Asia, the same fauna extending in Siberia as far as the Yenisei and the Lena.
The fauna of the peninsula is varied and no less profuse than is the vegetable life.
The origin of the fauna and flora of Australia has attracted considerable attention.
The fauna of the scrub in the river valleys is decidedly rich, and includes aquatic birds.
The flora and fauna of Juan Fernandez are in most respects Chilean.
The fauna of Liberia is sufficiently peculiar, at any rate as regards vertebrates, to make it very nearly identical with a "district" or sub-province of the West African province, though in this case the Liberian "district" would not include the northernmost portions of the country and would overlap on the east and west into Sierra Leone and the French Ivory Coast.
In the Urals the marine facies is more fully developed and the fauna shows affinities with that of the Productus limestone of the Central Asian mountain belt.
Of the indigenous fauna, the tapir of the north and the guanaco of the west and south are the largest of the animals.
The fauna of the Arctic Ocean off the Norwegian coast corresponds, in its W.
Moreover the fauna and flora of New Zealand in many ways resemble those of Samoa.
Of aboriginal human inhabitants there is no trace in the Falklands, and the land fauna is very scanty.
In the British fresh-water fauna only two genera, Hydra and Cordylophora, are found; in America occurs an additional genus, Microhydra.
Of the extremely limited Samoan fauna, consisting mainly of an indigenous rat, four species of snakes and a few birds, the most interesting member is the Didunculus strigirostris, a ground pigeon of iridescent greenish-black and bright chestnut plumage, which forms a link between the extinct dodo and the living African Treroninae.
The vertical relief of the land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a continent.
iv., Zoology (St Petersburg, 1875), though dealing more especially with Siberia, is an invaluable source of information for the Russian fauna generally.
and fauna are essentially Asiatic in their type, while to the south and east the Australian element begins to be distinctly marked, soon to become predominant.
S.) Flora And Fauna The general assemblage of animals and plants found over northern Asia resembles greatly that found in the parts of Europe which are adjacent and have a similar climate.
Pseudis was first described by Marie Sibylle de Merlon (1647-1717), in her work on the fauna of Surinam (published first in 1705 at Amsterdam, republished in Latin in 1719), as a frog changing into a fish.
The greatest development of the Argentine fauna, however, is in the warm, wooded regions of the north and north-east, where many animals are of the same species as those in the neighbouring territories of Brazil.
It is well known that Darwin was deeply impressed by differences in flora and fauna, which seemed to be functions of locality, and not the result of obvious dissimilarities of environment.
2 Bibliography of Fauna: see Pallas, Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica; Syevertsov for the birds of south-eastern Russia; M.
Reiches, for reptiles generally; Rodoszkowski and the publications of the Entomological Society generally for insects; Czerniaysky for the marine fauna of the Black Sea; Kessler for that of Lakes Onega and Ladoga; Grimm for the Caspian.
Previous to its arrival Australia doubtless possessed considerable vegetation and a scanty fauna, chiefly invertebrate.
" Hydromedusae with a Revision of the Williadae and Petasidae," Fauna and Geogr.
Dr Natterer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths.
From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.
The fauna resembles that of other parts of West Africa; it is poor on the coast.
His conclusions were that the group "has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have its members been at any time closer together"; and that the character of the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over from America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where in their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees and ways from their ancestors.
At Beaufort the United States Bureau of Fisheries has a marine biological laboratory, established in 1901 for the study of the aquatic fauna of the south-east coast.
Nearly all the mammals of Europe also occur in northern Asia, where, however, the Palaearctic fauna is enriched by numerous additional species.
Of the fauna of the lower slopes, tracks of elephant, leopard and buffalo have been seen, between 11,500 and 14,500 ft.
The species of fauna that are at all characteristic of this part of the United States are found in the Piedmont Plateau Region and the western portion of the Coastal Plain Region.
==Fauna== The Argentine fauna, like its flora, has been greatly influenced by the character and position of the pampas.
Wales, 1895; " The Relation of the Fauna and Flora of Australia to those of New Zealand," Nat.
The fauna of the Baltic provinces is described in full in the Memoirs of the scientific bodies of these provinces.
Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.
The bird fauna is of considerable interest, the finest species of the upper zone being an eagle-owl, met with at 14,000 ft.
Both the fauna and flora of the higher levels present close affinities with those of Mount Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa and of Cameroon Mountain.
DIPTERA (Sis, double, 7rTEpa, wings), a term (first employed in its modern sense by Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 1st ed., 1746, p. 306) used in zoological classification for one of the Orders into which the Hexapoda, or Insecta, are divided.
Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.
" Die arktischen Medusen (ausschliesslich der Polypomedusen)," Fauna arctica, iv.
The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plantgrowth of a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.
Each of these divisions is the home of a special fauna, many species of which are confined to it alone; in the Australian region, indeed, practically the whole fauna is peculiar and distinctive, suggesting a prolonged period of complete biological isolation.
For narrow as are the channels between Cuba and the opposite coast of Central America, between the Bahamas and Florida, and between Grenada and Tobago, the fauna of the Antillean chain, instead of being a mixture of that of the almost contiguous countries, differs, much from all, and exhibits in some groups a degree of speciality which may be not unfitly compared with that of oceanic islands..
which inhabits the same latitudes in Central America, not many degrees farther to the west; but no instance perhaps can be cited, which shows more strikingly the difference between a continental and an'insular fauna, since, making every allowance for the ravages, of cultivation by civilized man, the contrary is the case, and possibly no area of land so highly favoured by nature is so poorly furnished with the, higher forms of animal life.
and middle Russia they contain a special fauna, and it appears that the Lower Devonian series of W.
The Black Sea, the fauna of which appears to be very rich, belongs to the Mediterranean region, slightly modified, while the Caspian partakes of the characteristic fauna inhabiting the lakes and seas of the Aral-Caspian depression.
Hoffman, Californien, Nevada and Mexico (Basel, 1879); Nevada and her Resources, compiled under the direction of the State Bureau of Immigration (Carson City, 1894); U.S. Department of Agriculture, North America Fauna, No.
She was identified with Fauna, and by later syncretism also with Ops and Maiathe latter no doubt because the dedication-day of her temple on the Aventine was 1st May (Ovid, Fasti, v.
In this way the surface of the land is divided into numerous natural regions, the flora and fauna of each of which include some distinctive species not shared by the others.
Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.
So large a portion of the Ethiopian subregion lies between the tropics that no surprise need be expressed at the richness of its fauna relatively to that of the last two subregions we have considered.
C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
the numerous fossils of the Santa Cruz formation), and also the nearest resemblance to the fauna of Austrogaea.
As regards flora and fauna Bali is associated with Java.
The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.
The name is derived from galapago, a tortoise, on account of the giant species, the characteristic feature of the fauna.
These immigrants then developed, with some exceptions, into the present Australian flora and fauna.
Flora and Fauna.
The Leptolinae are chiefly forms belonging to the inshore fauna.
C. Watson, and his conclusions were enforced ten years later by Edward Forbes, who dealt also with the fauna.
Wallace as representing the so-called Wallace's Line, whereby he demarcated the Asiatic from the Australian fauna.
The forest region, and especially its coniferous portion, though it has lost some of its representatives within historic times, still possesses an abundant fauna.
