In 1650 he succeeded Ferdinand of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne, as bishop of Munster.
Here also stands the mansion erected and occupied by Ferdinand de Lesseps during his residence on the isthmus.
and the emperor Ferdinand II.
king of England, and Ferdinand II., king of Aragon, to defend the possessions of the duchess Anne, daughter and successor of Francis, duke of Brittany.
in the peninsula, he signed the league of Venice in March 1495, and about the same time arranged a marriage between his son Philip and Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon.
Innocent excommunicated and deposed Ferdinand, king of Naples, by bull of the 11th of September 1489, for refusal to pay the papal dues, and gave his kingdom to Charles VIII.
of France, but in 1492 restored Ferdinand to favour.
An important event of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492), which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of "Catholic Majesty."
Ferdinand I of Aragon >>
Ferdinand, Philip's son, who succeeded under Dutillot's regency in 1765, saw his states occupied by the revolutionary forces of France in 1796, and had to purchase his lifeinterest with 6,000,000 lire and 25 of the best paintings in Parma.
in 1854, his widow, Marie Louise (daughter of Ferdinand, prince of Artois and duke of Berry), became regent for her son Robert.
Four years later (1520) the Portuguese seaman, Ferdinand Magellan, entered the estuary in his celebrated voyage round the world, undertaken in the service of the king of Spain (Charles I., better known as the emperor Charles V.).
Liniers was viceroy on the arrival of the news of the crowning of Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, but as a Frenchman he was distrusted and was deposed by the adherents of Ferdinand VII.
The central junta at Seville, acting in the name of Ferdinand, appointed Balthasar de Cisneros to be viceroy in his place.
There is a fine monument commemorating the war of 1870-71, one (1859) to the local patriot Ferdinand von Schill, and another (1900) to the poet and patriot E.
In 1809 it was the scene of the death of Ferdinand von Schill, in his gallant though ineffectual attempt to rouse his countrymen against the French invaders.
While Ferdinand was occupied with the Bohemian rebels, Bethlen led his armies into Hungary (1619), and soon won over the whole of the northern counties, even securing Pressburg and the Holy Crown.
In Bohemia, Ferdinand II.
took a fearful revenge upon the vanquished; - and Bethlen, regarding a continuation of the war as unprofitable, concluded the peace of Nikolsburg (31st of December 1621), renouncing the royal title on condition that Ferdinand confirmed the peace of Vienna (which had granted full liberty of worship to the Protestants) and engaged to summon a general diet within six months.
After the second of these insurrections, Bethlen attempted a rapprochement with the court of Vienna on the basis of an alliance against the Turks and his own marriage with one of the Austrian archduchesses; but Ferdinand had no confidence in him and rejected his overtures.
(1397-1479), king of Aragon, son of Ferdinand I.
of France, and in preparing the way for the marriage of his son Ferdinand with Isabella of Castile, which brought about the union of the crowns.
He was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, who was already associated with his wife Isabella as joint sovereign of Castile.
Prescott's History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella (1854).
See Martin Veibull, Sveriges Storhedstid (Stockholm, 1881); Frederick Ferdinand Carlson, Sveriges Historia under Konungarne af Pfalziska Huset (Stockholm, 1883-1885); Robert Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia (Cambridge, 1905); O.
FERDINAND DE LESSEPS (1805-1894).
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.
Ferdinand de Lesseps was also entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria.
In 1832 Ferdinand de Lesseps was appointed vice-consul at Alexandria.
In 1833 Ferdinand de Lesseps was sent as consul to Cairo, and soon afterwards given the management of the consulategeneral at Alexandria, a post that he held until 1837.
In the course of a bloody insurrection in Catalonia, which ended in the bombardment of Barcelona, Ferdinand de Lesseps showed the most persistent bravery, rescuing from death, without distinction, the men belonging to the rival factions, and protecting and sending away not only the Frenchmen who were in danger, but foreigners of all nationalities.
Ferdinand de Lesseps steadily endeavoured to keep out of politics.
Public opinion, it may be declared, designated Ferdinand de Lesseps as the head of the enterprise.
Ferdinand de Lesseps died at La Chenaie on the 7th of December 1894.
But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.
Barnett Smith, The Life and Enterprises of Ferdinand de Lesseps (London, 1893); and Souvenirs de quarante ans, by Ferdinand de Lesseps (trans.
