Are these invisible germs which cause fermentation always present in the atmosphere?
Are these invisible germs which cause fermentation always present in the atmosphere?
The phenomenon is, in fact, very like that of the fermentation of palm wine and pulque, where the juices are obtained from artificial cuts.
Lavoisier was the first investigator to study fermentation from a quantitative standpoint.
by Ewart; Reynolds Green, Introduction to Vegetable Physiology; The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation; Detmer, Practical Plant Physiology, trans.
It also yields, by the so-called mucous fermentation, a mucous, gummy mass, mixed with mannitol and lactic acid.
In other words "fermentation is life without air, or life without oxygen."
"The chemical act of fermentation," writes Pasteur, "is essentially a correlative phenomenon of a vital act beginning and ending with it."
This theory of fermentation was materially modified in 1892 and 1894 by A.
Enzvmes.Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (1899).
Besides orthodox Moslems there are also Shi`ite sects, as well as a number of religious communities whose doctrine is the outcome of the process of fermentation that characterized the first centuries of Islam.
Up to this time the phenomenon of fermentation was considered strange and obscure.
Fermentation of Glucose.
The process of fermentation in the preparation of wine, vinegar, beer and bread was known and practised in prehistoric times.
There are two distinct types of fermentation: (1) those brought about by living organisms (organized ferments), and (2) those brought about by non-living or unorganized ferments (enzymes).
Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.
Calcium citrate must be manufactured with care to avoid an excess of chalk or lime, which would precipitate constituents of the juice that cause the fermentation of the citrate and the production of calcium acetate and butyrate.
This liquid is concentrated in vacuum pans to a specific gravity of 40° to 44° B., a small quantity of sodium bisulphite solution being added to bleach it, to prevent fermentation, and to inhibit browning.
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
the damping off of seedlingsand in saturated soils not only are the roots and root-hairs killed by asphyxiation, but the whole course of soil fermentation is altered, and it takes time to sweeten such by draining, because not only must the noxious bodies be gradually washed out and the lost salts restored, but the balance of suitable bacterial and fungal life must be restored.
It is made on a large scale from lime or lemon juice, and also by the fermentation of glucose under the influence of Citromycetes pfefferianus, C. glaber and other ferments.
He determined the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the sugar and in the products of fermentation, and concluded that sugar in fermenting breaks up into alcohol, carbonic acid and acetic acid.
Isobutyl alcohol, (CH 3) 2 CH CH 2 OH, the butyl alcohol of fermentation, is a primary alcohol derived from isobutane.
I think that there is never any alcoholic fermentation without there being at the same time organization, development and multiplication of globules, or the continued consecutive life of globules already formed."
Normal butyl alcohol, CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CH 2 OH, is a colourless liquid, boiling at 116.8°, and formed by reducing normal butyl aldehyde with sodium, or by a peculiar fermentation of glycerin, brought about by a schizomycete.
To begin with a comparatively small, though not unimportant, matter, Pasteur's discoveries on fermentation inaugurated a new era in the brewing and wine-making industries.
This character is the base of the plan of adding glucose to wine and beer wort before fermenting, the alcohol content of the liquid after fermentation being increased.
In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.
Traube (1858), the active cause of fermentation is due to the action of different enzymes contained in yeast and not to the yeast cell itself.
It is only necessary to bear in mind the great part played by sterilization in the laboratory, and pasteurization on the fermentation industries and in the preservation of food materials.
But in the course of time, notwithstanding many criticisms and objections, the reform spread from bottom fermentation to top fermentation breweries on the continent and in America.
Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.
In a top fermentation - typical of English breweries - the yeast rises, in a bottom fermentation, as the phrase implies, it settles in the vessel.
It should then be thrown together in ridges and frequently turned, so as to be kept in an incipient state of fermentation, a little dryish friable loam being mixed with it to retain the ammonia given off by the dung.
The decomposition of the complex molecule of the sugar liberates a certain amount of energy, as can be seen from the study of the fermentation set tig by yeast, which is a process of this kind, in that it is intensified by the absence of oxygen.
