in 1854, his widow, Marie Louise (daughter of Ferdinand, prince of Artois and duke of Berry), became regent for her son Robert.
of France, but in 1492 restored Ferdinand to favour.
An important event of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492), which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of "Catholic Majesty."
He was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, who was already associated with his wife Isabella as joint sovereign of Castile.
and the emperor Ferdinand II.
Ferdinand, Philip's son, who succeeded under Dutillot's regency in 1765, saw his states occupied by the revolutionary forces of France in 1796, and had to purchase his lifeinterest with 6,000,000 lire and 25 of the best paintings in Parma.
In 1650 he succeeded Ferdinand of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne, as bishop of Munster.
Here also stands the mansion erected and occupied by Ferdinand de Lesseps during his residence on the isthmus.
king of England, and Ferdinand II., king of Aragon, to defend the possessions of the duchess Anne, daughter and successor of Francis, duke of Brittany.
in the peninsula, he signed the league of Venice in March 1495, and about the same time arranged a marriage between his son Philip and Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon.
Innocent excommunicated and deposed Ferdinand, king of Naples, by bull of the 11th of September 1489, for refusal to pay the papal dues, and gave his kingdom to Charles VIII.
Ferdinand I of Aragon >>
Four years later (1520) the Portuguese seaman, Ferdinand Magellan, entered the estuary in his celebrated voyage round the world, undertaken in the service of the king of Spain (Charles I., better known as the emperor Charles V.).
Liniers was viceroy on the arrival of the news of the crowning of Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, but as a Frenchman he was distrusted and was deposed by the adherents of Ferdinand VII.
The central junta at Seville, acting in the name of Ferdinand, appointed Balthasar de Cisneros to be viceroy in his place.
There is a fine monument commemorating the war of 1870-71, one (1859) to the local patriot Ferdinand von Schill, and another (1900) to the poet and patriot E.
In 1809 it was the scene of the death of Ferdinand von Schill, in his gallant though ineffectual attempt to rouse his countrymen against the French invaders.
While Ferdinand was occupied with the Bohemian rebels, Bethlen led his armies into Hungary (1619), and soon won over the whole of the northern counties, even securing Pressburg and the Holy Crown.
In Bohemia, Ferdinand II.
took a fearful revenge upon the vanquished; - and Bethlen, regarding a continuation of the war as unprofitable, concluded the peace of Nikolsburg (31st of December 1621), renouncing the royal title on condition that Ferdinand confirmed the peace of Vienna (which had granted full liberty of worship to the Protestants) and engaged to summon a general diet within six months.
After the second of these insurrections, Bethlen attempted a rapprochement with the court of Vienna on the basis of an alliance against the Turks and his own marriage with one of the Austrian archduchesses; but Ferdinand had no confidence in him and rejected his overtures.
(1397-1479), king of Aragon, son of Ferdinand I.
Prescott's History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella (1854).
See Martin Veibull, Sveriges Storhedstid (Stockholm, 1881); Frederick Ferdinand Carlson, Sveriges Historia under Konungarne af Pfalziska Huset (Stockholm, 1883-1885); Robert Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia (Cambridge, 1905); O.
FERDINAND DE LESSEPS (1805-1894).
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.
Ferdinand de Lesseps was also entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria.
In 1832 Ferdinand de Lesseps was appointed vice-consul at Alexandria.
In 1833 Ferdinand de Lesseps was sent as consul to Cairo, and soon afterwards given the management of the consulategeneral at Alexandria, a post that he held until 1837.
In the course of a bloody insurrection in Catalonia, which ended in the bombardment of Barcelona, Ferdinand de Lesseps showed the most persistent bravery, rescuing from death, without distinction, the men belonging to the rival factions, and protecting and sending away not only the Frenchmen who were in danger, but foreigners of all nationalities.
Ferdinand de Lesseps steadily endeavoured to keep out of politics.
Public opinion, it may be declared, designated Ferdinand de Lesseps as the head of the enterprise.
Ferdinand de Lesseps died at La Chenaie on the 7th of December 1894.
But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.
Barnett Smith, The Life and Enterprises of Ferdinand de Lesseps (London, 1893); and Souvenirs de quarante ans, by Ferdinand de Lesseps (trans.
In the following year, by the death, of Ferdinand of Aragon, his maternal grandfather, and the incapacity of his mother Joanna, who had become hopelessly insane, he succeeded to the crowns of Castile and Aragon, which carried with them large possessions in Italy and the dominion, of the New World of America.
Under the Moors it became an independent principality, which was destroyed by Ferdinand II.
His successor Ferdinand took the title of duke of Modena-Breisgau, but on his death in 1805 the Breisgau was divided between Baden and Wurttemberg.
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragon passed together to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The twenty-three years of Alfonsos reign were the most prosperous and splendid period of South Italian history.
Among the most noteworthy examples of such attempts maybe mentioned the revolt of the barons against Ferdinand I.
After Galeazzo Marias assassination, his crown passed to a boy, Gian Galeazzo, who was in due course married to a grand-daughter of Ferdinand I.
The princes of the house of Aragon, now represented by Frederick, a son of Ferdinand I., returned to Naples.
The conquest was easy; but, when it came to a partition, Ferdinand played his ally false.
In 1790 he succeeded to the empire, and left Tuscany to his son Ferdinand.
By marrying her daughter, Maria Amelia, to the young duke of Parma, and another daughter, Maria Carolina, to Ferdinand of Naples, Maria Theresa consolidated Habsburg influence in the north and south of the peninsula.
Two months later Ferdinand of Naples sought for an armistice, the central duchies were easily overrun, and, early in 1797, Pope Pius VI.
These events brought revolution to the gates of the kingdom of Naples, the worst-governed part of Italy, where the boorish king, Ferdinand IV.
King Ferdinand also had to accept a French garrison at Taranto, and other points in the south.
Francis IV., son of the archduke Ferdinand of Austria and Maria Beatrice, daughter of Ercole Rinaldo, the last of the Estensi, was reinstated as duke of Modena.
Tuscany was restored to the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
He received them back in their entirety at the hands of the powers, who recognized his new title of Ferdinand I.
During eight years (1806-1814) the chief places of the island had been garrisoned by British troops; and the commander of the force which upheld the tottering rule of Ferdinand at Palermo naturally had great authority.
Lord William Bentinck finally took over large administrative powers, seeing that Ferdinand, owing to his dulness, and Maria Carolina, owing to her very suspicious intrigues with Napoleon, could never be trusted.
The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
When Ferdinand returned to Naples in 1815 he found the kingdom, and especially the army, honeycombed with CarbonarQevolu- ism, to which many noblemen and officers were tiot, if, affiliated; and although the police instituted prosecuNaples, tions and organized the counter-movement of the 1820.
Charles Louis, the opera Douffe duke of Lucca, who had coquetted with Liberalism in the past, now refused to make any concessions to his subjects, and in Ferdinand III.
At the latters death in 1830 Ferdinand now flew to arms, and the Austrian garrisons, except in the Quadrilateral (Verona, Peschiera, Mantua and Legnano) were expelled.
the 17th Ferdinand dissolved parliament and recalled the army.
Ferdinand did not openly break his constitutional promises until Sicily was reconquered.
Ferdinand at once re-established autocracy in Naples; though the struggle in Sicily did not end until May, when Palermo, after a splendid resistance, capitulated.
order to gain tim.e for reinforcements to arrive, sent Ferdinand de Lesseps to pretend to treat with Mazzini, the envoy himself not being a party to this deception.
