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fauna

fauna

fauna Sentence Examples

  • Asia, the same fauna extending in Siberia as far as the Yenisei and the Lena.

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  • The fauna of the peninsula is varied and no less profuse than is the vegetable life.

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  • The origin of the fauna and flora of Australia has attracted considerable attention.

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  • The fauna of the scrub in the river valleys is decidedly rich, and includes aquatic birds.

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  • The flora and fauna of Juan Fernandez are in most respects Chilean.

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  • The fauna of Liberia is sufficiently peculiar, at any rate as regards vertebrates, to make it very nearly identical with a "district" or sub-province of the West African province, though in this case the Liberian "district" would not include the northernmost portions of the country and would overlap on the east and west into Sierra Leone and the French Ivory Coast.

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  • Of the indigenous fauna, the tapir of the north and the guanaco of the west and south are the largest of the animals.

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  • In the Urals the marine facies is more fully developed and the fauna shows affinities with that of the Productus limestone of the Central Asian mountain belt.

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  • The fauna of the Arctic Ocean off the Norwegian coast corresponds, in its W.

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  • Moreover the fauna and flora of New Zealand in many ways resemble those of Samoa.

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  • Of aboriginal human inhabitants there is no trace in the Falklands, and the land fauna is very scanty.

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  • In the British fresh-water fauna only two genera, Hydra and Cordylophora, are found; in America occurs an additional genus, Microhydra.

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  • Of the extremely limited Samoan fauna, consisting mainly of an indigenous rat, four species of snakes and a few birds, the most interesting member is the Didunculus strigirostris, a ground pigeon of iridescent greenish-black and bright chestnut plumage, which forms a link between the extinct dodo and the living African Treroninae.

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  • The vertical relief of the land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a continent.

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  • iv., Zoology (St Petersburg, 1875), though dealing more especially with Siberia, is an invaluable source of information for the Russian fauna generally.

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  • and fauna are essentially Asiatic in their type, while to the south and east the Australian element begins to be distinctly marked, soon to become predominant.

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  • S.) Flora And Fauna The general assemblage of animals and plants found over northern Asia resembles greatly that found in the parts of Europe which are adjacent and have a similar climate.

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  • Pseudis was first described by Marie Sibylle de Merlon (1647-1717), in her work on the fauna of Surinam (published first in 1705 at Amsterdam, republished in Latin in 1719), as a frog changing into a fish.

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  • The greatest development of the Argentine fauna, however, is in the warm, wooded regions of the north and north-east, where many animals are of the same species as those in the neighbouring territories of Brazil.

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  • It is well known that Darwin was deeply impressed by differences in flora and fauna, which seemed to be functions of locality, and not the result of obvious dissimilarities of environment.

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  • 2 Bibliography of Fauna: see Pallas, Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica; Syevertsov for the birds of south-eastern Russia; M.

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  • Reiches, for reptiles generally; Rodoszkowski and the publications of the Entomological Society generally for insects; Czerniaysky for the marine fauna of the Black Sea; Kessler for that of Lakes Onega and Ladoga; Grimm for the Caspian.

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  • Reiches, for reptiles generally; Rodoszkowski and the publications of the Entomological Society generally for insects; Czerniaysky for the marine fauna of the Black Sea; Kessler for that of Lakes Onega and Ladoga; Grimm for the Caspian.

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  • Previous to its arrival Australia doubtless possessed considerable vegetation and a scanty fauna, chiefly invertebrate.

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  • " Hydromedusae with a Revision of the Williadae and Petasidae," Fauna and Geogr.

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  • Dr Natterer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths.

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  • From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.

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  • The fauna resembles that of other parts of West Africa; it is poor on the coast.

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  • His conclusions were that the group "has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have its members been at any time closer together"; and that the character of the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over from America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where in their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees and ways from their ancestors.

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  • At Beaufort the United States Bureau of Fisheries has a marine biological laboratory, established in 1901 for the study of the aquatic fauna of the south-east coast.

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  • Wales, 1895; " The Relation of the Fauna and Flora of Australia to those of New Zealand," Nat.

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  • Nearly all the mammals of Europe also occur in northern Asia, where, however, the Palaearctic fauna is enriched by numerous additional species.

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  • Of the fauna of the lower slopes, tracks of elephant, leopard and buffalo have been seen, between 11,500 and 14,500 ft.