Glycerin is also a product of certain kinds of fermentation, especially of the alcoholic fermentation of sugar; consequently it is a constituent of many wines and other fermented liquors.
For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.
Glucose also undergoes fermentation into lactic acid in the presence of the lactic acid bacillus, and into butyric acid if the action of the preceding ferment be continued, or by other bacilli.
According to Louis Pasteur, about oth of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol and other products becomes converted into glycerin.
Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.
Pythium, Peronospore, Completoria, Vol utelta, Botrytis, &c. That such overturgescence should lead to the bursting of fleshy fruits, such as gooseberries, tomatoes and grapes, is not surprising, nor can we wonder that fermentation and mould Fungi rapidly spread in such fruits; and the same is true for bulbs and herbaceous organs generally.
He emphasized the opinion that yeast derived from one cell was of no good for top fermentation, and advocated Pasteur's method of purification.
Pasteur's important researches mark an epoch in the technical aspect of fermentation.
The higher alcohols such as propyl, isobutyl, amyl, capryl, oenanthyl and caproyl, have been identified; and the amount of these vary according to the different conditions of the fermentation.
Sometimes a bottom yeast may for a time exhibit signs of a top fermentation.
If the heat exceeds 80°, holes should be made to moderate the fermentation.
The well-known "Danzig-spruce" is prepared by adding a decoction of the buds or cones to the wort or saccharine liquor before fermentation.
There is some evidence that " tackiness " may be induced by a kind of fermentation which takes place in crude rubber.
These causes and the fermentation of liberal principles produced by the French Revolution originated a conspiracy in Lisbon in 1817, which was, however, discovered in time to prevent its success.
Much of the food remains in the stomach and, undergoing fermentation, causes the evolution of gas which distends the stomach and gives rise to unavoidable belching.
Nevertheless, gangrene is nothing more or less than the putrefactive fermentation of an animal tissue still attached to the body.
One chief means employed by nature in accomplishing this object is the investment of those parts of the organism liable to be attacked with an armour-like covering of epidermis, periderm, bark, &c. The grape is proof against the inroads of the yeastplant so long as the husk is intact, but on the husk being injured the yeast-plant finds its way into the interior and sets up vinous fermentation of its sugar.
Fermentation, which was supposed to take place in the stomach, played an important part in the vital processes.
The "intestine movement of particles" in every body, or fermentation, was the explanation of many of the processes of life and disease.
Sugars are also liable to fermentation.'
Ruff effects the same change by oxidizing the sugar to the oxy-acid, ' See Fermentation; and for the relation of this property to structure see Stereoisomerism.
On reducing the lactone prepared from the inactive acid an inactive galactose is obtained from which l-galactose may be separated by fermentation.
Each bundle is tied round with a separate leaf, and in this condition the tobacco is ready for bulking for fermentation.
fermentation is quickly set up, and the temperature of the mass rises steadily till it reaches about 130° F.
Great care is now taken to prevent overheating and to secure the uniform fermentation of all the tobacco.
In from three to five weeks the fermentation should be sufficiently carried out, and the leaves then have a nice uniform brown colour.
Fermentation is essentially a chemical process due apparently to the presence of enzymes, developed in the leaf during the earlier curing stages.
The view has been put forward that fermentation is due to the activity of bacteria, distinct types occurring in various tobaccos, but the balance of evidence is against it.
When fermentation is completed the tobacco is graded, an operation carried out very carefully in the case of the better cigar tobaccos, and packed for export, cigar tobaccos in bales, and other kinds in hogsheads.
Another defect arising during curing and fermentation is the efflorescence of salts on the surface, a phenomenon known as " saltpetre "; light brushing and spraying with a weak solution of acetic acid are effective remedies.
For the best qualities the leaves are primed, aircured, and then subjected to a lengthy treatment corresponding to mild fermentation.
The fermentation is very carefully controlled, and to obtain the desired light colour the temperature is kept comparatively low.
63, Office of Experiment Stations, U.S. Department of Agriculture, indicate the more important constituents and also the changes which take place during fermentation.
The most efficient means, however, of improving strong, ill-tasting tobacco is by renewed fermentation artificially induced by moisture and heat.