In the following year, by the death, of Ferdinand of Aragon, his maternal grandfather, and the incapacity of his mother Joanna, who had become hopelessly insane, he succeeded to the crowns of Castile and Aragon, which carried with them large possessions in Italy and the dominion, of the New World of America.
Ferdinand Buisson >>
Under the Moors it became an independent principality, which was destroyed by Ferdinand II.
His successor Ferdinand took the title of duke of Modena-Breisgau, but on his death in 1805 the Breisgau was divided between Baden and Wurttemberg.
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragon passed together to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The twenty-three years of Alfonsos reign were the most prosperous and splendid period of South Italian history.
Among the most noteworthy examples of such attempts maybe mentioned the revolt of the barons against Ferdinand I.
After Galeazzo Marias assassination, his crown passed to a boy, Gian Galeazzo, who was in due course married to a grand-daughter of Ferdinand I.
The princes of the house of Aragon, now represented by Frederick, a son of Ferdinand I., returned to Naples.
The conquest was easy; but, when it came to a partition, Ferdinand played his ally false.
In the next year Ferdinand, brother of Charles, was elected emperor.
In 1790 he succeeded to the empire, and left Tuscany to his son Ferdinand.
The former possessed the rich duchies Frecch of Milan (including Mantua) and Tuscany; while Revolu through a marriage alliance with the house of Este UoI, of Modena (the Archduke Ferdinand had married the heiress of Modena) its influence over that duchy was supreme.
By marrying her daughter, Maria Amelia, to the young duke of Parma, and another daughter, Maria Carolina, to Ferdinand of Naples, Maria Theresa consolidated Habsburg influence in the north and south of the peninsula.
Two months later Ferdinand of Naples sought for an armistice, the central duchies were easily overrun, and, early in 1797, Pope Pius VI.
These events brought revolution to the gates of the kingdom of Naples, the worst-governed part of Italy, where the boorish king, Ferdinand IV.
King Ferdinand also had to accept a French garrison at Taranto, and other points in the south.
Francis IV., son of the archduke Ferdinand of Austria and Maria Beatrice, daughter of Ercole Rinaldo, the last of the Estensi, was reinstated as duke of Modena.
Tuscany was restored to the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
He received them back in their entirety at the hands of the powers, who recognized his new title of Ferdinand I.
During eight years (1806-1814) the chief places of the island had been garrisoned by British troops; and the commander of the force which upheld the tottering rule of Ferdinand at Palermo naturally had great authority.
Lord William Bentinck finally took over large administrative powers, seeing that Ferdinand, owing to his dulness, and Maria Carolina, owing to her very suspicious intrigues with Napoleon, could never be trusted.
The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
When Ferdinand returned to Naples in 1815 he found the kingdom, and especially the army, honeycombed with CarbonarQevolu- ism, to which many noblemen and officers were tiot, if, affiliated; and although the police instituted prosecuNaples, tions and organized the counter-movement of the 1820.
Charles Louis, the opera Douffe duke of Lucca, who had coquetted with Liberalism in the past, now refused to make any concessions to his subjects, and in Ferdinand III.
At the latters death in 1830 Ferdinand now flew to arms, and the Austrian garrisons, except in the Quadrilateral (Verona, Peschiera, Mantua and Legnano) were expelled.
the 17th Ferdinand dissolved parliament and recalled the army.
Ferdinand did not openly break his constitutional promises until Sicily was reconquered.
Ferdinand at once re-established autocracy in Naples; though the struggle in Sicily did not end until May, when Palermo, after a splendid resistance, capitulated.
order to gain tim.e for reinforcements to arrive, sent Ferdinand de Lesseps to pretend to treat with Mazzini, the envoy himself not being a party to this deception.
In May 1859 Ferdinand of Naples was succeeded by his son Francis II., who gave no signs of any intention to change his fathers policy, and, in spite of Napoleons advice, refused to grant a constitution or to enter into an alliance with Sardinia.
The Spanish governor, Gonzalo de Cordova, had given him a safe-conduct, and he was meditating fresh plans, when Gonzalo arrested him by the order of Ferdinand of Spain as a disturber of the peace of Italy (May 1504).
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
Torquemada had always been strong in his advice that she should marry Ferdinand of Aragon and thus consolidate the kingdoms of Spain.