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  • Of the fauna of the lower slopes, tracks of elephant, leopard and buffalo have been seen, between 11,500 and 14,500 ft.

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  • The species of fauna that are at all characteristic of this part of the United States are found in the Piedmont Plateau Region and the western portion of the Coastal Plain Region.

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  • ==Fauna== The Argentine fauna, like its flora, has been greatly influenced by the character and position of the pampas.

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  • Wales, 1895; " The Relation of the Fauna and Flora of Australia to those of New Zealand," Nat.

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  • The fauna of the Baltic provinces is described in full in the Memoirs of the scientific bodies of these provinces.

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  • Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.

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  • The bird fauna is of considerable interest, the finest species of the upper zone being an eagle-owl, met with at 14,000 ft.

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  • Both the fauna and flora of the higher levels present close affinities with those of Mount Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa and of Cameroon Mountain.

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  • DIPTERA (Sis, double, 7rTEpa, wings), a term (first employed in its modern sense by Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica, 1st ed., 1746, p. 306) used in zoological classification for one of the Orders into which the Hexapoda, or Insecta, are divided.

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  • The bird fauna is of considerable interest, the finest species of the upper zone being an eagle-owl, met with at 14,000 ft.

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  • Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.

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  • " Die arktischen Medusen (ausschliesslich der Polypomedusen)," Fauna arctica, iv.

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  • Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.

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  • The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plantgrowth of a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.

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  • Each of these divisions is the home of a special fauna, many species of which are confined to it alone; in the Australian region, indeed, practically the whole fauna is peculiar and distinctive, suggesting a prolonged period of complete biological isolation.

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  • For narrow as are the channels between Cuba and the opposite coast of Central America, between the Bahamas and Florida, and between Grenada and Tobago, the fauna of the Antillean chain, instead of being a mixture of that of the almost contiguous countries, differs, much from all, and exhibits in some groups a degree of speciality which may be not unfitly compared with that of oceanic islands..

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  • which inhabits the same latitudes in Central America, not many degrees farther to the west; but no instance perhaps can be cited, which shows more strikingly the difference between a continental and an'insular fauna, since, making every allowance for the ravages, of cultivation by civilized man, the contrary is the case, and possibly no area of land so highly favoured by nature is so poorly furnished with the, higher forms of animal life.

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  • and middle Russia they contain a special fauna, and it appears that the Lower Devonian series of W.

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  • The Black Sea, the fauna of which appears to be very rich, belongs to the Mediterranean region, slightly modified, while the Caspian partakes of the characteristic fauna inhabiting the lakes and seas of the Aral-Caspian depression.

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  • In this way the surface of the land is divided into numerous natural regions, the flora and fauna of each of which include some distinctive species not shared by the others.

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  • Hoffman, Californien, Nevada and Mexico (Basel, 1879); Nevada and her Resources, compiled under the direction of the State Bureau of Immigration (Carson City, 1894); U.S. Department of Agriculture, North America Fauna, No.

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  • She was identified with Fauna, and by later syncretism also with Ops and Maiathe latter no doubt because the dedication-day of her temple on the Aventine was 1st May (Ovid, Fasti, v.

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  • Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.

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  • So large a portion of the Ethiopian subregion lies between the tropics that no surprise need be expressed at the richness of its fauna relatively to that of the last two subregions we have considered.

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  • C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.

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  • the numerous fossils of the Santa Cruz formation), and also the nearest resemblance to the fauna of Austrogaea.

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  • As regards flora and fauna Bali is associated with Java.

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  • The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.

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  • The name is derived from galapago, a tortoise, on account of the giant species, the characteristic feature of the fauna.

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  • These immigrants then developed, with some exceptions, into the present Australian flora and fauna.

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  • Flora and Fauna.

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  • The Leptolinae are chiefly forms belonging to the inshore fauna.

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  • C. Watson, and his conclusions were enforced ten years later by Edward Forbes, who dealt also with the fauna.

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  • Wallace as representing the so-called Wallace's Line, whereby he demarcated the Asiatic from the Australian fauna.

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  • The forest region, and especially its coniferous portion, though it has lost some of its representatives within historic times, still possesses an abundant fauna.

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  • The destruction of the forests and the advance of wheat into the prairies are rapidly thinning the steppe fauna.

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  • Nordenskiold's Vega-expeditionens Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser (5 vols., Stockholm, 2872-87) may be consulted for the mammals of the tundra region and marine fauna.

