The rich cinnamon-vanilla scent of the bath bubbles filled the air, reminding her of the candle she'd bought at the farmers market the day her life went to hell.
He took a tumble in the hay with the farmers' daughter.
The small town had only dirt roads, and his glanced lingered towards a farmers market under the awnings in the center, a couple of blocks away.
All the land was lost in the next few years, partly by the revolt of the local farmers.
A well-equipped agricultural college near Winnipeg is provided for sons and daughters of farmers.
The following statistics are interesting: - The enormous development of the wheat-growing industry is These figures do not include the wheat ground into flour and sent by way of British Columbia to Asia and Australia, nor the wheat retained by the farmers for seed.
Farmers' institutes are held throughout the South by teachers of the school.
The knights, who as farmers of the taxes had suffered heavy losses during the disturbances in Syria, were greatly embittered against Gabinius, and, when he appeared in the senate to give an account of his governorship, he was brought to trial on three counts, all involving a capital offence.
In America, on farmers' circuits, ten or more stations are frequently connected to one line; but in England ten is practically the maximum.
In the Venetian districts the farmers often have small stationary flocks.
They are not, as a rule, supported by workmen or peasants, but rather by small tradespeople, manufacturers and farmers.
The Monti frumentarii or co-operative corn deposits, which lend seed corn to farmers, and are repaid after harvest with interest in kind, numbered f615 in 1894, and possessed apatrimonyof~24o,ooo.
The suffrage is extended to all citizens over twenty-one years of age who can read and write and have either attained a certain standard of elementary education or are qualified by paying a rent which varies from 6 in communes of 2500 inhabitants to 16 in communes of 15p,ooo inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, I6s.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
The farmers are chiefly Italians, Canary Islanders and Frenchmen.
In the southern districts, where the farmers are Europeans, the breed of cattle is being steadily improved by the introduction of Durham and Hereford bulls.
They are also good farmers and bold seamen.
Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belongs to the German landlords, who either farm the land themselves, with hired labourers, or let it in small farms. Only one-fourth of the peasants are farmers, the remainder being mere labourers, who are emigrating in great numbers.
He was prepared for college by a private tutor, studied for two years at the Farmers' College, near Cincinnati, and in 1852 graduated from Miami University, at that time the leading educational institution in the State of Ohio.
After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.
With Fisk in August 1869 he began to buy gold in a daring attempt to "corner" the market, his hope being that, with the advance in price of gold, wheat would advance to such a price that western farmers would sell, and there would be a consequent great movement of breadstuffs from West to East, which would result in increased freight business for the Erie road.
Farmers of the Piedmont Plateau formerly kept large numbers of horses and cattle from April to November in ranges in the Mountain Region, but with the opening of portions of that country to cultivation the business of pasturage declined, except as the cotton plantations demanded an increased supply of mules; there were 25,259 mules in 1850, 110,011 in 1890, 138,786 in 1900, and 181,000 in 1910.
be made bailiffs or farmers of the seaport.
Since the days of Adolf of Holstein and Henry the Lion, a movement of German colonization, in which farmers from the Low Countries, merchants from Lubeck, and monks of the Cistercian Order all played their parts, had been spreading German influence from the Oder to the Vistula, from the Vistula to the Dwina - to Prague, to Gnesen, and even to Novgorod the Great.
But his proposal to substitute for all aides and customs duties a single capitation tax of a tenth of the revenue of all property was naturally opposed by the farmers of taxes and found little support.
" Carrot rootes " were then raised in several parts of England, and sometimes by farmers.
Clover and turnips were confined to a few districts, and at the latter period were scarcely cultivated at all by common farmers in the northern part of the island.
On the other hand, the small farmers who occupied separated holdings were deterred from improving by the fear of a rise in rent.
The next work on the husbandry of Scotland is The Countryman's Rudiments, or an Advice to the Farmers in East Lothian, how to labour and improve their Grounds, said to have been written by John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven about the time of the Union, and reprinted in 1723.
The ground continued to be cropped so long as it produced two seeds; the best farmers were contented with four seeds, which was more than the general produce.
commerce, gave a powerful stimulus to rural industry, augmented agricultural capital and called forth a more skilful and enterprising race of farmers.
The improvements introduced by these energetic and skilful farmers spread rapidly, and exerted a most beneficial influence upon the border counties.
In 1800 the original Farmers' Magazine came into existence under the editorship of Robert Brown of Markle, the author of the well-known treatise on Rural Affairs.
In 1828, shortly after the discontinuance of the Farmers' Magazine, its Prize Essays and Transactions began to be issued statedly in connexion with the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture.
With declining prices for farm produce came that year of unhappy memory, 1879, when persistent rains and an almost sunless summer ruined the crops and reduced many farmers to a state of destitution.
The apparently hopeless outlook for corn-growing compelled farmers to cast about for some other means of subsistence, and to rely more than they had hitherto done upon the possibilities of stock-breeding.
Nevertheless, the decade closed more hopefully than it opened, and found farmers taking a keener interest in grass land, in live stock and in dairying.
