Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.
There are two distinct types of fermentation: (1) those brought about by living organisms (organized ferments), and (2) those brought about by non-living or unorganized ferments (enzymes).
The value of oak bark depends upon the amount of tannin contained in it, which varies much, depending not only on the growth of the tree but on the care bestowed on the preparation of the bark itself, as it soon ferments and spoils by exposure to wet, while too much sun-heat is injurious.
by Ewart; Reynolds Green, Introduction to Vegetable Physiology; The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation; Detmer, Practical Plant Physiology, trans.
Enzvmes.Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (1899).
Reference must also be made here to the enzymes or unorganized ferments which occur so largely in the cytoplasm.
Green, The Soluble Ferments).
For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.
It is made on a large scale from lime or lemon juice, and also by the fermentation of glucose under the influence of Citromycetes pfefferianus, C. glaber and other ferments.
It is much more powerful than carbolic acid in its inhibitory action upon unorganized ferments such as pepsin or ptyalin.
Chemically they resemble the albumins, being split up by acids or ferments into albumoses, peptones and amino-acids, forming salts, and giving N =C6 1 The pyrimidin ring is numbered 2C "C5.
It is believed also that they secrete bactericidal substances and ferments which bring about the liquefaction of the fibrin and the damaged tissues - histolysis - and thus assist the process of absorption.
Autolysis is a disintegration of dead tissues brought about by the action of their own ferments, while degeneration takes place in the still living cell.
There it is acted on by ferments (lipases) and converted into neutral fat, which may remain in the cell as such.
By the reverse action on the part of the same ferments in the cell, these neutral fats may be redissolved and pass into the.lacteals.
This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.
These represent the albuminoid series, and are probably elaborated by the cells from albuminous substances through the influence of specific ferments.
Maltose, malt-sugar, maltobiose, C12H22011, is formed, together with dextrine, by the action of malt diastase on starch, and as an intermediate product in the decomposition of starch by sulphuric acid, and of glycogen by ferments.
p. 865), the agents of the transformation of cellulose into peaty substances are saprophytic fungi and bacterial ferments.
Pasteur showed that the origin of the disease proceeded from microscopic organisms called ferments and vitrios.
The definite course is not occasioned so much from the ferments which exist in the leaves themselves, but from an arrest of the digestive process which allows the rapid multiplication of the former in the intestines.
Cuenot, in order to explain certain features in the hereditary transmission of coat colour in mice, postulated the hypothesis that the grey colour of the wild mouse (which is known to be a compound of black, chocolate and yellow pigments) may be due either to the interaction of a single ferment and three chromogens, or vice versa, to one chromogenic substance and three ferments.
17 (1901); Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (Cambridge, 1899).
This glucoside is readily hydrolysed by acids or ferments,breaking up into alizarin and glucose: 214 O Ruberythric acid = Glucose+Alizarin.
as a free alkaloid) in the plant, but that it exists in the form of a glucoside, and that by the process of chewing this glucoside is split up by one of the ferments in the saliva into the free alkaloid and sugar.
One of the great difficulties in the way of applying this treatment is that in all probability many of the ferments or enzymes are altered during the process of absorption in the same way as the normal ferments of digestion, and unless the tissue enzymes can be isolated and injected subcutaneously the desired results will not be obtained.
Bacillus chauvaei ferments cane-sugar solutions in such a way that normal butyric acid, inactive lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and FIG.
W.) hydrogen result; Micrococcus acidi-paralactici, on the other hand, ferments such solutions to optically active paralactic acid.
Oxydases and Enzymes: Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (Cambridge, 1899).
Here, just as in the general subject of fermentation, we must inquire whether the bacteria form the substances in question directly or by means of non-living ferments or enzymes.
Recent researches go to show that enzymes play a greater part in fermentation by living ferments than was formerly supposed, and by analogy it is likely that they are also concerned in the processes of disease.
The development of anti-substances is, however, not peculiar to bacteria, but occurs also when alien cells of various kinds, proteins, ferments, &c., are injected.
Duclaux, for this reason, considers that agglutinins are coagulative ferments.
He has been one of the great ferments in modern Protestant doctrine both of the Right and of the Left.
Substances obtained from animals include gland secretions, pepsin and other ferments, musk, cod-liver oil, &c., and to these may be added various antitoxins.
These include such bodies as pepsin, diastase, the pancreatic ferments, papain, the pine-apple ferment, taka-diastase and others, and serve to convert starch into saccharine substances, or albumen into peptone and albumoses.
apiculatus (a common wine yeast) contains neither of these enzymes, and only ferments solutions of glucose or laevulose.
At the same time large numbers of these cells perish in the struggle, but even the death of these cells is of value to the body, as in the process of breaking down there are set free ferments which not only act detrimentally to the bacteria, but also may stimulate the bringing forward of another form of cell defenders - the mononuclear leucocyte.
Aspergillus Oryzae plays an important part in saccharifying the starch of rice, maize, &c., by means of the abundant diastase it secretes, and, in symbiosis with a yeast which ferments the sugar formed, has long been used by the Japanese for the preparation of the alcoholic liquor sake.
Then, the alcohol ferments and becomes vinegar.
Brewer's Yeast: Brewer's yeast is a byproduct of the brewing industry, and it takes on the bitter flavor of the hops plant, which ferments to create beer.
After the tea ferments, the sac that forms on the top looks like a mushroom cap.
The longer the skin ferments, the more color and intense flavors it will infuse, resulting in a drier and less sweet wine.
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