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fats

fats Sentence Examples

  • The doctor said his cholesterol was high and told him to lay off the fats.

  • They are mainly carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, proteids in the form of globulins or albumoses, and in many cases fats and oils, while certain other bodies of similar nutritive value are less widely distributed.

  • It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).

  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."

  • The chief constituent of hard animal fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many vegetable fats in smaller quantity.

  • Largely present in olive oil and other saponifiable vegetable oils and soft fats; also present in animal fats, especially hog's lard.

  • The chief constituent of palm oil; also contained in greater or less quantities in human fat, olive oil, and other animal and vegetable fats.

  • The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.

  • SOAP, a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compounds resulting from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkalis.

  • The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.

  • Previous to Chevreul's researches on the fats (1811-1823) it was believed that soap consisted simply of a binary compound of fat and alkali.

  • Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.

  • These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.

  • Of the natural fats or glycerides contained in oils the most important in addition to palmitin are stearin and olein, and these it may be sufficient to regard as the principal fatty bodies concerned in soapmaking.

  • It is more likely that the cleansing power of soap is due to the inherent property of its solution to emulsionize fats.

  • Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.

  • The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.

  • The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.

  • Lewkowitsch, Oils, Fats and Waxes.

  • A new and energetic spirit was introduced by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter isolated and characterized many organic acids, and proved the general occurrence of glycerin (Olsiiss) in all oils and fats.

  • Organic acids also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds: the fats, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of this class.

  • The imports consist principally of food stuffs, building materials, drinks, sugar, machinery, glass, fats, clothes, wooden and stone wares, and various manufactured goods.

  • Typical animals are holozoic, that is, they obtain their food by eating the tissues of other animals and plants: they take their food substances in the organized forms of proteids, fats and carbohydrates.

  • Fats doubtless originate by the " cleavage " of the synthetically formed proteids, or from carbohydrates.

  • It aids the absorption of fats and may be used with cod liver oil when the latter is administered by the skin.

  • V.) are undoubtedly the result of excessive ingestion of food material containing more neutral fats than the normal tissues can oxidize, or these, as a result of defective removal owing to enfeebled oxidative capacities on the part of the tissues, become stored up in the tissues.

  • The neutral fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerin.

  • In the physiological process of intestinal digestion, the precursors of such fats are split up into these two radicles.

  • By the reverse action on the part of the same ferments in the cell, these neutral fats may be redissolved and pass into the.lacteals.

  • The soluble soaps which are probably conveyed by the blood will be quickly taken up by such cells, synthetized into neutral fats, and stored in a non-diffusible form till required.

  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

  • The coloured fats, or lipochromes, are found normally in some of the cells of the internal organs, and under certain pathological conditions.

  • BENZENE, C 6 H 6, a hydrocarbon discovered in 1825 by Faraday in the liquid produced in the compression of the illuminating gas obtained by distilling certain oils and fats.

  • It is an excellent solvent for gums, resins, fats, &c.; sulphur, phosphorus and iodine also dissolve in it.

  • Distillation in a vacuum is practised in two forms: - if the pump draws off steam as well as air it is termed a "wet" air-pump; if it only draws off air, it is a "dry" air-pump. In the glycerin industry the lyes obtained by saponifying the fats are first evaporated with "wet vacuum" and finally distilled with closed and live steam and a "dry vacuum."

  • A list of the acids present in fats and oils is given in the article Oils.

  • His scientific work covered a wide range, but his name is best known for the classical researches he carried out on animal fats, published in 1823 (Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animate).

  • sago, soap) has the same meaning, but it is more properly restricted to the hydrolysis of the fats, i.e.

  • Isobutylene, (CH 3) 2 C:CH 2, is formed in the dry distillation of fats, and also occurs among the products obtained when the vapour of fusel oil is led through a heated tube.

  • A dilute potash readily emulsionizes fats, and on boiling saponifies them with formation of a soap and glycerin.

  • In this field he contributed to our knowledge of the manufacture of iron and steel, sulphuric acid, glass and paper, and in particular worked at the saponification of fats with sulphuric acid and the utilization of palmitic acid for candle-making.

  • It is an exceedingly good solvent, especially for fats, alkaloids and iodine.