He also helped her in quieting Ferdinand, who was chafing under the privileges of the Castilian grandees, and succeeded so well that the king also took him as confessor.
He represented to Ferdinand and Isabella that it was essential to their safety to reorganize the Inquisition, which had since the 13th century (1236) been established in Spain.
Isabella had been for many years prepared, and she and Ferdinand, now that the proposal for this new tribunal came before them, saw in it a means of overcoming the independence of the nobility and clergy by which the royal power had been obstructed.
In 1487 he went with Ferdinand to Malaga and thence to Valladolid, where in the October of 1488 he held another general congregation of the Inquisition and promulgated new laws based on the experience already gained.
On the death of Alphonso in 1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly treated by his successor John, and Abrabanel was compelled to flee to Spain, where he held for eight years (1484-1492) the post of a minister of state under Ferdinand and Isabella.
He foretold the outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in Germany and Austria, and was credited with counselling the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of Francis Joseph.
The palace of the prince, occupying the site of the Turkish konak was built by Prince Alexander in 1880-1882; it has been greatly enlarged by King Ferdinand.
Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria had long been anxious to legalize his position by a reconciliation, and as soon as he got rid of Stamboloff he made advances to the Russian government.
They were well received, and a reconciliation was effected on certain conditions, the first of which was that Prince Ferdinand's eldest son and heir should become a member of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
In February 1823 his opposition to the proposed expedition into Spain to help Ferdinand VII.
The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.
Although during the composition of the Ferdinand and Isabella it had been of very intermittent service to him, it had so far improved that he could read with a certain amount of regularity during the writing of the Conquest of Mexico, and also, though in a less degree, during the years devoted to the Conquest of Peru.
She was a woman of great ability andstrong character, and during the years which followed the death of the emperor Francis was probably the most influential personage at the Austrian court; for the emperor Ferdinand, who succeeded in 1835, was physically and mentally incapable of performing the duties of his office; as he was childless, Francis Joseph was in the direct line of succession.
Ferdinand, now that the young archduke was of age, was able to carry out the abdication which he and his wife had long desired.
Ferdinand retired to Prague, where he died in 1875.
A law was passed by the Hungarian diet regularizing the libdication of Ferdinand; at the beginning of June Francis Joseph signed the inaugural diploma and took the oath in Magyar to observe the constitution; on the 8th he was solemnly crowned king of Hungary.
and the election of Ferdinand.
The choice of the British government fell on Prince Christian William Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-SonderburgGliicksburg, whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the title George I., was recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863).
In 1813 it was restored to Ferdinand I.
In 1759 he became lieutenant-general, and served under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick in the campaigns of 1761-1763.
He soon acquired great influence among the peasants, and from the first took up an attitude of fearless opposition to King Ferdinand's policy.
Leloir, Mirabeau a Pontarlier (1886); Ferdinand Schwartz, Mirabeau and Marie Antoinette (Basel, 1891); and Alfred Mezieres, Vie de Mirabeau (1892).
On the 10th of October 1806 a battle took place near Saalfeld between the French and the Prussians, during which Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.
and his wife Margaret, sister of the emperor Ferdinand II., was born at Valladolid on the 8th of April 1605.
His senile spite vented itself on his son Ferdinand, whose opposition to the all-powerful favourite procured for him hatred at the palace and esteem everywhere else.
Murat, now acting very warily in the hope of gaining the crown of Spain for himself, refused to recognize this act as binding, still more so the accession of Ferdinand VII.
The claimants, each not knowing of the movements of the other, crossed the Pyrenees, and Ferdinand on his arrival at Bayonne found himself to be virtually a prisoner in the hands of the emperor.
As for Ferdinand, the emperor, on hearing the news of a rising in Madrid on the 2nd of May, overwhelmed him with threats, until he resigned the crown into the hands of his father, who had already bargained it away to Napoleon in return for a pension (5th of May 1808).
(Berlin, 1894); Friedrich Ferdinand Carlson, Sveriges Historia under Konungarne of Pfalziska Huset (Stockholm, 1883-1885); Robert Nisbet Bain, Charles XII.
Heinrich Ernst Ferdinand Guericke >>
(1683-1746), king of Spain, founder of the present Bourbon dynasty, was the son of the Dauphin Louis and his wife, Maria Anna, daughter of Ferdinand Maria, elector of Bavaria.
