time aqueous solutions of ferric chloride.
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  • Ferric bromide, FeBr31 is obtained as dark red crystals by heating iron in an excess of bromine vapour.
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  • It closely resembles the chloride in being deliquescent, dissolving ferric hydrate, and in yielding basic salts.
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  • Ferric iodide does not appear to exist.
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  • Heated in air it at first partially oxidizes to ferrous sulphate, and at higher temperatures it yields sulphur dioxide and ferric oxide.
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  • Ferric sulphide, Fe2S31 is obtained by gently heating a mixture of its constituent elements, or by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on ferric oxide at temperatures below 100°.
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  • It is also prepared by precipitating a ferric salt with ammonium sulphide; unless the alkali be in excess a mixture of ferrous sulphide and sulphur is obtained.
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  • Potassium ferric sulphide, K2Fe2S4, obtained by heating a mixture of iron filings, sulphur and potassium carbonate, forms purple glistening crystals, which burn when heated in air.
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  • Pyrite may be prepared artificially by gently heating ferrous sulphide with sulphur, or as brassy octahedra and cubes by slowly heating an intimate mixture of ferric oxide, sulphur and salammoniac. It is insoluble in dilute acids, but dissolves in nitric acid with separation of sulphur.
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  • The chief impurities are copper and ferric sulphates; the former may be removed by adding scrap iron, which precipitates the copper; the latter is eliminated by recrystallization.
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  • Ferric sulphate, Fe2(S04)3, is obtained by adding nitric acid to a hot solution of ferrous sulphate containing sulphuric acid, colourless crystals being deposited on evaporating the solution.
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  • It is sparingly soluble in water, and on heating it yields ferric oxide and sulphur dioxide.
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  • Many basic ferric sulphates are known, some of which occur as minerals; carphosiderite is Fe(Fe0) 5(S04)4.10H20; amarantiteisFe(FeO) (S04)2.7H20; utahite is 3(FeO)2SO4.4H20; copiapite is Fe3 (FeO)S04)5.18H20; castanite is Fe(FeO) (S04)2.8H20; romerite is FeSO 4Fe2(SO4)3.12H20.
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  • The iron alums are obtained by crystallizing solutions of equivalent quantities of ferric and an alkaline sulphate.
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  • Ferric potassium sulphate, the common iron alum, K2SO4Fe2(SO 4)3.24H2O, forms bright violet octahedra.
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  • rend., 1902, 1 35, P. 73 8) obtained ferrous nitride, Fe3N2, and ferric nitride, FeN, as black powders by heating lithium nitride with ferrous potassium chloride and ferric potassium chloride respectively.
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  • Ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3) 3, is obtained by dissolving iron in nitric acid (the cold dilute acid leads to the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates) and crystallizing, when cubes of Fe(NO3)3.6H20 or monoclinic crystals of Fe(N03)3.9H20 are obtained.
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  • Ferric chloride also absorbs the gas.
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  • Reddish brown amorphous powders of the formulae 2FeC1 3NO and 4FeC13NO are obtained by passing the gas over anhydrous ferric chloride.
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  • The heptanitroso acid is precipitated as a brown amorphous mass by dilute sulphuric acid, but if the salt be heated with strong acid it yields nitrogen, nitric oxide, sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen, and ferric, ammonium and potassium sulphates.
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  • Normal ferric phosphate, FePO4.2H2O, occurs as the mineral strengite, and is obtained as a yellowish-white precipitate by mixing solutions of ferric chloride and sodium phosphate.
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  • Arsenides, Arsenites, &c. - Several iron arsenides occur as minerals; lolingite, FeAs 2, forms silvery rhombic prisms; mispickel or arsenical pyrites, Fe2AsS2, is an important commercial source of arsenic. A basic ferric arsenite, 4Fe2O3 As2O3.5H 2 O, is obtained as a flocculent brown precipitate by adding an arsenite to ferric acetate, or by shaking freshly prepared ferric hydrate with a solution of arsenious oxide.
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  • The last reaction is the basis of the application of ferric hydrate as an antidote in arsenical poisoning.
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  • Normal ferric arsenate, FeAs0 4.2H2O, constitutes the mineral scorodite; pharmacosiderite is the basic arsenate 2FeAsO4Fe(OK)3.5H2O.
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  • An acid arsenate, 2Fe2(HAsO4)3.9H20, is obtained as a white precipitate by mixing solutions of ferric chloride and ordinary sodium phosphate.
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  • A soluble carbonate and a ferric salt give a precipitate which loses carbon dioxide on drying.
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  • The halogens give ferrous and ferric haloids and carbon monoxide; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids have no action, but hydriodic decomposes it.
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  • Ferrous salts give a greenish precipitate with an alkali, whilst ferric give a characteristic red one.
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  • Ferrous salts also give a bluish white precipitate with ferrocyanide, which on exposure turns to a dark blue; ferric salts are characterized by the intense purple coloration with a thiocyanate.
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  • Ferri arsenas, iron arsenate, ferrous and ferric arsenates with some iron oxides, a greenish powder.