In 1901 the formation of the Agricultural Organization Society marked the first systematic attempt to organize co-operation among the farmers of Great Britain.
The Light Railways Act and the Locomotives on Highways Act were added to the statute book in 1896, and various clauses in the Finance Act effected reforms in respect of the death duties, the land-tax, farmers' income-tax and the beer duty.
per quarter, and farmers naturally shrank from seeding the land freely with a crop which could not be grown except at a heavy loss.
The figures for cereals are important, as they indicate that it is the farmers of England who are the chief sufferers through the diminishing prices of corn; and particularly is this true of East Anglia, where corn-growing is more largely pursued than in anyother part of the Table Vi.
Galway); while lectures are given at farmers' meetings by 1 This sum was furnished out of a total of £693,851, forming the residue grant allocated for the purposes of education to the various county councils of England and Wales under the Local Taxation (customs and Excise) Act 1890.
Among the early writings, besides the book of Curtis, there may also be mentioned a still useful little publication by Pohl and Kollar, entitled Insects Injurious to Gardeners, Foresters and Farmers, published in 1837, and Taschenberg's Praktische Insecktenkunde.
set up inflammation, and cause immense loss to farmers, herdsmen and butchers.
For two years he acted as manager of his father's bank, and in 1830 was inducted to his first charge, Arbirlot, in Forfarshire, where he adopted a vivid dramatic style of preaching adapted to his congregation of peasants, farmers and weavers.
In contrast with the farmers of the 'sixties, the southern planter of the 10th century appreciates the value of his cotton seed, and farmers, too remote from the mills to get it pressed, now feed to their stock all the cotton seed they conveniently can, and use the residue either in compost or directly as manure.
Now, however, ginning is a distinct business, and one gin willserve on an average about thirty farmers.
Moveable gins were tried for a time in some places; they were dragged by traction engines from farm to farm, like threshing machines in parts of England, but the plan proved uneconomical because, among other reasons, farmers were not prepared to meet the cost of providing facilities for storing their cotton.
A few years later, in 1836-1837, large parties of emigrant Boers settled north of the Orange, and before long disputes arose between them and Moshesh, who claimed a great part of the land on which the white farmers had settled.
Warden led against the Basuto a commando composed of British soldiers, farmers and a native contingent.
This commando was defeated at Viervoet, near Thaba Nchu, by the Basuto, who thereafter raided and plundered the natives opposed to them and the farmers who had helped the British.
Fourteen months later (February 1854) Great Britain renounced sovereignty over the farmers settled beyond the Orange, and Moshesh found himself face to face with the newly constituted Free State.
Irrigation, introduced in 1888 by the orange growers, has been adapted by other farmers, especially the tobacco-growers of Gadsden county, and so the evil effects of the droughts, so common from February to June, are avoided.
The Thompson family had been settled in New England since the middle of the previous century, and belonged to the class of moderately wealthy farmers.
In New Zealand and Australia rabbits, introduced either for profit or sport, have increased to such an extent as to form one of the most serious pests that the farmers have to contend against, as the climate and soil suit them perfectly and their natural enemies are too few and too lowly organized to keep them within reasonable bounds.
The decree required all farmers and corn-dealers to declare the quantity of corn in their possession and to sell it only in recognized markets.
owners, part owners, owners and tenants, and managers) fell from 64.8 to 42.1% from 1880 to 1900, and the percentage operated by cash tenants increased from 13.8 in 1880 to 24.9 in 1900, and by share tenants from 21.5 in 1880 to 33 o in 190o; the percentage of farms operated by white farmers was 49.8 in 1900.
Its hold upon the delta region is, however, almost unchallenged, especially since the rice farmers have found in the prairie lands that excel the delta for their purposes.
Since that time select Japanese species, chosen for superior milling qualities, have been widely introduced, as the market prejudice in favour of head rice made the large percentage of broken rice a heavy handicap to the farmers.
Machinery was lent to the farmers, and free grants of seed were made.
£T30,270,246 370,520 883,160 550,180 from the farmers, who, on the other hand, are entitled to full official assistance to enforce their rights.
They were therefore naturally open to bribery and corruption, with the result that, while the rich often got off almost scot free, the poor were unduly taxed, and often cruelly oppressed by the tax collectors and farmers of revenue.
The Act of 1872 provided for five or more colleges or departments: a college of science, literature and the arts, which offers (for the degree of Bachelor of Arts) a four-years course, is entirely elective (except that a certain number of " long courses " must be selected) after the first year, and in which the only restriction is upon the range of subjects from which the student's choice may be made; a college of agriculture (including military tactics), which is now a " department," including a college and a school of agriculture, a short course for farmers, a dairy school, the Crookston school of agriculture, a main experiment station at St Anthony Park, between Minneapolis and St Paul, and sub-stations 1 m.
These are chiefly farmers.
The Egbas are enthusiastic farmers and have largely adopted European methods of cultivation.
The business of the town is chiefly connected with the interests of the sheep and cattle farmers of the Riverina district, a plain country, in the main pastoral, but suited in some parts for cultivation.