In 1541 the richest mine was hopelessly flooded; in the insurrection of Bohemia against Ferdinand I.
Kerr (1847); Ferdinand I.
and Ferdinand of Aragon for the partition of Naples in 1500, was excused as a thing necessary in the interests of the Crusades.
As Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar he is first mentioned in a charter of Ferdinand I.
Ferdinand, a great and wise prince, under whom the tide of Moslem conquest was first effectually stemmed, on his deathbed, in 1065, divided his territories among his five children.
Huber, Muller, and Ferdinand Wolf are among the leading authorities in the history and literature of the Cid.
FERDINAND ANDRE FOUQUE (1828-1904), French geologist and petrologist, was born at Mortain, dept.
As soon as he had learnt the elements of reading and writing, he was sent as a page to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; afterwards, until his twenty-sixth year, he took service with Antonio Maurique, duke of Nagera, and followed the career of arms. He was free in his relations with women, gambled and fought; but he also gave indications of that courage, constancy and prudence which marked his after life.
His second son, Sancho, enforced his claim to be heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, the elder brother who died in Alphonso's life.
Ponce's hospitable reception by the native chief, Aquebana or Guaybana, and his fairly profitable search for the precious metal led King Ferdinand in 1509 to give him an appointment as temporary governor of the island, where his companions had already established the settlement of Caparra (Pueblo Viejo, near the present San Juan).
Meanwhile Ferdinand had also restored to Diego Columbus, son of the discoverer, the privileges of his father, including the control of the islands of Haiti and Porto Rico.
The island suffered from the reactionary policy of Ferdinand VII., but the few sporadic attempts at revolution between 1815 and 1820 were readily suppressed.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
Konrad Ferdinand Meyer >>
On the 26th of August 1618, Frederick, as a leading Protestant prince, was chosen king by the Bohemians, who deposed the emperor Ferdinand, then archduke of Styria.
Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandia were Cervetri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful and turbulent house, with the pecuniary help of Ferdinand of Aragon, king of Naples (Don Ferrante).
In this he was opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand.
Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war.
Ferdinand appealed to Spain for help; but Spain was anxious to be on good terms with the pope to obtain a title over the newly discovered continent of America and could not afford to quarrel with him.
But through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and also with the Orsini; the peace was cemented by a marriage between the pope's son Giuffre and Dona Sancha, Ferdinand's grand-daughter.
On the 25th of January 1494 Ferdinand died and was succeeded by his son Alphonso II.
Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alphonso fled and abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand II., who also had to fly abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease.
But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico it Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy.
He encountered the allies at Fornovo, and after a drawn battle cut his way through them and was back in France by November; Ferdinand II.
He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage with Sforza in 1497, and, unable to arrange a union between Cesare and the daughter of Frederick, king of Naples (who had succeeded Ferdinand II.
In 1510 and the following years King Ferdinand ordered a number of Africans to be sent to that colony for the working of the mines.
About 1607 Schoppe entered the service of Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., who found him very useful in rebutting the arguments of the Protestants, and who sent him on several diplomatic errands.
Detmold possesses a natural history museum theatre, high school, library, the house in which the poet Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810-1876) was born, and that in which the dramatist Christian Dietrich Grabbe (1801-1836), also a native, died.
FERDINAND LASSALLE (1825-1864), German socialist, was born at Breslau on the 11th of April 1825, of Jewish extraction.
His father, a prosperous merchant in Breslau, intended Ferdinand for a business career, and sent him to the commercial school at Leipzig; but the boy got himself transferred to the university, first at Breslau, and afterwards at Berlin.
Oncken's Lassalle (Stuttgart, 1904); another excellent work on his life and writings is George Brandes's Danish work, Ferdinand Lassalle (German translation, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1900).
Aaberg, Ferdinand Lassalle (Leipzig, 1883); C. v.
Lassalles sozialiikonomische A nschauungen and praktische" Vorschlage (Jena, 1895); Seilliere, Etudes sur Ferdinand Lassalle (Paris, 1897); E.
Ovando, the governor of Hispaniola (Haiti), who had exhausted the labour of that island, turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand authorized him to procure labourers from these islands.
