Federal sentence example

federal
  • The postal services and the telegraphs are administered by the federal government.
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  • It is also one of the two chief cities, or capitals, of the Federal district.
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  • Where are the rest of the federal troops?
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  • In organization the Klan was modelled after the Federal Union.
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  • She can locate and open the federal emergency supply depots.
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  • The powers and rights of existing colonies to remain intact, except as regards such powers as it may be necessary to hand over to the Federal government.
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  • No alteration to be made in states without the consent of the legislatures of such states, as well as of the federal parliament.
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  • They were sentenced to banishment in Staten Island at the pleasure of the federal government.
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  • Under the constitution, the provinces retain all the powers not delegated to the federal government.
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  • The state furnished about 36,000 soldiers to the Federal armies and somewhat less than io,000 to the Confederate.
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  • A loose union, called the "Federal Council of the Reformed Churches in America," was formed in 1894 by the churches mentioned (excepting the Southern Assembly) and the Dutch and German Reformed churches.
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  • North of Buenos Aires, on the Parana river, is the port of Rosario, the outlet for a rich agricultural district, ranking next to the federal capital in importance.
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  • Political Divisions and Towns.-The chief political divisions of the republic consist of one federal district, 14 provinces and 10 territories, the last in great part dating from the settlement of the territorial controversies with Chile.
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  • The occasion was the report of Major-General Edwards on the defences of Australia, and Sir Henry addressed the other premiers on the desirability of a federal union for purposes of defence.
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  • Each elects its governor, legislators and provincial functionaries of all classes, without the intervention of the federal government.
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  • During 1906 a more rational view of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now systematically encouraged.
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  • Members of the elite federal government and military personnel darted between greencars and buildings, the buzz of radios and shouts adding to the compound's chaos.
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  • On the 15th of December, when Schmerling and the Austrian members had left the cabinet, Gagern became head of the imperial ministry, and on the 18th he introduced a programme (known as the Gagernsche Programm) according to which Austria was to be excluded from the new federal state, but bound to it by a treaty of union.
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  • The allegations made con cerning the Chinese really amounted to a charge of undue 1 Australia, it may be noted, has woman's suffrage in all the states (Victoria, the last, adopting it in November 1908), and for the federal assembly.
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  • Then came World War I, which utilized these institutions and greatly expanded the size of the federal government.
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  • And that doesn't even count the many other charitable organizations that have not filed for this tax-exempt status with the federal government.
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  • In O'Neill's day, getting a copy of the federal budget meant writing away and buying a hefty paper copy.
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  • Two people laughed aloud and someone growled about their federal tax dollars at work.
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  • Tom DeLeo continued doing legwork on the Wassermann case, a curious jurisdictional mess with the Federal boys in charge but legions of local flat feet in scattered municipalities doing their grunt work.
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  • Without them, lowly federal agents would still be in the dark in identifying the combatants in this dreadful war.
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  • Cushing himself swam to the swamps on the river bank, and after wading among them for hours reached a Federal picket boat.
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  • Among the public buildings are the city hall, the court house, the Federal building, the public library and an auditorium.
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  • Sir Henry Parkes was elected president, and he moved a series of resolutions embodying the principles necessary to establish, on an enduring foundation, the structure of a federal government.
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  • The judicial powers are vested in a high court and other federal courts, and the federal judges hold office for life or during good behaviour.
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  • Among the public buildings and institutions are the county court-house, the federal building, a hospital and the Warren county library (1836).
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  • It was shortly before 11:00 when the federal visitor from Philadelphia arrived, heralding Dean's return to legitimate police work.
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  • The federal agent was interested to learn Vinnie and Dean had played sports together, but Dean put to early rest any misconcep­tion about his prowess on the playing field.
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  • Dean said, but the federal agent held out a hand and stopped him.
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  • She was at anchor surrounded by baulks of timber, and a cordon of boats had been stationed to row guard against an expected Federal attack.
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  • This conference adopted an address to the queen expressing its loyalty and attachment, and submitting certain resolutions which affirmed the desirability of an early union, under the crown, of the Australasian colonies, on principles just to all, and provided that the remoter Australasian colonies should be entitled to admission upon terms to be afterwards agreed upon, and that steps should be taken for the appointment of delegates to a national Australasian convention, to consider and report upon an adequate scheme for a federal convention.
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  • Power to impose customs and excise duties to be in the Federal government and parliament.
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  • At this meeting all the colonies except New Zealand were represented, and it was agreed that the parliament of each colony should be asked to pass a bill enabling the people to choose ten persons to represent the colony on a federal convention; the work of such convention being the framing of a federal constitution to be submitted to the people for approval by means of the referendum.
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  • It was a revival of the old impossible federal idea, which would have left Italy divided and dominated by Austria and France.
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  • In 5788 he was one of the most influential members of the Massachusetts convention which ratified the Federal Constitution.
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  • His main army was preceded by a division of about 15,000 men under General Edmund Kirby Smith, who on the 30th of August defeated a Federal force under General Wm.
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  • By one of his swift and secret flank marches he placed his corps on the flank of the enemy, and on the 2nd of May flung them against the Federal NI.
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  • At the close of a day of victory he was reconnoitring the hostile positions when suddenly the Confederate outposts opened fire upon his staff, whom they mistook in the dark and tangled forest for Federal cavalry.
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  • Political Divisions.-The republic of Mexico is politically divided into 27 states, one federal district, and three territories.
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  • The Federal District consists of thirteen municipalities.
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  • Two years later home consumption returns noted the slaughter of 958,058 cattle (129,938 in the Federal District), 561,982 sheep, 992,263 goats and 887,130 hogs - the last item being larger than the census return of 1902.
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  • Practically it is a Federal Republic with centralized executive powers.
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  • Its political divisions consist of 27 states (originally 19) having independent local governments, 3 territories and 1 federal district in which the national capital stands.
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  • The senate is composed of 56 members - or two from each state and from the federal district - who are elected by popular vote for a term of four years, one-half the number retiring every two years.
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  • Federal officials and ecclesiastics are ineligible for election to either chamber.
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  • It has jurisdiction in cases arising from the enforcement of the federal laws, except cases involving private interests, in admiralty cases, in cases where the republic is a party, in those between two or more states, or between a state and the citizens of another state, in those originating in treaties with foreign states, and in those affecting diplomatic and consular officials.
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  • There are likewise supreme and inferior courts in most of the states, governed by the civil and criminal codes in force in the federal district.
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  • The territories are governed by federal laws.
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  • The department of justice has oversight in matters relating to the enforcement of the federal laws and the administration of justice through minor courts.
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  • The police service is both municipal and federal in character.
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  • In some states a local police service is maintained, but in most states the federal government maintains a very efficient force of mounted " rurales."
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  • The states are organized very much like the federal government, each with its own governor, legislature, laws and judiciary.
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  • The state is nominally sovereign within its own boundaries, and the authority of its officers and courts in local questions is supreme except in cases where federal intervention or supervision is provided for by the federal constitution.