During the winter of 1916-7 these volunteers experienced heav y losses; after the Russian revolution in March 1917, Bolshevik sympathies spread among these troops and large sections of the people, while on the other hand national aspirations united the Farmers' Political League (40,000 members), headed by K.
This is universally grown by the natives and forms their staple food; it is also grown by the Indians, and by the white farmers for export.
While maize thrives in every part of the country, wheat, barley and oats - cultivated by the white farmers - flourish only in the midlands and uplands.
The farmers soon began to recover from their losses, but in1908-1909another serious loss of stock resulted from the ravages of East Coast fever.
By means of an Agricultural Bank it affords assistance to farmers.
The merchants, however, despatched an expedition under Dr Andrew Smith to inquire into the possibilities of the country, and the favourable nature of his report induced a party of Dutch farmers under Piet Uys to go thither also.
It was not until their hand was forced by the occupation of the interior by Dutch farmers that the Cape authorities at length intervened.
He went thence to Dingaan's kraal with the object of securing a formal cession of territory to the Dutch farmers.
The Boers had firearms, the Zulus their assegais only, and after a three hours' fight the Zulus were totally defeated, losing thousands killed, while the farmers' casualties were under 1 Captain Allen Francis Gardiner (1 79418 5 1) left Natal in 1838, subsequently devoting himself to missionary work in South America, being known as the missionary to Patagonia.
The emigrant farmers had, with the assent of the few remaining Englishmen at Port Natal, in May 1838 issued a proclamation taking possession of the port.
Sir George, being without definite instructions from England, could give no decisive answer, but he was friendly disposed to the Natal farmers.
Having at length received an intimation from London that the queen " could not acknowledge the independence of her own subjects, but that the trade of the emigrant farmers would be placed on the same footing as that of any other British settlement, upon their receiving a military force to exclude the interference 1 Commonly called the Republic of Natalia or Natal.
Napier, therefore, on the 2nd of December 1841, issued a proclamation in which he stated that in consequence of the emigrant farmers refusing to be treated as British subjects and of their attitude towards the Kaffir tribes he intended resuming military occupation of Port Natal.
In this minute the farmers ascribed all their troubles to one cause, namely, the absence of a representative government, which had been repeatedly asked for by them while still living in Cape Colony and as often denied or delayed, and concluded by a protest against the occupation of any part of their territory by British troops.
Ohrig, an Amsterdam merchant who sympathized warmly with the cause of the emigrant farmers, reached port Natal, and its supercargo, J.
The new administration found it hard to please the Dutch farmers, who among other grievances resented what they considered the undue favour shown to the Kaffirs, whose numbers had been greatly augmented by the flight of refugees from Panda.
Sir Harry Smith, newly appointed governor of the Cape, met, on the banks of the upper Tugela, a body of farmers preparing to recross the Drakensberg, and by remedying their grievances induced many of them to remain in Natal.
This proved one of the most momentous steps taken in the history of South Africa, for the Indian population rapidly increased, the " free " Indians becoming market gardeners, farmers, hawkers, traders, and in time serious competitors with the whites.
the great sun which shines and burns) in 1848 at the foot of the Drakensberg with the object of preventing the Bushmen who dwelt in the mountains plundering the upland farmers.
Cloete, Emigration of the Dutch Farmers from the Cape and their Settlement in Natal ...
His labours were as various as they were incessant - now guiding the councils of the league, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural districts and challenging the landlords to meet him in the presence of their own farmers, to discuss the question in dispute, and now encountering the Chartists, led by Feargus O'Connor.
He regulated and simplified the whole system of taxation, encouraged agriculture by differential duties in favour of the farmers, and promoted trade by a systematic improvement of the ways of communication.
The Dutch, as their usual designation, Boers, implies, are mainly farmers and stock-raisers and are still predominant elsewhere than in the Witwatersrand and Pretoria districts.
Coal appears to have been first discovered in the neighbourhood of Bronkhorst Spruit between the Wilge and Olifants rivers, where it was so near the surface that farmers dug it up for their own use.
The chief occupation of the majority of the white farmers is stock-raising.
Among the high veld farmers the breeding of merino sheep is very popular.
Many regions suffer permanently from deficient rainfall; in others, owing to the absence of irrigation works, the water supply is lost, while the burning of the grass at the end of summer, a practice adopted by many farmers, tends to impoverish the soil and render it arid.
Since 1906 an important trade has also arisen in the raising of mealies for export by white farmers.
Meantime, in 1836, another party of farmers under Andries Hendrik Potgieter had established their headquarters on the banks of the Vet river.
Potgieter, after the flight of the Matabele, issued a proclamation in which he declared the country which Mosilikatze had abandoned forfeited to the emigrant farmers.
After the Matabele peril had been removed, many farmers trekked across the Vaal and occupied parts of the district left derelict.
Jealous, however, of the preference shown by the Dutch farmers in Natal to another commandant (Gert Maritz), Potgieter speedily recrossed the Drakensberg, and in November 1838 he and his followers settled by the banks of the Mooi river, founding a town named Potchefstroom in honour of Potgieter.