  • The fats and waxes are the esters of the higher fatty acids and alcohols.

  • Fats and oils, 12,510,600 2,631,600

  • The blood is converted into clarifying material, the entrails are used for sausage coverings, the hoofs and small bones furnish the raw material for the manufacture of glue, the large bones are carved into knife handles, and the horns into combs, the fats are made to yield butterine, lard and soap, and the hides and hair are used in the manufacture of mattresses and felts.

  • It may be prepared by the oxidation of fats and of fatty acids by nitric acid, and is also a product of the fermentation of malic and tartaric acids.

  • PALMITIC ACID, n-Hexadecylic Acid, Ch3(Ch2)14c02h, an organic acid found as a glyceride, palmitin, in all animal fats, and partly as glyceride and partly uncombined in palm oil.

  • hydrates, such as starches and sugars; fats; proteids, such as meat and eggs; salts; and last, but not least, water.

  • The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.

  • A multitude of minor and simpler organic compounds, of which carbohydrates and fats are the best known, occur in different protoplasm in varying forms and proportions, and are much less isolated from the inorganic world.

  • The normal alcohols containing r to 16 carbon atoms are liquids at the ordinary temperatures; the higher members are crystalline, odourless and tasteless solids, closely resembling the fats in appearance.

  • Fixed Oils, Fats and Waxes.

  • fatty (fixed) oils and fats on the one hand, and waxes on the other, the distinction between the two classes being based on a most important chemical difference.

  • The fixed oils and fats consist essentially of glycerides, i.e.

  • The true chemical constitution of oils and fats was first expounded by the classical researches of Chevreul, embodied in his work, Recherches sur les corps Bras d'origine animale (1823, reprinted 1889).

  • The fatty (fixed) oils and fats form a well-defined and homogeneous group of substances, passing through all gradations of consistency, from oils which are fluid even below the freezing-point of water, up to the hardest fats which melt at about 50° C. Therefore, no sharp distinction can be made between fatty oils and fats.

  • The natural oils and fats are mixtures of at least two or three different triglycerides, the most important of which are tristearin, tripalmitin, C3H5(0'C16H310)3 and triolein, C 3 H 5 (0C1811330)3.

  • These three glycerides have been usually considered the chief constituents of most oils and fats, but latterly there have been recognized as widely distributed trilinolin, the glyceride of linolic acid, and trilinolenin, the glyceride of linolenic acid.

  • These glycerides are, therefore, characteristic of the oils and fats named.

  • Oils and fats must, therefore, not be looked upon as definite chemical individuals, but as representatives of natural species which vary, although within certain narrow limits, according to the climate and soil in which the plants which produce them are grown, or, in the case of animal fats, according to the climate, the race, the age of the animal, and especially the food, and also the idiosyncrasy of the individual animal.

  • The oils and fats are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost all tissues and organs.

  • The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, whereas in animals the oils and fats are enclosed mainly in the cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back.

  • The glycerides occurring in natural oils and fats differ, therefore, in the first instance by the different fatty acids contained in them, and secondly, even if they do contain the same fatty acids, by different proportions of the several simple and mixed glycerides.

  • Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually contain certain impurities of one kind or another, such as colouring and mucilaginous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For the most part these foreign substances can be removed by processes of refining, but even after this purification they still retain small quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of colouring matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and other foreign substances, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats, and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat.

  • The former occurs in all oils and fats of vegetable origin; the latter is characteristic of all oils and fats of animal origin.

  • This important difference furnishes a method of distinguishing by chemical means vegetable oils and fats from animal oils and fats.

  • This distinction will be made use of in the classification of the oils and fats.

  • A second guiding principle is afforded by the different amounts of iodine (see Oil Testing below) the various oils and fats are capable of absorbing.

  • Since this capacity runs parallel with one of the best-known properties of oils and fats, viz.

  • Fatty Oils Or Liquid Fats A.

  • Solid Fats B.

  • Animal fats.

  • Drying fats.

  • Semi-drying fats.

  • Non-drying fats.

  • The specific gravities of oils and fats vary between the limits of o-910 and 0.975.

  • The animal and vegetable fats possess somewhat higher specific gravities, up to 0.930.