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  • The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.

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  • The ornithology of northern Asia is even more closely allied to that of Europe than the mammal fauna.

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  • The mammal fauna of the Indian region of Asia is much more highly developed than that of the Palaearctic. The Quadrumana are represented by several peculiar genera, amongst which are Semnopithecus, Hylobates and Simia.

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  • The Ethiopian fauna plays but a subordinate part in Asia, intruding only into the south-western corner, and occupying the desert districts of Arabia and Syria, although some of the characteristic species reach still farther into Persia and Sind, and even into western India.

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  • The Heteropoda belong to the " pelagic fauna " occurring near the surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of various groups of the animal kingdom.

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  • The Oeningen beds of Baden, of Miocene age, have also yielded an extensive insect fauna, described fifty years ago by O.

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  • A large and dominant Holoarctic fauna, with numerous subdivisions, ranges over the great northern continents, and is characterized by the abundance of certain families like the Carahidae and Staphylinidae among the Coleoptera and the Tenthredinidae among the Hymenoptera.

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  • The southern territory held by this fauna is invaded by genera and species distinctly tropical.

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  • Neotropical and distinctively Sonoran insects mingle with members of the Holoarctic fauna across a wide " transition zone " in North America.

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  • The Australian fauna is rich in characteristic and peculiar genera, and New Zealand, while possessing some remarkable insects of its own, lacks entirely several families with an almost world-wide range - for example, the Notodontidae, Lasiocampidae, and other families of Lepidoptera.

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  • Nevertheless the book was eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared.4 Mention must be made of a medical treatise by Caspar Schwenckfeld, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the title of Theriotropheum Silesiae, the fourth book of which consists of an " Aviarium Silesiae," and is the earliest of the works we now know by the name of fauna.

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  • In 1684 Sibbald in his Scotia illustrate published the earliest Fauna of Scotland.

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  • It is certain that the first four volumes were written if not printed before that method was promulgated, and when the fame of Linnaeus as a zoologist rested on little more than the very meagre sixth edition of the Systema Naturae and the first edition of his Fauna Suecica.

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  • In 1746 the great Linnaeus had produced a Fauna Svecica, of which a second edition appeared in 1761, and a third, revised by Retzius, in 1800.

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  • At the same place appeared in 1767 Leem's work, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae, to which Gunnerus contributed some good notes on the ornithology of northern Norway, and at Copenhagen and Leipzig was published in 1780 the Fauna Groenlandica of Otho Fabricius.

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  • On reviewing the progress of ornithology since the end of the 18th century, the first thing that will strike us is the fact that general works, though still undertaken, have become proportionally fewer, while special works, whether relating to the ornithic portion of the fauna of any particular country, or limited to certain groups of birds - works to which the name of " Monograph " has become wholly restricted - have become far more numerous.

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  • to Audubon's great work in two volumes, on the same scale - The New and Hitherto unfigured Species of the Birds of North America, containing life-size figures of all those which had been added to its fauna since the completion of the former.

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  • The works of Audubon, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana of Richardson and Swainson have already been noticed, but they need naming here, as also do Nuttall's Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada (2 vols., Boston, 1832-1834; 2nd ed., 1840); and the Birds of Long Island (8 vo, New York, 1844) by J.

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  • For Scandinavia generally Herr Collin's Skandinaviens Fugle (8vo, 1873) is a greatly bettered edition of the very moderate Danmarks Fugle of Kjaerbolling; but the ornithological portion of Nilsson's Skandinavisk Fauna, Foglarna (3rd ed., 2 vols., 8vo, 1858) is of great merit; while the text of Sundevall's Svenska Foglarna (obl.

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  • As to Italy, we can but name here the Fauna d'Italia, of which the second part, Uccelli (8vo, 1872), by Count Salvadori, contains an excellent bibliography of Italian works on the subject, and the posthumously published Ornitologia italiana of Savi (3 vols.

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  • Of aboriginal human inhabitants there is no trace in the Falklands, and the land fauna is very scanty.

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  • For other countries in the Levant there are Canon Tristram's Fauna and Flora of Palestine (4to, 1884) and Captain Shelley's Handbook to the Birds of Egypt (8vo, 1872).

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  • Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.

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  • While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.

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  • The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.