The destruction of the forests and the advance of wheat into the prairies are rapidly thinning the steppe fauna.
Nordenskiold's Vega-expeditionens Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser (5 vols., Stockholm, 2872-87) may be consulted for the mammals of the tundra region and marine fauna.
The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.
The ornithology of northern Asia is even more closely allied to that of Europe than the mammal fauna.
The mammal fauna of the Indian region of Asia is much more highly developed than that of the Palaearctic. The Quadrumana are represented by several peculiar genera, amongst which are Semnopithecus, Hylobates and Simia.
The Ethiopian fauna plays but a subordinate part in Asia, intruding only into the south-western corner, and occupying the desert districts of Arabia and Syria, although some of the characteristic species reach still farther into Persia and Sind, and even into western India.
to Audubon's great work in two volumes, on the same scale - The New and Hitherto unfigured Species of the Birds of North America, containing life-size figures of all those which had been added to its fauna since the completion of the former.
The works of Audubon, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana of Richardson and Swainson have already been noticed, but they need naming here, as also do Nuttall's Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada (2 vols., Boston, 1832-1834; 2nd ed., 1840); and the Birds of Long Island (8 vo, New York, 1844) by J.
For Scandinavia generally Herr Collin's Skandinaviens Fugle (8vo, 1873) is a greatly bettered edition of the very moderate Danmarks Fugle of Kjaerbolling; but the ornithological portion of Nilsson's Skandinavisk Fauna, Foglarna (3rd ed., 2 vols., 8vo, 1858) is of great merit; while the text of Sundevall's Svenska Foglarna (obl.
As to Italy, we can but name here the Fauna d'Italia, of which the second part, Uccelli (8vo, 1872), by Count Salvadori, contains an excellent bibliography of Italian works on the subject, and the posthumously published Ornitologia italiana of Savi (3 vols.
The state possesses a rich fauna and flora.
On fauna and flora: United States Biological Survey, Bulletins (especially No.
Industrial contaminants can be particularly harmful to the aquatic fauna, with some species unable to tolerate the change in water quality.
fauna species are endemic, with 41 on the endangered species list.
fauna survey are given in Bedel et al.
parasitic protozoa in the British wild fauna.
The Heteropoda belong to the " pelagic fauna " occurring near the surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of various groups of the animal kingdom.
The Oeningen beds of Baden, of Miocene age, have also yielded an extensive insect fauna, described fifty years ago by O.
A large and dominant Holoarctic fauna, with numerous subdivisions, ranges over the great northern continents, and is characterized by the abundance of certain families like the Carahidae and Staphylinidae among the Coleoptera and the Tenthredinidae among the Hymenoptera.
The southern territory held by this fauna is invaded by genera and species distinctly tropical.
Neotropical and distinctively Sonoran insects mingle with members of the Holoarctic fauna across a wide " transition zone " in North America.
The Australian fauna is rich in characteristic and peculiar genera, and New Zealand, while possessing some remarkable insects of its own, lacks entirely several families with an almost world-wide range - for example, the Notodontidae, Lasiocampidae, and other families of Lepidoptera.
Nevertheless the book was eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared.4 Mention must be made of a medical treatise by Caspar Schwenckfeld, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the title of Theriotropheum Silesiae, the fourth book of which consists of an " Aviarium Silesiae," and is the earliest of the works we now know by the name of fauna.
In 1684 Sibbald in his Scotia illustrate published the earliest Fauna of Scotland.
It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.
In 1746 the great Linnaeus had produced a Fauna Svecica, of which a second edition appeared in 1761, and a third, revised by Retzius, in 1800.
At the same place appeared in 1767 Leem's work, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae, to which Gunnerus contributed some good notes on the ornithology of northern Norway, and at Copenhagen and Leipzig was published in 1780 the Fauna Groenlandica of Otho Fabricius.
On reviewing the progress of ornithology since the end of the 18th century, the first thing that will strike us is the fact that general works, though still undertaken, have become proportionally fewer, while special works, whether relating to the ornithic portion of the fauna of any particular country, or limited to certain groups of birds - works to which the name of " Monograph " has become wholly restricted - have become far more numerous.
Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.
While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.
The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.
Generally, while there is a relative poverty of zoological groups, there is a great wealth of species within the group. Of gammarids, there are as many as 300 species, and those living at great depths (33 o to 380 fathoms) tend to assume abyssal characters similar to those displayed by the deep-sea fauna of the ocean.
4 and 5); Dybowski and Godlewski on "Fauna," in same periodical (1876); Witkowski, on "Seals"; Yakovlev's "Fishes of Angara," in same periodical (1890-1893); "Fishing in Lake Baikal and its Tributaries," in same periodical (1886-1890); and La Geographie (No.
Climate, Flora, Fauna.
(1893)+ Id., Fauna u.
The fauna is similar in general to that of the southern United States.
Cockerell's " West Indian Fauna in Florida " (Nature, vol.
The Formosan fauna has been but partially ascertained; but at least three kinds of deer, wild boars, bears, goats, monkeys (probably Macacus speciosus), squirrels, and flying squirrels are fairly common, and panthers and wild cats are not unfrequent.
The native fauna is scanty.
The fauna of Brixham cavern closely resembles that of Kent's Hole.
C. Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland (3rd ed., London, 1903), perhaps the best general book on the country, contains a special fauna section; G.
Ethnology, flora, fauna, geology, &c. P. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas.
==Fauna== The three climatic regions of Alberta have naturally a varying fauna.
Climate and Fauna.
Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.
The native fauna of the state resembles in its general features that of the other Gulf states.
The feral fauna was once rather varied.
For fauna and flora: publications of U.S. Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture, Bibliographies).
The fauna of Cuba, like the flora, is still imperfectly known.
Fauna and Flora.
The Bahamas are far poorer in their fauna than in their flora.
In erratic blocks of sandstone, found on the Disco shore of the Waigat, have been detected a Sigillaria and a species of either Pecopterisor Gleichenia, perhaps of this age; and probably much of the extreme northern coast of Ellesmere Land, and therefore, in all likelihood, the opposite Greenland shore, contains a clearly developed Carboniferous Limestone fauna, identical with that so widely distributed over the North American continent, and referable also to British and Spitsbergen species.
It was long a common belief that the fauna and flora of Greenland were essentially European, a circumstance which would make it probable that Greenland has been separated by sea from America during a longer period of time than from Europe.
The flora and fauna are similar to those of the other states of the same latitude.
The rapid settling of the state drove its native fauna, which comprised buffalo, deer, moose, bear, lynx and wolves, in great numbers into the northern sections, westward into Dakota, or across the Canadian border.
Spengel, "Die Enteropneusten," Eighteenth Monograph on the Fauna and Flora des Golfes von Neapel (1893); A.
These divisions are, however, unsatisfactory, as the fauna relied on as characteristic must have existed synchronously.
The Amur region shares the characteristics of the north Chinese fauna.
The arctic fauna is very poor.