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  • The first result was a law regulating free and compulsory education in the federal district and national territories, which came into effect on the 17th of January 1892.
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  • The national revenues are derived from import and export duties, port dues and other taxes levied on foreign commerce; from excise and stamp taxes and other charges upon internal business transactions; from direct taxes levied in the federal district and national territories, covering a land tax in rural districts, a house tax in the city, commercial and professional licences, water rates, and sundry taxes on bread, pulque, vehicles, saloons, theatres, &c.; from probate dues and registry fees; from a surcharge on all taxes levied by the states, called the " federal contribution," which is paid in federal revenue stamps; from post and telegraph receipts; and from some minor sources of income.
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  • But after 1884 under the rule of Diaz, the Federal system continued in name, but it concealed in fact, with great benefit to the nation, a highly centralized administration, very intelligent, and on the whole both popular and successful - a modern form of rational despotism.
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  • A source of abundant discord was opened by the provision that each state should contribute its quota to the Federal revenues.
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  • Moreover, the capital and some territory round it was made into a " Federal district " - another grievance intensifying the antagonism of the state to the central power.
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  • But the financial situation was desperate; the federal revenue, mostly from customs - which were evaded by extensive smuggling - was not half the expenditure; and Indian revolts in Yucatan (1847-1850) and in the Sierra Gorda had added to the strain.
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  • Under federal and democratic forms, Diaz exercised a strictly centralized and personal rule.
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  • It has a State Hospital for the Insane (opened 1880), a fine County Court House, a general hospital, a Friends' Home, a home for aged women, St Joseph's Protectory (Roman Catholic) for girls, and the Norristown and McCann public libraries; in Montgomery cemetery are the tombs of General Winfield Scott Hancock and General John Frederick Hartranft (1830-1889), a distinguished Federal officer in the Civil War and governor of Pennsylvania in 1873-1879.
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  • Six states had ratified the Federal constitution when the New Hampshire convention met at Exeter on the 13th of February 1788, to accept or reject that instrument, and so great was the opposition to it among the delegates from the central part of the state that after a discussion of ten days the leaders in favour of ratification dared not risk a decisive vote, but procured an adjournment in order that certain delegates who had been instructed to vote against it might consult their constituents.
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  • As the trustees of this institution were Federalists with the right to fill vacancies in their number, the Democrats attempted to gain control by converting it into a state university and increasing the number of trustees, but when the case reached the Supreme Court of the United States that body pronounced (1819) the charter a contract which the Federal constitution forbade the state to violate.
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  • He accepted, however, an appointment as Federal District Attorney for New Hampshire, as the duties of this office, which he held in 1845-1847, were closely related to those of his profession.
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  • The principal buildings are the Federal building, the Court House, a Carnegie library, the Masonic Temple and McAlister Hospital.
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  • Among other public buildings are the court house, the city hall, in which are the rooms of the State Historical Society (organized, 1891; incorporated, 1897); the Federal Building; an armoury; the Chamber of Commerce, and several fine churches.
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  • But Miranda's desire - that all the South American colonies should form a federal republic - awoke the selfishness of provincial administrations, and the cause was believed to be hateful to heaven owing to a great earthquake on the 26th of March 1812.
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  • His ambition was to be the restorer of the federal union of the Central American states, and when his efforts towards this end by peaceful means failed he had recourse to the sword.
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  • The principality has one vote in the Reichstag and one in the federal council.
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  • The lower channel of the Trinity river has been greatly improved by the Federal government; but in 1908 the river was not navigable as far as Dallas.
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  • In the former there had been a fusion between the Radicals, supporters of the autonomy of Poland and a federal constitution for the empire, and the Independence party (Osvobozhdenya) formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903, the fusion taking the name of Constitutional Democrats, known (from a word-play on the initials K.D.) as " Cadets."
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  • In the field of federal legislation, no significant change took place until the passage of the Hepburn Act of 1906, which was an amendment of the act of 1887.
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  • It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.
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  • The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
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  • He had but one acquaintance in the place, the clerk of the federal court, who permitted him to occupy a desk in his office and place at the door his sign as a lawyer.
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  • The constitution as adopted limited the suffrage to adult white males, but this provision was annulled by the fifteenth amendment to the Federal constitution; and in 1880 amendments to the state constitution were adopted striking out the word " white " from the suffrage clause and adding a new article granting rights of suffrage and office holding without regard to race, colour or previous condition of servitude.
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  • The assertion in the " Declaration of Rights " that " no power exists in the people of this or any other state of the Federal Union to dissolve their connexion therewith or perform any act tending to impair, subvert, or resist the supreme authority of the government of the United States," is a result of the drafting of the instrument during the Civil War.
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  • The public schools are supported by the income from a Federal grant of 2,000,000 acres of public land (given in lieu of the usual sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections) supplemented by state and local taxation.
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  • All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.
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  • As governor he recommended that Massachusetts ratify the woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution.
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  • Moreover, in the state convention called to decide whether Virginia should ratify the Federal Constitution he led the opposition, contending that the proposed Constitution, because of its centralizing character, was dangerous to the liberties of the country.
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  • The principal public buildings are the Federal building, the city hall, the county court house, a Y.M.C.A.
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  • It is certain that whatever merits the Cretan laws may have possessed for the internal regulation of the different cities, they had the one glaring defect, that they made no provision for any federal bond or union among them, or for the government of the island as a whole.
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  • Cleveland is the seat of a federal reserve bank.
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  • At Marshalltown are the Iowa soldiers' home, supported in part by the Federal Government, and St.
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  • This of course impaired the obligation of a contract, but under the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution of the United States the bondholders could not bring suit against the state in the Federal courts.
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  • The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
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  • In 1907 there was a serious clash between the state authorities and the Federal judiciary, arising from an act of the legislature of that year which fixed the maximum railway fare at 21 cents a mile and imposed enormous fines for .its violation.
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  • It has a fine Federal building, one of the best high-school buildings in Wisconsin, the Vaughn public library (1895), a Roman Catholic hospital, and the Rinehart hospital, and is the seat of the Northland College and Academy (Congregational).
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  • He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
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  • He was a member of Rogers' Rangers in the Seven Years' War, served in the War of Independence, was for several years a member of the New Hampshire legislature, was a delegate to the New Hampshire convention which ratified the Federal constitution, and was a justice of the court of common pleas for his county.
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  • Webster argued that the Federal Constitution gave to Congress control over interstate commerce, and that any interference .by the legislature of a state with this commerce was unconstitu - tional and void.
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  • The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
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  • By the bill for the incorporation of Alsace and German Lorraine, introduced into the German parliament in May 1871, it was provided that the sole and supreme control of the two provinces should be vested in the German emperor and the federal council until the 1st of January 1874, when the constitution of the German empire was established.
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  • The river has been improved by Federal engineers since 1870; in June 1909 (up to which time $ 1, 799, 0 33 had been expended for improvements) there was a channel ioo ft.
