By an invention probably due to Humfray Cole and published in 1 578 by William Bourne in his Inventions and Devices, it was proposed to register a ship's speed by means of a "little small close boat," with a wheel, or wheels, and an axle-tree to turn clockwork in the little boat, with dials and pointers indicating fathoms, leagues, scores of leagues and hundreds of leagues.
Many were taken at 10 fathoms and deeper with the line, and all were of exceptionally large size, several measuring 18 in.
The western Mediterranean is cut off by a bank crossing the narrow strait between Sicily and Cape Bon, usually known as the Adventure Bank, on which the depth is nowhere 200 fathoms. The mean depth of the western basin is estimated at 881 fathoms, and the deepest sounding recorded is 2040 fathoms. In the eastern Mediterranean the mean depth is nearly the same as in the western basin.
The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.
The steepest slope observed occurs off the island of Sapienza, near Navarino, where 1720 fathoms has been obtained only 10 miles from land.
Another bank i ioo fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, in which a depth of 1960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on the coast of Asia Minor.
Of Corsica, from which it is separated by the Strait of Bonifacio, which is some 50 fathoms deep. The harbour of Golfo degli Aranci, in the north-eastern portion of the island, is 138 m.
The mean depth over this ridge is about 250 fathoms, and the maximum depth nowhere reaches 500 fathoms. The main basin of the Atlantic is thus cut off from the Arctic basin, with which the area north of the ridge has complete deep-water communication.
This intermediate region, which has Atlantic characteristics down to 300 fathoms, and at greater depths belongs more properly to the Arctic Sea, commonly receives the name of Norwegian Sea.
In these troughs the depth is seldom much less than 3000 fathoms, and this is exceeded in a series of patches to which Murray has given the name of "Deeps."
The western trough extends northwards into Davis Strait, forming a depression in the Telegraph plateau; to the south of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia are Sigsbee Deep, Libbey Deep and Suhm Deep, each of small area; north-east of the Bahamas Nares Deep forms the largest and deepest depression in the Atlantic, in which a sounding of 4561 fathoms was obtained (70 m.
Mean Karstens, 2047 fathoms. If we include the enclosed depth, and seas, the North Atlantic has a mean depth of 1800 bottom fathoms. The South Atlantic has a mean depth of deposits.
The greater part of the bottom of the Atlantic is covered by a deposit of Globigerina ooze, roughly the area between l000 and 3000 fathoms, or about 60% of the whole.
From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.
Below 500 fathoms the western centres of maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000 fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and more uniform.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
This distribution is most marked at about 300 fathoms, and disappears at soo fathoms, beyond which depth the lines tend to become parallel and to run east and west, the gradient slowly diminishing.
Teredo navalis, it has been found necessary, for depths not exceeding 300 fathoms, to protect the core with a thin layer of brass tape.
The grappling of the cable and raising it to the surface from a depth of 2000 fathoms seldom occupy less than twenty-four hours, and since any extra strain due to the pitching of the vessel must be avoided, it is clear that the state of the sea and weather is the predominating factor in the time necessary for effecting the long series of operations which, in the most favourable circumstances, are required for a repair.
As to cost, one transatlantic cable repair cost 75,000; the repair of the Aden-Bombay cable, broken in a depth of 1900 fathoms, was effected with the expenditure of 176 miles of new cable, and after a lapse of 251 days, 103 being spent in actual work, which for the remainder of the time was interrupted by the monsoon; a repair of the Lisbon-Porthcurnow cable, broken in the Bay of Biscay in 2700 fathoms, eleven years after the cable was laid, took 215 days, with an expenditure of 300 miles of cable.
A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.
The greater part of this trough is over 600 fathoms deep. The profusion of islands and their usually bold elevation give beauty and picturesqueness to the sea, but its navigation is difficult and dangerous, notwithstanding the large number of safe and commodious gulfs and bays.
Of the Andamans are the dangerous Western Banks and Dalrymple Bank, rising to within a few fathoms of the surface of the sea and forming, with the two Sentinel Islands ï¿½, the tops of a line of submarine hills parallel to the Andamans.
The furrows are the great ocean basins, and these would still persist even if the land surface were enlarged to the 1400 fathoms contour.
The only part of the sea-bed the configuration of which is at all well known is the zone bordering the coasts where the depth is less than about loo fathoms or 200 metres, i.e.