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  • Ferri phosphas, a slate-blue powder of ferrous and ferric phosphates with some oxide.
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  • Liquor ferri perchloridi fortis, strong solution of ferric chloride (strength, 22.5% of iron); its preparations only are prescribed, viz.
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  • Liquor ferri persulphatis, solution of ferric sulphate.
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  • Liquor ferri pernitratus, solution of ferric nitrate (strength, 3.3% of iron).
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  • Liquor ferri acetatis, solution of ferric acetate.
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  • The scale preparations of iron, so called because they are dried to form scales, are three in number, the base of all being ferric hydrate: (a) Ferrum tartaratum, dark red scales, soluble in water.
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  • Substances containing tannic or gallic acid turn black when compounded with a ferric salt, so it cannot be used in combination with vegetable astringents except with the infusion of quassia or calumba.
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  • Alkalis and their carbonates, lime water, carbonate of calcium, magnesia and its carbonate give green precipitates with ferrous and brown with ferric salts.
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  • Ferri hydroxidum (U.S.P.), the hydrated oxide of iron, made by precipitating ferric sulphate with ammonia, is used solely as an antidote in arsenical poisoning.
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  • Ferratogen is prepared from ferric nuclein.
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  • Externally, it is not absorbed by the unbroken skin, but when applied to the broken skin, sores, ulcers and mucous surfaces, the ferric salts are powerful astringents, because they coagulate the albuminous fluids in the tissues themselves.
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  • In the stomach all salts of iron, whatever their nature, are converted into ferric chloride.
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  • In the intestine the ferric chloride becomes changed into an oxide of iron; the sub-chloride is converted into a ferrous carbonate, which is soluble.
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  • It precipitates platinum, gold and silver from solutions of their salts, and also reduces mercuric, cupric and ferric salts.
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  • in a pill), a mixture of ferrous and ferric arsenates with some iron oxide, is of great use in certain cases.
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  • Then, if available, freshly precipitated ferric hydrate must be given, which can be prepared by adding a solution of ammonia to one of iron perchloride.
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  • Ferric chloride gives a bluishviolet coloration with the aqueous solution.
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  • Although aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and ferric salts, and on warming expels ammonia from its salts.
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  • It also appears that rust changes in composition on exposure to the atmosphere, both the ferrous oxide and carbonate being in part oxidized to ferric oxide.
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  • The chemical bodies which have played the most important part as agents of petrifaction are silicic acid and calcium carbonate, though other substances, such as magnesium carbonate, calcium sulphate and ferric oxide have also been concerned, either as the chief constituents of petrifac tions, or mixed with other bodies.
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  • Gault); (5) oxides of iron (staining the clay bright red when ferric oxide, red ochre; yellow when hydrous, e.g.
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  • Gum arabic is not precipitated from solution by alum, stannous chloride, sulphate or nitrate of copper, or neutral lead acetate; with basic lead acetate it forms a white jelly, with ferric chloride it yields a stiff clear gelatinoid mass, and its solutions are also precipitated by borax.
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  • Among such substances are fireclay and firebricks, certain sandstones, silica in the form of ganister, and Dinas stone and bricks, ferric oxide and alumina, carbon (as coke and graphite), magnesia, lime and chromium oxide - their relative importance being indicated by their order, the last two or three indeed being only of limited use.
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  • Ferric oxide, though not strictly infusible, is largely used as a protecting lining for furnaces in which malleable iron is made, a portion of the ore being reduced and recovered in the process.
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  • In an oxidizing atmosphere it is indifferent to silica, and therefore siliceous bricks containing a considerable proportion of ferric oxide, when used in flues of boilers, brewers' coppers, &c. and similar situations, are perfectly fire-resisting so long as the heated gas contains a large proportion of unconsumed air.
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  • Return to DIAGRAM Disposal of iron residues The waste product from the ion exchange was ferric chloride.
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  • Citrate - ferric ammonium citrate - ferric ammonium citrate - iron deficiency Nux vomica - stimulant of gastrointestinal tract, increase appetite.
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  • Ferrous iron (e.g. ferrous sulfate) is much better absorbed than ferric iron (e.g. ferric citrate ).
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  • Effects of pH and ferric ions on the antioxidant activity of olive polyphenols in oil-in-water emulsions.
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  • ferric oxide causes yellow colouration, titanium oxide produces vivid red.
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  • ferric chloride.
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  • ferric sulfate, which at pH values above 3.0 may become hydrolised and form iron hydroxide.
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  • ferric iron dissolved in seawater.
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  • ferric chloride solution as sold for etching circuit boards.
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  • citrate - ferric ammonium citrate - iron deficiency Nux vomica - stimulant of gastrointestinal tract, increase appetite.
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  • As it exists today, the third era was enriched with minerals dominated by ferric oxides.
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  • Normal (or ferric) tapes should be chosen from reputable manufacturers such as BASF, TDK, Maxell or Agfa.