Potgieter settled in the Zoutpansberg, while other farmers chose as headquarters a place on the inner slopes of the Drakensberg, where they founded a village called Andries Ohrigstad.
Sechele was regarded by the Boers as owing them allegiance, and in August 1852 Pretorius sent against him a commando (in which Paul Kruger served as a field cornet), alleging that the Bakwena were harbouring a Bakatla chief who had looted cattle belonging to Boer farmers.
There was little fighting, but the commando carried off between two and three hundred native women and children - some of whom were redeemed by their friends, and some escaped, while many of the children were apprenticed to farmers.
Natives were openly transferred from one Boer to another, and the fact that they were described as apprentices by the farmers did not in the least alter the status of the native, who to all intents and purposes became the property of his master.
In this same year the farmers of the Zoutpansberg district were driven into laagers by a native rising which they were unable to suppress.
The award, admittedly just on the evidence before Keate, placed, however, outside the territory of the republic the Bloemhof district, in which district Boer farmers were settled, and over which the Pretoria government had for some years exercised jurisdiction.
On the north side of the lake the land rises gradually from the shore, and spreads out into broad plains, which are thickly settled by farmers.
With the exception of the townships and a district of Emtonjaneni magistracy known as " Proviso B," 1 mainly occupied by Boer farmers, all the land was vested in the crown and very little has been parted with to Europeans.
Operating in open country, mounted on horseback, and with rifles in their hands, the Boer farmers were able to inflict fearful losses on their enemy, while their own casualties were few.
According to evidence brought forward later by the Boers, Cetywayo offered the farmers a strip of land along the border if they would surrender his brother.
The sap is purified and concentrated in a simple manner, the whole work being carried on by farmers, who themselves use much of the product for domestic and culinary purposes.
The weight per acre, the saccharine contents of the juice, and the quotient of purity compared favourably with the best results obtained in Germany or France, and with those achieved by the Suffolk farmers, who between 1868 and 1872 supplied Mr Duncan's beetroot sugar factory at Lavenham; for the weight of their roots rarely reached 15 tons per acre, and the percentage of sugar in the juice appears to have varied between 10 and 12.
Even in the soils which farmers speak of as stiff clays it is rarely present to the extent of more than I or 2%.
That the fertility of land used for the growth of wheat is improved by growing upon it a crop of beans or clover has been long recognized by farmers.
of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin, No.
The town's inhabitants are farmers, and rice is the principal crop. Pangasinan and Ilocano are the languages spoken.
Their food consists of minute animal and vegetable organisms, (Redrawn by permission from Farmers Bulletin 155, Bureau of Ent., U.S. Dept.
It was a farmers son named OkyO, trained in his youth to paint in the Chinese manner, who was first bold enough to adopt as a canon what his predecessors had only admitted under rare exceptions, the principle of an exact imitation of nature.
Some of the eagles feathers, blown to his side, suggest the death of the bird; at his feet lies the corpse of the little boy, and the horror, grief and anger that such a tragedy would inspire are depicted with striking realism in the farmers face.
Such is the effect of this combination of agricultural occupations with domestic manufactures that the farmers are more than competent to supply the resident population of the county with vegetable, though not with animal food; and some of the less crowded and less productive parts of Ulster receive from Armagh a considerable supply of oats, barley and flour.
In December 1890 it was the meeting-place of the National Convention of the Farmers' Alliance, which promulgated a statement of political principles generally known as the "Ocala Platform."
(See FARMERS' MOVEMENT.)
in question before the war 40% belonged to the large estate owners, to% to the Government and the churches, 50% to the farmers.
There is no state railway commission, and the farmers of southern Delaware have suffered from excessive freight rates.
being operated by white farmers.
Formerly farmers' daughters of native stock were much employed in factories; but since operatives of foreign birth or parentage have in great part 1 The population of the state was 378,787 in 1790; 422,845 in 1800; 472,040 in 1810; 523,287 in 1820; 610,408 in 1830; 737,699 in 18 4 0; 994,5 1 4 in 1850; 1,231,066 in 1860; 1,457,351 in 1870; 1,783,085 in 1880; 2,238,943 in 1890; and 2,805,346 in 1900.
The members of the first group of settlers in these colonies were mostly small farmers, belonged to the same church, and dwelt in a village for protection from the Indians.
But the bulk of the inhabitants of the Spanish possessions were of pure or mixed Indian blood, and many Indians were prosperous as traders, manufacturers, farmers and artisans.
But the tendency was towards "Independency," and the New Englanders were farmers tilling their own land, traders and seafaring men.
Their colonists were not farmers but trappers, woodrangers, coureurs du bois, who married Indian women, and formed a mixed race known as the bois brutes.
In general the small shop-keepers, small farmers, sailors, poor traders and artisans were arrayed against the patroons, rich fur-traders, merchants, lawyers and crown officers.
The census of agriculture is also liable to a wide margin of error, owing to defects in farm accounts and the inability of many farmers to state the amount or the value even of the leading crops.