  • In their liquid state oils and fats easily penetrate into the pores of dry substances; on paper they leave a translucent spot - "grease spot" - which cannot be removed by washing with water and subsequent drying.

  • A curious fact, which may be used for the detection of the minutest quantity of oils and fats, is that camphor crushed between layers of paper without having been touched with the fingers rotates when thrown on clean water, the rotation ceasing immediately when a trace of oil or fat is added, such as introduced by touching the water with a needle which has been passed previously through the hair.

  • The oils and fats are practically insoluble in water.

  • Oils and fats have no distinct melting or solidifying point.

  • Oils and fats can be heated to a temperature of 200° to 250° C. without undergoing any material change, provided prolonged contact with air is avoided.

  • Above 300° C. all oils and fats are decomposed; this is evidenced by the evolution of acrolein, which possesses the wellknown pungent odour of burning fat.

  • On exposure to the atmosphere, oils and fats gradually undergo certain changes.

  • The changes conditioning rancidity, although not yet fully understood in all details, must be ascribed in the first instance to slow hydrolysis ("saponification") of the oils and fats by the moisture of the air, especially if favoured by insolation, when water is taken up by the oils and fats, and free fatty acids are formed.

  • The fatty acids so set free are then more readily attacked by the oxygen of the air, and oxygenated products are formed, which impart to the oils and fats the rancid smell and taste.

  • If the fats and oils are well protected from air and light, they can be kept indefinitely.

  • If the action of air and moisture is allowed free play, the hydrolysis of the oils and fats may become so complete that only the insoluble fatty acids remain behind, the glycerin being washed away.

  • The property of oils and fats of being readily hydrolysed is a most important one, and very extensive use of it is made in the arts (soapmaking, candle-making and recovery of their by-products).

  • If oils and fats are treated with water alone under high pressure (corresponding to a temperature of about 220° C.), or in the presence of water with caustic alkalis or alkaline earths or basic metallic oxides (which bodies act as "catalysers") at lower pressures, they are converted in the first instance into free fatty acids and glycerin.

  • The oils and fats used in the industries are not drawn from any very great number of sources.

  • The tables on the following pages contain chiefly the most important oils and fats together with their sources, yields and principal uses, arranged according to the above classification, and according to the magnitude of the iodine value.

  • It should be added that many other oils and fats are only waiting improved conditions of transport to enter into successful competition with some of those that are already on the market.

  • Since the oils and fats have always served the human race as one of the most important articles of food, the oil and fat industry may well be considered to be as old as the human race itself.

  • The methods of preparing oils and fats range themselves under three heads: (i) Extraction of oil by "rendering," i.e.

  • Vegetable fats.

  • The rendering process is, however, applied on a very large scale to the production of animal oils and fats.

  • Formerly the animal oils and fats were obtained by heating the tissues containing the oils or fats over a free fire, when the cell membranes burst and the liquid fat flowed out.

  • Hence this kind of press finds only limited application, as in the industry of olive oil for expressing the best and finest virgin oil, and in the production of animal fats for edible purposes, such as lard and oleomargarine.

  • This preliminary purification is of the greatest importance, especially for the preparation of edible oils and fats.

  • For the preparation of edible oils and fats the meal is expressed in the cold, after having been packed into bags and placed in hydraulic presses under a pressure of three hundred atmospheres or even more.

  • - The oils and fats prepared by any of the methods detailed above are in their fresh state, and, if got from perfectly fresh ("sweet") material, practically neutral.

  • If care be exercised in the process of rendering animal oils and fats or expressing oils in the cold, the products are, as a rule, sufficiently pure to be delivered to the consumer, after a preliminary settling has allowed any mucilaginous matter, such as animal or vegetable fibres or other impurities, and also traces of moisture, to separate out.

  • In many cases these methods still suffice for the production of commercial oils and fats.

  • In special cases, such as the preparation of edible oils and fats, a further improvement in colour and greater purity is obtained by filtering the oils over charcoal, or over natural absorbent earths, such as fuller's earth.

  • Oils intended for use on the table which deposit "stearine" in winter must be freed from such solid fats.