Above sea-level, and the mean depth of the oceans as 2080 fathoms or 12,480 ft.
Or 1700 fathoms below sea-level.
Area containing all dry land, the transitional area including the submarine slopes down to 1000 fathoms, and the abysmal area consisting of the floor of the ocean beyond that depth; and Mill proposed to take the line of mean-sphere level, instead of the empirical depth of moo fathoms, as the boundary between the transitional and abysmal areas.
(1250 fathoms) below according sea-level.
An elevation of small extent is distinguished as a " dome " when it is more than 100 fathoms from the surface, a " bank " when it is nearer the surface than 100 fathoms but deeper than 6 fathoms, and a " shoal " when it comes within 6 fathoms of the surface and so becomes a serious danger to shipping.
Long, reaches there a depth of over 600 fathoms, with a maximum depth of 880 fathoms, i.e.
And spreading under its waters, so as to leave only a narrow channel, 230 to 2 4 7 fathoms deep, along the opposite coast.
The depth of the middle portion of the lake has not yet been measured, but must exceed 500 fathoms. It was expected that an underground ridge would be found connecting Olkhon with Svyatoi Nos; but depths exceeding 622 fathoms have been sounded even along that line.
215 surround it, and most of its area has a depth exceeding 400 fathoms, the maximum depths along three lines of soundings taken across it being 491, 485, and 476 fathoms respectively.
Is generally found at a depth of 20 fathoms, as also on the surface in the middle of the lake.
At a depth of 500 fathoms there is a nearly uniform temperature of 38°.
Generally, while there is a relative poverty of zoological groups, there is a great wealth of species within the group. Of gammarids, there are as many as 300 species, and those living at great depths (33 o to 380 fathoms) tend to assume abyssal characters similar to those displayed by the deep-sea fauna of the ocean.
The greatest depth is 1030 fathoms (1227 Russian fathoms) near the centre, there being only one basin.
The steepest incline outside loo fathoms is to the southeast of the Crimea and at Amastra; the incline to the greater depths is also steep off the Caucasus and between Trebizond and Batum.
The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.
The depths of the Black Sea are lifeless, higher organic life not being known to exist below loo fathoms. Fossiliferous remains of Dreissena, Cardium and other molluscs have, however, been dredged up, which help to show that conditions formerly existed in the Black Sea similar to those that exist at the present day in the Caspian Sea.
During summer the surface salinity of the Black Sea is from 1.70 to 2'00% down to 50 fathoms, whereas in the greater depths it attains a salinity of 2.25%.
The temperature is rather remarkable, there being an intermediate cold layer between 25 and 50 fathoms. This is due to the sinking of the cold surface water (which in winter reaches freezing-point) on to the top of the denser more saline water of the greater depths.
The temperature down to 25 fathoms is from 78.3° to 46.2° F., and in the cold layer, between 25 and 50 fathoms, is from 46.2° to 43.5° F., rising again in greater depths to 48.2° F.
The Sea of Azov is exceedingly shallow, being only about 6 fathoms in its deepest part, and it is largely influenced by the river Don.
A submarine ridge, about 300 fathoms deep at its deepest, unites Greenland with Iceland (across Denmark Strait), the Faeroes and Scotland.
These fjords are very deep; the greatest depth found by Ryder in Scoresby Sound was 300 fathoms, but there are certainly still greater depths; like the Norwegian fjords they have, however, probably all of them, a threshold or sill, with shallow water, near their mouths.
Finally, the plankton (and again the vegetable forms in particular) are practically restricted to the upper hundred fathoms or so of the sea.
Daly estimates that the maximum lowering of ocean level due to this cause would only amount to 36 fathoms, but even that would be the cause of very marked geological effects.
William Gilpin, who is so admirable in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
Long., in which he recorded a depth exceeding 4000 fathoms. The Scottish Antarctic expedition has shown this sounding to be erroneous; the " Scotia " obtained samples of bottom, in almost the same spot, from a depth of 2660 fathoms. Combining the results of recent soundings, Dr W.
In width and from 3 to 5 fathoms deep, navigable for steamers of good size.
The portion nearest the log-ship is known as the "stray line"; its length varies from ro to 20 fathoms, but should be sufficient to ensure that the log-ship shall be outside the disturbing element of the ship's wake.