In this form a large number, after being cooked or stoved in moist heat for about twenty-four hours, are piled between plates in an hydraulic press, and subjected to great pressure for a month or six weeks, during which time a slow fermentation takes place, and a considerable exudation of juice results from the severe pressure.
The peculiar properties of snuff are dependent on the presence of free nicotine, free ammonia and the aromatic principles developed during fermentation.
Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.
It is no detriment to Comte's fame that some of the ideas which he recombined and incorporated in a great philosophic structure had their origin in ideas that were produced almost at random in the incessant fermentation of Saint-Simon's brain.
Its important source lies in its formation by the "spirituous" or "alcoholic fermentation" of saccharine juices.
The mechanism of alcoholic fermentation is discussed in the article Fermentation, and the manufacture of alcohol from fermented liquors in.
His work also included observations on putrefaction and fermentation, which he spoke of as sisters, on the nature of salts, and on the preparation of pure metals.
Chemistry, as well as mathematics, seems to have been the object of his early attention; and in the year 1690 he published a dissertation on effervescence and fermentation.
Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.
The diand tri-methyl derivatives are found in the fusel oil obtained by fermentation of beetroot sugar.
The lactic acid bacillus, always present in unboiled milk (to which the souring of milk is due), is easily destroyed by heat; but the bacillus mesentericus, often found in it, forms spores, which are not destroyed by ordinary boiling, and germinate when the milk is kept at a moderately warm temperature, producing a brisk fermentation whereby a large volume of gas is liberated.
Carbon dioxide, C02, is a gas first distinguished from air by van Helmont (1577-1644), who observed that it was formed in fermentation processes and during combustion, and gave to it the name gas sylvestre.
It is also formed in ordinary fermentation processes, in the combustion of all carbon compounds (oil, gas, candles, coal, &c.), and in the process of respiration.
An interesting species of the last is the leaf-cutting ant (Eciton) which lives in large underground colonies and feeds upon a fungus produced by leaf-cuttings stored in subterranean passages to promote fermentation.
The willows are cut at the first indication of the sap rising and "couched" in rotten peelings and soil at a slight angle, the butts being on the ground, which should be strewn with damp straw from a manure heap. The tops are covered lightly with rotted peelings and by periodical application of water, fermentation is induced at the bottom, heat is engendered, the leaves force their way through the covering and peeling may begin.
Having been placed in his fourteenth year under the charge of his maternal great-uncle Dr Gem, physician to the English embassy at Paris, in 1783 he passed his early years amidst a political fermentation which led him to take a deep interest in politics.
Under Eugenius III., a Cistercian monk who was scarcely equal to his task, the papal absolutism grew sensibly weaker, and if we may credit the testimony of the usually wellinformed German chronicler, Otto of Freising, there arose in the college of cardinals a kind of fermentation which was exceedingly disquieting for the personal power of the leader of the Church.
He also studied the colouring matters of leaves and flowers, the composition of bone, cerebral matter and other animal substances, and the processes of fermentation, in regard to the nature of which he was an opponent of Pasteur's views.
Leaf-mould is eminently suited for the growth of many freegrowing plants, especially when it has been mixed with stable manure and has been subjected to fermentation for the formation of hot beds.
Pig dung is very powerful, containing more nitrogen than horse dung; it is therefore desirable that it should undergo moderate fermentation, which will be secured by mixing it with litter and a portion of earth.
When weeds are thrown to the pigs, this fermentation becomes specially desirable to kill their seeds.
The gemmae formed on submerged Mucors may bud like a yeast, and even bring about alcoholic fermentation in a saccharine solution.
The group has attained an importance of late even beyond that to which it was brought by Pasteur's researches on alcoholic fermentation, chiefly owing to the exact results of the investigations of Hansen, who first applied the methods of pure cultures to the study of these organisms, and showed that many of the inconsistencies hitherto existing in the literature were due to the coexistence in the cultures of several species or races of yeasts morphologically almost indistinguishable, but physiologically very different.
Thus alcoholic fermentation is brought into line with the other fermentations.
Mucor, Exoasci, Ustilagineae, higher Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); and (2) the question as to the physiological nature and meaning of fermentation.