The boreal fauna is, of course, much more abundant; but here also the great bulk of the species, both mammals and birds, are common to Europe and Asia.
schistocolor), the beaver, variable hare, wild boar, roebuck, stag, reindeer, elk and Phoca annelata of Lake Baikal - all these are common alike to Europe and to Siberia; while the bear, musk-deer (Moschus moschi- f erus), ermine, sable, pouched marmot or souslik (Spermophilus eversmani), Arvicola obscures and Lagomys hyperboraeus, distributed over Siberia, may be considered as belonging to the arctic fauna.
In south-east Siberia there are fortythree new species belonging to the north Manchurian or Amur fauna; and in south-east Transbaikalia, on the borders of the Gobi steppe, only 103 species were found by G.
The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.
The dredgings of the " Vega " expedition in the Arctic Ocean disclosed an unexpected wealth of marine fauna, and those of L.
4 The Sea of Okhotsk is very interesting, owing to its local species and the general composition of its fauna (70 species of Molluscs and 21 of Gasteropods).
von Wrangel); the various coloration of many animals according to the composition of the forests they inhabit (the sable and the squirrel are well-known instances); the intermingling northern and southern faunas in the Amur region and the remarkable consequences of that intermixture in the struggle for existence; - all these render the study of the Siberian fauna most interesting.
Finally, the laws of distribution of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes undergone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known The remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indication of what may be expected in this field.
Pallas, with several Russian students, laid the first foundation of a thorough exploration of the topography, fauna, flora and inhabitants of the country.
The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
The flora consists of 129 species of angiosperms, i Cycas, 22 ferns, and a few mosses, lichens and fungi, 17 of which are endemic, while a considerable number - not specifically distinct - form local varieties nearly all presenting Indo-Malayan affinities, as do the single Cycas, the ferns and the cryptogams. As to its fauna, the island contains 319 species of animals-54 only being vertebrates-145 of which are endemic. A very remarkable distributional fact in regard to them, and one not yet fully explained, is that a large number show affinity with species in the Austro-Malayan rather than in the Indo-Malayan, their nearer, region.
"Flying Fish," having discovered an anchorage in a bay which he named Flying Fish Cove, landed a party and made a small but interesting collection of the flora and fauna.
The flora and fauna of the islands present features of unusual interest.
Writing of the fauna and flora generally, Mr R.
Blanford, in the Fauna of British India, is of opinion that the reproach is without foundation.
The fauna shows striking analogies with that of the Bokkeveld beds of South Africa on the one hand and of the Hamilton group of North America on the other.
The former appears to be almost unfossiliferous, the latter has yielded a rich marine fauna, which belongs to the top of the Carboniferous or to the Permo-carboniferous.
In the province of Sergipe, on the east coast, the beds are approximately on the horizon of the Cenomanian; in the valley of the Amazon they belong to the highest parts of the Cretaceous system, and the fauna shows Tertiary affinities.
The indigenous fauna of Brazil is noteworthy not only for the variety and number of its genera and species, but also for its deficiency in the larger mammals.
One of the characteristic orders of the Brazilian fauna is that of the Edentata, which comprises the sloth, armadillo and ant-eater.
The reptilian fauna exhibits an exceptionally large number of interesting genera and species.
The fauna of the rivers and coast of Brazil is richer in species and individuals than that of the land.
For further historical works and for information on flora, fauna, climate, law, church, &c. see the bibliography under SOUTH AFRICA.
The fauna is a mixture of the Siberian and the Daurian - the latter penetrating up the valleys of the Selenga basin.
This was followed by the Sarmatian period, when Hungary was covered by extensive lagoons, the fauna being partly marine and partly brackish water.
These patches, called " woodbushes," contain many hardwood trees of great size, their flora and fauna being altogether different from that immediately outside the wood.
To preserve the native fauna the low country on the Portuguese frontier has been made a game reserve.
The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.
The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna.
The flora and fauna belong for the most part to those of New Zealand, on which colony the islands are also politically dependent, having been annexed in 1887.
Muscat, the capital of the province and the principal port on the coast, is surrounded on three sides by bare, rocky hills, and has the reputation of being the hottest place in [[[Geology: Climate: Fauna]] Arabia.
A large part of the surface is covered with virgin forest, consisting of screw-pines, palm trees, tree ferns, canariums, &c. The fauna is altogether Papuan.
- Geographically speaking, Tunisia is merely the eastern prolongation of the Mauretanian projection of northern Africa, of that strip of mountainous, fertile and fairly well-watered country north of the Sahara desert, which in its flora and its fauna, and to some extent in its human race, belongs rather to Europe than to Africa.
The fauna of Tunisia at the present day is much impoverished as regards mammals, birds and reptiles.
The abundant and varied fauna is the same as that of the Brazilian forests.
xxiii.; Jhgerskiold, Fauna arctica.
Among the most prominent secular buildings are: the Tergesteo, a huge edifice containing a cruciform arcade roofed with glass, where the exchange is established, besides numerous shops and offices; the town-hall, rebuilt in 1874, with the handsome hall of the local Diet; the imposing old exchange, now the seat of the chamber of commerce; the palatial offices of the Austrian Lloyd, the principal shipping company; the commercial and nautical academy, with its natural history museum, containing the complete fauna of the Adriatic Sea; and finally the municipal museum, Revoltella, are all worth mentioning.
The fresh-water fauna also contains a representative of the Entoprocta (Urnatella), two or three Ctenostomes, such as Victorella and Paludicella, and one or two species of Cheilostomata.
it consists of a somewhat Fauna and Flora.
- The fauna of the state does not differ from that of southern Connecticut and eastern Massachusetts.
The marine fauna is of economic importance.
Stanley Gardiner and C. Forster Cooper carried out an expedition to the Maldives and Laccadives, for the important results of which see The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, ed.
It chiefly consists of stratified volcanic tuffs rich in coal, lignite, fossilized plants and an invertebrate fauna.
Fauna.Japan is an exception to the general rule that continents are richer in fauna than are their neighboring islands.
which is peculiar to snakes, venomous as well as non-venomous, of the fauna of tropical America.
There is nothing of special interest about the fauna of Lebanon.
Thus we hear of temples dedicated to Juventas=Hebe (191 B.C.), Diana=Artemis (179 B.C.), Mars=Ares (138 B.C.), and find even such unexpected identifications as that of the Bona Dea - a cult title of the ancient Fauna, the female counterpart of the countryside numen Faunus - with a Greek goddess of women, Damia.
As regards the fauna, the Carpathians still contain numerous bears, wolves and lynxes, as well as birds of prey.
It presents a characteristic feature in its mollusc fauna, which contains many species not found in the neighbouring regions, and only found in the Alpine region.
This fauna, to which the term " halolimnic " has been applied, was known to exist from specimens obtained by Mr E.
Bingham's Fauna of British India, "" Hymenoptera " (London, 1897 and onwards), and P. Cameron's volumes on Hymenoptera in the Biologia Centrali-Americana.
The Texas Cretaceous is notably rich in the fossil remains of an invertebrate fauna and in the vicinity of Waco Cretaceous fossils of vertebrates have been obtained.
The varied fauna and flora of Texas may be classified in the following life-zones: the Canadian zone, on the highest parts of the Davis Mountains; the Transition zone, including high parts of the Davis, Chisos and Guadalupe mountains; the Upper Austral zone, Upper Sonoran division, in the Panhandle, E.