But the crown of Hungary was claimed by the archduke Ferdinand, brother of the emperor Charles V., as being king Louis's brother-in-law.
Meanwhile Ferdinand's troops captured Budapest, driving out Zapolya, who at once appealed to Suleiman for aid.
In 1533 a truce was arranged, Hungary being divided between Zapolya and Ferdinand.
Friendly relations had subsisted between Suleiman and Ferdinand during the expedition to Persia; but on the death of Zapolya in 1539 Ferdinand claimed Hungary and besieged Budapest with a large force.
On the 2nd of September Suleiman entered the city, and to the ambassadors of Ferdinand, who came to offer a yearly sum if the sultan would recognize his claim to Hungary, he replied that he had taken possession of it by the sword and would negotiate only after the surrender of Gran, Tata, Visegrad and Szekesfehervar.
A truce, on the basis of uti possidetis, signed at Adrianople on the 19th of June 1547 for five years, between the sultan, the emperor and Ferdinand I.
king of Hungary, recognized the Turkish conquests in Hungary; while, for the portion left to him, Ferdinand consented to pay an annual tribute of 30,000 ducats.
When the sultan discovered that Martinuzzi, who was all-powerful in Transylvania, had actually arranged to hand over the country to Ferdinand, he threw the Austrian ambassador into prison, and in September 1551 sent an army, 80,000 strong, under Mahommed Sokolli over the Danube.
Before the surrender of the city, however, he was murdered by Ferdinand's orders on strong suspicion of treachery.
In the spring of 1553 the victories of the Persians called for the sultan's presence in the East; a truce for six months was now concluded between the envoys of Ferdinand and the pasha of Budapest, and Austrian ambassadors were sent to Constantinople to arrange a peace.
But the negotiations dragged on without result; the war continued with hideous barbarities on both sides; and it was not until the 1st of June 1562 that it was concluded by the treaty signed at Prague by Ferdinand, now emperor.
Suleiman kept the possessions he had won by the sword, Temesvar, Szolnok, Tata and other places in Hungary; Transylvania was assigned to John Sigismund, the Habsburg claim to interference being categorically denied; Ferdinand bound himself to pay, not only the annual tribute of 30,000 ducats, but all the arrears that had meanwhile accumulated.
In 1564 Ferdinand died, and was succeeded by Maximilian II.
The attempt of the archduke Ferdinand, at the head of 30,000 men, to retake it a year later was defeated.
On the 3rd of February 1910 the Porte accepted a Bulgarian proposal for a mixed commission to delimit disputed sections of the Turco-Bulgarian frontier, and in March King Ferdinand visited Constantinople.
On the 22nd of October, the day after Trafalgar, the remnant of the Austrian army, 23,000 strong, laid down its arms. About 5000 men under Jellachich had escaped to Tirol, 2000 cuirassiers with Prince Ferdinand to Eger in Bohemia, and about io,000 men under Werneck, had surrendered at Heidenheim.
On the night of the loth, 1 At the action of Saalfeld on the loth, the young and gallant Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.
In 1622 the emperor Ferdinand II.
Each successive occupant of the Spanish throne has done something, however slight, to the restoration or adornment of Philip's convent-palace, and Ferdinand VII.
(1516-1556), of Philip II., and of all their successors on the Spanish throne down to Ferdinand VII., with the exception of Philip V.
(1700-1746) and Ferdinand VI.
The Spanish people, in an outburst of fury against the king and Godoy, forced the former to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand; but the inhabitants of Madrid having (May 2,18°8) risen against the French, Napoleon refused to recognize Ferdinand; both he and the king were compelled to renounce their rights to the throne, and a mercenary council of regency having been induced to desire the French emperor to make his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king, he acceded to their request.2 The mask was now completely thrown off, and Spain and Portugal rose against the French.
The king, the queen and Godoy were eventually removed to Rome, and Ferdinand to Valengay in France.
Ferdinand Hitzig >>
A fortnight later he wrote to Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, "The sky begins to clear.
Sarno has the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to Count Francesco Coppola, who took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Aragon in 1485.
When Ferdinand I.
Thereupon Alphonso, duke of Calabria, who was fighting in Tuscany on the side of his father Ferdinand, came to an agreement with Siena and, in the same way as his grandfather Alphonso, tried to obtain the lordship of the city and the recall of the exiled rebels in 1456.