Saccharomycetaceae: Jorgensen, The Micro-organisms of Fermentation (1899); Barker, Ann.
Fermentation: Buchner, "Gahrung ohne Hefezellen," Bot.
17 (1901); Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (Cambridge, 1899).
The next process is familiarly termed fermentation, but is really an oxidation of the leaves.
The effect of either is to destroy the possibility of fermentation by subjecting the leaf, as soon as it is plucked, to a brief period of great heat.
A similar product is obtained by oxidizing fermentation amyl alcohol with chromic acid.
Normal butyric acid or fermentation butyric acid is found in butter, as an hexyl ester in the oil of Heracleum giganteum and as an octyl ester in parsnip (Pastinaca sativa); it has also been noticed in the fluids of the flesh and in perspiration.
It is ordinarily prepared by the fermentation of sugar or starch, brought about by the addition of putrefying cheese, calcium carbonate being added to neutralize the acids formed in the process.
Fitz (Ber., 1878, 11, p. 52) found that the butyric fermentation of starch is aided by the direct addition of Bacillus subtilis.
Fusel, bad spirits), the name applied to the volatile oily liquids, of a nauseous fiery taste and smell, which are obtained in the rectification of spirituous liquors made by the fermentation of grain, potatoes, the marc of grapes, and other material, and which, as they are of higher boiling point than ethyl alcohol, occur in largest quantity in the last portions of the distillate.
He also worked at fermentation, respiration and animal heat, looking upon the processes concerned as essentially chemical in nature.
A paper discovered many years after his death showed that he had anticipated later thinkers in explaining the cyclical process of animal and vegetable life, for he pointed out that plants derive their food from the air, from water, and in general from the mineral kingdom, and animals in turn feed on plants or on other animals fed by plants, while the materials thus taken up by plants and animals are restored to the mineral kingdom by the breaking-down processes of fermentation, putrefaction and combustion.
In 1810 he published a paper which contains some classic experiments on fermentation, a subject to which he returned in a second paper published in 1815.
Nickel salts are antiseptic; they arrest fermentation and stop the growth of plants.
It is also formed in the pancreatic fermentation of albumen, and, in small quantities, by passing the vapours of monoand dialkylanilines through a red-hot tube.
It may be prepared by the oxidation of fats and of fatty acids by nitric acid, and is also a product of the fermentation of malic and tartaric acids.
It is usually obtained by the distillation of amber, or by the fermentation of calcium malate or ammonium tartrate.
It is probable that the discovery that an intoxicating and pleasant beverage could be made from grape juice was purely accidental, and that it arose from observations made in connexion with crushed or bruised wild grapes, much as the manufacture of beer, or in its earliest form, mead, may be traced back to the accidental fermentation of wild honey.
on the weather conditions preceding and during the gathering of the grapes and th© subsequent fermentation.
The must, as the expressed juice of the grape is termed, is now exposed to the process of fermentation, which consists essentially in the conversion of the sugar of the must into alcohol and various subsidiary products.
Fermentation is induced spontaneously by the yeast cells which are always present in large numbers in the grape itself.
The result is that - as compared with beer or spirits - the fermentation at first is relatively slow, but it rapidly increases in intensity and continues until practically the whole of the sugar is converted.
In the case of the production of certain sweet wines (such as the sweet Sauternes, Port and Tokay) the fermentation only proceeds up to a certain extent.
If pure yeast is added in this manner in relatively large quantities, it will tend to predominate, inasmuch as the number of yeast cells derived from the grapes is at the commencement of fermentation relatively small.
After the main fermentation is finished, the young wine is transferred to casks or vats.
The secondary fermentation proceeds slowly and the carbonic acid formed is allowed to escape by way of the bung-hole, which in order to prevent undue access of air is kept lightly covered or is fitted with a water seal, which permits gas to pass out of the cask, but prevents any return flow of air.
During this secondary fermentation the wine gradually throws down a deposit which forms a coherent crust, known as argol or lees.
The sulphurous acid evolved destroys such micro-organisms as may be in the cask, and in addition, as it reduces the supply of oxygen, renders the wine less prone to acidulous fermentation.