In May 1859 Ferdinand of Naples was succeeded by his son Francis II., who gave no signs of any intention to change his fathers policy, and, in spite of Napoleons advice, refused to grant a constitution or to enter into an alliance with Sardinia.
The Spanish governor, Gonzalo de Cordova, had given him a safe-conduct, and he was meditating fresh plans, when Gonzalo arrested him by the order of Ferdinand of Spain as a disturber of the peace of Italy (May 1504).
Torquemada had always been strong in his advice that she should marry Ferdinand of Aragon and thus consolidate the kingdoms of Spain.
He also helped her in quieting Ferdinand, who was chafing under the privileges of the Castilian grandees, and succeeded so well that the king also took him as confessor.
He represented to Ferdinand and Isabella that it was essential to their safety to reorganize the Inquisition, which had since the 13th century (1236) been established in Spain.
Isabella had been for many years prepared, and she and Ferdinand, now that the proposal for this new tribunal came before them, saw in it a means of overcoming the independence of the nobility and clergy by which the royal power had been obstructed.
In 1487 he went with Ferdinand to Malaga and thence to Valladolid, where in the October of 1488 he held another general congregation of the Inquisition and promulgated new laws based on the experience already gained.
On the death of Alphonso in 1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly treated by his successor John, and Abrabanel was compelled to flee to Spain, where he held for eight years (1484-1492) the post of a minister of state under Ferdinand and Isabella.
He foretold the outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in Germany and Austria, and was credited with counselling the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of Francis Joseph.
The palace of the prince, occupying the site of the Turkish konak was built by Prince Alexander in 1880-1882; it has been greatly enlarged by King Ferdinand.
Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria had long been anxious to legalize his position by a reconciliation, and as soon as he got rid of Stamboloff he made advances to the Russian government.
They were well received, and a reconciliation was effected on certain conditions, the first of which was that Prince Ferdinand's eldest son and heir should become a member of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
In February 1823 his opposition to the proposed expedition into Spain to help Ferdinand VII.
The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.
Although during the composition of the Ferdinand and Isabella it had been of very intermittent service to him, it had so far improved that he could read with a certain amount of regularity during the writing of the Conquest of Mexico, and also, though in a less degree, during the years devoted to the Conquest of Peru.
She was a woman of great ability andstrong character, and during the years which followed the death of the emperor Francis was probably the most influential personage at the Austrian court; for the emperor Ferdinand, who succeeded in 1835, was physically and mentally incapable of performing the duties of his office; as he was childless, Francis Joseph was in the direct line of succession.
Ferdinand, now that the young archduke was of age, was able to carry out the abdication which he and his wife had long desired.
Ferdinand retired to Prague, where he died in 1875.
A law was passed by the Hungarian diet regularizing the libdication of Ferdinand; at the beginning of June Francis Joseph signed the inaugural diploma and took the oath in Magyar to observe the constitution; on the 8th he was solemnly crowned king of Hungary.
and the election of Ferdinand.
The choice of the British government fell on Prince Christian William Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-SonderburgGliicksburg, whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the title George I., was recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863).
In 1813 it was restored to Ferdinand I.
In 1759 he became lieutenant-general, and served under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick in the campaigns of 1761-1763.
He soon acquired great influence among the peasants, and from the first took up an attitude of fearless opposition to King Ferdinand's policy.
Leloir, Mirabeau a Pontarlier (1886); Ferdinand Schwartz, Mirabeau and Marie Antoinette (Basel, 1891); and Alfred Mezieres, Vie de Mirabeau (1892).
On the 10th of October 1806 a battle took place near Saalfeld between the French and the Prussians, during which Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.
and his wife Margaret, sister of the emperor Ferdinand II., was born at Valladolid on the 8th of April 1605.
His senile spite vented itself on his son Ferdinand, whose opposition to the all-powerful favourite procured for him hatred at the palace and esteem everywhere else.
Murat, now acting very warily in the hope of gaining the crown of Spain for himself, refused to recognize this act as binding, still more so the accession of Ferdinand VII.
The claimants, each not knowing of the movements of the other, crossed the Pyrenees, and Ferdinand on his arrival at Bayonne found himself to be virtually a prisoner in the hands of the emperor.
As for Ferdinand, the emperor, on hearing the news of a rising in Madrid on the 2nd of May, overwhelmed him with threats, until he resigned the crown into the hands of his father, who had already bargained it away to Napoleon in return for a pension (5th of May 1808).
(Berlin, 1894); Friedrich Ferdinand Carlson, Sveriges Historia under Konungarne of Pfalziska Huset (Stockholm, 1883-1885); Robert Nisbet Bain, Charles XII.
Heinrich Ernst Ferdinand Guericke >>
(1683-1746), king of Spain, founder of the present Bourbon dynasty, was the son of the Dauphin Louis and his wife, Maria Anna, daughter of Ferdinand Maria, elector of Bavaria.
In 1541 the richest mine was hopelessly flooded; in the insurrection of Bohemia against Ferdinand I.
Kerr (1847); Ferdinand I.
and Ferdinand of Aragon for the partition of Naples in 1500, was excused as a thing necessary in the interests of the Crusades.
As Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar he is first mentioned in a charter of Ferdinand I.
Ferdinand, a great and wise prince, under whom the tide of Moslem conquest was first effectually stemmed, on his deathbed, in 1065, divided his territories among his five children.
Huber, Muller, and Ferdinand Wolf are among the leading authorities in the history and literature of the Cid.
FERDINAND ANDRE FOUQUE (1828-1904), French geologist and petrologist, was born at Mortain, dept.
As soon as he had learnt the elements of reading and writing, he was sent as a page to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; afterwards, until his twenty-sixth year, he took service with Antonio Maurique, duke of Nagera, and followed the career of arms. He was free in his relations with women, gambled and fought; but he also gave indications of that courage, constancy and prudence which marked his after life.
His second son, Sancho, enforced his claim to be heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, the elder brother who died in Alphonso's life.
Ponce's hospitable reception by the native chief, Aquebana or Guaybana, and his fairly profitable search for the precious metal led King Ferdinand in 1509 to give him an appointment as temporary governor of the island, where his companions had already established the settlement of Caparra (Pueblo Viejo, near the present San Juan).
Meanwhile Ferdinand had also restored to Diego Columbus, son of the discoverer, the privileges of his father, including the control of the islands of Haiti and Porto Rico.
The island suffered from the reactionary policy of Ferdinand VII., but the few sporadic attempts at revolution between 1815 and 1820 were readily suppressed.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
Konrad Ferdinand Meyer >>
On the 26th of August 1618, Frederick, as a leading Protestant prince, was chosen king by the Bohemians, who deposed the emperor Ferdinand, then archduke of Styria.
Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandia were Cervetri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful and turbulent house, with the pecuniary help of Ferdinand of Aragon, king of Naples (Don Ferrante).
In this he was opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand.
Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war.
Ferdinand appealed to Spain for help; but Spain was anxious to be on good terms with the pope to obtain a title over the newly discovered continent of America and could not afford to quarrel with him.
But through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and also with the Orsini; the peace was cemented by a marriage between the pope's son Giuffre and Dona Sancha, Ferdinand's grand-daughter.
On the 25th of January 1494 Ferdinand died and was succeeded by his son Alphonso II.
Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alphonso fled and abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand II., who also had to fly abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease.
But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico it Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy.
He encountered the allies at Fornovo, and after a drawn battle cut his way through them and was back in France by November; Ferdinand II.