Only a few of the larger wild animals remain, but the Texas fauna is still varied, for it includes not only many species common to northern and eastern United States but also several Mexican species.
On the fauna and flora see Vernon Bailey, Biological Survey of Texas (Washington, D.C., 1905) in North American Fauna, No.
(For geological details, see United States, section Geology, ad fin.) Flora and Fauna.
The fauna also has many West African affinities in the hot, forested regions.
As a rule, however, the fauna of the Upper Semliki valley, of parts of Ankole, Buganda and Unyoro, of the Northern, Rudolf and Eastern provinces, is of that " East African," " Ethiopic " character which is specially the feature of South and East Africa and of the Sudan right across from Abyssinia to the river Senegal.
The birds of paradise, which are confined to the sub-region, give special celebrity to its fauna.
Fauna of Norfolk, pp. 68-73) and H.
Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.
Fauna and Flora: Reports of the Forest, Fish and Game Commissioner (Albany, 1902 sqq.); Ralph Hoffmann, Guide to the Birds of New England and Eastern New York (Boston, 1904); and Bulletins of the New York State Museum (Albany, 1888 sqq.).
The New Zealand flora, like the fauna, has been cited in support of the theory of the remote continental period.
The fauna and flora are similar to those of the Gold Coast and Liberia.
The fauna has undergone a great alteration since the first white settlers entered the country.
The native fauna is not sharply distinguished from that of the surrounding states.
On March 23rd, two weeks after he ceased to be president, Mr Roosevelt sailed for Africa, to carry out a long-cherished plan of conducting an expedition for the purpose of making a scientific collection of the fauna and flora of the tropical regions of that continent.
Its north-east portion consists of Upper Silurian coral limestones (Llandovery division), containing a rich fossil fauna and representing a series of folds running north-northwest.
The western portion of Kotelnyi is built up of Middle Devonian limestones and slates, folded the same way, of which the fossil fauna is similar to that of the Urals.
Fauna and Flora: United States Geological Survey of the Territories: Miscellaneous Publications,No.3, Birds of the North-west (Washington, 1874), by Elliot Coues; publications by the United States Geological Survey (consult the bibliographies in Bulletins, Nos.
In its flora and fauna Siam combines the forms of Burma and the Shan States with those of Malaya, farther south, and of Cambodia to the south-east.
(For details concerning flora and fauna, see separate articles, especially Java.) Inhabitants.-The majority of the native inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago belong to two races, the Malays and the Melanesians (Papuans).
These collections are not specially rich in the very interesting and peculiar native fauna, but devote themselves preponderatingly to imported animals.
The fauna and flora resemble those of the Mediterranean coasts of Spain or France.
North of the Atlas it belongs to the European type, in the south it contains a fauna of oysters and sea-urchins belonging to the facies " africano-syrian " of Zittel.
The fauna of Algeria resembles that of the Mediterranean system generally, though many animals once common to South Europe and North Africa - such as the lion, panther, hyena and jackal - are now extinct in Europe.
Trabut, L'Algerie; le sol et les habitants (Paris, 1898), specially valuable for agriculture and fauna; Arthur Girault, Principes de colonisation et de legislation coloniale, Tome iii.
The indigenous fauna of the islands is exceedingly poor in mammals, which are represented mainly by rats and bats.
In the rest of the islands the insect fauna is poor.
But if this is true of the land fauna as a whole, especially on the atolls, where it consists mainly of a few birds, lizards and insects, the opposite is the case with the marine fauna.
The fish fauna of the islands is especially noted for the gorgeous colouring of many of the species.
In considering the marine fauna the remarkable palolo or balolo should be mentioned.
Its geology, flora and fauna are therefore described under Central America.
In such manner Johannes Walther (Die Fauna der Solnhofener Platten Kalke Bionomisch betrachtet.
The Italian geologist Soldani distinguished (1758) between the fossil fauna of the deep sea and of the shore-lines.
Non-committal as regards evolution, he vastly broadened the field of vertebrate palaeontology by his descriptions of the extinct fauna of England, of South America (including especially the great edentates revealed by the voyage of the " Beagle "), of Australia (the ancient and modern marsupials) and of New Zealand (the great struthious birds).
Meanwhile the researches of Hugh Falconer (1808-1865) and of Proby Thomas Cautley (1802-1871) in the sub-Himalayas brought to light the marvellous fauna of the Siwalik hills of India, published in Fauna antiqua Sivalensis (London, 1845) and in the volumes of Falconer's individual researches.
While establishing the historic divisions of the Silurian in Bohemia, Barrande also propounded his famous theory of " colonies," by which he attempted to explain the aberrant occurrence of strata containing animals of a more advanced stage among strata containing earlier and more primitive faunas; his assumption was that the second fauna had migrated from an unknown neighbouring region.
Fine examples of the spirit of the period as applied to extinct Mammalia are Gaudry's Animaux fossiles et geologie de l'Attique (1862) on the Upper Miocene fauna of Pikermi near Athens, and the remarkable memoirs of Vladimir Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1842-1883), published in 1873.
Thus the collective fauna of ancient South America mimics the independently evolved collective fauna of North America, the collective fauna of modern Australia mimics the collective fauna of the Lower Eocene of North America.
We are thus working out gradually the separate contributions of the land masses of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and of Australia to the mammalian fauna of the world, a result which can be obtained through palaeontology only.
The birds - the largest factor in the fauna - have become very greatly reduced through the introduction of cats, dogs and pigs, as well as by the constant persecution of every sort of animal by the natives.
Medusae thus form an important constituent of the plankton or floating fauna of the ocean, and compete with fish and other animals for the food-supply furnished by minuter forms of life.
Aside from its origin, the fauna of Mexico includes at least five species of monkey, the jaguar, puma, ocelot (Felis pardalis), wolf, coyote, lynx, badger, otter (Lutra felina), beaver, muskrat, bear, raccoon (Procyon), coati (Nasua), tapir, two species of peccary (Dicotyles torquatus and D.
The insect fauna of Mexico covers a very wide range of genera and species which, like the other forms of animal life, is largely made up of migratory types.
No complete study has ever been made of this fauna, but much has been, and is being done by the U.S. Biological Survey and Plant Industry Bureau.
Between Trinity College and St Stephen's Green, a large group of buildings includes the Royal Dublin Society, founded in 1683 to develop agriculture and the useful arts, with a library and gallery of statuary; the Science and Arts Museum, and the National Library, the former with a noteworthy collection of Irish antiquities; the Museum of Natural History, with a splendid collection of Irish fauna; and the National Gallery of Ireland, founded in 1853.
The geology, fauna and flora of Guatemala are discussed under Central America.
In all but a few places where their relations are known, the Proterozoic rocks are unconformable beneath the Palaeozoic Where conformity exists the separation is made on the basis of fossils, it having been agreed that the oldest rocks carrying the Olenellus fauna are to be regarded as the base of the Cambrian system.
Cambrian System.The lower part of the Cambrian system, characterized by the Olenellus fauna, is restricted to the borders of the continent, where it rests on the older rocks unconformably in most places.
The middle part of the system, characterized by the Paradoxides fauna, is somewhat more widespread, resting on the lower part conformably, but overlapping it, especially in the south and west.