The census figures relate to the calendar year preceding 1st June 1900, and hurried and careless answers about the preceding year's crop are almost sure to have been given by many farmers in the midst of the summer's work.
Bauer), a name given to the Dutch farmers of South Africa, and especially to the Dutch population of the Transvaal and Orange River States.
The government has aided immigrant farmers and farm labourers having a certain sum of money, also female domestics, by paying part of their passage money.
Though not yet quite equal in importance to wool or frozen meat, dairy-farming is almost entirely carried on by small farmers and their families, who supply milk to factories.
Most of these are co-operative, their shareholders being the farmers themselves.
A land-tax imposed by his government helped to alarm the farmers.
In 1894 was passed the Advances to Settlers Act, under which state money-lending to farmers on mortgage of freehold or leasehold land was at once begun.
The party headed by Ballance, Seddon and Ward held office without a break for more than seventeen years, a result mainly due to the general support given to its agrarian and labour policy by the smaller farmers and the working classes.
They are increasing somewhat faster than the Germans, and the efforts of the colonization commission have done little to promote the immigration of German farmers.
Personal property is exempt from execution or attachment as follows: all wearing apparel of every person and family; private libraries to the value of $500; all family pictures; household goods to the value of $500; certain domestic animals or $250 worth of other property chosen instead; firearms kept for the use of a person or family; certain articles (within specified values) necessary to the occupations of farmers, physicians, and other professional men, teamsters, lightermen, &c., and the proceeds of all life and accident insurance.
The immigrant farmers ruthlessly shot down game of all kinds and most of the animals named were exterminated, so far as the province was concerned.
The Basuto were already a strong force when the first white settlers, Dutch farmers from the Cape, entered the country in 1824; the white element has since been reinforced by a considerable strain of British, particularly Scottish, blood.
The light Cape cart is largely used, and the wagon, drawn by a team of oxen, is still employed by farmers to bring their produce to market.
A government Department of Agriculture, created in 1904, affords help to the farmers in various ways, notably in combatting insect plagues, in experimental farms, and in improving the breed of horses, sheep and cattle.
In 1824 Dutch farmers from Cape Colony seeking pasture for their flocks settled in the country.
Potgieter, who concluded an agreement with Makwana, the chief of the Bataung tribe of Bechuanas, ceding to the farmers the country between the Vet and Vaal rivers.
During their stay there they had inflicted a severe defeat on the Zulus under Dingaan (December 1838), an event which, following on the flight of Mosilikatze, greatly strengthened the position of Moshesh, whose power became a menace to that of the emigrant farmers.
Many of the white farmers in this district, unlike their fellows dwelling farther north, were willing to accept British rule, and this fact induced Mr Justice Menzies, one of the judges of Cape Colony then on circuit at Colesberg, to cross the Orange and proclaim (October 1842) the country British territory, a proclamation disallowed by the governor, Sir George Napier, who, nevertheless, maintained that the emigrant farmers were still British subjects.
The majority of the white farmers in Kok's territory sent a deputation to the British commissioner in Natal, Henry Cloete, asking for equal treatment with the Griquas, and expressing the desire to come on such terms, under British protection.
Shortly afterwards hostilities between the farmers and the Griquas broke out.
Many of the farmers deserted Winburg for the Transvaal.
There were among them numbers of farmers and tradesmen of British blood.
Money flowed into the pockets of the farmers.
But even where dry farming was successful, the increase of crops made possible by cheap irrigation seemed to be inducing farmers to abandon it.
Saxony owes its unusual wealth in fruit partly to the care of the elector Augustus I., who is said never to have stirred abroad without fruit seeds for distribution among the peasants and farmers.
Railway communications are practically monopolized by the South Eastern & Chatham Company, a monopoly which has not infrequently been the cause of complaint on the part of farmers, traders and others.
Of all the inhabitants of the state, at least tenears old, who in 1900 were engaged in gainful occupations, 20.8% were farmers.
In the south-east farmers are often compelled to retire with their flocks and herds before the thousands of huge, migratory vampires, which descend suddenly on the pastures and are able in one night to bleed the strongest animal to death.
The number of farms increased from 74,777 in 1850 to 166,453 in 1880 and to 234,667 in 1900; and their average size decreased from 226'7 acres in 1850 to 129'1 acres in 1880 and to 93'7 acres in 1900, these changes being largely due to the breaking up of slave estates, the introduction of a considerable number of negro farmers, and the increased cultivation of tobacco and market-garden produce.
The high price received by the hill growers of the Burley induced farmers in the Blue Grass to plant Burley tobacco there, where the crop proved a great success, more than twice as much (sometimes 2000 lb) being grown to the acre in the Blue Grass as in the hills and twice as large patches being easily managed.
There was the same political rivalry between the slave-holding farmers of the Blue Grass Region and the " poor whites " of the mountain districts that there was in Virginia between the tide-water planters and the mountaineers.
Between these extremes were the small farmers of the" Barrens" 2 in Kentucky and of the Piedmont Region in Virginia.