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  • It had six rooms, each about 100 X45 ft., was used as a tobacco warehouse and a ship-chandlery until 1861, and then until the capture of Richmond was used as a prison, chiefly for Federal officers.
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  • Two miles north-east of the city is the National Cemetery, with graves of 6571 Federal soldiers (5700 unknown) most of whom were killed in the actions near Richmond.
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  • Unsuccessful attempts were made in February and March 1864 to free the Federal prisoners in Richmond by means of cavalry raids.
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  • Ewell, so that when the Federal troops, under General Godfrey Weitzel (1835-1884) entered the city on the following morning (3rd April) a.
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  • The fort lies within the tract of 252 acres ceded, for coast defence purposes, to the Federal government by the state of Virginia in 1821, the survey for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the building begun in 1819.
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  • His policy was to preserve constitutional government in the South and strengthen the anti-war party in the North by convincing it that the Lincoln administration had abandoned such government; to the same end he urged, in 1864, the unconditional discharge of Federal prisoners in the South.
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  • In 1800 Fernald's Island was purchased by the Federal government for a navy yard; it was the scene of considerable activity during the War of 1812, but was of much greater importance during the Civil War, when the famous " Kearsarge " and several other war vessels were built here.'
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  • Of the two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in1892-1902was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards.
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  • The code was replaced by the Paine Law of 1909, which provided for a board of control (something like that under the "federal plan" in Cleveland, Columbus and Toledo) of three members: the mayor and the directors (appointed and removable by the mayor) of two municipal departments - public service and public safety, the former including public works and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and buildings.
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  • The Federal courts compelled a restoration of the money and pronounced the taxing law unconstitutional.
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  • Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.
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  • The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 1802, the first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress on the 17th of October 1803.
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  • The Federal Street theatre-the first regular theatrewas established in 1794, the old Puritan feeling having had its natural influence in keeping Boston behind New York and Philadelphia in this respect.
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  • Montgomery Field, until in 1903 the famous Boston Museum was swept away, as other interesting old places of entertainment (the old Federal Street theatre, the Tremont theatre, &c.) had been, in the course of further building changes.
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  • The city was warmly in favour of the adoption of the federal constitution of 1787; even Samuel Adams was rejected for Congress because he was backward in its support.
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  • Sagasta ultimately headed the most Conservative groups of the revolutionary politicians against Ruiz Zorrilla and the Radicals, and against the Federal Republic in 1873.
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  • During the Civil War Cairo was an important strategic point, and was a military centre and depot of supplies of considerable importance for the Federal armies in the west.
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  • The principal public buildings are the Federal building, the court house, an auditorium seating 7000, a Union Station and a public library.
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  • He opposed the suggested Federal control of food and fuel.
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  • Two great dams on the river (one built by the Federal government) provide good water power.
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  • The legislature of 1866 rejected the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and soon afterwards Florida was made a part of the Third Military District, according to the Reconstruction Act of 1867.
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  • Sand bars keep filling up the mouths of these channels, necessitating frequent dredging and extension of the breakwaters, work undertaken by the Federal government, which also maintains a most comprehensive and completeystem of aids to navigation, including lighthouses and lightships, fog alarms, gas and other buoys, life-saving, storm signal and weather report stations.
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  • He effectively checked the excitement, and when a month later an overwhelming Federal force began moving upon the western counties, the insurrection collapsed without bloodshed.
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  • The society grew in strength during the Civil War, when the increased demand for coal caused an influx of miners, many of them lawless characters, into the coal-fields, and in1862-1863it opposed enlistments in the Federal Army and roughly treated some of the enlisting officers.
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  • The Federal government has an agricultural experiment station at Mayaguez.
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  • Trade between Porto Rico and the United States is free, but upon imports to Porto Rico from foreign countries the Federal government collects custom duties and pays the net proceeds to the insular government.
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  • Louis Federal Reserve district was the first to subscribe its quota.
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  • Prominent among its buildings are the federal building, the auditorium, the public library and the Masonic library, which contains one of the best collections of Masonic literature in the world.
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  • In 1883 he was sent to Berlin as minister for Baden in the Federal Council and from 1884 to 1890 he represented the Council in the Imperial Insurance Office.
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  • In recognition of the city's financial strength, Atlanta has been designated by the secretary of the treasury as one of the cities whose bonds will be accepted as security for Federal deposits.
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  • Sherman's cavalry had hitherto failed to do serious damage to the railway, and the Federal general now proceeded to manoeuvre with his main body so as to cut off Hood from his Southern railway lines (August).
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  • In 1780 he outlined the plan which was subsequently adopted by Virginia for ceding to the Federal government her claim to the "back lands," i.e.
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  • He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1776-1780 and again in 1787-1788, and in 1787 was a member of the convention that framed the Federal Constitution, and as one of its ablest debaters took an active part in the work.
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  • Ceylon and the Straits Settlements, with the Federal Malay States, have their own surveyors-general.
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  • He was put in command of its naval forces when Franklin Buchanan resigned after he was wounded in the action with the Federal squadron in Hampton Roads.
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  • In 1787 he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention which adopted the Federal constitution, and thereafter he retired from public life, and gave himself up wholly to medical practice.
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  • The first specific legislation on the subject was enacted on the 12th of February 1793, and like the Ordinance for the Northwest Territory and the section of the Constitution quoted above, did not contain the word "slave"; by its provisions any Federal district or circuit judge or any state magistrate was authorized to decide finally and without a jury trial the status of an alleged fugitive.
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  • The state and the national government co-operate in the construction and maintenance of this system, but the Federal government did not give material aid (the only exception being the grant of swamp lands in 1850) until the exceptionally disastrous flood in 1882.
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  • The Federal government, after its participation in the work, acted through a Board of Engineers, known as the " Mississippi River Commission."
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  • Hundreds of varieties have been tested by the state and federal agricultural experiment stations.
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  • There were various minor skirmishes in 1862 and 1863 (including the capture of the Federal camp at Berwick Bay in June 1863).
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  • The rivalry of these two state governments, clashes of arms, the recognition by the Federal authorities of the radical Republican government (Pinchback and Kellogg, successively governors) followed.
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  • The president ordered the withdrawal of Federal troops from the capitol on the 20th of April 1877, and the white party was thus left in control.
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  • The subjects of legislative power are very similar to those of the United States congress; but control of railroads, canals and public roads is explicitly given to the federal government.
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  • A scheme was set on foot for the improvement by canalization of the Cape Fear river above Wilmington under a Federal project of 1902, which provided for a channel 8 ft.
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  • The general assembly of the state met at Fayetteville in 1787, 1788 and 1789 (Newbern, Tarboro, Hillsboro and Fayetteville all being rivals at this time for the honour of becoming the permanent capital); and in 1789 the Federal constitution was here ratified for North Carolina.
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  • In 1908 it consisted of two distinct parts, the outer harbour being the work of the federal government, and the inner harbour being under the control of the city.
