How to use Fénelon in a sentence
He had shared in the careful education given to his elder brother, Louis, duke of Burgundy, by Fenelon, and was himself known as duke of Anjou.
Philip was by nature dull and phlegmatic. He had learnt morality from Fenelon's teaching, and showed himself throughout his life strongly adverse to the moral laxity of his grandfather and of most of the princes of his time.
Fenelon is said to have preferred him even to Moliere.
It was nevertheless proscribed in the next year at the instance of the Montagnard deputy Albitte, for an anti-anarchical hemistich (Des lois et non du sang!); Fenelon (1793) was suspended after a few representations; and in 1794 his Timoleon, set to Etienne Mehul's music, was also proscribed.
A greater originality in the method of teaching the ancient languages was exemplified by Fenelon, whose views were partially reflected by the Abbe Fleury, who also desired the simplification of grammar, the diminution of composition, and even the suppression of Latin verse.Advertisement
La Mothe Fenelon, the French ambassador in England, wrote that he was thought a very able man, devoted to the new religion, and very much in Cecil's secrets.
In 1689 he was appointed sub-preceptor of the dukes of Burgundy, of Anjou, and of Berry, and thus became intimately associated with Fenelon, their chief tutor.
He tried his fortune by writing doges of famous persons, then a favourite practice; and in 1771 his eloge on Fenelon was pronounced next best to Laharpe's by the Academy.
In 1777 he published under the title of Discours choisis his panegyrics on Saint Louis, Saint Augustine and Fenelon, his remarks on Bossuet and his Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire, a volume which contains much good criticism, and remains a French classic. The book was often reprinted as Principes de l'eloquence.
Pere de la Chaise had a lasting and unalterable affection for Fenelon, which remained unchanged by the papal condemnation of the Maximes.Advertisement
The Franciscans had no sympathy for profane knowledge, even among the Mexicans, - sometimes publicly burning quantities of books of a scientific or miscellaneous nature; and the reading of Fenelon's Telemaque brought excommunications on a layman.
The New English Dictionary points out that the transferred use is due less to Homer's Odyssey than to Fenelon's Telemaque, in which Mentor is a somewhat prominent character.
These ideas, in a very modified form, were introduced into France by the great devotional writer, St Francis of Sales; in the latter half of the 17th century they were pushed to the extravagant length known as Quietism by Fenelon, and especially by Madame Guyon and Michel de Molinos.
Fenelon, although personally an admirer, admits that public opinion credited it with " condemning St Augustine, St Paul, and even Jesus Christ "; and the few Jansenist bishops appealed and " re-appealed " against it.
Fenelon was continued in his office, but he was recalled in 1575 when Catherine de' Medici wished to bring about a marriage between Elizabeth and the duke of Alencon, and thought that another ambassador would have a better chance of success in the negotiation.Advertisement
In 1 582 Fenelon was charged with a new mission to England, then to Scotland, and returned to France in 1583.
The correspondence of Fenelon was published at Paris in 1838-1841, in 7 vols.
His father, Pons, comte de Fenelon, was a country gentleman of ancient lineage, large family and small estate.
In 1666 he came to Paris, under charge of his father's brother, Antoine, marquis de Fenelon, a retired soldier of distinction, well known for his religious zeal.
Fenelon remained at Saint Sulpice till 1679, when he was made "superior" of a "New Catholic" sisterhood in Paris - an institution devoted to the conversion of Huguenot ladies.Advertisement
Presumably it was successful; since in the winter of 1685, just after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, Fenelon was put at the head of a number of priests, and sent on a mission to the Protestants of Saintonge, the district immediately around the famous Huguenot citadel of La Rochelle.
To Fenelon such employment was clearly uncongenial; and if he was rather too ready to employ unsavoury methods - such as bribery and espionage - among his proselytes, his general conduct was kindly and statesmanlike in no slight degree.
Meanwhile the marquis de Fenelon had introduced his nephew into the devout section of the court, dominated by Mme de Maintenon.
Followed thereon an independent philsophical Treatise on the Existence of God, wherein Fenelon rewrote Descartes in the spirit of St Augustine.
Hence it was probably the most influential of all Fenelon's books, and guided French ideas on the question all through the 18th century.Advertisement
Fenelon sums up in favour of the cultivated house-wife; his first object was to persuade the mothers to take charge of their girls themselves, and fit them to become wives and mothers in their turn.