  • Similar methods are employed in the production of lard oil, edible cotton-seed oil, &c. For refining oils and fats intended for edible purposes only the foregoing methods, which may be summarized by the name of physical methods, can be used; the only' chemicals permissible are alkalis or alkaline earths to remove free fatty acids present.

  • Treatment with other chemicals renders the oils and fats unfit for consumption.

  • Therefore all bleaching and refining processes involving other means than those enumerated can only be used for technical oils and fats, such as lubricating oils, burning oils, paint oils, soap-making oils, &c.

  • In most cases the purification consisted in removing the free fatty acids from rancid oils and fats, the caustic soda forming a soap with the fatty acids, which would either rise as a scum and lift up with it impurities, or fall to the bottom and carry down impurities.

  • The number of chemicals which have been proposed from time to time for the purification of oils and fats is almost legion, and so long as the nature of oils and fats was little understood, a secret trade in oil-purifying chemicals flourished, With our present knowledge most of these chemicals may be removed into the limbo of useless things.

  • - Reliable scientific methods for testing oils and fats date back only to the end of the 'seventies of the 29th century.

  • Before that time it was believed that not only could individual oils and fats be distinguished from each other by colour reactions, but it was also maintained that falsification could be detected thereby.

  • The saponification values of most oils and fats lie in the neighbourhood of 195.

  • These high saponification values are due to the presence of (glycerides of) volatile fatty acids, and are of extreme usefulness to the analyst, especially in testing butter-fat for added margarine and other fats.

  • Whereas most of the oils and fats, viz.

  • have extremely low Reichert-Wollny values, all those oils and fats having saponification values above 195 contain notable amounts of volatile fatty acids.

  • On this value a scientific classification of all oils and fats can be based, as is shown by the above-given list of oils and fats.

  • The unsaturated fatty acids which occur chiefly in oils and fats are oleic acid, iodine value 90.07; erucic acid, iodine value 75.15; linolic acid, iodine value 181.42; linolenic acid, iodine value 274.1; and clupanodonic acid, iodine value 367.7.

  • Oleic acid occurs in all non-drying oils and fats, and to some extent in the semi-drying oils and fats.

  • Even if a mixture of several oils and fats be present, the iodine value assists greatly in the identification of the components of the mixture, and furnishes the most important key for the attacking and resolving of this not very simple problem.

  • By combining the various methods which have been outlined here, and by the help of some further additional special methods, and by reasoning in a strictly logical manner, it is possible to resolve a mixture of two oils and fats, and even of three and four, into their components and determine approximately their quantities.

  • An estimate made by the writer (Cantor Lectures, "Oils and Fats, their Uses and Applica tions," Society of Arts, 1 904, p. 795), and based on the most reliable information obtainable, led to the conclusion that the sums involved in the oil and fat trade exceeded (1,000,000 per week; in 1907 they approximated £1,250,000 per week.

  • The production of edible fats (margarine, lard compounds, and vegetable butters) has taken root in this country, and bids fair to extend largely.

  • Amongst the edible oils and fats which are largely imported, butter takes the first rank (to an amount of almost 25,000,000 per annum).

  • Vast stores of hard vegetable fats are still practically wasted in tropical countries, such as India, Indo-China and the Sunda Islands, tropical South America, Africa and China.

  • The waxes can be classified similarly to the oils and fats as follows: - The table enumerates the most important waxes: - Waxes There are only two liquid waxes known, sperm oil and arctic sperm oil (bottlenose-whale oil), formerly always classed together with the animal oils.

  • In their physical properties the natural waxes simulate the fatty oils and fats.

  • In their chemical constitution the essential oils present no relationship to the fats and oils.

  • The process of extraction with volatile solvents is similar to that used in the extraction of oils and fats, but as only the most highly purified solvents can be used, this process has not yet gained commercial importance.

  • Bibliography.-FOr the fixed oils, fats and waxes, see C. R.

  • Wright, Fixed Oils, Fats, Butters and Waxes (London, 2nd ed.

  • Brannt, Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils (London, 1896); J.

  • Some of these, such as resins, gums, essential oils and fats, are readily obtained as natural exudations or by very simple manipulations, while others, such as the alkaloids, glucosides and vegetable acids, often require to be extracted by very complex processes.