Farms in the more sterile parts of New Hampshire were abandoned when the depleted soil and the old methods of agriculture made it impossible for owners or tenants to compete with western farmers.
Many farmers abandoned their sterile farms and made new homes in the West, where soil yielded larger returns for labour, and a foreign-born population, consisting largely of French Canadians, came to the cities in response to the demand for labour in the mills and factories.
Along the transition belt between plains and prairies the climate is peculiarly trying as to rainfall; one series of five or ten years may have sufficient rainfall to enable the farmers to gather good crops; but the next series following may be so dry that the crops fail year after year.
By assisting his superior in his efforts to protect the provincials from the extortions of the publicani, or farmers of taxes, Rufus incurred the hatred of the equestrian order, to which the publicani belonged.
Between 1891 and 1901 the number of farmers in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces decreased, and there seemed a prospect of the country being divided into a manufacturing east and an agricultural west, but latterly large tracts in northern Ontario and Quebec have proved suitable for cultivation and are being opened up.
Those of Ontario, numbering about 20,000, are more civilized than those of the west, many of them being good farmers.
After the raising of the duty on barley under the McKinley and Dingley tariffs that trade was practically destroyed and Canadian farmers were obliged to find other uses for this crop. Owing to the development of the trade with the mother-country in dairying and meat products, barley as a home feeding material has become more indispensable than ever.
The French-Canadian cattle are highly esteemed in eastern Canada, especially by the farmers of the French provinces.
Bacon with an excess of fat is not wanted, except in the lumber camps; consequently the farmers of Canada have cultivated a class of swine for bacon having plenty of lean and firm flesh.
The industry is largely carried on by co-operative associations of farmers.
Seeds are tested in the laboratory for purity and germination on behalf of farmers and seed merchants, and scientific investigations relating to seeds are conducted and reported upon.
Experimental farms were established in 1887 in different parts of the Dominion, and were so located as to render efficient help to the farmers in the more thickly settled districts, and at the same time to cover the varied climatic and other conditions which influence agriculture in Canada.
One of the four branch farms then established is at Nappan, Nova Scotia, near the boundary between that province and New Brunswick, where it serves the farmers of the three maritime provinces.
Experiments are also conducted to test the merits of new or untried varieties of cereals and other field crops, of grasses, forage plants, fruits, vegetables, plants and trees; and samples, particularly of the most promising cereals, are distributed freely among farmers for trial, so that those which promise to be most profitable may be rapidly brought into general cultivation.
Farmers are invited to visit these experimental farms, and a large correspondence is conducted with those interested in agriculture in all parts of the Dominion, who are encouraged to ask advice and information from the officers of the farms.
Among other provincial agencies for Agri imparting information there are farmers' institutes, cultural travelling dairies, live-stock associations, farmers', dairymen's, seed-growers', and fruit-growers' associa- tions tions, and agricultural and horticultural societies.
Parts of the proceedings and many of the addresses and papers presented at the more important meetings of these associations are published by the provincial governments, and distributed free to farmers who desire to have them.
The agricultural college at Guelph and the experimental farms maintained by the federal government give excellent training and scientific assistance to farmers.
The farmers of the United States have now to meet a greatly increased output from Canada-the cost of transport from that country to England being much the same as from the United States.
The system came into existence in isolated communities through the connivance of justices of the peace with white farmers.
On the 19th of April 1775 the British columns returning from Concord were harassed by the farmers here, as in the other towns along the line of march.
The cause of this extensive cultivation of cotton is not a high average yield per acre, but the fact that before 1860 " Cotton was King," and that the market value of the staple when the Civil War closed was so high that farmers began to cultivate it to the exclusion of the cereals, whose production, Indian corn excepted,.
The largest class of depositors are the farmers, who more and more look to the banks for credit, instead of to the merchants and cotton speculators.
In East Tennessee most of the people were small farmers, while West Tennessee was a land of great slave plantations.
By his father's side, who followed the occupation of a tanner, he was descended from a family long known in the district, and the purity of whose Scottish lineage had been tinged by alliance with French Protestant refugees; but it was from his mother's race, the Lowthers, farmers or small proprietors in Annandale, that he seems to have derived the most distinctive features of his personality.
The inhabitants were plainly as various - a few of them great nobles and wealthy landowners, others small farmers or possibly bailiffs.
The Pennsylvania state college at State College, Center county, was established in 1855 as the farmers' high school of Pennsylvania, in 1862 became the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, and received its present name in 1874 after the income from the national land grant had been appropriated to the use of the institutions; in1909-1910it had 147 instructors, 1400 students and a library of 37,000 volumes.
Upon inquiry of the farmers he found that all the white pigs born in a litter were destroyed, because they could not be reared to maturity.
In Devonshire and in parts of Kent the farmers entertain a marked prejudice against white pigs, because "the sun blisters their skin."
Where iron ore was found, the local smith, the Waldschmied, converted it with the charcoal of the surrounding forest into the wrought iron which he worked up. Many farmers had their own little forges or smithies to supply the iron for their tools.
About 1682 the "Ten Farmers" established a free school.