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  • Generally, while there is a relative poverty of zoological groups, there is a great wealth of species within the group. Of gammarids, there are as many as 300 species, and those living at great depths (33 o to 380 fathoms) tend to assume abyssal characters similar to those displayed by the deep-sea fauna of the ocean.

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  • 4 and 5); Dybowski and Godlewski on "Fauna," in same periodical (1876); Witkowski, on "Seals"; Yakovlev's "Fishes of Angara," in same periodical (1890-1893); "Fishing in Lake Baikal and its Tributaries," in same periodical (1886-1890); and La Geographie (No.

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  • Climate, Flora, Fauna.

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  • (1893)+ Id., Fauna u.

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  • The fauna is similar in general to that of the southern United States.

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  • Cockerell's " West Indian Fauna in Florida " (Nature, vol.

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  • The Formosan fauna has been but partially ascertained; but at least three kinds of deer, wild boars, bears, goats, monkeys (probably Macacus speciosus), squirrels, and flying squirrels are fairly common, and panthers and wild cats are not unfrequent.

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  • The native fauna is scanty.

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  • The fauna of Brixham cavern closely resembles that of Kent's Hole.

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  • C. Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland (3rd ed., London, 1903), perhaps the best general book on the country, contains a special fauna section; G.

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  • Ethnology, flora, fauna, geology, &c. P. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas.

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  • ==Fauna== The three climatic regions of Alberta have naturally a varying fauna.

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  • Climate and Fauna.

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  • Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.

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  • The native fauna of the state resembles in its general features that of the other Gulf states.

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  • The feral fauna was once rather varied.

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  • For fauna and flora: publications of U.S. Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture, Bibliographies).

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  • The fauna of Cuba, like the flora, is still imperfectly known.

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  • Fauna and Flora.

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  • The Bahamas are far poorer in their fauna than in their flora.

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  • In erratic blocks of sandstone, found on the Disco shore of the Waigat, have been detected a Sigillaria and a species of either Pecopterisor Gleichenia, perhaps of this age; and probably much of the extreme northern coast of Ellesmere Land, and therefore, in all likelihood, the opposite Greenland shore, contains a clearly developed Carboniferous Limestone fauna, identical with that so widely distributed over the North American continent, and referable also to British and Spitsbergen species.

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  • It was long a common belief that the fauna and flora of Greenland were essentially European, a circumstance which would make it probable that Greenland has been separated by sea from America during a longer period of time than from Europe.

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  • The flora and fauna are similar to those of the other states of the same latitude.

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  • The rapid settling of the state drove its native fauna, which comprised buffalo, deer, moose, bear, lynx and wolves, in great numbers into the northern sections, westward into Dakota, or across the Canadian border.

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  • Spengel, "Die Enteropneusten," Eighteenth Monograph on the Fauna and Flora des Golfes von Neapel (1893); A.

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  • These divisions are, however, unsatisfactory, as the fauna relied on as characteristic must have existed synchronously.

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  • The Amur region shares the characteristics of the north Chinese fauna.

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  • The arctic fauna is very poor.

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  • The boreal fauna is, of course, much more abundant; but here also the great bulk of the species, both mammals and birds, are common to Europe and Asia.

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  • schistocolor), the beaver, variable hare, wild boar, roebuck, stag, reindeer, elk and Phoca annelata of Lake Baikal - all these are common alike to Europe and to Siberia; while the bear, musk-deer (Moschus moschi- f erus), ermine, sable, pouched marmot or souslik (Spermophilus eversmani), Arvicola obscures and Lagomys hyperboraeus, distributed over Siberia, may be considered as belonging to the arctic fauna.

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  • In south-east Siberia there are fortythree new species belonging to the north Manchurian or Amur fauna; and in south-east Transbaikalia, on the borders of the Gobi steppe, only 103 species were found by G.

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  • The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.

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  • The dredgings of the " Vega " expedition in the Arctic Ocean disclosed an unexpected wealth of marine fauna, and those of L.

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  • 4 The Sea of Okhotsk is very interesting, owing to its local species and the general composition of its fauna (70 species of Molluscs and 21 of Gasteropods).

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  • von Wrangel); the various coloration of many animals according to the composition of the forests they inhabit (the sable and the squirrel are well-known instances); the intermingling northern and southern faunas in the Amur region and the remarkable consequences of that intermixture in the struggle for existence; - all these render the study of the Siberian fauna most interesting.

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  • Finally, the laws of distribution of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes undergone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known The remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indication of what may be expected in this field.