  • Weak solutions applied locally saponify fats, soften the epidermis, and thus act as slight stimulants and cleansers of the skin.

  • Calcium salts form insoluble soaps with fats, and combine with albumen in a manner which makes them soothing and astringent rather than irritating.

  • Neutral Fats.

  • Lanolin, linseed oil, wax, spermaceti, &c., also belong to this group. The paraffins, glycerin and vaseline, although not fats, have much the same effect when applied externally, but they are not nutritive.

  • The doctor said his cholesterol was high and told him to lay off the fats.

  • cocoa butter and/or chocolate has a neutral effect on blood lipids (fats ).

  • In the first few days after birth, a special type of milk called colostrum is excreted which is rich in fats and protein.

  • drone on for quite awhile about studies linking more fat in the diet with better blood fats in athletes.

  • Alternatives: vegetable emollients (see alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils ).

  • emulsify fats to promote their absorption.

  • emulsifyo emulsifies fats into smaller droplets, providing a larger surface area for the enzyme lipase to work on.

  • endurance athletes will " burn " fats to supply up to 70% of their fuel needs.

  • These are particularly found in red meat, meat pies, sausages, butter, cheese, cakes and biscuits made with hydrogenated fats.

  • Bile also emulsifies fats, giving a larger surface area for the action of lipase.

  • They also contain other unsaturated fats called ' essential fatty acids ', which the body needs for good health.

  • The need for vitamin E increases if the diet is high in polyunsaturated fats.

  • After this cleansing and rebalancing period, fat fish becomes more important, as it is the best source of omega-3 fats.

  • Soon after the suit was filed, public interest in trans fats peaked.

  • Good sources of these fats include extra virgin olive oil, canola oil, ground flax seeds and walnuts.

  • handful of cashew nuts, peanuts, almonds or brazil nuts these provide you with healthy fats.

  • The polyunsaturated fats can cause an abnormal heartbeat which may lead to a sudden cardiac death, doctors warn.

  • hydrogenated fats have recently been banned in the USA due to health problems, therefore try to avoid these in your diet.

  • incomplete digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates may also contribute to nutritional deficiency.

  • Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

  • malabsorption of fats and some vitamins may occur, and be serious or even fatal.

  • Nutritional Advice: Avoid coffee, tea, alcohol, cooked hot spices, oily foods especially fats like polyunsaturated margarine.

  • Trans fats: Trans fats are found in hard margarine, which is made from hydrogenated vegetable oil.

  • Note: All fats are high in calories, so even good ones should be eaten in strict moderation when trying to lose weight.

  • nonpolar molecules such as fats, oil and water don't mix.

  • Go nutty - have a handful of cashew nuts, peanuts, almonds or brazil nuts these provide you with healthy fats.

  • However... we probably do not have a sustainable supply of long chain omega 3 fats.

  • omega-3 (fatty acid)ly fish, salmon can be a good source of omega-3 fats.

  • omega-3 (fatty acid)f EFAs, particularly omega-3 fats, but not all fish contain them.

  • Cells cannot function without the ability to traffick proteins, carbohydrates and fats across the external membrane, called the plasma membrane.

  • polyunsaturated fats you eat, the more vitamin E you will get.

  • prevailing wisdom, this includes natural animal fats.

  • This reduces the deposition of fats on the walls of the arteries, reducing clotting of blood vessels and the heart.

  • Grains - may contain fats, which give off odor in their breakdown and attract rodents or other pests.

  • saturated fats such as sunflower or olive oil rather than saturated fats such as butter.

  • saturated fats are the BAD fats.

  • soluble in fats than in water; they are therefore able to rapidly reach the target cells within the insects.

  • Lard and beef tallow Lard and beef tallow are the fats derived from pigs and cows, respectively.

  • If women consume these products their breast milk will also contain trans fats.

  • triglyceride fats in the blood.

  • unsaturated fats found in oily fish, which may help prevent heart disease.

  • To this attitude he offered uncompromising opposition, and by the synthetical production of numerous hydrocarbons, natural fats, sugars and other bodies he proved that organic compounds can be formed by ordinary methods of chemical manipulation and obey the same laws as inorganic substances, thus exhibiting the "creative character in virtue of which chemistry actually realizes the abstract conceptions of its theories and classifications - a prerogative so far possessed neither by the natural nor by the historical sciences."