This was the archduke Ferdinand, who claimed the Hungarian crown by right of inheritance in the name of his wife, Anne, sister of the late king.
Ferdinand was elected (Dec. 16) by a scratch assembly consisting of deputies from Croatia and the towns Ferdinand of Pressburg and Sopron; but he speedily improved °fAustr;a g P Y P elected.
The determination of Ferdinand to partition Hungary rather than drive the Turks out, which he might easily have done after Suleiman's unsuccessful attempts on Vienna in 1529-1530, led to a prolongation of the struggle till the 24th of February 1538, when, by the secret peace of Nagyvarad, 3 Hungary was divided between the two competitors.
By this treaty Ferdinand retained Croatia-Slavonia and the five western counties with Pressburg and Esztergom (Gran), while Zapolya kept the remaining two-thirds with the royal title.
Indeed, Ferdinand regarded his narrow strip of Hungarian territory as simply a barrier behind which he could better defend the hereditary states.
Ferdinand at once asserted his rights by force of arms, and attacked Buda in May 1541, despite the urgent remonstrances of Martinuzzi, who knew that the Turk would never suffer the emperor to reign at Buda.
During the six following years the sultan still further improved his position, capturing, amongst many other places, Pecs, and the primatial city of Esztergom; but, in 1547, the exigencies of the Persian war induced him to sell a truce of five years to Ferdinand for £100,000, on a uti possidetis basis, Ferdinand holding thirty-five counties (including Croatia and Slavonia) for which he was to pay an annual tribute of £60,000; John Sigismund retaining Transylvania and sixteen adjacent counties with the title of prince, while the rest of the land, comprising most of the central counties, was annexed to the Turkish empire.
During the reign of Ferdinand, whose consort, Anne, was a Hungarian princess, things were at least tolerable; but under Maximilian (1564-1576) and Rudolph (1576-1612)1612) the antagonism of the Habsburgs towards their Magyar subjects was only too apparent.
Under Ferdinand the parochial clergy were tempted to become Lutherans by the prospect of matrimony, and, in reply to the remonstrances of their bishops, declared that they would rather give up their cures than their wives.
To this weakened and terrorized assembly the emperorking explained that he had the right to treat Hungary as a conquered country, but that he was prepared to confirm its constitutional liberties under three conditions: the inaugural diploma was to be in the form signed by Ferdinand I., the crown was to be declared hereditary in the house of Habsburg, and the 31st clause of the Golden Bull, authorizing armed resistance to unconstitutional acts of the sovereign, was to be abrogated.
The alarm of the government at the power and popularity of the Liberal party induced it, soon after the accession of the new king, the emperor Ferdinand I.
A still further step was taken when, on the 2nd of December, the emperor Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his nephew Francis Joseph.
On the 7th the Hungarian diet formally refused to acknowledge the title of the new king, " as without the knowledge and consent of the diet no one could sit on the Hungarian throne," and called the nation to arms. Constitutionally, in the Magyar opinion, Ferdinand was still king of Hungary, and this gave to the revolt an excuse of legality.
A Magyar version, by Ferdinand Barna, of the Kalewala was published at Pest in 1871.
The year of Richelieu's triumph over the Huguenots (1629) was also that of the Emperor Ferdinand's triumph in Germany, marked by the Edict of Restitution, and France was threatened by a united Germany.
From this group came the young Bosnian Serb students Princip, Cabrinovic, Graben and others, who murdered the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and the Duchess of Hohenberg at Sarajevo on June 28 1914, and thus lit a spark in the European powder magazine.
The duc de Dalberg had inherited the family property of Herrnsheim from his uncle the arch-chancellor Karl von Dalberg, and this estate passed, through his daughter and heiress, Marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg, by her marriage with Sir (Ferdinand) Richard Edward Acton, 7th baronet (who assumed the additional name of Dalberg), to her son the historian, John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton.
Other illustrious natives of the town were the emperor Ferdinand I.
The part played by Count Frederick V., titular king of Bohemia, during the Thirty Years' War induced the emperor Ferdinand II.
Three hundred medical writers in Arabic are enumerated by Ferdinand Wiistenfeld (1808-1899), and other historians have enlarged the list (Haser), but only three have been printed in the original; a certain number more are known through old Latin translations, and the great majority still exist in manuscript.