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  • Pallas, with several Russian students, laid the first foundation of a thorough exploration of the topography, fauna, flora and inhabitants of the country.

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  • The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.

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  • The flora consists of 129 species of angiosperms, i Cycas, 22 ferns, and a few mosses, lichens and fungi, 17 of which are endemic, while a considerable number - not specifically distinct - form local varieties nearly all presenting Indo-Malayan affinities, as do the single Cycas, the ferns and the cryptogams. As to its fauna, the island contains 319 species of animals-54 only being vertebrates-145 of which are endemic. A very remarkable distributional fact in regard to them, and one not yet fully explained, is that a large number show affinity with species in the Austro-Malayan rather than in the Indo-Malayan, their nearer, region.

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  • "Flying Fish," having discovered an anchorage in a bay which he named Flying Fish Cove, landed a party and made a small but interesting collection of the flora and fauna.

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  • The flora and fauna of the islands present features of unusual interest.

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  • Writing of the fauna and flora generally, Mr R.

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  • Blanford, in the Fauna of British India, is of opinion that the reproach is without foundation.

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  • The fauna shows striking analogies with that of the Bokkeveld beds of South Africa on the one hand and of the Hamilton group of North America on the other.

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  • The former appears to be almost unfossiliferous, the latter has yielded a rich marine fauna, which belongs to the top of the Carboniferous or to the Permo-carboniferous.

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  • In the province of Sergipe, on the east coast, the beds are approximately on the horizon of the Cenomanian; in the valley of the Amazon they belong to the highest parts of the Cretaceous system, and the fauna shows Tertiary affinities.

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  • The indigenous fauna of Brazil is noteworthy not only for the variety and number of its genera and species, but also for its deficiency in the larger mammals.

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  • One of the characteristic orders of the Brazilian fauna is that of the Edentata, which comprises the sloth, armadillo and ant-eater.

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  • The reptilian fauna exhibits an exceptionally large number of interesting genera and species.

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  • The fauna of the rivers and coast of Brazil is richer in species and individuals than that of the land.

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  • For further historical works and for information on flora, fauna, climate, law, church, &c. see the bibliography under SOUTH AFRICA.

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  • The fauna is a mixture of the Siberian and the Daurian - the latter penetrating up the valleys of the Selenga basin.

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  • This was followed by the Sarmatian period, when Hungary was covered by extensive lagoons, the fauna being partly marine and partly brackish water.

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  • These patches, called " woodbushes," contain many hardwood trees of great size, their flora and fauna being altogether different from that immediately outside the wood.

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  • To preserve the native fauna the low country on the Portuguese frontier has been made a game reserve.

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  • The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.

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  • The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna.

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  • The flora and fauna belong for the most part to those of New Zealand, on which colony the islands are also politically dependent, having been annexed in 1887.

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  • Muscat, the capital of the province and the principal port on the coast, is surrounded on three sides by bare, rocky hills, and has the reputation of being the hottest place in [[[Geology: Climate: Fauna]] Arabia.

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  • A large part of the surface is covered with virgin forest, consisting of screw-pines, palm trees, tree ferns, canariums, &c. The fauna is altogether Papuan.

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  • - Geographically speaking, Tunisia is merely the eastern prolongation of the Mauretanian projection of northern Africa, of that strip of mountainous, fertile and fairly well-watered country north of the Sahara desert, which in its flora and its fauna, and to some extent in its human race, belongs rather to Europe than to Africa.

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  • The fauna of Tunisia at the present day is much impoverished as regards mammals, birds and reptiles.

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  • The abundant and varied fauna is the same as that of the Brazilian forests.

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  • xxiii.; Jhgerskiold, Fauna arctica.

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  • Among the most prominent secular buildings are: the Tergesteo, a huge edifice containing a cruciform arcade roofed with glass, where the exchange is established, besides numerous shops and offices; the town-hall, rebuilt in 1874, with the handsome hall of the local Diet; the imposing old exchange, now the seat of the chamber of commerce; the palatial offices of the Austrian Lloyd, the principal shipping company; the commercial and nautical academy, with its natural history museum, containing the complete fauna of the Adriatic Sea; and finally the municipal museum, Revoltella, are all worth mentioning.

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  • The fresh-water fauna also contains a representative of the Entoprocta (Urnatella), two or three Ctenostomes, such as Victorella and Paludicella, and one or two species of Cheilostomata.