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  • Then, from 1891 to 1903, by what was practically a new charter, that which is known as the "federal plan" of government was tried; this centred power in the mayor by making him almost the only elective officer, by giving to him the appointment of his cabinet of directors - one for the head of each of the six municipal departments - and to each director the appointment of his subordinates.
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  • The growth during the Civil War was partly due to the rapid development of the manufacturing interests of the city, which supplied large quantities of iron products and of clothing to the Federal government.
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  • Among the public buildings and institutions are the State Capitol, the State Library, a city public library, the county court-house, the Federal building, the state penitentiary and several charitable institutions.
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  • The fisheries, which are of great value, are carefully supervised and systematically replenished from the State Fish Hatchery at St Paul, and the Federal Fish Hatchery maintained at Duluth, in which particular attention is devoted to the fish of Lake Superior.
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  • The federal census showed for the decades1880-1890and1890-1900an increase in the number of manufacturing establishments from 3493 in 1880 to 7505 in 1890, and 11,114 in 1900.
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  • By the Federal census of 1850 the territory had a population of 6077, most of whom lived east of the Mississippi, or along the Red river in the extreme north-west.
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  • The state was admitted to the Union with its present boundaries on the 12th of May 1858, and the federal census of 1860 showed that the population had increased to 172,023, despite the fact that the financial panic of 18J7 had severely checked the state's growth.
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  • Minnesota furnished more than 25,000 troops for the Federal armies during the Civil War.
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  • The opening of the Chippewa lands in the northwest and the coming of peace marked the beginning of a new period of rapid growth, the Federal census of 1870 showing a population of 439,706, or a gain of 75.8% in five years.
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  • In October 1898 there was an uprising of the Pillager band of Chippewa Indians at Leech Lake, which was quelled by the prompt action of Federal troops.
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  • The navigation of the Cochecho river has been greatly improved by the Federal government, at a cost between 1829 and 1907 of about $300,000, and in 1909 there was a navigable channel, 60-75 ft.
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  • He was an earnest advocate of the adoption of the Federal constitution, was a member of the Massachusetts convention which ratified that instrument, and was one of the most influential advisers of the leaders of the Federalist party.
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  • Subsequently he was governor of South Carolina in 1787-1789; presided over the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution in 1788; was a member of the state legislature in 17 9 1; and was United States minister to Great Britain in 1792-17 9 6.
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  • He was a member of all the bodies formed to promote the Federation of Australia as well as of the delegation which proceeded to London with the Australian Commonwealth bill in 1 9 o° and, as Attorney-General, he was included in Sir Edmund Barton's first Federal " Cabinet of the Captains " (1901-3), succeeding him as Premier of Australia.
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  • This fiscal policy he pursued during his three Federal premierships (1903-4, 1905-8, 1909-10), and he was also a strong supporter of Australia's cooperation in Imperial defence, being responsible for the acceptance of the measure authorizing Australian naval construction in 1909 and for the invitation to Lord Kitchener to come to Australia to report on the question of defence.
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  • It was even proposed to make him a member of the Federal Supreme Court in order to get him out of political life.
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  • Among the principal buildings are the county court house, the Federal building, the city hall and the opera house.
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  • After serving in the Maryland convention which ratified for that state the Federal Constitution, and there vigorously opposing ratification, though afterwards he was an ardent Federalist, he became in 1791 chief judge of the Maryland general court, which position he resigned in 1796 for that of an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
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  • Petropolis has since become the summer residence of the diplomatic corps and of the higher officials of the Federal government, and was the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1893 to 1903.
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  • The heads of these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of Erlaucht (illustrious, most honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire 2 (Reichsgrafen), descendants of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806), were Reichsstiindisch, i.e.
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  • The returns also show a total of 3,038,500 domiciles outside the federal capital, which gives an average of 5.472 to the domicile.
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  • Divisions and Towns.-The republic is divided into twenty states and one federal district, which are the same as the provinces and " municipio neutro " of the empire.
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  • Their names also remain unchanged, except that of the federalized district in which the national capital is located, which is called the " districto federal."
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  • The largest and best equipped of them are located in the federal states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, though the greater part of the raw cotton used comes from the northern states and pays high freight rates.
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  • The overthrow of the monarchy by a military revolt in Rio de Janeiro on 15th November 1889, resulted in the creation of a federal republic under the name of United States of Brazil (Estados Unidos do Brazil).
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  • It also supervises secondary and superior education, issues patents, and provides federal courts for the trial of cases amenable to federal laws.
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  • The national government is forbidden to interfere in the peculiar affairs of the states except to repel foreign invasion, to maintain a republican form of government, to re-establish order at the request of a state, or to enforce federal laws and sentences.
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  • The states are forbidden, likewise, to tax federal property, to tax inter-state commerce, to impose duties of their own on foreign imports, or to resist the execution of judicial sentences originating in other states.
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  • The senate consists of sixty-three members (three from each state and the federal district) elected for a period of nine years, one-third of each delegation being renewed every three years.
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  • The judicial system of the republic consists of a supreme federal tribunal of fifteen judges in the national capital, and a district tribunal in the capital of each state, which forms a federal judicial district.
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  • The supreme tribunal has original and appellate jurisdiction, but its power to pass on the constitutionality of federal laws and executive acts seems to fall short of that of the United States Supreme Court.
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  • The district federal court has but one judge (juiz de seccao) and a solicitor of the republic, and has original jurisdiction in federal causes.
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  • Each state has its own local laws and courts, independent of federal control, but subject to the review of the supreme tribunal, and with rights of appeal to that tribunal in specified cases.
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  • The federal district, which has a municipal council instead of a legislature, has a system of municipal and higher courts peculiar to itself.
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  • Secondary and higher education are under both federal and state control, the former being represented by lyceums in the state capitals, and by such institutions as the Gymnasio Nacional (formerly Collegio Dom Pedro II.) in Rio de Janeiro.
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  • It was openly suggested in the journals to reform the constitution by turning Brazil into independent federal provinces, governed by authorities popularly elected, as in the United States.
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  • Meanwhile, the revolution in Rio Grande do Sul had revived; and in July 1893 the federal government was forced to send most of the available regular troops to that state to hold the insurgents in check.
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  • The heavy cost involved in the suppression of internal disorders, maladministration,and the hindrances placed in the way of economical development by the semi-independence of the federal Salles.
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  • The city has a fine court-house (1904), a federal building (1908), a city hall (1908) and a public library.
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  • In the American Civil War he served in the Federal army first as lieutenant-colonel and after February 1862 as colonel of volunteers, taking part in the fighting at Shiloh, Vicksburg and Corinth.
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  • From the beginning of his political career he advocated a strict construction of the Federal constitution.
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  • In his famous speech in the Senate on the 12th of July 1848, on the question of establishing a government for Oregon Territory, he held that a slave should be treated by the Federal government on the same basis as any other property, and therefore that it was the duty of Congress to protect the owner's right to his slave in whatever state or territory of the Union that slave might be.