See also the biography by Ferdinand Lot in the Annuaire de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes for 1901; and the bibliography of his works by Henry Maistre in the Correspondance historique et archeologique (1899 and 1900).
The cost of these two marches in the year was very considerable, and, having been suspended in 1528 on account of the prevai 1 " A map of London engraved on copper-plate, dated 1497," which was bought by Ferdinand Columbus during his travels in Europe about 1518-1525, is entered in the catalogue of Ferdinand's books, maps, &c., made by himself and preserved in the Cathedral Library at Seville, but there is no clue to its existence.
After the restoration of Ferdinand VII.
Before Ferdinand VII.
When the Carlist rising began on the death of Ferdinand he is said to have held back because he knew that the first leaders would be politicians and talkers.
1206), and then his son-in-law, Ferrand (Ferdinand) of Portugal, count of Flanders, disputed the possession of the country with the king of France, Ferrand being in the coalition which was overthrown by Philip Augustus at Bouvines (1214).
He was excommunicated by Sixtus, who, together with King Ferdinand of Naples, waged war against him; no great successes were registered on either side at first, but eventually the Florentines were defeated at Poggio Imperiale (near Poggibonsi) and the city itself was in danger.
During the Napoleonic wars the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
In 1809 Florence was made capital of the kingdom of Etruria, but after the fall of Napoleon in 1814 Ferdinand was reinstated.
(1500-1558) down to Ferdinand VII.
On the 29th of November 187.9 he married a princess of Austria, Maria Christina, daughter of the Archduke Charles Ferdinand.
On the restoration of the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV.
In 1831 he was recalled by Ferdinand II.
On the death of Ferdinand II.
Finocchiaro, La Rivoluzione siciliana del 1848-49 (Catania, 1906, with bibliography), in which Filangieri is bitterly attacked; see also under NAPLES; FERDINAND IV.; FRANCIS I.; FERDINAND II.; FRANCIS II.
991), and among the later ones were the Austrian archdukes, Leopold and Leopold William, the former a brother and the latter a son of the emperor Ferdinand II.
(by Francavilla), Archduke Leopold, and Ferdinand I.
See Fernao Lopes, Chronica del Rey Dom Pedro (1735); Camoens, Os Lusiadas; Antonio Ferreira's Ines de Castro, - the first regular tragedy of the Renaissance after the Sofonisba of Trissino; Luis Velez de Guevara, Reinar despues de morir, an admirable play; and Ferdinand Denis, Chroniques chevaleresques de l'Espagne et du Portugal.
On the entry of the French into Naples and the establishment of the Parthenopean republic (1799) he adhered to the new government, and when the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV.
On the restoration of Ferdinand Colletta was permitted to retain his rank in the army, and given command of the Salerno division.
and Ferdinand IV.
His first quarrel with Portugal was settled by his marriage, in 1382, with Beatrix, daughter of the Portuguese king Ferdinand.
On the death of his father-in-law in 1383, John endeavoured to enforce the claims of his wife, Ferdinand's only child, to the crown of Portugal.
At one end is a statue of Ferdinand VII., at the other a monument to 63 Cubans executed by the Spanish Government as traitors for bearing arms in the cause of independence.
In 1848 Olmiitz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference took place here between Austrian and German statesmen.
Ketel (a native of Gouda, 1548-1616) and Ferdinand Bol (1616-1680).
Upon the death of Ferdinand VII.
He was resolved not to treat apart from Russia, then the ally of Great Britain, nor to consent to the surrender of Sicily, which Napoleon insisted upon, unless full compensation could be obtained for King Ferdinand.
The mere fact that he was selected to be the tutor of the heir apparent, Ferdinand, afterwards King Ferdinand VII., is of itself a proof that he exerted himself to gain the goodwill of the reigning favourite.
As Ferdinand grew up, and after his marriage with a Neapolitan princess, he became the centre of a court opposition to Godoy and to his policy of alliance with France.
After the outbreak at Aranjuez on the 17th of March 1808, in which he had a share, he became one of the most trusted advisers of Ferdinand.
a Bayona (Honest representation of the causes which inspired the journey of King Ferdinand VII.
When the Spanish royal family was imprisoned by Napoleon, Escoiquiz remained with Ferdinand at Valencay.