Only a limited number were considered as permanent farmers, while nearly one-half of them became mere proletaires.
As already indicated above, certain lands are exempt from payment of tithes while in the occupation of their owners, either by reason of their having been parcel of the possessions of any privileged order, or by reason of their being of the tenure of ancient demesne and exempt whilst in the tenure, occupation or manurance of the Crown, its tenants, farmers and lessees or under-tenants, although they are subject to tithes when aliened or occupied by subjects not being such; and in these and in all such cases, with the consent of such owners, a fixed rent charge may be substituted for any contingent rent charge imposed on them (2 & 3 Vict.
It is the possession of these two properties that imparts to the Nile a value quite unique among rivers, and gives to the farmers of the Nile Valley advantages over those of any rain-watered land in the world.
The construction of irrigation canals and ditches was for the most part brought about by farmers joining to plough out or dig ditches from the rivers, descending on a gentle grade.
The rocky hills of the tableland to the north long repelled settlement, the region being looked on by the thrifty farmers of the south as a wilderness useless except for its forests and its furs; and unfortunate settlers who ventured into it usually failed and went west or south in search of better land.
Ontario is thus pre-eminently an agricultural province, though the growth of manufactures has increased the importance of the towns and cities, and many of the farmers are seeking new homes in the provinces of Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Much splendid timber has been needlessly destroyed, chiefly by forest-fires, but also by improvident farmers in their haste to clear the land.
Geese and ducks of different sorts were bred in countless numbers by the farmers, also pigeons and quails, and in the early ages cranes.
The stock also might be similarly held, or might belong to the farmers.
The independent tenure of the land by a vast number of small farmers, who are their own masters, gives an air of carelessness, almost of truculence, to the well-to-do Danish peasants.
shows the number of live stock in 1905, with the average for the period 1871-1875, and illustrates the extent to which farmers have turned their attention to stock in preference to crops.
Beneath the freeholders and noblesse were free tenants, farmers paying rents, mainly in kind, and in services of labour and of war.
The followers of these two men, and of their successor, Renwick, who later was hanged, became the armed and organized " Societies," a large force of yeomen and farmers in south-western Scotland, usually styled Cameronians.
Horses must be fed; the wages of grooms and helpers be paid; saddlery, clothing, shoeing, &c., are items; farmers, innkeepers, railway companies, fly-men and innumerable others benefit more or less directly.
It preys upon the smaller animals and inflicts much loss upon stock farmers through the destruction of calves, lambs, &c., but it very rarely ventures to attack man or any of the larger animals.
Important influences in the agricultural development of the state have been the formation of Farmers' Institutes, organized in 1895, a Corn Breeders' Association in 1898, and the introduction of fertilizers, the use of which in 1899 was nearly seven times the amount in 1889, and the study of soils, carried on by the State Department of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture.
Both cotton and coffee were largely cultivated by native farmers as well as by the European planters.
They are farmers and fishermen.
The extreme to which he carried his advocacy of diplomatic isolation, his opposition to the creation of an adequate navy, 4 his estimate of cities as "sores upon the body politic," his prejudice against manufactures, trust in farmers, and political distrust of the artisan class, all reflect them.
Sober and industrious, good farmers and skilful artisans, they scarcely ever had recourse to a lawsuit, and lived peaceably under their native chiefs.
Zamindars, or government farmers, whose office always tended to become hereditary, were recognized as having a right of some sort to collect the revenue from the actual cultivators.
The native farmers are lazy and slow to appreciate the advantages of the methods recommended by the Americans.
Among the wildest of them head-hunting is still a common practice; but the majority are industrious farmers laying out their fields on artificial terraces and constructing irrigation canals with remarkable skill.
Magnificent red bulls are bred by the farmers for ploughing and other farming operations, and for the transport of goods.
The farmers put the average yield of rice at thirty-fold, and of other grain at twenty-fold.
The emigrants were very kindly received, and many of them became thrifty and prosperous farmers.
The first settlement within the present limits of Brooklyn was made in 1636, when some Dutch farmers took up their residence along the shore of Gowanus Bay.
About the same time other Dutch farmers founded Flatlands (at first called Amersfoort), on Jamaica Bay, and a few Walloons founded Wallabout, where the navy yard now is.
The rapidity of the movement has not been exceptional in Arkansas, but the size of its average farm, less in 1850 than that of the other cotton states, was in 1900, 93.1 acres (108.8 for white farmers alone, 49 o for blacks alone), which was even less than that of the North Atlantic states (96.5 acres, the smallest sectional unit of the Union).
In actual numbers the white farmers heavily predominate, whether as owners, tenants for cash or tenants on shares; but if we look at the numbers within each race holding by these respective tenures (65.
Local militia, protecting none who refused to join in the common defence, and all serving " not as soldiers but as farmers mutually pledged to protect each other from the depredations of outlaws who infest the state," strove to secure such public order as was necessary to the gathering of crops, so as "to prevent the starvation of the citizens" (governor's circular, 1865).