He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage with Sforza in 1497, and, unable to arrange a union between Cesare and the daughter of Frederick, king of Naples (who had succeeded Ferdinand II.
In 1510 and the following years King Ferdinand ordered a number of Africans to be sent to that colony for the working of the mines.
About 1607 Schoppe entered the service of Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., who found him very useful in rebutting the arguments of the Protestants, and who sent him on several diplomatic errands.
Detmold possesses a natural history museum theatre, high school, library, the house in which the poet Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810-1876) was born, and that in which the dramatist Christian Dietrich Grabbe (1801-1836), also a native, died.
FERDINAND LASSALLE (1825-1864), German socialist, was born at Breslau on the 11th of April 1825, of Jewish extraction.
His father, a prosperous merchant in Breslau, intended Ferdinand for a business career, and sent him to the commercial school at Leipzig; but the boy got himself transferred to the university, first at Breslau, and afterwards at Berlin.
Oncken's Lassalle (Stuttgart, 1904); another excellent work on his life and writings is George Brandes's Danish work, Ferdinand Lassalle (German translation, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1900).
Aaberg, Ferdinand Lassalle (Leipzig, 1883); C. v.
Lassalles sozialiikonomische A nschauungen and praktische" Vorschlage (Jena, 1895); Seilliere, Etudes sur Ferdinand Lassalle (Paris, 1897); E.
Ovando, the governor of Hispaniola (Haiti), who had exhausted the labour of that island, turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand authorized him to procure labourers from these islands.
But the crown of Hungary was claimed by the archduke Ferdinand, brother of the emperor Charles V., as being king Louis's brother-in-law.
Meanwhile Ferdinand's troops captured Budapest, driving out Zapolya, who at once appealed to Suleiman for aid.
In 1533 a truce was arranged, Hungary being divided between Zapolya and Ferdinand.
Friendly relations had subsisted between Suleiman and Ferdinand during the expedition to Persia; but on the death of Zapolya in 1539 Ferdinand claimed Hungary and besieged Budapest with a large force.
On the 2nd of September Suleiman entered the city, and to the ambassadors of Ferdinand, who came to offer a yearly sum if the sultan would recognize his claim to Hungary, he replied that he had taken possession of it by the sword and would negotiate only after the surrender of Gran, Tata, Visegrad and Szekesfehervar.
A truce, on the basis of uti possidetis, signed at Adrianople on the 19th of June 1547 for five years, between the sultan, the emperor and Ferdinand I.
king of Hungary, recognized the Turkish conquests in Hungary; while, for the portion left to him, Ferdinand consented to pay an annual tribute of 30,000 ducats.
When the sultan discovered that Martinuzzi, who was all-powerful in Transylvania, had actually arranged to hand over the country to Ferdinand, he threw the Austrian ambassador into prison, and in September 1551 sent an army, 80,000 strong, under Mahommed Sokolli over the Danube.
Before the surrender of the city, however, he was murdered by Ferdinand's orders on strong suspicion of treachery.
In the spring of 1553 the victories of the Persians called for the sultan's presence in the East; a truce for six months was now concluded between the envoys of Ferdinand and the pasha of Budapest, and Austrian ambassadors were sent to Constantinople to arrange a peace.
But the negotiations dragged on without result; the war continued with hideous barbarities on both sides; and it was not until the 1st of June 1562 that it was concluded by the treaty signed at Prague by Ferdinand, now emperor.
Suleiman kept the possessions he had won by the sword, Temesvar, Szolnok, Tata and other places in Hungary; Transylvania was assigned to John Sigismund, the Habsburg claim to interference being categorically denied; Ferdinand bound himself to pay, not only the annual tribute of 30,000 ducats, but all the arrears that had meanwhile accumulated.
In 1564 Ferdinand died, and was succeeded by Maximilian II.
The attempt of the archduke Ferdinand, at the head of 30,000 men, to retake it a year later was defeated.
On the 3rd of February 1910 the Porte accepted a Bulgarian proposal for a mixed commission to delimit disputed sections of the Turco-Bulgarian frontier, and in March King Ferdinand visited Constantinople.
On the 22nd of October, the day after Trafalgar, the remnant of the Austrian army, 23,000 strong, laid down its arms. About 5000 men under Jellachich had escaped to Tirol, 2000 cuirassiers with Prince Ferdinand to Eger in Bohemia, and about io,000 men under Werneck, had surrendered at Heidenheim.
On the night of the loth, 1 At the action of Saalfeld on the loth, the young and gallant Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.
In 1622 the emperor Ferdinand II.
Each successive occupant of the Spanish throne has done something, however slight, to the restoration or adornment of Philip's convent-palace, and Ferdinand VII.
(1516-1556), of Philip II., and of all their successors on the Spanish throne down to Ferdinand VII., with the exception of Philip V.
(1700-1746) and Ferdinand VI.
The Spanish people, in an outburst of fury against the king and Godoy, forced the former to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand; but the inhabitants of Madrid having (May 2,18°8) risen against the French, Napoleon refused to recognize Ferdinand; both he and the king were compelled to renounce their rights to the throne, and a mercenary council of regency having been induced to desire the French emperor to make his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king, he acceded to their request.2 The mask was now completely thrown off, and Spain and Portugal rose against the French.
The king, the queen and Godoy were eventually removed to Rome, and Ferdinand to Valengay in France.
Ferdinand Hitzig >>
A fortnight later he wrote to Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, "The sky begins to clear.
Sarno has the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to Count Francesco Coppola, who took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Aragon in 1485.
When Ferdinand I.
Thereupon Alphonso, duke of Calabria, who was fighting in Tuscany on the side of his father Ferdinand, came to an agreement with Siena and, in the same way as his grandfather Alphonso, tried to obtain the lordship of the city and the recall of the exiled rebels in 1456.
This was the archduke Ferdinand, who claimed the Hungarian crown by right of inheritance in the name of his wife, Anne, sister of the late king.
Ferdinand was elected (Dec. 16) by a scratch assembly consisting of deputies from Croatia and the towns Ferdinand of Pressburg and Sopron; but he speedily improved °fAustr;a g P Y P elected.
The determination of Ferdinand to partition Hungary rather than drive the Turks out, which he might easily have done after Suleiman's unsuccessful attempts on Vienna in 1529-1530, led to a prolongation of the struggle till the 24th of February 1538, when, by the secret peace of Nagyvarad, 3 Hungary was divided between the two competitors.
By this treaty Ferdinand retained Croatia-Slavonia and the five western counties with Pressburg and Esztergom (Gran), while Zapolya kept the remaining two-thirds with the royal title.
Indeed, Ferdinand regarded his narrow strip of Hungarian territory as simply a barrier behind which he could better defend the hereditary states.
Ferdinand at once asserted his rights by force of arms, and attacked Buda in May 1541, despite the urgent remonstrances of Martinuzzi, who knew that the Turk would never suffer the emperor to reign at Buda.
During the six following years the sultan still further improved his position, capturing, amongst many other places, Pecs, and the primatial city of Esztergom; but, in 1547, the exigencies of the Persian war induced him to sell a truce of five years to Ferdinand for £100,000, on a uti possidetis basis, Ferdinand holding thirty-five counties (including Croatia and Slavonia) for which he was to pay an annual tribute of £60,000; John Sigismund retaining Transylvania and sixteen adjacent counties with the title of prince, while the rest of the land, comprising most of the central counties, was annexed to the Turkish empire.