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  • To his insistence in 1860 that the Democratic party should support his claim to the protection of slavery in the territories by the Federal government, the disruption of that party was in large measure due.
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  • He was taken prisoner on the 10th of May by Federal troops near Irwinville, Irwin county, Georgia, and was brought back to Old Point, Virginia, in order to be confined in prison at Fortress Monroe.
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  • On retiring from Congress he began the practice of law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, was chosen a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1787, and in 1788 was a member of the state convention which ratified for Virginia the Federal constitution.
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  • The appropriation of 1806 for the construction of the road had brought into national politics the question of the authority of the Federal government to make " internal improvements."
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  • The collapse of the federal idea and the definite triumph of the party of reaction in 1852 led to his retirement from politics.
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  • Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
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  • In 1889 it became a federal state in the Brazilian republic.
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  • He was the son of Alfred Conkling (1789-1874), who was a representative in Congress from New York in 1821-1823, a Federal district judge in 1825-1852, and U.S. minister to Mexico in 1852-1853.
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  • On the 16th the Hungarian Government declared in favour of personal union, and next day Hussarek published an imperial proclamation, dividing Austria (not Austria-Hungary) into four federal units (German, Czech, Yugoslav and Ukrainian) and leaving the Poles to make their own decision.
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  • As a state of the empire, Hamburg is represented in the federal council (Bundesrat) by one plenipotentiary, and in the imperial diet (Reichstag) by three deputies.
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  • It was the birthplace of Colonel Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth (1837-1861), the first Federal officer to lose his life in the Civil War.
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  • Hannibal has a good public library (1889; the first in Missouri); other prominent buildings are the Federal building, the court house, a city hospital and the high school.
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  • On the 5th of August 1909, however, a new division was promulgated, giving 20 states, I federal district and 2 territories.
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  • The president and vice-presidents, who must be Venezuelans by birth and more than thirty years old, are elected by an electoral body or council composed of members of the national Congress, one member from each state and the Federal District.
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  • The judicial power is vested in a supreme federal court, called the Corte Federal y de Casacion, and such subordinate tribunals as may be created by law.
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  • As the laws and procedure are uniform throughout the republic and all decrees and findings have legal effect everywhere, the state judicial organizations may be considered as taking the place of district federal courts, although the constitution does not declare them so.
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  • The governors of the federal territories are appointees of the president of the republic, and the jefe politico of each territorial municipio is an appointee of the governor.
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  • The Federal District is the seat of federal authority, "and consists of a small territory surrounding Caracas and La Guaira, known in the territorial division of 1904 as the West district, and the island of Margarita and some neighbouring islands, known as the East district.
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  • Shortly after the battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821), by which the power of Spain in this part of the world was broken, Venezuela was united with the federal state of Colombia, which embraced the present Colombia and Ecuador; but the Venezuelans were averse to the Confederation, and an agitation was set on foot in the autumn of 1829 which resulted in the issue of a decree (December 8) by General Paez dissolving the union, and declaring Venezuela a sovereign and independent state.
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  • In 1864 he divided Venezuela into twenty states and formed them into a Federal republic. The twenty parties whose struggles had caused so much strife and bloodshed were the Unionists, who desired a centralized government, and the Federalists, who preferred a federation of semiautonomous provinces.
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  • Federal fortresses set at liberty von Beyer's division for field service in the west.
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  • In western Germany the Prussian forces, depleted to the utmost to furnish troops for the Bohemian campaign, were opposed to the armies of Hanover and Bavaria and the 8th Federal corps (the last consisting of Hessians, Wurttembergers, Badensers and Nassauers with an Austrian division drawn from the neutralized Federal fortresses), which were far superior in number.
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  • The Hessians retired upon Hanau to join the 8th Federal corps; only the Hanoverians remained in the north, and they too, threatened by Beyer's advance, marched from their point of concentration at Göttingen southward for the Main.
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  • The Prussian army, now called the "Army of the Main," of three divisions (one being unusually strong), had next to deal with the 7th (Bavarians) and 8th (other South Germans) Federal corps in the valley of the Main.
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  • Meanwhile the 8th Federal corps advanced also, but actuated probably by political motives it took the general direction of Cassel, and between the two German corps a wide gap opened, of which Vogel v.
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  • Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
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  • Richardson; the Federal Building; the State Museum of Natural History; the galleries of the Albany Institute and Historical and Art Society, in State Street, opposite the Capitol; Harmanus Bleecker Hall, a theatre since 1898; and the Ten Eyck and Kenmore hotels.
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  • The principal buildings are the State Capitol, Grecian in architecture, the Federal Building, and the County Court House.
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  • The terrible conditions obtaining there were due to the lack of food supplies in the Confederate States, the incompetence of the prison officials, and the refusal of the Federal authorities in 1864 to make exchanges of prisoners, thus filling the stockade with unlooked-for numbers.
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  • In 1867 he became the first president of the chancery of the North German Confederation, and represented Bismarck on the federal tariff council (Zollbundesrath), a position of political as well as fiscal importance owing to the presence in the council of representatives of the southern states.
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  • Disputes between the confederate towns were brought for adjudication before the general assembly, but the League had no recognized federal judiciary.
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  • On his return to America he won some distinction during the Civil War as colonel of a regiment which he had himself got together on the Federal side in 1861 and 1864.
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  • Schaumburg-Lippe sends one member to the Bundesrat (federal council) and one deputy to the reichstag.
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  • The Federal government maintains at Watertown one of its principal arsenals, occupying grounds of about Ioo acres along the river.
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  • Ottawa University (Baptist) was established here in 1865, as the outgrowth of Roger Williams University, which had been chartered in 1860 for the education of Indians on the Ottawa Reservation, and had received a grant of 20,000 acres from the Federal government in 1862.
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  • The Federal steam frigates, "Roanoke," "St Lawrence" and "Minnesota" had all gone aground in their trip from Old Point Comfort toward the scene of battle, and only the "Minnesota" was near enough (about i m.) to take any part in the fight.
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  • From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
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  • In particular, when disagreement seemed inevitable on the question of representation, he, with Roger Sherman, proposed what is known as the "Connecticut Compromise," by which the Federal legislature was made to consist of two houses, the upper having equal representation from each state, the lower being chosen on the basis of population.
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  • His most important service to his country was without a doubt in connexion with the establishment of the Federal judiciary.
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  • As chairman of the committee having the matter in charge, he drafted the bill by the enactment of which the system of Federal courts, almost as it is to-day, was established.
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  • On retiring from the governor's office he declined the presidency of Antioch College, at Yellow Springs, Ohio, and various positions in the service of the Federal government, and resumed the practice of law, at once achieving great success.
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  • In February 1776 he was placed in command of all the military forces of South Carolina, and in October of the same year was commissioned a brigadier-general and was taken into the Continental service; but on account of a dispute arising out of a conflict between state and Federal authority resigned his command in 1777.