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  • Ferric ammonium sulfate I like each of the three images of Potassium phosphate for quite different reasons.
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  • When unaltered and containing no ferric oxide, the mineral is colourless, but on exposure to the light it very soon becomes of a characteristic indigo-blue colour.
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  • For example, at first he represented ferrous and ferric oxides by the formulae Fe02, Fe03, and by the analogy of zinc and other basic oxides he regarded these substances as constituted similarly to Fe02, and the acidic oxides alumina and chromium oxide as similar to FeO 3.
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  • He inferred that chromic acid must contain only three atoms of oxygen, as did sulphuric acid SO 3; consequently chromic oxide, which contains half the amount of oxygen, must be Cr 2 O 3, and hence ferric oxide must be Fe203.
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  • but it is found that even when more than sixty times the amount of potassium thiocyanate required by this equation is added, a portion of the ferric nitrate still remains unconverted, doubtless owing to the occurrence of the reverse change Fe (CNS) 3 +3KNOs =Fe(N03) 3+3KCNS.
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  • The same decomposition may be effected by igniting with iron, ferric oxide and sodium carbonate (E.
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  • If W is the weight of iron present per c.c. at about io° C., then for ferric salts Io 6 K =266W-0'77 and for ferrous salts 10 6 K =206W - 077, the quantity - 0.77 arising from the diamagnetism of the water of solution.
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  • It is a colourless oily liquid which boils at 225°-227° C., is somewhat soluble in water, and does not give a coloration with ferric chloride.
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  • The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.
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  • The ore was crushed roasted, and leached with sulphuric acid (with or without ferric sulphate); the solution was purified and then electrolysed for zinc with lead anodes and with a currentdensity of 5 amperes per sq.
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  • It solidifies in a freezing mixture, on the addition of a crystal of phenol, and then melts at 3 0 -4° C. It boils at 202° 8 C. Its aqueous solution is coloured bluish-violet by ferric chloride.
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  • It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 36° C. and boil at 201 0.8 C. It is soluble in water, and the aqueous solution gives a blue coloration with ferric chloride.
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  • Weith, Ber., 1880, 13, 1300); or in the form of its acetyl derivative by heating /3-naphthol with ammonium acetate to 270-280° C. It forms odourless, colourless plates which melt at 111-112° C. It gives no colour with ferric chloride.
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  • Prussian blue, Fe 7 (NC) 18 or Fe4[Fe(NC)6]3, ferric ferrocyanide, was discovered in 1710 by a German manufacturer named Diesbach, who obtained it by the action of fused alkali and iron salts on nitrogenous organic matter (e.g.
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  • A good example is the too° equilibrium of ferric chloride arid water, studied by B.
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  • Let us now trace the behaviour of a solution of ferric chloride which is evaporated to dryness at a constant temperature of 31 °.
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  • After being dried at loo° C., Antrim bauxite contains from 33 to 60% of alumina, from 2 to 30% of ferric oxide, and from 7 to 24% of silica, the balance being titanic acid and water of combination.
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  • 0-Naphthol, C 1 oH 7 OH, prepared by fusing sodium 0-naphthalene sulphonate with caustic soda, crystallizes in plates which melt at 122° C. With ferric chloride it gives a green colouration, and after a time a white flocculent precipitate of a dinaphthol.
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  • It is a thick oil which sets at - 20° C. to a mass of crystals of melting point o C, and boiling point 236-237°C. Oxidation with ferric chloride converts it into dicarvacrol, whilst phosphorus pentachloride transforms it into chlorcymol.
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  • The conversion into sulphate is generally effected by the oxidizing processes of weathering, calcination, heating with iron nitrate or ferric sulphate.
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  • Ferric sulphate is only used as an auxiliary to the weathering process and in an electrolytic process.
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  • It crystallizes in prisms, which melt at 218° C. With ferric chloride it gives a dark violet coloration.
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  • By heating freshly prepared red ferric hydrate with water under 5000 atmospheres pressure Ruff (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 34 1 7) obtained definite hydrates corresponding to the minerals limonite (30°-42, 5°), gothite (4 2.5°-62, 5°), and hydrohaematite (above 62.5°).
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  • Black scales, which dissolve in water to form a red solution, are obtained by adding a trace of hydrochloric acid to a solution of basic ferric nitrate which has been heated to 100° for three days.
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  • By fusing iron with saltpetre and extracting the melt with water, or by adding a solution of ferric nitrate in nitric acid to strong potash, an amethyst or purple-red solution is obtained which contains potassium ferrate.
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  • Ferric sulphide, Fe2S31 is obtained by gently heating a mixture of its constituent elements, or by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on ferric oxide at temperatures below 100°.
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  • Crace-Calvert in 1871 showed that the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere was a factor; and in 1888 Crum Brown published the theory - termed the "carbonic acid theory" - that water and carbon dioxide react with iron to form ferrous carbonate and hydrogen, the ferrous carbonate being subsequently oxidized by moist oxygen to ferric hydrate and regenerating carbon dioxide, which again reacts with more iron.
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