During the reign of Ferdinand, whose consort, Anne, was a Hungarian princess, things were at least tolerable; but under Maximilian (1564-1576) and Rudolph (1576-1612)1612) the antagonism of the Habsburgs towards their Magyar subjects was only too apparent.
Under Ferdinand the parochial clergy were tempted to become Lutherans by the prospect of matrimony, and, in reply to the remonstrances of their bishops, declared that they would rather give up their cures than their wives.
To this weakened and terrorized assembly the emperorking explained that he had the right to treat Hungary as a conquered country, but that he was prepared to confirm its constitutional liberties under three conditions: the inaugural diploma was to be in the form signed by Ferdinand I., the crown was to be declared hereditary in the house of Habsburg, and the 31st clause of the Golden Bull, authorizing armed resistance to unconstitutional acts of the sovereign, was to be abrogated.
The alarm of the government at the power and popularity of the Liberal party induced it, soon after the accession of the new king, the emperor Ferdinand I.
A still further step was taken when, on the 2nd of December, the emperor Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his nephew Francis Joseph.
On the 7th the Hungarian diet formally refused to acknowledge the title of the new king, " as without the knowledge and consent of the diet no one could sit on the Hungarian throne," and called the nation to arms. Constitutionally, in the Magyar opinion, Ferdinand was still king of Hungary, and this gave to the revolt an excuse of legality.
A Magyar version, by Ferdinand Barna, of the Kalewala was published at Pest in 1871.
The year of Richelieu's triumph over the Huguenots (1629) was also that of the Emperor Ferdinand's triumph in Germany, marked by the Edict of Restitution, and France was threatened by a united Germany.
From this group came the young Bosnian Serb students Princip, Cabrinovic, Graben and others, who murdered the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and the Duchess of Hohenberg at Sarajevo on June 28 1914, and thus lit a spark in the European powder magazine.
The duc de Dalberg had inherited the family property of Herrnsheim from his uncle the arch-chancellor Karl von Dalberg, and this estate passed, through his daughter and heiress, Marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg, by her marriage with Sir (Ferdinand) Richard Edward Acton, 7th baronet (who assumed the additional name of Dalberg), to her son the historian, John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton.
Other illustrious natives of the town were the emperor Ferdinand I.
The part played by Count Frederick V., titular king of Bohemia, during the Thirty Years' War induced the emperor Ferdinand II.
Three hundred medical writers in Arabic are enumerated by Ferdinand Wiistenfeld (1808-1899), and other historians have enlarged the list (Haser), but only three have been printed in the original; a certain number more are known through old Latin translations, and the great majority still exist in manuscript.
See also the biography by Ferdinand Lot in the Annuaire de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes for 1901; and the bibliography of his works by Henry Maistre in the Correspondance historique et archeologique (1899 and 1900).
The cost of these two marches in the year was very considerable, and, having been suspended in 1528 on account of the prevai 1 " A map of London engraved on copper-plate, dated 1497," which was bought by Ferdinand Columbus during his travels in Europe about 1518-1525, is entered in the catalogue of Ferdinand's books, maps, &c., made by himself and preserved in the Cathedral Library at Seville, but there is no clue to its existence.
After the restoration of Ferdinand VII.
Before Ferdinand VII.
When the Carlist rising began on the death of Ferdinand he is said to have held back because he knew that the first leaders would be politicians and talkers.
1206), and then his son-in-law, Ferrand (Ferdinand) of Portugal, count of Flanders, disputed the possession of the country with the king of France, Ferrand being in the coalition which was overthrown by Philip Augustus at Bouvines (1214).
He was excommunicated by Sixtus, who, together with King Ferdinand of Naples, waged war against him; no great successes were registered on either side at first, but eventually the Florentines were defeated at Poggio Imperiale (near Poggibonsi) and the city itself was in danger.
During the Napoleonic wars the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
In 1809 Florence was made capital of the kingdom of Etruria, but after the fall of Napoleon in 1814 Ferdinand was reinstated.
(1500-1558) down to Ferdinand VII.
On the 29th of November 187.9 he married a princess of Austria, Maria Christina, daughter of the Archduke Charles Ferdinand.
On the restoration of the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV.
In 1831 he was recalled by Ferdinand II.
On the death of Ferdinand II.
Finocchiaro, La Rivoluzione siciliana del 1848-49 (Catania, 1906, with bibliography), in which Filangieri is bitterly attacked; see also under NAPLES; FERDINAND IV.; FRANCIS I.; FERDINAND II.; FRANCIS II.
991), and among the later ones were the Austrian archdukes, Leopold and Leopold William, the former a brother and the latter a son of the emperor Ferdinand II.
(by Francavilla), Archduke Leopold, and Ferdinand I.
See Fernao Lopes, Chronica del Rey Dom Pedro (1735); Camoens, Os Lusiadas; Antonio Ferreira's Ines de Castro, - the first regular tragedy of the Renaissance after the Sofonisba of Trissino; Luis Velez de Guevara, Reinar despues de morir, an admirable play; and Ferdinand Denis, Chroniques chevaleresques de l'Espagne et du Portugal.
On the entry of the French into Naples and the establishment of the Parthenopean republic (1799) he adhered to the new government, and when the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV.
On the restoration of Ferdinand Colletta was permitted to retain his rank in the army, and given command of the Salerno division.
and Ferdinand IV.
His first quarrel with Portugal was settled by his marriage, in 1382, with Beatrix, daughter of the Portuguese king Ferdinand.
On the death of his father-in-law in 1383, John endeavoured to enforce the claims of his wife, Ferdinand's only child, to the crown of Portugal.
At one end is a statue of Ferdinand VII., at the other a monument to 63 Cubans executed by the Spanish Government as traitors for bearing arms in the cause of independence.
In 1848 Olmiitz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference took place here between Austrian and German statesmen.
Ketel (a native of Gouda, 1548-1616) and Ferdinand Bol (1616-1680).
Upon the death of Ferdinand VII.
He was resolved not to treat apart from Russia, then the ally of Great Britain, nor to consent to the surrender of Sicily, which Napoleon insisted upon, unless full compensation could be obtained for King Ferdinand.
The mere fact that he was selected to be the tutor of the heir apparent, Ferdinand, afterwards King Ferdinand VII., is of itself a proof that he exerted himself to gain the goodwill of the reigning favourite.
As Ferdinand grew up, and after his marriage with a Neapolitan princess, he became the centre of a court opposition to Godoy and to his policy of alliance with France.
After the outbreak at Aranjuez on the 17th of March 1808, in which he had a share, he became one of the most trusted advisers of Ferdinand.
a Bayona (Honest representation of the causes which inspired the journey of King Ferdinand VII.
When the Spanish royal family was imprisoned by Napoleon, Escoiquiz remained with Ferdinand at Valencay.
When Ferdinand was released in 1814 he came back to Madrid in the hope that his ambition would now be satisfied, but the king was tired of him, and was moreover resolved never to be subjected by any favourite.
Francois Ferdinand Philippe Louis Joinville >>
He visited Spain in 1866, Egypt in 1868, when he went up the Nile with Ferdinand de Lesseps in a steamer lent by the Khedive.
See La Fondation de la regence d'Alger, histoire des Barberousse, chronique arabe du X VI siecle published by Sander Rang and Ferdinand Denis, Paris, 1837 - for a curious Moslem version of their story.
The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz, saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions of Castro and Lara, or of his uncle Ferdinand of Leon, who claimed the regency.