The upper part of the system, carrying the Dicellocephalus fauna, is very much more extensive; it is indeed one of the most widespread series of rocks on the continent.
The upper part of the system is more restricted than the middle, and includes the salt-bearing series of New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania, with its peculiar fauna.
These outliers have a common fauna, which is closely related to that of the interior of the United States.
They give some clue to the amount of erosion which the system has suffered, and also afford a clue to the route by which the animals whose fossils are found in the United States entered this country., Thus, the Niagara fauna of the interior of the United States has striking resemblances to the mid-Silurian fatinasof Sweden and Great Britain.
The fauna of the Appalachian region is far less like that of Europe, and indicates but slight connection with the fauna of the interior.
Both the earlier and the later parts of the Silurian period seem to have been times when physical conditions were such as to favor the development of provincial faunas, while during the more widespread submergence of the middle Silurian the fauna was more cosmopolitan.
The Onondaga fauna which succeeded appears to have resulted from the commingling of the resident lower Devonian fauna with new emigrants from Europe by way of the Arctic regions.
The Hamilton fauna which followed represents the admixture of the resident Onondaga fauna with new types which are thought to have come from South America, showing that faunal connections for marine life had been made between the interior of the United States and the lands south of the Caribbean Sea, a connection of which, before this time, there was no evidence.
The late Devonian fauna of the interior represents the commingling of the Hamilton fauna of the eastern interior with new emigrants from the north-west, a union which was not effected until toward the close of the period.
Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.
The larger animals are rare on these mountain-tops and the areas are too small for a distinct fauna.
niger are really indigenous members of this group or modified descendants of European tame pigs is doubtful; although the general character of the Papuan fauna supports the idea that they are introduced.
Both these families are very sparingly represented in our fauna.
The lacewing-flies (q.v.), however, of which there are two families, the Hemerobiidae and Chrysopidae, whose larvae feed on Aphids, sucking their juices, are represented in our fauna.
McLachlan, Trichoptera of the European Fauna (London, 1874-1880), and " British Trichoptera " in Trans.
The fauna and flora of Alabama are similar to those of the Gulf states in general and have no distinctive characteristics.
The flora and fauna are scarcely investigated.
The known fauna comprise boars, bears, deer, swans, geese, pheasants and quail.
The fauna and flora have no distinctive features.
The fauna is allied to that of Madagascar rather than to the mainland of Africa; it includes some land birds and a species of lemur peculiar to the islands.
The probable geological connexion with New Guinea would account for the Papuan character of the fauna of the Solomons, which form the eastern limit of certain Papuan types.
The fauna includes buffaloes, a marsupial cuscus, some bats, the beautiful scarlet lory, rare varieties of the ground-thrush, honey-eater and oriole.
Hitchcock, Hawaii and its Volcanoes (Honolulu, 1909); Augustin Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien and Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906); Sharp, Fauna (London, 1899); Walter Maxwell, Lavas and Soils of the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, 1898); W.
The fauna includes wild boars, wolves, foxes, badgers, partridges, quails and snipe.
beetles and crickets abound; and now and then a blind crawfish darts through the waters; but as compared with many caverns the fauna and flora are not abundant.
For the modern condition of the principality (including climate, fauna and flora), see S.
The fauna of Tibet has been by no means exhaustively investigated, especially the rodents and smaller species of animals.
Owing to the deep water between Timor and the Arafura Sea, the fauna of Timor presents scarcely any Australian types beyond a marsupial cuscus.
The fauna is similar to that of the Mediterranean Trias.
For the remarkable flying survey of the south coast by the commandant of the Siboga expedition, exploring the deep seas and fauna of the archipelago, see Bulletin (No.
The fauna comprises nearly all the more remarkable of African animals.
An example of the latter occurs in Singapore where the vicious red spinning-ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) is mimicked by the larva of a Noctuid moth and by spiders belonging to two distinct families, namely, Saltiicus plataleoides (Salticidae) and Amyciaea forticeps (Thomisidae), there being no reason to suppose that either the moth larva or the spiders are protected forms. Mimetic aggregations of species similar to those mentioned above have been found in other countries; but the instances cited are sufficient to show how widespread are the influences of mimicry and how profoundly it has modified the insect fauna of various parts of the world.
Hence most travellers have failed to meet with it there 2 (since their acquaintance with the birds of Egypt is limited to those which frequent the country in winter), and writers have denied generally to this species a place in its modern fauna (cf.
The native fauna is abundant and varied.
The Trias of the Eastern Alps, on the other hand, consists chiefly of great masses of limestone with an abundant fauna, and is clearly of marine origin.
- The fauna of the lower zones in the Alps is, on the northern side of the chain, practically identical with that of central Europe, and on the southern side with that of the Mediterranean basin.
The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period.
Those of the highest zone are remarkable for the great predominance of predaceous species and of wingless forms. In this last respect they present a striking analogy with the endemic coleopterous fauna of oceanic islands.
He was distinguished for his researches on the Carboniferous and Cretaceous rocks and fossils of Saxony, and in particular for those relating to the fauna and flora of the Permian or Dyas formation.
At the same time it must be remembered that there is in India, South Africa, the Urals, in Australasia and parts of North America an important series of rocks, with a " Permo-Carboniferous " fauna, which constitutes a passage formation between the Carboniferous, sensu stricto, and Jurassic rocks.
(t) Fauna of the Marine Strata.
(2) Flora and Fauna of the Lagoonal or Continental Facies.- The strata deposited during this period are the earliest in which the remains of plants take a prominent place.
Sediments approaching to the culm type, with similar flora and fauna, were deposited in synclinal hollows in parts of France and Spain.
The Pachy- dermata are strongly characteristic of the Sumatran fauna: not only are the rhinoceros (Rh.
In the densely populated Netherlands, with no extensive forests, the fauna does not present any unusual varieties.
The Cretaceous beds are not extensive, but the Wealden deposits of Bernissart, with their numerous remains of Iguanodon, and the chalk of the district about the Dutch frontier near Maastricht, with its very late Cretaceous fauna, are of special interest.
The fauna of Poland belongs to the middle European zoological group; within the historical period it has lost such species as formerly gave it a subarctic character.
The fauna includes the elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo, giraffe, lion, leopard, cheetah, roan-antelope, hartebeeste, kudu and many other kinds of antelope, wart-hog, hares, quail, partridge, jungle-fowl, bustard and guinea-fowl.
The fauna of Paraguay proper is practically the same as that of Brazil.
Nearly one hundred and fifty years ago Pallas had his attention arrested by the existence of the salt lakes and dry saline deposits on the steppes to the east of the Caspian, and at great distances from its shores, and by the presence in the same localities of shells of the same marine fauna as that which now inhabits that sea, and he suggested the obvious explanation that those regions must formerly have been covered by the waters of the sea.
Brandti, and species of the ichthyological fauna Gobius, Clupea and Acipenser; while as illustrating the latter class the Black Sea contains Dreissenia bugensis (allied to D.
The fauna of this sea has been studied by Eichwald, Kowalevsky, Grimm, Dybowski, Kessler and Sars.
(1855-1856); Radde, Fauna and Flora des siidwestlichen Kaspigebietes (1886); J.
The museum contains a natural history section with the complete fauna and flora of Transylvania, and a rich ethnographical section.