When Ferdinand was released in 1814 he came back to Madrid in the hope that his ambition would now be satisfied, but the king was tired of him, and was moreover resolved never to be subjected by any favourite.
Francois Ferdinand Philippe Louis Joinville >>
He visited Spain in 1866, Egypt in 1868, when he went up the Nile with Ferdinand de Lesseps in a steamer lent by the Khedive.
See La Fondation de la regence d'Alger, histoire des Barberousse, chronique arabe du X VI siecle published by Sander Rang and Ferdinand Denis, Paris, 1837 - for a curious Moslem version of their story.
The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz, saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions of Castro and Lara, or of his uncle Ferdinand of Leon, who claimed the regency.
Ferdinand, duke of Genoa 1861.
above sea-level, which in ancient times was a peninsula, the isthmus on the west having been cut through by Ferdinand I.
On the death of Rohan the French knights disagreed as to the selection of his successor, and a minority were able to elect, in 1797, a German of weak character, Ferdinand Hompesch, as the last Grand Master to rule in Malta.
(1797-1870), of Habsburg-Lorraine, grand-duke of Tuscany, was born on the 3rd of October 1797, the son of the grand-duke Ferdinand III., whom he succeeded in 1824.
On the 21st of July Leopold abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand IV., who never reigned, but issued a protest from Dresden (26th March 1860).
On the death of his lawful brother Ferdinand without male issue, in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Beatrice, the only child of Ferdinand who as heiress-apparent had been married to John I.
SWEDEN] See Martin Veibull, Sveriges Storhedstid (Stockholm, 1881); Frederick Ferdinand Carlson, Sveriges Historia under Konungarne af Pfalziska Huset (Stockholm, 1883-1885); E.
Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honore Theodore Paul Joseph (1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.
Espartero became in 1832, on the death of King Ferdinand VII., one of the most ardent defenders of the rights of his daughter, Isabella II.
Service in America was unpopular with the soldiers, and there was much discontent in the country with the government of King Ferdinand VII.
of France, of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, of Henry VII.
The edict of Worms was entirely in harmony with the laws of Western Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes in Germany at that time who really understood or approved Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless - if we except the elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand - the princes, including the ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to publish the edict, much less to enforce it.
These included Ferdinand, duke of Austria, the two dukes of Bavaria, the archbishops of Salzburg and Trent, the bishops of Bamberg, Spires, Strassburg and others.
Henry's elder brother Arthur, a notoriously sickly youth of scarce fifteen, had been married to Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, but had died less than five VIII.
The Catholic sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, adapted an existing hermandad to the purpose of a general police acting under officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with large powers of summary jurisdiction even in capital cases.
After many disappointments he persuaded the Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to furnish him with a squadron of three smalljvessels.
The hope that a passage through to the Spice Islands would be found near existing Spanish settlements was now given up. One was sought farther south, and in November 1520 Ferdinand Magellan passed through the strait which bears his name and sailed across the Pacific. At last the existence of a continent divided by a vast stretch of ocean from Asia, and mostly lying within the sphere of influence assigned to Spain by the pope, was revealed to the world.
When the wide and dangerous powers granted to Columbus by his patent were confiscated, Ferdinand first imposed Bishop Fonseca on him as a check.
The history of this period, which was terminated by the union of Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella in 1479, is given, along with a full account of the very interesting constitution of Aragon, under Spain.
Ferdinand Zirkel >>
Beuthen is an old town, and was formerly the capital of the Bohemian duchy of Beuthen, which in 1620 was ultimately granted, as a free lordship of the Empire, to Lazarus, Baron Henckel von Donnersmarck, by the emperor Ferdinand II., and parts of which, now mediatized, are held by two branches of the counts Henckel von Donnersmarck.
The castle of San Fernando, r m.N.W., is an irregular pentagonal structure, built by order of Ferdinand VI.
LOUIS FERDINAND ALFRED MAURY (1817-1892), French scholar, was born at Meaux on the 23rd of March 1817.
FERDINAND HITZIG (1807-1875), German biblical critic, was born at Hauingen, Baden, where his father was a pastor, on the 23rd of June 1807.
See Heinrich Steiner, Ferdinand Hitzig (1882); and Adolf Kamphausen's article in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie.
It was delivered from the Moors by Ferdinand III.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.