Ferdinand, duke of Genoa 1861.
above sea-level, which in ancient times was a peninsula, the isthmus on the west having been cut through by Ferdinand I.
On the death of Rohan the French knights disagreed as to the selection of his successor, and a minority were able to elect, in 1797, a German of weak character, Ferdinand Hompesch, as the last Grand Master to rule in Malta.
(1797-1870), of Habsburg-Lorraine, grand-duke of Tuscany, was born on the 3rd of October 1797, the son of the grand-duke Ferdinand III., whom he succeeded in 1824.
On the 21st of July Leopold abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand IV., who never reigned, but issued a protest from Dresden (26th March 1860).
On the death of his lawful brother Ferdinand without male issue, in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Beatrice, the only child of Ferdinand who as heiress-apparent had been married to John I.
SWEDEN] See Martin Veibull, Sveriges Storhedstid (Stockholm, 1881); Frederick Ferdinand Carlson, Sveriges Historia under Konungarne af Pfalziska Huset (Stockholm, 1883-1885); E.
Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honore Theodore Paul Joseph (1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.
Espartero became in 1832, on the death of King Ferdinand VII., one of the most ardent defenders of the rights of his daughter, Isabella II.
Service in America was unpopular with the soldiers, and there was much discontent in the country with the government of King Ferdinand VII.
of France, of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, of Henry VII.
The edict of Worms was entirely in harmony with the laws of Western Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes in Germany at that time who really understood or approved Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless - if we except the elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand - the princes, including the ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to publish the edict, much less to enforce it.
These included Ferdinand, duke of Austria, the two dukes of Bavaria, the archbishops of Salzburg and Trent, the bishops of Bamberg, Spires, Strassburg and others.
Henry's elder brother Arthur, a notoriously sickly youth of scarce fifteen, had been married to Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, but had died less than five VIII.
The Catholic sovereigns, Ferdinand and Isabella, adapted an existing hermandad to the purpose of a general police acting under officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with large powers of summary jurisdiction even in capital cases.
After many disappointments he persuaded the Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to furnish him with a squadron of three smalljvessels.
The hope that a passage through to the Spice Islands would be found near existing Spanish settlements was now given up. One was sought farther south, and in November 1520 Ferdinand Magellan passed through the strait which bears his name and sailed across the Pacific. At last the existence of a continent divided by a vast stretch of ocean from Asia, and mostly lying within the sphere of influence assigned to Spain by the pope, was revealed to the world.
When the wide and dangerous powers granted to Columbus by his patent were confiscated, Ferdinand first imposed Bishop Fonseca on him as a check.
The history of this period, which was terminated by the union of Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella in 1479, is given, along with a full account of the very interesting constitution of Aragon, under Spain.
Ferdinand Zirkel >>
Beuthen is an old town, and was formerly the capital of the Bohemian duchy of Beuthen, which in 1620 was ultimately granted, as a free lordship of the Empire, to Lazarus, Baron Henckel von Donnersmarck, by the emperor Ferdinand II., and parts of which, now mediatized, are held by two branches of the counts Henckel von Donnersmarck.
The castle of San Fernando, r m.N.W., is an irregular pentagonal structure, built by order of Ferdinand VI.
LOUIS FERDINAND ALFRED MAURY (1817-1892), French scholar, was born at Meaux on the 23rd of March 1817.
FERDINAND HITZIG (1807-1875), German biblical critic, was born at Hauingen, Baden, where his father was a pastor, on the 23rd of June 1807.
See Heinrich Steiner, Ferdinand Hitzig (1882); and Adolf Kamphausen's article in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopadie.
It was delivered from the Moors by Ferdinand III.
- The materials for the investigation of this singular phase of prehistoric life were first collected and systematized by Dr Ferdinand Keller (1800-1881), of Zurich, and printed in Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Zurich, vols.
The substance of these reports has been issued as a separate work in England, The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and other parts of Europe, by Dr Ferdinand Keller, translated and arranged by John Edward Lee, 2nd ed.
In 1331 it was a member of the league of Swabian towns; in 1530 it was one of the four towns which presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana to the emperor Ferdinand I.; and a few years later it joined the league of Schmalkalden.
- The works of Hedenstrbm, Ferdinand von Wrangell, and Anjou, Bunge and Toll in Beitrdge zur Kenntniss des russischen Reichs, ate Folge, Bd.
She returned as usual by way of Darmstadt, and shortly after her arrival at Windsor paid a visit to Baron Ferdinand Rothschild at Waddesdon Manor.
of Naples, and the erection of the royal palace, begun by Luigi Vanvitelli (van Wittel) in 1752, but not completed until 1774 for Charles's son Ferdinand IV.
Leucio, a village founded by Ferdinand IV.
The last of these, Ferdinand, who succeeded in 1848, granted a liberal constitution to his people, but cancelled it during the reaction of 1852.
When he was told that his son Ferdinand was appealing to the emperor Napoleon against Godoy, he took the side of the favourite.
He took refuge in France, and when he and Ferdinand were both prisoners of Napoleon's, he was with difficulty restrained from assaulting his son.
Meanwhile the Spanish government was considering whether the Moluccas did not fall within the Spanish sphere of influence as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494; and in August 1519 an expedition commanded by Ferdinand Magellan sailed from Seville to seek a westward passage to the archipelago.
Ferdinand August Bebel >>
He greatly distinguished himself, and for his intrepidity on one occasion he was decorated with the Cross of the highest military Order of St Ferdinand.
in 1635 from the designs of Avanzini, and finished by Francis Ferdinand V., is an extensive building with a fine courtyard, and now contains the military school and the observatory.
His only daughter, Maria Beatrice, married Ferdinand of Austria (son of Maria Theresa), and in 1814 their eldest son, Francis, received back the Stati Estensi.
Francis Ferdinand V., who succeeded in 1846, followed in the main his father's example.
A granite column near the town marks the spot where Ferdinand I., in 1527, swore fidelity to the Bohemian states.
The archduke Ferdinand offered a pension of 400 florins, if he would only come to reside at Vienna.
In 1758, under the duke of Marlborough, he shared in the ineffective raid on Cancale Bay, and the troops, after a short sojourn in the Isle of Wight, were sent to join the allied army of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick in Germany.
But no sooner had he taken over the command than his haughty and domineering temper estranged him both from his second-in-command, Lord Granby, and the commander-in-chief, Prince Ferdinand.
But Sackville, in spite of repeated orders from Prince Ferdinand, sullenly refused to allow Granby's squadrons to advance.
Ferdinand undertook to make peace, and the Treaty of Passau, signed in August 1552, was the result.
Witter, Die Beziehung and der Verkehr des Kurfiirsten Moritz mit Konig Ferdinand (Jena, 1886); L.
Immediately after the death of King Louis, who fell on the field of battle, the emperor Ferdinand and John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania, competed for the vacant crown, and both were elected almost simultaneously.
Sigismund, on the other hand, favoured Ferdinand of Austria.
It was owing to Laski's intrigues that the new hospodar of Moldavia, Petrylo, after doing homage to the Porte, intervened in the struggle as the foe of both Ferdinand and Sigismund, and besieged the Grand Hetman of the Crown, Jan Tarnowski, in Obertyn, where, however, the Moldavians (August 22, 1531) sustained a crushing defeat, and Petrylo was slain.