The fermentation of grape juice, i.e.
Mach.) alcoholic fermentation, ethylic alcohol, water and carbonic acid.
In view of the fact that fresh grape juice contains innumerable bacteria and moulds, in addition to the yeast cells which bring about the alcoholic fermentation, and that the means which are adopted by the brewer and the distiller for checking the action of these undesirable organisms cannot be employed by the wine-maker, it is no doubt remarkable that the natural wine yeast so seldom fails to assert a preponderating action, particularly as the number of yeast cells at the beginning of fermentation is relatively small.
The fact is that the constitution of average grape juice and the temperatures of fermentation which generally prevail are particularly well suited to the life action of wine yeast, and are inimical to the development of the other organisms. When these conditions fail, as is, for instance, the case when the must is lacking in acidity, or when the weather during the fermentation period is very hot and means are not at hand to cool the must, bacterial side fermentations may, and do, often take place.
The most suitable temperature for fermentation varies according to the type of wine.
In the case of Rhine wines it is between 20 and 25° C. If the temperatures rise above this, the fermentation is liable to be too rapid, too much alcohol is formed at a relatively early stage, and the result is that the fermentation ceases before the whole of the sugar has been transformed.
Wines which have received a check of this description during the main fermentation are very liable to bacterial troubles and frets.
The young wine immediately after the cessation of the main fermentation is very differently constituted from the must from which it was derived.
The amount of volatile acid should be very small, and, except in special cases, a percentage of volatile acid exceeding 0.1 to 0.15%, according to the class of wine, will indicate that an abnormal or undesirable fermentation has taken place.
The taste and bouquet of wines in the earlier stages of their development, or within the first four or five years of the vintage, are almost entirely dependent upon constituents derived from the must, either directly or as a result of the main fermentation.
The bouquet of young wines is due principally to the compound esters which exist in the juice or are formed by the primary fermentation.
As regards the latter, indeed, it is nowadays held that it is at its best within a very short period of the vintage, and that when the characteristic slight " prickling " taste due to carbonic acid derived from the secondary fermentation has disappeared, the wine has lost its attraction for the modern palate.
One of the most common diseases, namely that producing acetous fermentation, differs from the disease caused by M.
The mannitic disease, which is due to high temperatures during fermentation and lack of acid in the must, is rarely of serious consequence in temperate countries.
In these cases the mannitic fermentation had obviously not developed to any extent, and small quantities of mannitol appear to exercise no prejudicial effect on flavour.
It certainly appears to be the case that musts which are plastered rarely suffer from abnormal fermentation, and that the wines which result very rarely turn acid.
The grapes from which the stalks are partly or wholly (and occasionally not at all) removed are crushed by treading or some other simple method, but sometimes even this is omitted, the juice being expressed by the weight of the grapes themselves, or by the pressure caused by incipient fermentation.
are not used in the case of red wines until after fermentation, when they are employed in order to separate the wine from the murk.
As a rule the fermentation occupies from 6 to io days; by this time the must has practically lost the whole of its sugar, and the young wine is drawn off and filled into hogsheads.
The secondary fermentation proper is generally finished at the end of about six weeks to two months, and the first.
The grapes are then not crushed, but are immediately pressed, and the juice alone is subjected to fermentation.
This is necessary, not only to prevent fermentation recommencing, but also in order to preserve the light golden colour of the wine, which, if brought into contact with an excess of air, rapidly assumes an unsightly brown shade.
For this reason it is necessary that the process of collection, separation and pressing should proceed as quickly as possible at vintage time in order that the juice may not, through incipient fermentation, dissolve any of the colouring matter from the skins.
In the spring-time, shortly after bottling, the rise in temperature produces a secondary fermentation, and this converts the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid.
This fermentation proceeds throughout the summer months, and in the meantime a sediment which adheres to the side of the bottle is gradually formed.
In some cases the fermentation of the must is stopped by the addition of spirit before the whole of the saccharine is converted, and the wines so prepared retain a proportion of the sugar naturally present in the must.