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  • In 1782 Gadsden was again elected a member of his state legislature; he was also elected governor, but declined to serve on the ground that he was too old and infirm; in 1788 he was a member of the convention which ratified for South Carolina the Federal constitution; and in 1790 he was a member of the convention which framed the new state constitution.
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  • Among the public buildings are a Federal building, the city hall, the County Court House, a Y.M.C.A.
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  • Before the adoption of the Federal constitution Rhode Island was badly afflicted with the paper money heresy.
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  • When the constitutional convention met in Philadelphia in 1787 to frame a constitution for a stronger Federal government, the agriculturists of Rhode Island were afraid that the movement would result in an interference with their local privileges, and especially with their favourite device of issuing paper money, and the state refused to send delegates, and not until the Senate had passed a bill for severing commercial relations between the United States and Rhode Island, did the latter, in May 1790, ratify the Federal constitution, and then only by a majority of two votes.
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  • When the last Federal census was taken in 1910, Providence, Pawtucket, Woonsocket and Newport, with a combined population of 341,222, had four senators, whereas the remainder of the state, with a population of 201,452, had thirty-four.
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  • Among the important buildings are the Cathedral (said to have been built originally about 1535, and subsequently restored at various times), the Iturbide theatre (in which occurred the trial of Maximilian), the government offices, the federal palace and the churches of Santa Rosa, Santa Clara and San Augustin.
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  • The federal palace and the church of Santa Rosa are examples of the work of the celebrated Mexican architect, Francisco Eduardo de Tresguerras (1765-1833), who restored the church of Santa Clara also.
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  • The gilded wood carvings of Santa Clara are noteworthy; and in the courtyard of the federal palace there are other specimens of the same work.
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  • From 1816 to 1866 it was the seat of the German federal diet.
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  • The plan was to overthrow the Lincoln government in the elections and give to the Democrats the control of the state and Federal governments, which would then make peace and invite the Southern States to come back into the Union on the old footing.
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  • All these plans failed at the critical moment, and the most effective work done by the order was in encouraging desertion from the Federal armies, preventing enlistments, and resisting the draft.
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  • He was later appointed a general officer of the Confederacy, and assigned to the command of the Army of the Shenandoah, being opposed by the Federal army under Patterson.
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  • The disorders, fomented by republican agitators, none the less continued; and the efforts of the government to suppress them with the aid of federal troops led to an armed insurrection.
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  • In 1788 he joined his son-in-law Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and others in leading the movement for the ratification by New York of the Federal constitution.
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  • The county and the city were named in honour of Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), a political leader, orator and soldier, who was born in London, England, was taken to the United States in 1815, was a representative in Congress from Illinois in 1845-1846and 1849-1851, served in the Mexican War as a colonel (1846-1847), became a prominent lawyer in California and later in Oregon, was a Republican member of the United States Senate in 1860-1861 and was killed at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, on the 21st of October in r 861, while serving as a colonel in the Federal army.
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  • As the conquest of the Aargau was the first made by the Confederates, their delegates (or the federal diet) naturally met at Baden, from 1426 to about 1712, to settle matters relating to these subject lands, so that during that period Baden was really the capital of Switzerland.
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  • When hostilities became inevitable, acting in conjunction with Captain (later General) Nathaniel Lyon, he suddenly transferred the arms in the Federal arsenal at St Louis to Alton, Illinois, and a few days later (May ro, 1861) surrounded and captured a force of state guards which had been stationed at Camp Jackson in the suburbs of St Louis with the intention of seizing the arsenal.
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  • This action gave the Federal cause a decisive initial advantage in Missouri.
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  • He favoured abolishing the Federal inheritance tax, believing that the state alone should have jurisdiction over inheritances.
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  • Jealous of the exclusive claims of the Roman Church, he procured a further condemnation at Rome of the "Association for the Promotion of the Unity of Christendom," which advocated prayers for the accomplishment of a kind of federal union between the Roman, Greek and Anglican Churches, and in a pastoral letter he insisted on the heretical assumption implied in such an undertaking.
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  • The alliance of this latter power with Athens accentuated the rising jealousy of the Corinthians, who, after deprecating a federal war in 440, virtually forced Sparta's hand against Athens in 432.
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  • The foundation of the new federal capital Megalopolis threw Tegea somewhat into the shade.
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  • Forrest operated in 1862-1863, and was alternately occupied by Confederate and Federal forces during General Hood's Nashville campaign (November-December 1864).
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  • According to the Federal census taken in 1910 the population had increased to 21,262.
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  • After the fall of Vicksburg Johnston concentrated his forces at Jackson, which had been evacuated by the Federal troops, and prepared to make a stand behind the intrenchments.
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  • Although punishment by whipping and by standing in the pillory was prohibited by an act of Congress in 1839, in so far as the Federal government had jurisdiction, both these forms of punishment were retained in Delaware, and standing in the pillory was prescribed by statute as a punishment for a number of offences, including various kinds of larceny and forgery, highway robbery, and even pretending " to exercise the art of witchcraft, fortune-telling or dealing with spirits," at least until 1893.
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  • In 1866, 1867 and 1869, respectively, the legislature refused to ratify the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the Federal constitution.
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  • Again in 1880 the circuit court, by virtue of the Federal statute of 1872 on elections, appointed supervisors of elections in Delaware.
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  • He decided to stay, rallied the retreating troops, and held Cemetery Hill and Ridge until the arrival of the main body of the Federal army.
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  • As the Federal Constitution contained no provision for settling a dispute of this kind the two houses of Congress agreed to the appointment of an extra-constitutional body, the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.) which decided all the contests in favour of the Republican candidates.
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  • Their number, originally ninety-three, is determined by apportionment bills passed after the publication of each Federal census, but under the constitution it can never exceed one hundred and fifty.
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  • The invested fund is largely in Federal, state and county bonds.
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  • New loans were made during the Civil War, but they were repudiated by the constitution of 1866, and were made void by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal constitution.
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    0
  • Although the attempt to force the Roman Catholic religion upon the people, the federal decree of 1830 forbidding further immigration from the states, and the reckless grants of land to Mexican favourites.
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  • Wharton and Henry Smith (1794-1851) until 1835, when Santa Anna overthrew the federal constitution of 1824 and established a dictatorship. A consultation of representatives from the various settlements met at San Felipe de Austin, October to November 1835.
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  • The citizens of Fayetteville were mainly Confederate sympathizers; Fayetteville was raided by Federal cavalry on the 14th of July 1862, and was permanently occupied by Federal troops in the autumn of the same year.
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  • Other federal improvements undertaken are a harbour at Muscatine, a harbour of refuge below Davenport and channel improvements at Clinton.
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  • The state census of 1905 showed a total population of 2,210,050, and the Federal census of 1910, of 2,224,771.
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  • In May 1787 he was elected a delegate to the Convention which drew up the Federal Constitution, this body thus having a member upon whom all could agree as chairman, should Washington be absent.