Ferdinand was one of the first sovereigns to enter into diplomatic relations with the French republic (1793); and although, a few months later, he was compelled by England and Russia to join the coalition against France, he concluded peace with that power in 1795, and by observing a strict neutrality saved his dominions from invasion by the French, except for a temporary occupation of Livorno, till 1799, when he was compelled to vacate his throne, and a provisional Republican government was established at Florence.
Shortly afterwards the French arms suffered severe reverses in Italy, and Ferdinand was restored to his territories; but in 1801, by the peace of Luneville, Tuscany was converted into the kingdom of Etruria, and he was again compelled to return to Vienna.
The mild rule of Ferdinand, his solicitude for the welfare of his subjects, his enlightened patronage of art and science, his encouragement of commerce, and his toleration render him an honourable exception to the generality of Italian princes.
(in the Archivio Storico Italiano, 1877); Emmer, Erzherzog Ferdinand III., Grossherzog von Toskana (Salzburg, 1871); C. Tivaroni, L' Italia durante it dominio francese, ii.
Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria Ferdinand >>
Juan Miguel de Vives, announced, amid universal acclamation, his resolution to support Ferdinand VII.
Already more than one suitor had made application for her hand, Ferdinand of Aragon, who ultimately became her husband, being among the number; for some little time she was engaged to his elder brother Charles, who died in 1461.
Finally however, in face of very great difficulties, she was married to Ferdinand of Aragon at Valladolid 'on the 19th of October 1469.
Thence forward the fortunes of Ferdinand and Isabella were inseparably blended.
Prescott, History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella (1837), where the original authorities are exhaustively enumerated; and for later researches, Baron de Nervo, Isabella the Catholic, translated by Lieut.-Col.
Herein lies the permanent importance of the work of Ferdinand Christian Baur, professor of theology at Tubingen from 1826 to 1860.
and Ferdinand the Catholic strengthened the power of the towns and forbade the erection of any fortified house in the country.
This kind of independence and autonomy lasted unchallenged until the death of Ferdinand VII.
In 1858 he succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Svanberg (1806-1857) in the chair of physics at Upsala, and there he died on the 21st of June 1874.
Weizsacker's other works include Zur Kritik des Barnabasbriefs (1863) and Ferdinand Christian Baur (1892).
In Spain they came back with Ferdinand VII., but were expelled at the constitutional rising in 1820, returning in 1823, when the duke of Angouleme's army replaced Ferdinand on his throne; they were driven out once more by Espartero in 1835, and have had no legal position since, though their presence is openly tolerated.
In the 17th century Teplitz belonged to the Kinskys, and after Kinsky's murder (25th February 1634) the lordship was granted by Ferdinand II.
When the kingdom of Naples was overrun by the French and the Parthenopaean Republic established (1799), Cardinal Ruffo, acting on behalf of the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV., who had fled to Sicily, undertook the reconquest of the country, and for this purpose he raised bands of peasants, gaol-birds, brigands, &c., under the name of Sanfedisti or bande della Santa Fede (" bands of the Holy Faith").
At Naples, where he studied law and displayed great literary activity, he rapidly acquired a prominent position, and in 1848 was instrumental in persuading Ferdinand II.
In the following year the archduke Ferdinand, on assuming the government of his hereditary dominions, issued an edict of banishment against Protestant preachers and professors.
The emperor Ferdinand II., too happy to transfer the burden, countenanced an arrangement by which Kepler entered the service of the duke of Friedland (Wallenstein), who assumed the full responsibility of the debt.
At last, in 1810, the events in Spain which brought about the Peninsular War had divided the authorities in Spanish America, some of whom declared for Joseph Bonaparte, others for Ferdinand VII., others for Charles IV., and Miranda again landed, and got a large party together who declared a republic both in Venezuela and New Granada or Colombia.
In the immediate neighbourhood of the cathedral is the mausoleum church erected by the emperor Ferdinand II.
From the earlier part of the i 5th century Graz was the residence of one branch of the family of Habsburg, a branch which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Ferdinand II.
New fortifications were constructed in the end of the, 6th century by Franz von Poppendorf, and in 1644 the town afforded an asylum to the family of Ferdinand III.
FERDINAND I., king of Aragon (1373-1416), called "of Antequera," was the son of John I.
As infante of Castile Ferdinand had played an honourable part.
Ferdinand refused to despoil his brother's infant son, and even if he did not act on the moral ground he alleged, his sagacity must have shown him that he would be at the mercy of the men who had chosen him in such circumstances.
and daughter of John of Gaunt by his marriage with Constance, daughter of Peter the Cruel and Maria de Padilla, Ferdinand proved a good ruler.
Ferdinand V >>
During the regency of the king's uncle Ferdinand, which ended in 1412, he was not allowed to be more than a servant.
When, however, Ferdinand was elected king of Aragon, and the regency remained in the hands of the king's mother, Constance, daughter of John of Gaunt, a foolish and dissolute woman, Alvaro became a very important person.
On the western breakwater is a colossal statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps by E.
Daughters of Philip of Swabia married Ferdinand III., king of Castile and Leon, and Henry II, duke of Brabant, and a daughter of Conrad, brother of the emperor Frederick I., married into the family of Guelph.
The settlement was first named in honour of Ferdinand VII., and later in honour of Captain-General Jose Cienfuegos Jovellanos.
died on the 2nd of March 1835, Ferdinand was recognized as his successor.
Ferdinand had good taste for art and music. Some modification of the tight-handed rule of his father was made by the Staatsconferenz during his reign.
Ferdinand I of Naples >>
In 1248 it received a town charter, and was governed by the laws of Magdeburg until the time of Ferdinand I., having a special court of jurisdiction over all the royal towns where this law obtained.
In the Hussite wars, after its capture by the utraquist, Leitmeritz remained true to "the Chalice," shared also in the revolt against Ferdinand I., and suffered in consequence.
From 1377 to 1396 Gorlitz was a separate duchy ruled by John, a son of the emperor Charles IV., and, like Lower Lusatia, Upper Lusatia owned the authority of Matthias Corvinus from 1469 to 1490, both districts passing a little later with the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia to the German king, Ferdinand I.
In 1620, early in the Thirty Years' War, the two Lusatias were conquered by the elector of Saxony, John George I., who was allowed to keep them as the price of his assistance to the emperor Ferdinand I.
The 16th-century Fortezza Vecchia, guarding the harbour, is picturesque, and there is a good bronze statue of the grand duke Ferdinand I.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
He left his conquest of Naples to his bastard son Ferdinand; his inherited lands, Sicily and Sardinia, going to his brother John who survived him.]
of Denmark, the emperor Ferdinand II., and for the Swedes both before and after the death of Gustavus Adolphus.
English money, however, came to the rescue; in 1758 Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, cleared the electorate of the invader; and Hanover suffered no loss of territory at the peace of 1763.
FERDINAND VANDEVEER HAYDEN (1829-1887), American geologist, was born at Westfield, Massachusetts, on the 7th of September 1829.
After being betrothed successively to Gaston de Foix, Charles of Austria (the future emperor Charles V.), his brother Ferdinand, Henry VIII.
Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden >>
AUGUSTE FERDINAND FRANCOIS MARIETTE (1821-1881), French Egyptologist, was born on the 11th of February 1821 at Boulogne, where his father was town clerk.
Later he rejoined Nelson on the coast of the two Sicilies, receiving for his services the order of St Ferdinand.
is mainly occupied by his troubles with the faithless Ferdinand of Naples.
The true tendency of affairs manifested itself in 1629, when the emperor Ferdinand II.
He illustrated his discovery before the emperor Ferdinand III.