  • They are mainly carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, proteids in the form of globulins or albumoses, and in many cases fats and oils, while certain other bodies of similar nutritive value are less widely distributed.

  • Numerous other substances are also found in the cytoplasm, such as tannin, fats and oil, resins, mucilage, caoutchouc, guttapercha, sulphur and calcium oxalate crystals.

  • It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).

  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."

  • The chief constituent of hard animal fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many vegetable fats in smaller quantity.

  • Largely present in olive oil and other saponifiable vegetable oils and soft fats; also present in animal fats, especially hog's lard.

  • The chief constituent of palm oil; also contained in greater or less quantities in human fat, olive oil, and other animal and vegetable fats.

  • The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.

  • SOAP, a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compounds resulting from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkalis.

  • The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.

  • Previous to Chevreul's researches on the fats (1811-1823) it was believed that soap consisted simply of a binary compound of fat and alkali.

  • Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.

  • These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.

  • Of the natural fats or glycerides contained in oils the most important in addition to palmitin are stearin and olein, and these it may be sufficient to regard as the principal fatty bodies concerned in soapmaking.

  • It is more likely that the cleansing power of soap is due to the inherent property of its solution to emulsionize fats.

  • Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.

  • The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.

  • The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.

  • Lewkowitsch, Oils, Fats and Waxes.

  • A new and energetic spirit was introduced by Scheele; among other discoveries this gifted experimenter isolated and characterized many organic acids, and proved the general occurrence of glycerin (Olsiiss) in all oils and fats.

  • Organic acids also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds: the fats, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of this class.

  • The imports consist principally of food stuffs, building materials, drinks, sugar, machinery, glass, fats, clothes, wooden and stone wares, and various manufactured goods.

  • Typical animals are holozoic, that is, they obtain their food by eating the tissues of other animals and plants: they take their food substances in the organized forms of proteids, fats and carbohydrates.

  • Fats doubtless originate by the " cleavage " of the synthetically formed proteids, or from carbohydrates.

  • It aids the absorption of fats and may be used with cod liver oil when the latter is administered by the skin.

  • V.) are undoubtedly the result of excessive ingestion of food material containing more neutral fats than the normal tissues can oxidize, or these, as a result of defective removal owing to enfeebled oxidative capacities on the part of the tissues, become stored up in the tissues.

  • The part played by fats and closely allied compounds in normal and abnormal metabolism need not here be discussed, as the subject is too complex and the views on it are conflicting.

  • The neutral fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerin.

  • In the physiological process of intestinal digestion, the precursors of such fats are split up into these two radicles.

  • By the reverse action on the part of the same ferments in the cell, these neutral fats may be redissolved and pass into the.lacteals.

  • The soluble soaps which are probably conveyed by the blood will be quickly taken up by such cells, synthetized into neutral fats, and stored in a non-diffusible form till required.

  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

  • The coloured fats, or lipochromes, are found normally in some of the cells of the internal organs, and under certain pathological conditions.

  • BENZENE, C 6 H 6, a hydrocarbon discovered in 1825 by Faraday in the liquid produced in the compression of the illuminating gas obtained by distilling certain oils and fats.

  • It is an excellent solvent for gums, resins, fats, &c.; sulphur, phosphorus and iodine also dissolve in it.

  • Distillation in a vacuum is practised in two forms: - if the pump draws off steam as well as air it is termed a "wet" air-pump; if it only draws off air, it is a "dry" air-pump. In the glycerin industry the lyes obtained by saponifying the fats are first evaporated with "wet vacuum" and finally distilled with closed and live steam and a "dry vacuum."

  • A list of the acids present in fats and oils is given in the article Oils.

  • His scientific work covered a wide range, but his name is best known for the classical researches he carried out on animal fats, published in 1823 (Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animate).

  • sago, soap) has the same meaning, but it is more properly restricted to the hydrolysis of the fats, i.e.

  • Isobutylene, (CH 3) 2 C:CH 2, is formed in the dry distillation of fats, and also occurs among the products obtained when the vapour of fusel oil is led through a heated tube.