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  • it consists of a somewhat Fauna and Flora.

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  • - The fauna of the state does not differ from that of southern Connecticut and eastern Massachusetts.

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  • The marine fauna is of economic importance.

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  • Stanley Gardiner and C. Forster Cooper carried out an expedition to the Maldives and Laccadives, for the important results of which see The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, ed.

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  • It chiefly consists of stratified volcanic tuffs rich in coal, lignite, fossilized plants and an invertebrate fauna.

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  • Fauna.Japan is an exception to the general rule that continents are richer in fauna than are their neighboring islands.

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  • which is peculiar to snakes, venomous as well as non-venomous, of the fauna of tropical America.

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  • There is nothing of special interest about the fauna of Lebanon.

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  • Thus we hear of temples dedicated to Juventas=Hebe (191 B.C.), Diana=Artemis (179 B.C.), Mars=Ares (138 B.C.), and find even such unexpected identifications as that of the Bona Dea - a cult title of the ancient Fauna, the female counterpart of the countryside numen Faunus - with a Greek goddess of women, Damia.

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  • As regards the fauna, the Carpathians still contain numerous bears, wolves and lynxes, as well as birds of prey.

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  • It presents a characteristic feature in its mollusc fauna, which contains many species not found in the neighbouring regions, and only found in the Alpine region.

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  • This fauna, to which the term " halolimnic " has been applied, was known to exist from specimens obtained by Mr E.

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  • Bingham's Fauna of British India, "" Hymenoptera " (London, 1897 and onwards), and P. Cameron's volumes on Hymenoptera in the Biologia Centrali-Americana.

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  • The Texas Cretaceous is notably rich in the fossil remains of an invertebrate fauna and in the vicinity of Waco Cretaceous fossils of vertebrates have been obtained.

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  • The varied fauna and flora of Texas may be classified in the following life-zones: the Canadian zone, on the highest parts of the Davis Mountains; the Transition zone, including high parts of the Davis, Chisos and Guadalupe mountains; the Upper Austral zone, Upper Sonoran division, in the Panhandle, E.

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  • Only a few of the larger wild animals remain, but the Texas fauna is still varied, for it includes not only many species common to northern and eastern United States but also several Mexican species.

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  • On the fauna and flora see Vernon Bailey, Biological Survey of Texas (Washington, D.C., 1905) in North American Fauna, No.

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  • (For geological details, see United States, section Geology, ad fin.) Flora and Fauna.

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  • The fauna also has many West African affinities in the hot, forested regions.

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  • As a rule, however, the fauna of the Upper Semliki valley, of parts of Ankole, Buganda and Unyoro, of the Northern, Rudolf and Eastern provinces, is of that " East African," " Ethiopic " character which is specially the feature of South and East Africa and of the Sudan right across from Abyssinia to the river Senegal.

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  • The birds of paradise, which are confined to the sub-region, give special celebrity to its fauna.

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  • Fauna of Norfolk, pp. 68-73) and H.

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  • Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.

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  • Fauna and Flora: Reports of the Forest, Fish and Game Commissioner (Albany, 1902 sqq.); Ralph Hoffmann, Guide to the Birds of New England and Eastern New York (Boston, 1904); and Bulletins of the New York State Museum (Albany, 1888 sqq.).

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  • The New Zealand flora, like the fauna, has been cited in support of the theory of the remote continental period.

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  • The fauna and flora are similar to those of the Gold Coast and Liberia.

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  • The fauna has undergone a great alteration since the first white settlers entered the country.

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  • The native fauna is not sharply distinguished from that of the surrounding states.

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  • On March 23rd, two weeks after he ceased to be president, Mr Roosevelt sailed for Africa, to carry out a long-cherished plan of conducting an expedition for the purpose of making a scientific collection of the fauna and flora of the tropical regions of that continent.

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  • Its north-east portion consists of Upper Silurian coral limestones (Llandovery division), containing a rich fossil fauna and representing a series of folds running north-northwest.

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  • The western portion of Kotelnyi is built up of Middle Devonian limestones and slates, folded the same way, of which the fossil fauna is similar to that of the Urals.

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  • Fauna and Flora: United States Geological Survey of the Territories: Miscellaneous Publications,No.3, Birds of the North-west (Washington, 1874), by Elliot Coues; publications by the United States Geological Survey (consult the bibliographies in Bulletins, Nos.