But a drastic revolution in their government was imposed upon them by the German king, Ferdinand I., who had been prevented from interference during his early reign by his wars with the Turks, and who showed little disposition to check the Reformation in Silesia by forcible means, but subsequently reasserted the control of the Bohemian crown by a series of important enactments.
Availing himself of a testamentary union made in 1 537 between the duke of Liegnitz and the elector of Brandenburg, and of an attempt by the elector Frederick William to call it into force in spite of its annulment by Ferdinand I.
On the return of King Ferdinand VII.
The successful resistance offered by Asturias to the invaders had been followed by the liberation of Galicia and Leon, when Ferdinand I.
In the fuero of Cardena, for example, granted by Ferdinand I.
Latterly the word fuero came to be used in Castile in a wider sense than before, as meaning a general code of laws; thus about the time of Saint Ferdinand the old Lex Visigothorum, then translated for the first time into the vernacular, was called the Fuero Juzgo, a name which was soon retranslated into the barbarous Latin of the period as Forum Judicum; 4 and among the compilations of Alphonso the Learned in like manner were an Espejo de Fueros and also the Fuero de las leyes, better known perhaps as the Fuero Real.
4 This Latin is later even than that of Ferdinand, whose words are: "Statuo et mando quod Liber Judicum, quo ego misi Cordubam, translatetur in vulgarem et vocetur forum de Corduba ...
Their rights, after having been recognized by successive Spanish sovereigns from Ferdinand theCatholic to Ferdinand VII., were, at the death of the latter in 1833, set aside by the government of Castaiios.
Ferdinand Andre Fouque >>
Ferdinand de Lesseps >>
of Castile, and Ferdinand of Portugal by Edmund of Langley, earl of Cambridge.
The Order of the Starry Cross, for high-born ladies of the Roman Catholic faith who devote themselves to good works, spiritual and temporal, was founded in 1668 by the empress -Eleanor, widow of the emperor Ferdinand III.
The Order of SS Cyril and Methodius was instituted in 1909 by King Ferdinand to commemorate the elevation of the principality to the position of an independent kingdom.
It now takes precedence of the Order of St Alexander, which was founded by Prince Alexander in 1881, and reconstituted by Prince Ferdinand in 1888.
In 1493 the grand-mastership was annexed by Ferdinand the Catholic, and was vested permanently in the crown of Spain by Pope Adrian VI.
In1494-1495Juan de Zuniga was prevailed upon to resign the grand-mastership to Ferdinand, who thereupon vested it in his own person as king; and this arrangement was ratified by a bull of Pope Alexander VI., and was declared permanent by Pope Adrian VI.
When Joseph Bonaparte became king of Spain in 1808, he deprived the knights of their revenues, which were only partially recovered on the restoration of Ferdinand VII.
In 1489 Ferdinand seized the grandmastership, and it was finally vested in the crown of Spain in 1523.
In 1814 Ferdinand VII.
Other Spanish orders are the Maria Louisa, 1792, for noble ladies; the military and naval orders of merit of St Ferdinand, founded by the Cortes in 1811.
Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin >>
FERDINAND VII., king of Spain (1784-1833), the eldest son of Charles IV., king of Spain, and of his wife Maria Louisa of Parma, was born at the palace of San Ildefonso near Balsain in the Somosierra hills, on the 14th of October 1784.
We have to distinguish the part of Ferdinand VII.
When detected, Ferdinand betrayed his associates, and grovelled to his parents.
When at the beginning of 1823, as a result of the congress of Verona, the French invaded Spain,' "invoking the God of St Louis, for the sake of preserving the throne of Spain to a descendant of Henry IV., and of reconciling that fine kingdom with Europe," and in May the revolutionary party carried Ferdinand to Cadiz, he continued to make promises of amendment till he was free.
During his last years Ferdinand's energy was abated.
Ferdinand died on the 29th of September 1833.
Since the reign of Ferdinand VII.
King Ferdinand VII.
Ferdinand II of Sicily >>
A year later an expedition under Dr Ferdinand V.
The appearance of the plague at Padua obliged him to retire to his native city, whence he was, shortly afterwards, called to act as tutor to Ferrante (Ferdinand) Gonzaga, from whom he received the rich abbey of Guastalla.
Thus he was easily induced to vote for the election of Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, as emperor in August 1619, an action which nullified the anticipated opposition of the Protestant electors.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
William followed the traditional Wittelsbach policy, opposition to the Habsburgs, until in 1534 he made a treaty at Linz with Ferdinand, king of Hungary and Bohemia.
William, whose death occurred in March 1550, was succeeded by his son Albert IV., who had married a daughter of Ferdinand of Habsburg, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand I.
Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria (1651-1679), who was a minor when he succeeded, did much indeed to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries, and building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries.
The Cardinal Infant Ferdinand had been appointed governor of the Netherlands, and he proved himself an excellent general, and there were dissensions in the councils of the allies.
(1894-), King of Bulgaria, eldest son of King Ferdinand (see 10.269) and of Marie Louise de Bourbon, eldest daughter of Duke Robert of Parma, was born at Sofia, Jan.
On the abdication of King Ferdinand, immediately after the Armistice which put an end to Bulgaria's disastrous share in the World War, Boris succeeded his father, Oct.
In the middle ages Baeza was a flourishing Moorish city, said to contain 50,000 inhabitants; but it was sacked in 1239 by Ferdinand III.
From this time the town remained faithful to the royal cause, and in 1547 was granted by the emperor Ferdinand the privilege of ranking at the diet next to Prague and Pilsen.
Ferdinand Magellan >>
In 1646 Bremen received the privileges of a free imperial city from the emperor Ferdinand III.; but Sweden, whose possession of the archbishopric was recognized two years later, refused to consent to this, and in 1666 attempted vainly to assert her claims over the city by arms - in the socalled Bremen War.
The cardinal arch- Peace of g duke Ferdinand, governor-general from 1634-1641, was a capable ruler, and by his military skill prevented in a succession III.
In the history of literature an important work is compiled by Ferdinand van der Haeghen and others in the Bibliotheca Belgica (1880, &c.), comprising a description of all the books printed in the Netherlands in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In 1786 the elector of Trier, Clement Wenceslaus of Saxony, took up his residence in the town, and gave great assistance in its extension and improvement; a few years later it became, through the invitation of his minister, Ferdinand, Freiherr von Duminique, one of the principal rendezvous of the French emigres.
In 1750, however, Ferdinand VI.
There are, however, some churches with graceful towers and beautiful facades and a few attractive monuments; among the latter are one standing on the Magellan Plaza (Plaza or Paseo de Magellanes) beside the Pasig, to the memory of Ferdinand Magellan, the discoverer of the islands; and another by A.
The duke now, in response to an invitation from King Ferdinand IV., visited Palermo where, on the 25th of November 1809 he married Princess Maria Amelia, the king's daughter.
His eldest son, the popular Ferdinand Philippe, duke of Orleans (b.
The other children were Louise, consort of Leopold I., king of the Belgians; Marie, who married Prince Alexander of Wurttemberg and died in 1839; Louis Charles, duc de Nemours; Clementine, married to the duke of Coburg-Kohary; Francois Ferdinand, prince de Joinville; Henri Eugene, duc d'Aumale; Antoine Philippe, duc de Montpensier, who married the Infanta, younger sister of Queen Isabella of Spain.
Among these was the grand-duke of Tuscany (Ferdinand II.), who took away some works and a portrait to adorn the Medicean library.