His ancestry was mingled English and Holland Dutch, and had flourished upon Long Island more than 150 years - long enough to have taken deep root in the soil and to have developed, in its farmers and seafaring men, many strong family traits.
For many years the mining interests were supreme, and agriculture, even after it had become of great importance, was invariably worsted when the two clashed; but in 1884 the long and bitter " anti-debris " or " anti-slickins " fight ended in favour of the farmers.
The Indians had again attacked the border farmers, and the governor had refused assistance, being willing, it was generally believed, that the border population should suffer while he and his adherents enjoyed a lucrative fur trade with the Indians.
The great majority of whites were small farmers whose condition was anything but desirable and who constantly encroached upon the Indian lands in the Rappahannock region or penetrated the forests south of the James, several thousand having reached North Carolina.
This first West, made up of the older small farmers, of the Scottish settlers, of the Germans from the Palatinate and the Scottish-Irish, far outnumbering the people of the old counties, demanded the creation of new counties and proportionate representation in the Burgesses.
The result was failure, for the democracy of small farmers which would have taxed slavery out of existence was denied proportionate representation.
Since then oidium has reappeared from time to time, but the remedy of spraying with finely divided sulphur, which was discovered at the time of the epidemic, has enabled the wine farmers to keep it under.
At one time the position appeared to be desperate, particularly in view of the fact that the farmers refused to believe that the trouble was due to anything other than the continuous drought of successive dry seasons, but at the present time, after much expenditure of energy and capital, the condition of affairs is once more fairly satisfactory.
Bishop Heber described them as follows: - "The country is burdened with a crowd of lazy, profligate, self-called sawars (cavaliers), who, though many of them are not worth a rupee, conceive it derogatory to their gentility and Pathan blood to apply themselves to any honest industry, and obtain for the most part a precarious livelihood by sponging on the industrious tradesmen and farmers, on whom they levy a sort of blackmail, or as hangers-on to the wealthy and noble families yet remaining in the province.
During the warmer months, however, the mountain sides are richly clothed with the foliage of maple, mountain ash, apple, pear and walnut trees; the orchards furnish, not only apples and pears, but peaches, cherries, mulberries and apricots; and the farmers grow sufficient corn to export.
In the course of two or three centuries the small free farmers were utterly destroyed.
The greater part of the land has always been held by small independent farmers (only about 15% of the farms are worked by tenants), but until late in the 18th century a curious method of parcelling the land resulted in each man's property consisting of a number of detached plots or strips, the divisions often becoming so minute that dissension was inevitable.
affected the Swedish farmers, protection gained ground to such an extent that its final triumph was considered as certain within a short time.
Besides these garments there are others: the long jubba, or cloth cloak, worn by mirzas (secretaries), government employs of high rank, as ministers, farmers of taxes, courtiers, physicians, priests; the abba, or camel-hair cloak of the Arab, worn by travellers, priests and horsemen; the pustin, or Afghan skincloak, used by travellers and the sick or aged; the nimtan, or common sheepskin jacket, with short sleeves, used by shopkeepers and the lower class of servants, grooms, &c., in winter; the yapanjah, or woollen Kurdish cloak, a kind of felt, having a shaggy side, of immense thickness, worn generally by shepherds, who use it as greatcoat, bed and bedding.
When the steamers were ready to do the work they had been intended for, the farmer, or farmers, of the Gulf customs raised difficulties and objected to pay the cost of maintaining the Persepolis; the governor of Muhamrah would not allow any interference with what he considered his hereditary rights of the shipping monopoly on the Karun, and the objects for which the steamers had been brought were not attained.
Among them were cadets of old families, retired officers, professional men, farmers, tradesmen, mechanics and labourers.
This money was only made payable in London, and the farmers were compelled to sell their claims for compensation to agents, who frequently paid a merely nominal price for them.
In many instances farmers were unable to obtain native labour for a considerable time after the emancipation, and in several cases ruin was the result.
They not only endeavoured to protect and guide the natives beyond the colonial border, but among the Hottentots within the colony they instilled notions of antipathy to the white farmers, and withdrew large numbers of them from agricultural pursuits.
They have (besides their purely spiritual work) opposed the sale of alcohol, denounced inhumanity from the farmers, encouraged the natives to labour and taught them mechanical arts.
These four points correspond to the " three great grievances " under which the farmers suffered, enumerated by Cloete as (1) The Hottentot Question (i.e.
Enough has already been said as to the relations between the missionaries, the Boer farmers and the Hottentots; this grievance, however, " proved quite secondary to the intensity of feeling with which the colonists saw the steps taken by the government to deprive them of that labour (slave labour) over which they claimed an unquestionable right of property."
Moreover, though the farmers might leave British territory they were still held to be liable to the jurisdiction of British courts.
The request was refused, and not long afterwards (1837) some of the Dutch emigrant farmers under Retief entered the country by way of the Drakensberg.
Land left derelict was occupied by colonial farmers, and over 2000 German immigrants were introduced by Sir George and settled along the frontier (1858-1859).
In the following year the Farmers' Protection Association was amalgamated with the Bond, and the joint organization fell under the control of J.
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