The fluvio-marine deposits of the Upper Eocene and Oligocene formations contain an interesting mammalian fauna, proving that the African continent formed a centre of radiation for the mammalia in early Tertiary times.
Crystalline rocks crop out at several capes; Cretaceous limestones, containing an abundant and specific fauna of gigantic ammonites, occur at Dui on the west coast, and Tertiary conglomerates, sandstones, marls and clays, folded by subsequent upheavals, in many parts of the island.
The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more arctic than that which exists at the present time, indicating probably that the connexion between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was broader than it is now.
The analogy possibly may be extended to such cases as the occurrence of flora or fauna with alpine characters on the summits of mountains separated by broad zones of tropical climate.
The fauna of Ecuador is comparatively poor in mammalia, but the birds and still more the insects are very numerous.
The fauna and flora, which are similar to those of the other North Central States of North America, impressed the early explorers with their richness and variety.
In 1864 was founded the Palestine Exploration Fund, under the auspices of which an ordnance survey map of the country was completed (published 1881), and accompanied by volumes containing memoirs on the topography, orography, hydrography, archaeology, fauna and flora, and other details.
Fauna And Flora.
The fauna includes the elephant, hippopotamus, lion and several species of antelope.
"In the Haghier hills," to quote Professor Bonney, "we have probably a fragment of a continental area of great antiquity, and of a land surface which may have been an ` ark of refuge ' to a terrestrial fauna and flora from one of the very earliest periods of this world's history."
The flora is even more peculiar than the fauna.
The flora and also (though to a less degree) the fauna present not only Asian and Central African affinities, but, what is more interesting, Mascarene, South African and Antipodean-American relationships, indicating a very different distribution of land and water and necessitating other bridges of communication than now exist.
It is largely arid and there are no permanent streams. Its zoology resembles that of Sokotra, but the fauna includes land shells and scorpions peculiar to Abd-elKuri.
Blanford, Geology of India (1880), and Fauna of British India (1888); R.
==Flora and Fauna== Both flora and fauna are those characteristic of the greater part of tropical Africa.
The fauna includes the lion, leopard, cheetah, elephant, giraffe, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, buffalo, zebra, kudu and many other kinds of antelope, wild pig, ostrich and crocodile.
- Mauritius being an oceanic island of small size, its present fauna is very limited in extent.
The extinct fauna of Mauritius has considerable interest.
Clark, A Brief Notice of the Fauna of Mauritius (1881); A.
The fauna includes, in the low country, the lion, panther, elephant, camel, and antelope of numerous species.
On the plateau the fauna is that of Abyssinia.
Although the Philippines are commonly held to form an eastern extension of the Indo-Malayan sub-region, there is a large amount of specialization in the fauna of the islands eastward of the Palawan group. Mammals are scarce.
Especial importance attaches to the unexpected discovery by Whitehead of a new and peculiar mammalian fauna, inhabiting a small plateau on the top of Mt Data, in north Luzon, at an altitude of more than 7000 ft.
The fauna of the lake and of its tributaries - explored by Nikolsky - is more akin to the fauna of the rivers of the Tarim basin than to that of the Aral; it also does not contain the common frog.
The fauna includes the horse, reindeer, mammoth, cave lion, rhinoceros, bear and urus.
The fauna comprises most of the animals and birds common to the Gangetic plain; but the wild elephant is now practically unknown, except when a stray specimen loses its way at the foot of the hills.
The fauna and flora are both comparatively meagre.
The fauna is not so varied as was formerly the case, large game having been to a great extent driven out of the coast regions.
The physiography of the state is the evident determinant of its climate, fauna and flora.
1849-1851 Democrat 1851-1852 „ 1856-1858 Know Nothing 1858-1860 Lecompton Democrat 1860 (6 days) „ „ United States Censuses, reports on forests; United States Biological Survey, North American Fauna, No.
The native flora is rich, and teak, ebony and canari trees are especially abundant; the fauna, which is similarly varied, includes the babirusa, which occurs in this island only of the Moluccas.
The fauna of Borneo comprises a large variety of species, many of which are numerically of great importance.
Barrande's term "Primordial zone," all the lower rocks, although they had a distinctive fauna.
Meanwhile in Europe and America fossils were being collected from similar rocks which were classed as Silurian, and the use of "Cambrian" was almost discarded, because, following Murchison, it was taken to apply only to a group of rocks without a characteristic fauna and therefore impossible to recognize.
Hicks to prove that the rocks below the undoubted lower Silurian of Murchison did indeed possess a characteristic fauna, and their work was confirmed by researches going on in other countries.
In a general survey of the life of this period, as it is revealed by the fossils, three outstanding facts are apparent: (I) the great divergence between the Cambrian fauna and that of the present day; (2) the Cambrian life assemblage differs in no marked manner from that of the succeeding Ordovician and Silurian periods; there is a certain family likeness which unites all of them; (3) the extraordinary complexity and diversity not only in the assemblage as a whole but within certain limited groups of organisms. Although in the Cambrian strata we have the oldest known fossiliferous rocks - if we leave out of account the very few and very obscure organic remains hitherto recorded from the pre-Cambrian - yet we appear to enter suddenly into the presence of a world richly peopled with a suite of organisms already far advanced in differentiation; the Cambrian fauna seems to be as far removed from what must have been the first forms of life, as the living forms of this remote period are distant from the creatures of to-day.
An uppermost series lies above the Olenus fauna in some areas; it is represented by the Tremadoc beds in Britain or by the Dictyonema beds or Euloma-Niobe fauna elsewhere.
On the North American continent, as in Europe, the Cambrian system is divisible into three series: (i) the lower or "Georgian," with Olenellus fauna; (2) the middle or "Acadian," with Paradoxides or Dikelocephalus fauna; (3) the upper or "Potsdam," with Olenus fauna (with Saratogan or St Croix as synonyms for Potsdam).
Limestones and shales with the Euloma-Niobe fauna come at the top. The upper series (Olenus) has been minutely zoned by W.
In Russian Poland is a series of conglomerates, quartzites and shales; some of the beds yield a Paradoxides fauna.
In the Thiiringer Wald are certain strata, presumably Cambrian since the uppermost beds contain the Euloma-Niobe fauna.
The insect fauna of limestone caves both in Europe and North America is largely composed of Aptera, especially Collembola.
FAUNA, the name, in Roman mythology, of a country goddess of the fields and cattle, known sometimes as the sister, sometimes as the wife of the god Faunus; hence the term is used collectively for all the animals in any given geographical area or geological period, or for an enumeration of the same.
The waters of this cavern appear to be entirely destitute of life; and the existing fauna comprises only a few bats, rats, mice, spiders, flies and small centipedes.
The main point of interest connected with the dingo relates to its origin; that is to say, whether it is a member of the indigenous Australian fauna (among which it is the only large placental mammal), or whether it has been introduced into the country by man.
The fauna has been explored in great detail both as regards the vertebrates and the invertebrates, and specialists will find the necessary bibliographical indications in Travaux geographiques en Finlande, published for the London Geographical Congress of 1895.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
The caves of the Kyrenian range contain a Pleistocene mammalian fauna.