The vino dulce and vino secco are both made as a rule from the Pedro Jimenez (white) grape, the former in much the same way as the dulce which is employed in the sherry industry, the latter by permitting fermentation to take its normal course.
In order to preserve the sweet quality of the wine, fermentation is not permitted to continue beyond a certain point.
Much of the characteristic flavour of Madeira is due to this practice, which hastens the mellowing of the wine and also tends to check secondary fermentation inasmuch as it is, in effect, a mild kind of pasteurization.
Indeed, many connoisseurs hold that when a Moselle ceases to show signs of the somewhat prolonged secondary fermentation, characterized by the slight prickling sensation produced on the palate (caused by the presence of bubbles of carbonic acid gas in the wine), that it has passed its best.
The process of vinification is peculiar in that fermentation takes place in relatively small casks, the result being that there are frequently marked differences in the produce of the same growth and vintage.
Indeed, it may be said that the main fermentation rarely, if ever, reaches a climax.
Thus in parts of California, where high temperatures are liable to prevail during the vintage, the system - first employed in Algeria - of cooling the must during fermentation to the proper temperature by means of a series of pipes in which iced water circulates is now largely employed.
He determined the specific gravity of these gases with reference to common air, investigated the extent to which they are absorbed by various liquids, and noted that common air containing one part in nine by volume of fixed air is no longer able to support combustion, and that the air produced by fermentation and putrefaction has properties identical with those of fixed air obtained from marble.
Under favourable circumstances a process of fermentation should immediately be set up, which soon makes itself manifest by the evolution of gaseous bubbles.
After a few days the fermentation subsides; and generally in from ten days to two weeks the process ought to be complete.
Kolb, is that a peculiar fermentation is set up under the influence of heat and moisture, resulting in a change of the intercellular substance - pectose or an analogue of that body - into pectin and pectic acid.
during the whole time the flax is in steep. In a short time a brisk fermentation is set up, gases at first of pleasant odour, but subsequently becoming very repulsive, being evolved, and producing a frothy scum over the surface of the water.
At an early age he contributed to our knowledge of the causes of putrefaction and fermentation.
During the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice it is deposited in the form of an impure acid potassium tartrate which is known as argol, and when purified as cream of tartar.
The reason for this is that farinaceous foods are digested in the intestine and not in the stomach, where they may undergo fermentation, whereas proteid foods are to a great extent digested in the stomach.
The stomach may become distended with gas on account of acid fermentation leading to the frequent swallowing of saliva, and both this form of flatulence and that caused by the actual formation of gas are much diminished by such drugs as tend to prevent fermentation.
By preventing fermentation in the intestine these also tend to prevent or check diarrhoea, and they may do good after the irritant has been removed by castor oil.
After the irritant has been removed and fermentation stopped, the irritation still remaining in the intestinal wall may be soothed by chalk mixture and bismuth, to which if necessary small quantities of opium may be added.
In the meantime, while various observers were building up our knowledge of the morphology of bacteria, others were laying the foundation of what is known of the relations of these organisms to fermentation and disease - that ancient will-o'-the-wisp " spontaneous generation " being revived by the way.
When Pasteur in 1857 showed that the lactic fermentation depends on the presence of an organism, it was already known from the researches of Schwann (1837) and Helmholtz (1843) that fermentation and putrefaction are intimately connected with the presence of organisms derived from the air, and that the preservation of putrescible substances depends on this principle.
In 1862 Pasteur placed it beyond reasonable doubt that the ammoniacal fermentation of urea is due to the action of a minute Schizomycete; in 1864 this was confirmed by van Tieghem, and in 1874 by Cohn, who named the organism Micrococcus ureae.
Pasteur and Cohn also pointed out that putrefaction is but a special case of fermentation, and before 1872 the doctrines of Pasteur were established with respect to Schizomycetes.
In the first place, the ancient question of " spontaneous generation " received fresh impetus from the difficulty of keeping such minute organisms as bacteria from reaching and developing in organic infusions; and, secondly, the long-suspected analogies between the phenomena of fermentation and those of certain diseases again made themselves felt, as both became better understood.