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  • This led to the calling of the Annapolis convention of 1786, which in turn led to the calling of the Federal convention of 1787.
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  • In 1810 he was a member of a commission to explore a route for a canal between Lake Erie and the Hudson river, and in 1811 he and Gouverneur Morris were sent to Washington to secure Federal aid for the undertaking, but were unsuccessful.
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  • Its constitution was that of a crown colony in association with Queensland; but in 1901 the federal government took control of the territory and in 1906 a proclamation by the governor-general of the commonwealth gave it the name of the Territory of Papua.
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  • Waldeck-Pyrmont has one vote in the federal council (Bundesrat) and one in the Reichstag.
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  • The harbour, San Pedro Bay, originally open and naturally poor, has been greatly improved by the Federal government; a breakwater 9250 ft.
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  • Among the important buildings are the Federal Building, the County Court House, the City Hall, a County Hall of Records, the Public Library with about 110,000 volumes in 1908, the large Auditorium and office buildings and the Woman's Club.
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  • The federal census of 1900 showed that of every ioo persons employed for gain only 37.5% were of native descent (that is, had a nativeborn father).
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  • To protect the court and the national arsenal at Springfield, for which the Federal government was powerless to provide a guard, MajorGeneral William Shepard (1737-1817) ordered out the militia, called for volunteers, and supplied them with arms from the arsenal, and the court sat for three days.
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  • The Federal government now attempted to enlist recruits, ostensibly to protect the western frontier from the Indians, but actually for the suppression of the insurrection; but the plan failed from lack of funds, and the insurgents continued to interrupt the procedure of the courts.
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  • The Federal Constitution was ratified by Massachusetts by only a small majority on the 6th of February 1788, after its rejection had been at one time imminent; but Massachusetts became a strong Federalist state.
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  • In the war thus begun she built, equipped and manned many vessels for the Federal navy, and furnished from IMI to 1865 26,163 (or, including final credits, probably more than 30,000) men for the navy.
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  • During the war all but twelve small townships raised troops in excess of every call, the excess throughout the state amounting in all to more than 15,000 men; while the total recruits to the Federal army (including re-enlistments) numbered, according to the adjutantgeneral of the state, 159,165 men, of which less than 7000 were raised by draft.
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  • Census (alternating with Federal census), and reports and bulletins of the Board of Agriculture (1852) and the Agricultural College (1867), and Experiment Station (1883) at Amherst.
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  • As a member of the Assembly he had been a strong supporter of woman suffrage, and in June 1919, as governor, called a special session which ratified the woman suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution.
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  • The annual deathrate per 1000 was 54 per 1000 for the Federal District in 1901, 50 ill 1902, 48 in 1903, 46 in 1904, and 56 in 1905; the increase for the last-mentioned year being due to an epidemic of typhus fever.
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  • The peoples of the thirteen states which had secured emancipation from British sovereignty were wisely intent on framing their own Federal Union, and in taking effective possession of the vast territories in the Ohio region and beyond the Mississippi.
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  • In this capacity he was conspicuous for fearless independence of thought and action in his opinion in the test oath case, and in his dissenting opinions in the legal tender, conscription and "slaughter house" cases, which displayed unusual legal learning, and gave powerful expression to his strict constructionist theory of the implied powers of the Federal constitution.
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  • But the cry of Federal interference was raised as a result of the methods employed in securing his nomination, and this, together with the party division and the popularity of Cleveland, brought about Cleveland's election by the unprecedented plurality of 192,854.
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  • During the Civil War the city was thrice occupied by Federal troops.
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  • Enumerations were conducted independently by the different states until 1871, when the first federal census was taken of the older parts of the Dominion.
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  • This was about the first indication of a tendency, which grew in strength for half a century, to load the Federal census with inquiries having no essential or necessary connexion with its main purpose, which was to secure an accurate enumeration of the population as a basis for a reapportionment of seats in the House of Representatives.
    0
    0
  • With the disappearance of direct taxation as a source of federal revenue, the motive mentioned for understating the population disappeared.
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    0
  • In eleven cases such enumerations have been taken; and on computing from them and the results of the federal census of 1880 what the population at the date of the eleventh census should have been, if the annual rate of increase had been uniform, it appears that in no case, except New York City and Oregon, was the difference between the enumerations and these estimates over 4%.
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  • Under the federal form of government, with its delegation of all residuary powers to the several states, the United States have no system of recording deaths, births and marriages.
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  • The course of events has clearly established the fact that the authority of the Federal government in this field is greater than the strict constructionists of a previous generation as represented by General Walker in the passage already quoted believed it to be.
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  • Decision after decision of individual instances has made it a settled practice for the Federal government to co-operate with or to supplement the state governments in the gathering of statistics that may furnish a basis for state or Federal legislation.
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  • The law has allowed the Federal census office in its discretion to compile and publish the birth statistics of divisions in which they are accurately kept; one Federal report on the statistics of marriages and divorces throughout the country from 1867 to 1886 inclusive was published in 1889, and a second for the succeeding twenty-year period was published in part in 1908; an annual volume gives the statistics of deaths for about half the population of the country, including all the states and cities which have approximately complete records of deaths; Federal agencies like the bureau of labour and the bureau of corporations have been created for the purpose of gathering certain social and industrial statistics, and the bureau of the census has been made a permanent statistical office.
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  • The Federal census office has been engaged in the compilation and publication of statistics of many sorts.
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  • Congress has recently entrusted it with still further duties, and it has developed into the main statistical office of the Federal government, finding its nearest analogue probably in the Imperial Statistical Office in Berlin.
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  • The canton sends 10 members to the federal Nationalrat, being one for every 20,000, while the two Stdnderdte are (since 1904) elected by a direct vote of the people.
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  • The Confederation Congress appealed to it in vain for the right to collect duties at its port; and there was determined opposition to the new Federal constitution.
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  • Later, the Livingstons, piqued at Wash= ington's neglect to give them the offices they thought their due, joined the Clintons, but the Federal patronage was used against the anti-Federalists or Republicans with such effect that in 1792 John Jay received more votes for governor than George Clinton, although the latter was counted in on a technicality.
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  • With the exception of New York City the state was loyal to the Union cause during the war and furnished over a half million troops to the Federal armies.
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  • In 1767 he became minister of a Congregational church at Dover, New Hampshire, remaining there until 1787, when he removed to Federal Street church, Boston.
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  • Federal rights were to be safeguarded against the provincial governments, always jealous of their privileges.
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  • The principal Federal irrigation undertakings in 1910 were known as the " Okanogan project " and the " Yakima project."
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  • The sovereignty over the territory was by a law (Reichsgesetz) of the 9th of June 1871 vested in the German emperor, who, until the introduction of the imperial constitution on the 1st of January 1874, had, with the assent of the federal council (Bundesrat) and, in a few cases, that of the imperial diet (Reichstag), the sole right of initiating legislation.