Moreover, recorders of local fauna have been almost unanimous in ignoring the introduced forms, except when they have had occasion to comment on the effects, real or supposed, of these immigrants on aboriginal faunas.
Blanford (Fauna of British India, " Mammals") thinks that the presence of the Indian form, Viverricula malaccensis, in Socotra, the Comoro Islands and Madagascar is due to the assistance of man.
The common fox of Europe has been introduced into Australia, where it is destructive to the native fauna and to lambs.
Some of the passerine birds have been the most widely distributed, especially the house-sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is now an integral, and very troublesome, part of the fauna in the Australasian States and in North America.
Here also is Skansen, an ingenious reproduction in miniature of the salient physical features of Sweden with its flora, fauna, and characteristic dwellings inhabited by peasants in the picturesque costumes of the various districts.
On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea.
The sea fauna also gradually changed, the arctic species migrating northward and being succeeded by the species existing on the coasts of Sweden.
The effects of the great latitudinal range of Sweden on its climate and flora has its parallel to a modified extent in the case of fauna.
The molluscan fauna is fairly rich, and insect fauna much more so, even in the north.
The fauna of the Mesozoic beds is very rich, and includes forms which are found in northern Europe, others which occur in central Europe, and others again which are characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
The fauna of Chile is comparatively poor, both in species and individuals.
The marine fauna is less known than the others, but it is rich in species and highly interesting in its varied forms and characteristics.
Tristram (Fauna and Flora of Palestine, p. 139) regards it as but a straggler from central Arabia, though we have little information as to its distribution in that country.
In company with Major St John, R.E., he made a large collection of the vertebrate fauna in a journey from Gwetter to Tehergn in 1872.
The fauna of the Persian plateau he described as Palaearctic, with a great prevalence of desert forms; or, perhaps more correctly, Aug.
In the Caspian provinces he found the fauna, on the whole, Palaearctic also, most of the animals being identical with those of south-eastern Europe.
But some were essentially indigenous, and he observed a singular character given to the fauna by the presence of certain Eastern forms, unknown in other parts of Persia, such as the tiger, a remarkable deer of the IndoMalayan group, allied to Cervus axis, and a pit viper (Halys).
Including the oak-forests of Shiraz with the wooded slopes of the Zagros, he found in his third division that, however little known was the tract, it appeared to contain, like the second, a Palaearctic fauna with a few peculiar species.
As to Persian Mesopotamia, he considered its fauna to belong to the same Palaearctic region as Syria, but could scarcely speak with confidence on its characteristic forms. The fifth and last division, Baluchistan and the shores of the Persian Gulf, presented, however, in the animals common to the Persian highland for the most part desert types, whilst the characteristic Palaearctic species almost entirely disappear, their place being taken by Indian or Indo-African forms. The Persian Gulf Arab, though not equal to the pure Arabian, is a very serviceable animal, and has always a value in the Indian market.
The native fauna was formerly very rich in big game, a fact sufficiently testified by the names given by the early European settlers to mountains and streams. The lion, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, giraffe, buffalo, quagga, zebra and other large animals were, however, during the 18th and 19th centuries driven out of the more southern regions (though a few elephants and buffaloes,.
Geography (physical), geology, climate, flora and fauna.
Sclater, The Fauna of South Africa (4 vols., 1900 1901); Le Valliant, Histoire naturelle des oiseaux d'Afrique (6 vols., Paris, 1805-1808); F.
The majority are inhabitants of Australia and Tasmania, forming one of the most prominent and characteristic features of the fauna of these lands, and performing the part of the deer and antelopes of other parts of the world.
The fauna of Mammoth Cave has been classifiedbyF.W.Putnam, A.
The true subterranean fauna may be regarded as chiefly of Pleistocene origin; yet certain forms are possibly remnants of Tertiary life.
So far as is known these remarks will apply to the extinct as well as to the existing fauna.
The Siwalik fossils contain 84 species of mammals of 45 genera, the whole bearing a marked resemblance to the Miocene fauna of Europe, but containing a larger number of genera still existing, especially of ruminants, and now held to be of Pliocene age.
The fauna of the Tibetan Himalaya is essentially European or rather that of the northern half of the old continent, which region has by zoologists been termed Palaearctic. Among the characteristic animals may be named the yak, from which is reared a cross breed with the ordinary horned cattle of India, many wild sheep, and two antelopes, as well as the musk-deer; several hares and some burrowing animals, including pikas (Lagomys) and two or three species of marmot; certain arctic forms of carnivora - fox, wolf, lynx, ounce, marten and ermine; also wild asses.
An account of the fauna of the Iberian Peninsula as a whole is given under Spain.
The indigenous fauna of Bolivia corresponds closely to that of the neighbouring districts of Argentina, Brazil and Peru.
The general conditions of distribution of the fauna of Arizona are shown even more distinctly by the flora.
- Fauna and Flora: U.S. Department of Agriculture, North American Fauna, No.
The fauna and flora of Idaho are similar in general to those of the other states in the north-western part of the United States.
" Scyphomedusae," Fauna and Geogr.
" Die arktischen Medusen," Fauna Arctica, iv.
The fauna of New Jersey does not differ materially from that of the other Middle Atlantic states.
The large amount of salt in the water makes both fauna and flora of the lake scanty; there are a few algae, the larvae of an Ephydra and of a Tipula fly, specimens of what seems to be Corixa decolor, and in great quantities, so as to tint the surface of the water, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (or gracilis or fertilis), notable biologically for the rarity of males, for the high degree of parthenogenesis and for apparent interchangeableness with the Branchipus.
The typical Silurian rocks are richly fossiliferous, the shales containing trilobites, the sandstones many brachiopods, and the limestones a rich coral and bryozoan fauna.
As for the boundaries of these ancient seas, we can say nothing with certainty, but it is of interest to note the evidence we possess of still older land conditions, such as we have in the old rocks of Shropshire, &c. In the Devonian period it is clear that an elevatory movement had set in towards the north, which gave rise to the formation of inland lakes and narrow estuaries in which the Old Red Sandstone rocks were formed, while in the south of England lay the sea with a vigorous coral fauna.
==Fauna and Flora== The fauna of Alaska is very rich and surprisingly varied.
The Alaskan flora is less varied than the fauna.
But the fauna of the lake is somewhat rich; a species of seal which inhabits its waters, as well as several species of arctic crustaceans, recall its former connexion with the Arctic Ocean.
It contains a station of the Berlin Aquarium, with a fine collection of the fauna of the Adriatic Sea.
Talysch and seine Bewohner (Leipzig, 1886), Die Fauna and Flora des sudwestlichen Kaspigebiets (Leipzig, 1886), Karabagh (Gotha, 1890), and Aus den daghestanischen Hochalpen (Gotha, 1887); and Count J.
Dinnik writes on the fauna in Bull.
This progress consists in an increasing similarity of the living fauna, and, among the vertebrates especially, in their increasing resemblance to man."
Moreover, the co-existence of man with a fauna now extinct or confined to other districts was brought to yet clearer demonstration by the discovery in these caves of certain drawings and carvings of the animals done by the ancient inhabitants themselves, such as a group of reindeer on a piece of reindeer horn, and a sketch of a mammoth, showing the elephant's long hair, on a piece of a mammoth's tusk from La Madeleine (Lartet and Christy, Reliquiae Aquitanicae, ed.