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  • In its flora and fauna Siam combines the forms of Burma and the Shan States with those of Malaya, farther south, and of Cambodia to the south-east.

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  • (For details concerning flora and fauna, see separate articles, especially Java.) Inhabitants.-The majority of the native inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago belong to two races, the Malays and the Melanesians (Papuans).

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  • These collections are not specially rich in the very interesting and peculiar native fauna, but devote themselves preponderatingly to imported animals.

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  • The fauna and flora resemble those of the Mediterranean coasts of Spain or France.

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  • North of the Atlas it belongs to the European type, in the south it contains a fauna of oysters and sea-urchins belonging to the facies " africano-syrian " of Zittel.

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  • The fauna of Algeria resembles that of the Mediterranean system generally, though many animals once common to South Europe and North Africa - such as the lion, panther, hyena and jackal - are now extinct in Europe.

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  • Trabut, L'Algerie; le sol et les habitants (Paris, 1898), specially valuable for agriculture and fauna; Arthur Girault, Principes de colonisation et de legislation coloniale, Tome iii.

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  • The indigenous fauna of the islands is exceedingly poor in mammals, which are represented mainly by rats and bats.

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  • In the rest of the islands the insect fauna is poor.

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  • But if this is true of the land fauna as a whole, especially on the atolls, where it consists mainly of a few birds, lizards and insects, the opposite is the case with the marine fauna.

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  • The fish fauna of the islands is especially noted for the gorgeous colouring of many of the species.

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  • In considering the marine fauna the remarkable palolo or balolo should be mentioned.

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  • Its geology, flora and fauna are therefore described under Central America.

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  • In such manner Johannes Walther (Die Fauna der Solnhofener Platten Kalke Bionomisch betrachtet.

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  • The Italian geologist Soldani distinguished (1758) between the fossil fauna of the deep sea and of the shore-lines.

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  • Non-committal as regards evolution, he vastly broadened the field of vertebrate palaeontology by his descriptions of the extinct fauna of England, of South America (including especially the great edentates revealed by the voyage of the " Beagle "), of Australia (the ancient and modern marsupials) and of New Zealand (the great struthious birds).

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  • Meanwhile the researches of Hugh Falconer (1808-1865) and of Proby Thomas Cautley (1802-1871) in the sub-Himalayas brought to light the marvellous fauna of the Siwalik hills of India, published in Fauna antiqua Sivalensis (London, 1845) and in the volumes of Falconer's individual researches.

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  • While establishing the historic divisions of the Silurian in Bohemia, Barrande also propounded his famous theory of " colonies," by which he attempted to explain the aberrant occurrence of strata containing animals of a more advanced stage among strata containing earlier and more primitive faunas; his assumption was that the second fauna had migrated from an unknown neighbouring region.

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  • Fine examples of the spirit of the period as applied to extinct Mammalia are Gaudry's Animaux fossiles et geologie de l'Attique (1862) on the Upper Miocene fauna of Pikermi near Athens, and the remarkable memoirs of Vladimir Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1842-1883), published in 1873.

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  • Thus the collective fauna of ancient South America mimics the independently evolved collective fauna of North America, the collective fauna of modern Australia mimics the collective fauna of the Lower Eocene of North America.

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  • We are thus working out gradually the separate contributions of the land masses of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and of Australia to the mammalian fauna of the world, a result which can be obtained through palaeontology only.

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  • The birds - the largest factor in the fauna - have become very greatly reduced through the introduction of cats, dogs and pigs, as well as by the constant persecution of every sort of animal by the natives.

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  • Medusae thus form an important constituent of the plankton or floating fauna of the ocean, and compete with fish and other animals for the food-supply furnished by minuter forms of life.

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  • Aside from its origin, the fauna of Mexico includes at least five species of monkey, the jaguar, puma, ocelot (Felis pardalis), wolf, coyote, lynx, badger, otter (Lutra felina), beaver, muskrat, bear, raccoon (Procyon), coati (Nasua), tapir, two species of peccary (Dicotyles torquatus and D.

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  • The insect fauna of Mexico covers a very wide range of genera and species which, like the other forms of animal life, is largely made up of migratory types.

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  • No complete study has ever been made of this fauna, but much has been, and is being done by the U.S. Biological Survey and Plant Industry Bureau.