Long before any clear ideas as to the relations of Schizomycetes to fermentation and disease were possible, various thinkers at different times had suggested that resemblances existed between the phenomena of certain diseases and those of fermentation, and the idea that a virus or contagium might be something of the nature of a minute organism capable of spreading and 1 Cladothrix dichotoma, for example, which is ordinarily a branched, filamentous, sheathed form, at certain seasons breaks up into a number of separate cells which develop a tuft of cilia and escape from the sheath.
Rayer in 1850 and Davaine had observed the bacilli in the blood of animals dead of anthrax (splenic fever), and Pollender discovered them anew in 1855 In 1863, imbued with ideas derived from Pasteur's researches on fermentation, Davaine reinvestigated the matter, and put forth the opinion that the anthrax bacilli caused the splenic fever; this was proved to result from inoculation.
The discoveries that some species of nitrifying bacteria and perhaps pigmented forms are capable of carbon-assimilation, that others can fix free nitrogen and that a number of decompositions hitherto unsuspected are accom fished by Schizomycetes have ut thequestions of P Y Y, P d nutrition and fermentation in quite new lights.
Apart from numerous fermentation processes such as rotting, the soaking of skins for tanning, the preparation of indigo and of tobacco, hay, ensilage, &c., in all of which bacterial fermentations are concerned, attention may be especially directed to the following evidence of the supreme importance of Schizomycetes in agriculture and daily life.
The Japanese have cheeses resulting from the bacterial fermentation of boiled Soja beans.
Fermentation, &c.: Warington, The Chemical Action of some Micro-organisms (London, 1888); Winogradsky, " Recherches sur les organismes de la nitrification," Ann.
17 (1888), P. 44 1; Omelianski, " Sur la fermentation de la cellulose," Compt.
der Cellulosegdhrung (Leiden, 1890); van Tieghem, " Sur la fermentation de la cellulose," Bull.
Oxydases and Enzymes: Green, The Soluble Ferments and Fermentation (Cambridge, 1899).
Here, just as in the general subject of fermentation, we must inquire whether the bacteria form the substances in question directly or by means of non-living ferments or enzymes.
Recent researches go to show that enzymes play a greater part in fermentation by living ferments than was formerly supposed, and by analogy it is likely that they are also concerned in the processes of disease.
His works included treatises on pneumatic chemistry (1821-1825) and the chemistry of fermentation (1822).
Two lactic acids are known, differing from each other in the position occupied by the hydroxyl group in the molecule; they are known respectively as a-hydroxypropionic acid (fermentation or inactive lactic acid), CH 3 CH(OH) CO 2 H, ands-hydroxypropionic acid (hydracrylic acid), (q.v.), CH2(OH) CH 2 CO 2 H.
Fermentation, or ethylidene lactic acid, was isolated by K.
It may be prepared by the lactic fermentation of starches, sugars, gums, &c., the sugar being dissolved in water and acidified by a small quantity of tartaric acid and then fermented by the addition of sour milk, with a little putrid cheese.
In the ear of rye that is infected with ergot a species of fermentation takes place, and there exudes from it a sweet yellowish mucus, which after a time disappears.
The literary fruit of this period of intense fermentation and of rapid development was his "epochmaking" book, Reden fiber die Religion (1799; ed.
playing the Roman senate: all these causes, added together and multiplied, assisted in setting a general fermentation to work.
This was a product of the mystic fermentation which proceeded from exalted Franciscanism and from Joachimism (see Fraticelli and Joachim).
the cellulose membranes showed traces of subjection to butyric fermentation, such as is produced at the present day by Bacillus Amylobacter; he also claimed to have detected the organism itself.
Under the influence of yeast it does not enter into the alcoholic fermentation, but M.
It is medicinally superior to gum acacia, as it does not undergo acetous fermentation.
alcoholic fermentation is on the skins for 8 days at a temperature of 24°C, followed by malolactic fermentation.
Research areas include bioenergetics, molecular biology, fermentation, protein biochemistry, kinetic and paramagnetic spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.
Examples include: concentration of penicillin in a fermentation broth, moisture in a product, chemical composition of a product.
Cider keg cider keg Cider is made from pressed apples which undergo a process of fermentation.