Their immensely greater antiquity was proved by their geological position and their association with a long extinct fauna, and they were not, like the Neoliths, recognizable as corresponding closely to the implements used by modern tribes.
As in a day's journey the traveller may pass from tropical to almost Alpine conditions of climate, so great also is the range of the flora and fauna.
In addition to the domestic animals enumerated below (ï¿½ 8) the fauna is very varied.
As Wyandotte Cave has no large streams and few pools or springs, its fauna and flora are not extensive.
Blatchley; and concerning cave fauna reports and papers by C. H.
The aquarium was originally established at Naples because the flora and fauna of the neighbourhood are more varied than those of any district in Europe.
Its Mittheilungen began to be published in 1878, and portions of a great work on the flora and fauna of Naples come out year by year.
In the southern and western islands the fauna is restricted mainly to foxes, bats, rats, mice, the sea otter, the penguin and other aquatic birds, and various cetaceans in the surrounding waters.
Like St Helena, the island does not possess any indigenous vertebrate land fauna.
Both flora and fauna include species and genera peculiar to the Seychelles.
The indigenous fauna, so far as its limited range affords comparison, resembles that of Madagascar.
In its fauna, Walachia has far more affinity to the lands lying south of the Danube than to Transylvania, although several species of Claudilia, once regarded as exclusively Transylvanian, are found south of the Carpathians.
The geographical position of Colombia gives to it a fauna and flora largely characteristic of the great tropical region of the Amazon on the south-east, and of the mountainous regions of Central America on the north-west.
The fauna is essentially tropical, though a few species characteristic of colder regions are to be found in the higher Andes.
The Colombian flora is richer in species and individual characteristics than the fauna, owing in part to its greater dependence on climatic conditions.
Andres, "Le Attinie," in Fauna and Flora des Golfes von Neapel, ix.
Many of the species are common to the Devonian rocks of the Falkland Islands, North and South America and Europe, with perhaps a closer resemblance to the Devonian fauna of South America than to that of any other country.
The marine fauna of Sunday river indicates a Neocomian age.
- The fauna is very varied, but some of the wild animals common in the early days of the colony have been exterminated (e.g.
The marine fauna is abundant and of great economic importance.
The river fauna of the coast is of two distinct types: the type of the Columbia fauna in rivers north of the Rogue; and another type in the Klamath and its tributaries.
Andres, Fauna and Flora des Golfes von Neapel, ix.
von Koch, Fauna and Flora des Golfes von Neapel, xv.
The flora and fauna differ in no, essential respects from the corresponding regions of the Transvaal and Zululand (see those articles).
The fauna originally included buffalo, elk, deer, wolves, bear, lynx, beaver, otter, porcupine and puma, but civilization has driven them all out entirely.
Portugal, &c.); a beautiful and interesting Devonian fauna from Bundenbach has been described by O.
The fauna and flora of the state are those which are characteristic of the plain region generally of which Kansas is a part.
His earlier publications were on zoology; he dealt with the Amphibia (1839), Reptiles (1840), with Mollusca and Crustacea (1845) and more generally with the invertebrate fauna of the Mediterranean (1854).
The marsupials also attain their maximum development in Australia (" Notogaea " of the distributionists), extending, however, as far west as Celebes and the Moluccas, although in these islands they form an insignificant minority among an extensive placental fauna, being represented only by the cuscuses (Phalanger), a group unknown in either Papua or Australia.
The origin of the Australasian fauna is a question pertaining to the article Zoological Distribution.
Blanford, The Fauna of British India - Mammalia (1888-1891); D.
Sclater, The Fauna of South Africa - Mammals (Cape Town, 1901-1902); W.
Representatives of all the Tertiary formations are met with in Turkestan; but while in the highlands the strata are coast-deposits, they assume an open sea character in the lowlands, and their rich fossil fauna furnishes evidence of the gradual shallowing of that sea, until at last, after the Sarmathian period, it became a closed Mediterranean.
The fauna of Turkestan belongs to the zoo-geographical domain of northern Asia, and is only differentiated by the presence of species which have disappeared from the peripheral parts of the Old World and now find a refuge in the remotest regions of the uninhabited plateau.
The insect fauna is truly multitudinous.
Grum-Grshimailo found on the Pamir the butterfly Colias nastes, a species characteristic of Labrador and Lapland; like the alpine plants which bear witness to a Glacial period flora in the Himalayas, this butterfly is a survival of the Glacial period fauna of the Pamir.
Grum-Grshimailo's "Flora and Fauna of Pamir," in Izvestia of Russ.
In physical characteristics,my reccommend climate, flora and fauna, Benin in no way differs from the rest of the southern portion of Nigeria.
above the existing sea-level, shells have been found which are characteristic of high Arctic latitudes and no longer exist in Iceland; whereas on the lower shore-line, Too to 130 ft., the shells belong to species which occur amongst the coast fauna of the present day.
The Icelandic fauna is of a sub-Arctic type.
The fish fauna is abundant in individuals, some sixty-eight species being found off the coasts.
The first modern scientific work is the Iter per patriam of Eggert Olafsson and Biarni Paulsson, which gives an account of the physical peculiarities - fauna, flora, &c. - of the island as far as could be done at the date of its appearance, 1772.
The object of their visits was the investigation of the fauna and flora of the atoll, more especially of the formation of the coral reefs.
Fauna and Flora.-Of wild animals the most characteristic are the black bear, puma, prairie wolf, timber wolf, fox, deer, antelope, squirrel, rabbit and prairie dog.
These beds, rich in sub-fossil remains, have yielded important additions to our knowledge of the extinct fauna of the island.
Since the French occupation (1895) considerable additions have been made to our knowledge of the fossil fauna of Madagascar from researches made both on the west and south-west coast (at Belo and Ambolisatrana) and in the interior (at Antsirabe), especially in the rich deposits near Tsarazaza (Ampasambazimba), to the north-west of Lake Itasy.
The fauna of Madagascar, while deficient in most of the characteristic tropical forms of life, is one of great interest to the naturalist from its remote affinities, much of its animal life having Asiatic rather than African relationships.
As a whole, the Madagascar fauna is marked by a strong individuality, which would appear to be the result of long isolation from the other zoological " regions."
The fauna includes lions, leopards, several kinds of deer, monkeys, bush-cow and wild boar.
In 1904 Gough Island was visited by the Antarctic exploring ship " Scotia of the Bruce expedition, which discovered a rich marine fauna, two new buntings and three new species of plants.
Madagascar in its general structure, as in flora and fauna, forms a connecting link between Africa and southern Asia.
The fauna again shows the effect of the characteristics of the vegetation.
The fauna also is well represented, but tigers which once were frequently seen are now very scarce; panther, hyena, jackal, wild boar, deer (Cervus maral) are common; pheasant, woodcock, ducks, teal, geese and various waterfowl abound; the fisheries are very productive and are leased to a Russian firm.
In their fauna also the Pyrenees.
Among the other peculiarities of the Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns of Ariege, the principal genera of which are Anophthalmus and Adelops.
In the south-east, however, and at the mouth of the Ebro, linsestones are found containing a fauna similar to that of the alpine Trias.