Important later editions are those of Ferdinand Tonnies, Behemoth (1889), on which see Croom Robertson's Philosophical Remains (1894), p. 45 1; Elements of Law (1889).
A monument outside the town commemorates eleven of Ferdinand von Schill's officers who were shot here on the 16th of September 1809 after their unsuccessful attempt at Stralsund.
In 1508 he concluded against Venice the famous league of Cambray with the emperor Maximilian, Louis of France and Ferdinand of Aragon, and in the following year placed the city of Venice under an interdict.
Julius forthwith formed the Holy league with Ferdinand of Aragon and with Venice against France, in which both Henry VIII.
In April 1521 Charles invested his brother Ferdinand, afterwards -tue emperor Ferdinand I., with the Austrian archduchies, and soon afterwards he left Germany to renew his long struggle with Francis I.
In the absence of the emperor and of his brother, the archduke Ferdinand, the authorities in these parts of the country were unable to check the movement and, aided by many knights, prominent among whom was Gbtz von Berlichingen, the peasants were everywhere victorious, while another influential recruit, Ulrich, the dispossessed duke of Wurttemberg, joined them in the hope of recovering his duchy.
Then the Romanists, under the guidance of Cardinal Campeggio and the archduke Ferdinand, met at Regensburg and decided to take strong and aggressive measures to destroy Lutheranism, while, on the other hand, representatives of the cities met at Spires and at Ulm, and asserted their intenfion of forwarding and protecting the teaching of the reformed doctrines.
They drew up a formal protest against it (hence the name Protestant), which they presented to the archduke Ferdinand, setting forward the somewhat novel theory that the decree of 1526 could not be annulled byasucceeding diet unless both the parties concerned assented thereto.
The members of the Romanist league recently founded at Halle would not help the Habsburgs, and in June 1534, by the treaty of Cadan, King Ferdinand was forced to recognize the restoration as afait accompli; at the same time he was compelled to promise that he would stop all proceedings of the Reichskasnmergericht against the members of the league of Schmalkalden.
This intention produced me dissensions among the Habsburgs, especially between impertal the emperor and his brother Ferdinand, and other SUCCeS causes were at work, moreover, to undermine the 51011, formers position.
Ferdinand represented his The ~ brother, and after a prolonged discussion conditions ~ of peace were arranged.
After Maurice of Saxony had made terms with Charles at Passau he went to help Ferdinand against the Turks, but one of his allies, Henry II.
He entrusted Spain and the Netherlands to Philip, while Ferdinand took over the conduct of affairs in.
Ferdinand L, who like all the German sovereigns after him was recognized as emperor without being crowned by the pope, made it a prime object of his short reign to defend and and enforce the religious peace of Augsburg for which he was largely responsible.
Ferdinand sought earnestly to reform the church from within, and before he died in July 1564 the CounterRef ormation, fortified by, the entrance of the Jesuits into Germany and by the issue of the decrees of the council of Trent, had begun.
These princes were Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, and Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, the former a member of the house of Wittelsbach, and the latter of the house of Habsburg.
Ferdinand was even more vigorous than Maximilian in defence of his religion.
As Ferdinand II., however, he succeeded in obtaining the imperial crown in August 1619, and from that time he was dominated by a fixed resolve to secure the triumph of his church throughout the Empire, a resolve which cost Germany, ~ihe Thirty Years War.
Ferdinand drove to the uttermost the advantages of his victory.
Unable himself to raise and equip a strong army, and restive at his dependence on the League, Ferdinand gladly accepted Wallensteins offer to put an army into the field at no cost to himself.
Intoxicated by success, Ferdinand had issued two months before the famous Edict of Restitution.
A little later, yielding to Maximilian and his colleagues in the League, Ferdinand dismissed Wallenstein, whose movements had aroused their resentment, from his service.
Before these events Ferdinand had realized how serious had been his mistake in dismissing Wallenstein, and after some delay his agents persuaded the great general to emerge from his retirement.
The conditions, however, upon which Wallenstein consented to come to the emperors aid were remarkably onerous, but Ferdinand had perforce to assent to them.
His prime object was, however, to secure for himself a great territorial position, possibly that of king of Bohemia, and it is obvious that his aims and ambitions were diametrically opposed to the ends desired by Ferdinand and by his Spanish and Bavarian allies.
Ferdinand did as he was required.
Commanded now by the king of Hungary, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand III., the imperialists retook Regensburg and captured Donauworth; then, aided by some Spanish troops, they gained a victory at Nor-dJingen in September 1634, the results of which were as decisive and as satisfactory for them as the results of Breitenfeld bad been for their foes two years before.
The Saxon elector gained some additions of territory and promised to assist Ferdinand to recover any lands which had been taken from him by the Swedes, or by other foes.
The preliminary negotiations for peace were begun at Hamburg and Cologne before the death of the emperor Ferdinand Il.
For a moment the emperor Ferdinand appeared to have touched the ideal of Charles V.
headed by Prince Schwarzenberg, was then raised to powei and in order that a strong policy might be the more vigorously pushed forward, the emperor Ferdinand resigned, and was succeeded by his nephew, Francis Joseph.
About the time that the Prussian parliament was thus created, and that the emperor Ferdinand resigned, the Frankfori parliament succeeded in formulating the fundamental me queslaws, which were duly proclaimed to be those of Ger- tion of tin many as it was now to be constituted.
FERDINAND VI., king of Spain (1713-1759), second son of Philip V., founder of the Bourbon dynasty, by his first marriage with Maria Louisa of Savoy, was born at Madrid on the 23rd of September 1713.
Ferdinand was married in 1729 to Maria Magdalena Barbara,.
Ferdinand was by temperament melancholy, shy and distrustful of his own abilities.
A good account of the reign and character of Ferdinand VI.
Ferdinand VII >>
FERDINAND III., El Santo or "the Saint," king of Castile (1199-1252), son of Alphonso IX.
Ferdinand, who showed himself docile to the influence of Berengaria, so long as she lived, married the wife she found for him, Beatrice, daughter of the emperor Philip (of Hohenstaufen), and followed her advice both in prosecuting the war against the Moors and in the steps which she took to secure his peaceful succession to Leon on the death of his father in 1231.
The king of Granada did homage to Ferdinand, and undertook to attend the cortes when summoned.
127 9), daughter of Simon, of Dammartin, count of Ponthieu, by right of his wife Marie, Ferdinand was the father of Eleanor, the wife of Edward I.
Ferdinand IV of Castile >>
His grandson, Philip Francis, was made duke in 5644 by the emperor Ferdinand III., and was succeeded by his brother Charles Eugene (d.
To his brother Ferdinand Charles resigned all his Austrian lands, including his claims on Bohemia and Leopold, the two eldest sons of Duke Leopold III., and, with their younger brothers Ernest and Frederick, the joint rulers of Styria, Carinthia and Tirol, died early in the 15th century, and in 1406 Ernest and Frederick made a division of their lands.
and of Hungary, whose sister Anne had married Ferdinand.
During most of his life Ferdinand was engaged in combating the Turks and in attempting to secure Hungary.
In John Zapolya, who was supported by Suleiman, Ferdinand found an active rival.
At length Ferdinand agreed to pay Suleiman an annual tribute for the small portion - about 12,228 sq.
During Charles V.'s struggles with the German Protestants, Ferdinand preserved a neutral attitude, which contributed to gain Germany a short period of internal peace.
Though Ferdinand himself did not take a leading part in German religious or foreign politics, the period was one of intense interest to Austria.