To speed up fermentation diluted whey concentrate or yogurt ferment can be added to the cabbage.
Rack into a clean demijohn and add 2 crushed campden tablets to terminate fermentation.
digester after fermentation can be used as an organic fertilizer.
digestible fiber to improve rumen fermentation.
ensilet emphasis is placed on ensiling the material quickly but ensuring good consolidation to encourage a rapid and effective fermentation.
enteric fermentation and irrigated agriculture.
They undergo a long secondary fermentation at a low temperature.
The grapes are harvested and yeast is added to the grape juice to induce fermentation.
Avoiding any further malolactic fermentation produced a truly fruit driven style of wine with only a hint of underlying French oak support.
The wine aged for a total of 19 months in these barrels with 100% malo-lactic fermentation.
Methane emissions are estimated for biomass burning, enteric fermentation and irrigated agriculture.
They generate ATP by the anaerobic fermentation of glucose to lactic acid.
alcoholic fermentation The must starts to ferment thanks to the natural yeast present in the vineyard.
For example, antibiotics are produced by microbial fermentation.
fermentation broth, moisture in a product, chemical composition of a product.
fermentation vats are still in place.
fermentation vessel too much.
fermentation process is complete, the wine is matured in new barrels.
Thus, new methods must be found that will enable farmers to manipulate rumen fermentation to obtain benefits with their animals.
Investigation of direct gas production from silage fermentation acids.
For example, barrel fermentation is applied to many of their wines, which are then subsequently blended.
A sparkling wine is also available, produced by the traditional method of bottle fermentation, resulting in a dry, yet full-flavoured fizz.
fermentation in the bottle produced the sparkle.
fermentation of carbohydrates by some plaque bacteria.
fermentation of pure sugar.
cider keg Cider is made from pressed apples which undergo a process of fermentation.
kermes dye was produced by a process of drying the bodies of the insects and then fermentation.
lactobacilluser and expression systems for lactobacilli used as bacterial fermentation starter cultures.
mead makers face is cloudiness when fermentation has finished.
Apart from that it's the degree of fermentation that determines whether you end up with green, oolong or black tea.
The original citric acid fermentation was based on surface culture in shallow pans or trays.
polysaccharide chains is likely to affect the rate and extent of their fermentation.
In the second stage, the wort is cooled to the fermentation temperature by a secondary refrigerant, e.g., glycol.
riboflavin derived from GM Bacillus subtilis using fermentation technology.
rumen fermentation to obtain benefits with their animals.
silage fermentation acids.
He wears nylon sportswear all day which just makes the fermentation worse.
unicellular, microscopic plant that causes the fermentation of sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Nevertheless, modern cold fermentation technology can mean a universal style that obliterates local varietals and produces good but boringly similar wines.
Indeed the wine press and fermentation vats are still in place.
vinous fermentation, has also been found in the fruit.
whirlwind trip through the wild world of fermentation.
The process of fermentation in the preparation of wine, vinegar, beer and bread was known and practised in prehistoric times.
The alchemists used the terms fermentation, digestion and putrefaction indiscriminately; any reaction in which chemical energy was displayed in some form or other - such, for instance, as the effervescence occasioned by the addition of an acid to an alkaline solution - was described as a fermentation (Lat.
fervere, to boil); and the idea of the "Philosopher's Stone" setting up a fermentation in the common metals and developing the essence or germ, which should transmute them into silver or gold, further complicated the conception of fermentation.
As an outcome of this alchemical doctrine the process of fermentation was supposed to have a purifying and elevating effect on the bodies which had been submitted to its influence.
Johann Becher, in 1669, first found that alcohol was formed during the fermentation of solutions of sugar; he distinguished also between fermentation and putrefaction.
In 1697 Georg Stahl admitted that fermentation and putrefaction were analogous processes, but that the former was a particular case of the latter.
The beginning of definite knowledge on the phenomenon of fermentation may be dated from the time of Antony Leeuwenhoek, who in 1680 designed a microscope sufficiently powerful to render yeast cells and bacteria visible; and a description of these organisms, accompanied by diagrams, was sent to the Royal Society of London.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.