In 1689 Fenelon was gazetted tutor to the duke of Burgundy, eldest son of the dauphin, and eventual heir to the crown.
In justice, however, it should be added that his health was being steadily undermined by a mysterious internal complaint, and that Fenelon's tutorship came to an end on his disgrace in 169 7, before the pupil was fifteen.
Not, indeed, that Fenelon meant his book to be the literal paper Constitution some of his contemporaries thought it.
Here and there Fenelon carries his philanthropy to lengths curiously prophetic of the age of Rousseau - fervid denunciation of war, belief in nature and fraternity of nations.
Fenelon is on firmer ground when he leads a reaction against the "mercantile system" of Colbert, with its crushing restrictions on trade; or when he sings the praises of agriculture, in the hope of bringing back labour to the land, and thereby ensuring the physical efficiency of the race.
As, in Fenelon's own opinion, the great merit of Homer was his "amiable simplicity," so the great merit of Telemaque is the art that gives to each adventure its hidden moral, to each scene some sly reflection on Versailles.
Four years before, Fenelon had been appointed archbishop of Cambrai, one of the richest benefices in France.
Fenelon promptly appealed to Rome, and after two years of bitter controversy his book was condemned by Innocent XII.
On the point of doctrine all good judges agree that Fenelon was wrong; though many still welcome the obiter dictum of Pope Innocent, that Fenelon erred by loving God too much, and Bossuet by loving his neighbour too little.
Of late years, however, Bossuet has found powerful defenders; and if they have not cleared his character from reproach, they have certainly managed to prove that Fenelon's methods of controversy were not much better than his.
One of the results of the quarrel was Fenelon's banishment from court; for Louis XIV.
Immediately on the outbreak of the controversy, Fenelon was exiled to his diocese, and during the last eighteen years of his life he was only once allowed to leave it.
Fenelon now wrote a series of memorable criticisms on the government of Louis XIV., accompanied by projects of reform, not always quite so wise.
Fenelon was one of the first to break down these partition-walls, and insist on viewing all three as products of a single spirit, seen at different angles.
A few weeks after the Letter was written, Fenelon met with a carriage-accident, and the shock proved too much for his enfeebled frame.
Bossuet can only be thought of as the high-priest of authority and common-sense; but Fenelon has been made by turns into a sentimentalist, a mystical saint, an 18th-century philosophe, an ultramontane churchman and a hysterical hypocrite.
More than most men, Fenelon "wanders between two worlds - one dead, the other powerless to be born."
Such a man expresses his ideas much better by word of mouth than in the cold formality of print; and Fenelon's contemporaries thought far more highly of his conversation than his books.
Still better is Saint-Simon's portrait of Fenelon as he appeared about the time of his appointment to Cambrai - tall, thin, well-built, exceedingly pale, with a great nose, eyes from which fire and genius poured in torrents, a face curious and unlike any other, yet so striking and attractive that, once seen, it could not be forgotten.
These were Fontenelle (1683) and Fenelon (1712).
Certainly the most able metaphysician and the most influential religious thinker of America, he must rank in theology, dialectics, mysticism and philosophy with Calvin and Fenelon, Augustine and Aquinas, Spinoza and Novalis; with Berkeley and Hume as the great English philosophers of the 18th century; and with Hamilton and Franklin as the three American thinkers of the same century of more than provincial importance.
Among other monuments it contains that of Fenelon, archbishop from 1695 to 1715, by David d'Angers.
But this doctrine was a criticism and a divergence, no less than a consequence, from the principles in Descartes; and it brought upon Malebranche the opposition, not merely of the Cartesian physicists, but also of Arnauld, Fenelon and Bossuet, who found, or hoped to find, in the Meditations, as properly understood, an ally for theology.
He quotes Fenelon and Addison, "deux esprits polis et doux, de la meme famille litteraire," as expressing their admiration for the inimitable beauty and naturalness of one of his scenes.
The first Latin grammar written in French was that of Pere de Condren of the Oratoire (c. 1642), which was followed by the Port-Royal Mdthode latine of Claude Lancelot (1644), and by the grammar composed by Bossuet for the dauphin, and also used by Fenelon for the instruction of the duc de Bourgogne.
Fenelon was feeling his way away from the rigid standards of Boileau to "a Sublime so simple and familiar that all may understand it."