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  • The political treaty referred in general terms to a federal union between the Transvaal and the Free State, and bound each of them to help the other, whenever the independence of either should be assailed or threatened from without, unless the state so called upon for assistance should be able to show the injustice of the cause of quarrel in which the other state had engaged.
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  • But more important than private and co-operative undertakings are the Federal irrigation projects.
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  • The great Federal projects were not begun until after 1900.
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  • He was taken from the Federal service in Washington to New York City by a reform mayor and put in charge of the police, because he had shown both physical and moral courage in fighting corruption of all sorts; and the New York police force at that time was thoroughly tainted with corruption, not in its rank and file, but among its superior officers, who used the power in their hands to extort money bribes chiefly from saloonkeepers, liquor-dealers, gamblers and prostitutes.
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  • He understood that political materialism, selfishness and corruption in federal administration afford the strongest possible argument for those who advocate strengthening the independent power of the separate states at the expense of nationalism.
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  • The effect of his exhortations, as well as of his personal character and public acts, upon the standards and spirit of official life in the United States, was a pronounced one in attracting to the federal service a group o men who took up their work of public office with the same spirit of enthusiasm and self-sacrifice that actuates the military volunteer in time of war.
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  • Mr Roosevelt not only attacked dishonesty in public affairs but in private business as welt, asserting that "malefactors of great wealth" endeavour to control legislation so as to increase the profits of monopolies or "trusts," and that to prevent such control it is necessary to extend the powers of the federal government.
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  • When Federal Civil Service commissioner he did more than any other single public man in the United States has had either the ability or the opportunity to do; to promote the doctrine of service for merit only out of the realm of theory into the realm of governmental practice.
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  • While he was criticized by the friends of Civil Service Reform for not going far enough during his presidency to protect the encroachments of those who desire to have the offices distributed as political rewards or for partisan ends, such specific acts as his transference to the classified service of all fourth-class postmasters east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio rivers, his insistence upon a thorough investigation of the scandals in the Post Office department, and his order forbidding federal employes to use their offices for political purposes in the campaign of 1908 are typical of his vigorous support of the merit system.
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  • He established the Federal Department of Commerce and Labor, the secretary of which has a seat in the cabinet, and in which there exists a bureau of corporations possessing the specific function of inspecting and supervising interstate corporations - an entirely new feature in American government.
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  • Saxony is a constitutional monarchy and a member of the German empire, with four votes in the Bundesrath (federal council) and twenty-three in the Reichstag (imperial diet).
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  • He was not sincere, however, in desiring to exclude Austria, and in 1850 accepted the invitation of that power to send deputies to the restored federal diet at Frankfort.
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  • Much of the old town caved into the river, and during the Civil War it was burned by the Federal forces soon after the capture of Memphis.
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  • The most important examples of this class consist of federal or composite states which by treaty or otherwise have surrendered certain of their powers, or which have created a new state (Staatenbund).
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  • For many years one of the burning questions in the politics of ' The distinction between the Staatenbund and the Bundesstaat is discussed in the articles Confederation and Federal Government.
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  • According to the theory expounded in the Federalist, the individual states did not, after the formation of the constitution, remain completely sovereign: they were left in possession of certain attributes of sovereignty, while others were lodged in the Federal government; while there existed many states, there was but one sovereign.
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  • To take the American constitution, for example, the states are sovereign as to some matters, the Federal government as to others.
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  • The total population of South Dakota in 1890 (the date of the first Federal census taken since its separate existence as a state) was 328,808, and in 1900 it was 401,570; the increase from 1890 to 1900 being (exclusive of persons on Indian reservations) 16.8%.
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  • The state university is under the control of the board of regents, and is maintained by the state and is the beneficiary of 86,000 acres of land grants from the Federal government.
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  • There is a Federal hospital for insane Indians at Canton.
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  • Public Buildings, Institutions, eec. - The principal public building in the city is the Federal building (1895-1898), the post office, customhouse and local headquarters for the United States courts.
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  • Although at first unfriendly to the Federal Constitution as drafted by the convention at Philadelphia, he was finally won over to its support, and in 1788 he presided over the Massachusetts convention which ratified the instrument.
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  • During November tlfe British West India steamer "Trent" was boarded by a vessel of the Federal Navy, the "San Jacinto," and Messrs Slidell and Mason, commissioners for the Confederate States, who were on their way to England, were seized.
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  • Helena is delightfully situated with Mt Helena as a background in the hollow of the Prickly Pear valley, a rich agricultural region surrounded by rolling hills and lofty mountains, and contains many fine buildings, including the state capitol, county court house, the Montana club house, high school, the cathedral of St Helena, a federal building, and the United States assay office.
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  • He presided over the New Hampshire convention which ratified the Federal constitution in June 1788.
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  • The losses were: Confederate, 25 killed and 75 wounded; Federal, 39 killed and 120 wounded.
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  • Another Federal raid on the town was made in December of the same year by General John Pope's cavalry.
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  • Again, during General Price's Missouri expedition in 1864, a Federal force entered Lexington on the 16th of October, and three days later there was some fighting about 4 m.
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  • As secretary of the treasury (1874-1876) he prosecuted with vigour the so-called "Whisky Ring," the headquarters of which was at St Louis, and which, beginning in 1870 or 1871, had defrauded the Federal government out of a large part of its rightful revenue from the distillation of whisky.
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  • An attempt has been made to organize the various vegetarian societies of the world under the title of "The Vegetarian Federal Union."
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  • The so-called Reclamation Act passed by Congress in 1902 provided for the construction of a system of irrigation works in this and other states by the Federal government.
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  • In 1908 the Federal Reclamation Service had five projects in North Dakota.
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  • The Federal government bought the site in 1847 and after destroying the old forts began the erection of the present works.
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  • The result of the Federal censuses (begun in 1850) are as follows: in 1850, 64,146 (42,127); in 1860, 82,876 (59,826); in 1870, 88,791 (65,606); in 1880, 99,712 (76,197), and in 1888, 105,509 (81,407).
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  • The canton sends 2 members (elected by a popular vote) to the Federal St y nderath, and 7 to the Federal Nationalrath.
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  • In 1861 and in 1864 Fazy failed to secure his re-election to the conseil d'etat, riots followed his defeat, and the Federal troops were forced to intervene so as to restore order.
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  • As chairman of the House Banking Committee he was active in framing and passing the Federal Reserve Bank Law.
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  • The principal buildings of the city are the Niagara Falls Memorial Hospital, the Federal Building and the Niagara Falls Power Co.
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  • Some disputes between Baden and Bavaria remained unsettled, and many questions arising out of the new federal constitution of Germany, which had been hurriedly patched together under the influence of the news of Napoleon's return, had to be postponed for further discussion, and were not settled until the Final Act agreed upon by the conference of German statesmen at Vienna in 1821.
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  • The Federal leader intended to hold back his centre whilst these two forces were rolling up Lee's wings.
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  • Hill which enabled Stonewall Jackson's corps to hold its ground, and had the other Federal corps been at hand to support Hooker the result might have been very different.
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