  • A dilute potash readily emulsionizes fats, and on boiling saponifies them with formation of a soap and glycerin.

  • In this field he contributed to our knowledge of the manufacture of iron and steel, sulphuric acid, glass and paper, and in particular worked at the saponification of fats with sulphuric acid and the utilization of palmitic acid for candle-making.

  • It is an exceedingly good solvent, especially for fats, alkaloids and iodine.

  • The fats and waxes are the esters of the higher fatty acids and alcohols.

  • Fats and oils, 12,510,600 2,631,600

  • The blood is converted into clarifying material, the entrails are used for sausage coverings, the hoofs and small bones furnish the raw material for the manufacture of glue, the large bones are carved into knife handles, and the horns into combs, the fats are made to yield butterine, lard and soap, and the hides and hair are used in the manufacture of mattresses and felts.

  • It may be prepared by the oxidation of fats and of fatty acids by nitric acid, and is also a product of the fermentation of malic and tartaric acids.

  • PALMITIC ACID, n-Hexadecylic Acid, Ch3(Ch2)14c02h, an organic acid found as a glyceride, palmitin, in all animal fats, and partly as glyceride and partly uncombined in palm oil.

  • hydrates, such as starches and sugars; fats; proteids, such as meat and eggs; salts; and last, but not least, water.

  • The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.

  • CH: CH [CH 2] 7 CO 2 H, an organic acid occurring as a glyceride, triolein, in nearly all fats, and in many oils - olive, almond, cod-liver, &c. (see Oils).

  • A multitude of minor and simpler organic compounds, of which carbohydrates and fats are the best known, occur in different protoplasm in varying forms and proportions, and are much less isolated from the inorganic world.

  • The normal alcohols containing r to 16 carbon atoms are liquids at the ordinary temperatures; the higher members are crystalline, odourless and tasteless solids, closely resembling the fats in appearance.

  • olive oil), the soft fats which may be fluid in their country of origin (e.g.

  • coco-nut oil, palm oil), the hard fats (e.g.

  • (I) Fixed oils, fats and waxes, and (2) Essential, ethereal or volatile oils.

  • Fixed Oils, Fats and Waxes.

  • fatty (fixed) oils and fats on the one hand, and waxes on the other, the distinction between the two classes being based on a most important chemical difference.

  • The fixed oils and fats consist essentially of glycerides, i.e.

  • The true chemical constitution of oils and fats was first expounded by the classical researches of Chevreul, embodied in his work, Recherches sur les corps Bras d'origine animale (1823, reprinted 1889).

  • The fatty (fixed) oils and fats form a well-defined and homogeneous group of substances, passing through all gradations of consistency, from oils which are fluid even below the freezing-point of water, up to the hardest fats which melt at about 50° C. Therefore, no sharp distinction can be made between fatty oils and fats.

  • The natural oils and fats are mixtures of at least two or three different triglycerides, the most important of which are tristearin, tripalmitin, C3H5(0'C16H310)3 and triolein, C 3 H 5 (0C1811330)3.

  • These three glycerides have been usually considered the chief constituents of most oils and fats, but latterly there have been recognized as widely distributed trilinolin, the glyceride of linolic acid, and trilinolenin, the glyceride of linolenic acid.

  • These glycerides are, therefore, characteristic of the oils and fats named.

  • In the classified list below the most important fatty acids occurring in oils and fats are enumerated (cf.

  • Oils and fats must, therefore, not be looked upon as definite chemical individuals, but as representatives of natural species which vary, although within certain narrow limits, according to the climate and soil in which the plants which produce them are grown, or, in the case of animal fats, according to the climate, the race, the age of the animal, and especially the food, and also the idiosyncrasy of the individual animal.

  • The oils and fats are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost all tissues and organs.

  • The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, whereas in animals the oils and fats are enclosed mainly in the cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back.

  • Up to recently the oils and fats were looked upon as consisting in the main of a mixture of triglycerides, in which the three combined fatty acids are identical, as is the case in the abovenamed glycerides.

  • The glycerides occurring in natural oils and fats differ, therefore, in the first instance by the different fatty acids contained in them, and secondly, even if they do contain the same fatty acids, by different proportions of the several simple and mixed glycerides.

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