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  • Between Trinity College and St Stephen's Green, a large group of buildings includes the Royal Dublin Society, founded in 1683 to develop agriculture and the useful arts, with a library and gallery of statuary; the Science and Arts Museum, and the National Library, the former with a noteworthy collection of Irish antiquities; the Museum of Natural History, with a splendid collection of Irish fauna; and the National Gallery of Ireland, founded in 1853.

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  • The geology, fauna and flora of Guatemala are discussed under Central America.

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  • In all but a few places where their relations are known, the Proterozoic rocks are unconformable beneath the Palaeozoic Where conformity exists the separation is made on the basis of fossils, it having been agreed that the oldest rocks carrying the Olenellus fauna are to be regarded as the base of the Cambrian system.

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  • Cambrian System.The lower part of the Cambrian system, characterized by the Olenellus fauna, is restricted to the borders of the continent, where it rests on the older rocks unconformably in most places.

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  • The middle part of the system, characterized by the Paradoxides fauna, is somewhat more widespread, resting on the lower part conformably, but overlapping it, especially in the south and west.

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  • The upper part of the system, carrying the Dicellocephalus fauna, is very much more extensive; it is indeed one of the most widespread series of rocks on the continent.

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  • The upper part of the system is more restricted than the middle, and includes the salt-bearing series of New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania, with its peculiar fauna.

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  • These outliers have a common fauna, which is closely related to that of the interior of the United States.

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  • They give some clue to the amount of erosion which the system has suffered, and also afford a clue to the route by which the animals whose fossils are found in the United States entered this country., Thus, the Niagara fauna of the interior of the United States has striking resemblances to the mid-Silurian fatinasof Sweden and Great Britain.

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  • The fauna of the Appalachian region is far less like that of Europe, and indicates but slight connection with the fauna of the interior.

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  • Both the earlier and the later parts of the Silurian period seem to have been times when physical conditions were such as to favor the development of provincial faunas, while during the more widespread submergence of the middle Silurian the fauna was more cosmopolitan.

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  • The Onondaga fauna which succeeded appears to have resulted from the commingling of the resident lower Devonian fauna with new emigrants from Europe by way of the Arctic regions.

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  • The Hamilton fauna which followed represents the admixture of the resident Onondaga fauna with new types which are thought to have come from South America, showing that faunal connections for marine life had been made between the interior of the United States and the lands south of the Caribbean Sea, a connection of which, before this time, there was no evidence.

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  • The late Devonian fauna of the interior represents the commingling of the Hamilton fauna of the eastern interior with new emigrants from the north-west, a union which was not effected until toward the close of the period.

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  • Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.

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  • The larger animals are rare on these mountain-tops and the areas are too small for a distinct fauna.

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  • niger are really indigenous members of this group or modified descendants of European tame pigs is doubtful; although the general character of the Papuan fauna supports the idea that they are introduced.

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  • Both these families are very sparingly represented in our fauna.

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  • The lacewing-flies (q.v.), however, of which there are two families, the Hemerobiidae and Chrysopidae, whose larvae feed on Aphids, sucking their juices, are represented in our fauna.

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  • McLachlan, Trichoptera of the European Fauna (London, 1874-1880), and " British Trichoptera " in Trans.

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  • The fauna and flora of Alabama are similar to those of the Gulf states in general and have no distinctive characteristics.

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  • The flora and fauna are scarcely investigated.

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  • The known fauna comprise boars, bears, deer, swans, geese, pheasants and quail.

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  • The fauna and flora have no distinctive features.

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  • The fauna is allied to that of Madagascar rather than to the mainland of Africa; it includes some land birds and a species of lemur peculiar to the islands.

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  • The probable geological connexion with New Guinea would account for the Papuan character of the fauna of the Solomons, which form the eastern limit of certain Papuan types.

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  • The fauna includes buffaloes, a marsupial cuscus, some bats, the beautiful scarlet lory, rare varieties of the ground-thrush, honey-eater and oriole.

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  • Hitchcock, Hawaii and its Volcanoes (Honolulu, 1909); Augustin Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien and Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906); Sharp, Fauna (London, 1899); Walter Maxwell, Lavas and Soils of the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, 1898); W.

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  • The fauna includes wild boars, wolves, foxes, badgers, partridges, quails and snipe.

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  • beetles and crickets abound; and now and then a blind crawfish darts through the waters; but as compared with many caverns the fauna and flora are not abundant.

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  • For the modern condition of the principality (including climate, fauna and flora), see S.

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