Our families have fought side by side for over fifty years.
Within are some admirable specimens of encaustic tiles, and several monuments of the Vernon and Manners families; while an ancient runic roodstone stands in the churchyard.
We took the car on vacation and our two families had a great time.
The enigmatic Tim's request for a favor was readily granted after three generations of both their families working together towards the PMF's goals of national unity.
Betsy located the families Howie saw in our last session.
When there were two mothers, the two families shared equally in the father's estate until later times when the first family took twothirds.
A single case of homicide often leads to a series of similar crimes or to protracted warfare between neighbouring families and communities; the murderer, as a rule, takes refuge in the mountains from the avenger of blood, or remains for years shut up in his house.
They knew, even if they survived, returning to their families would be unfeasible.
"I need to tell their families," she murmured.
The accuracy and the paraphernalia are equally exemplified in all Wagner's additions and alterations of the classical orchestral scheme, for these all consist in completing the families of instruments so that each timbre can be presented pure in complete harmony.
In 1880 he published his novel Haablose Slaegter (" Families without hope"), which at once aroused attention.
What makes families run out?
Who knows but if men constructed their dwellings with their own hands, and provided food for themselves and families simply and honestly enough, the poetic faculty would be universally developed, as birds universally sing when they are so engaged?
The naming of seven members of prominent Roman families, however, reversed the wise policy of his predecessor which had kept the dangerous factions of the city out of the curia.
Couples and families had been walking up and down the beach all day.
"Wait, you're not insisting we marry to unite the two families or something elitist, are you?" she asked.
In the region east of KroIa the Mat tribe, which occupies the upper valley of the Matia, presents an 'entirely different organization; their district is governed by four wealthy families, possessing hereditary rank and influence.
The name was unfamiliar, which meant he was not well connected and not among the families of his advisors.
Such a remnant, amongst whom might be members of the priestly and royal families, would gather strength and boldness as the troubles of Babylon See the note on Ps.
Yes, she's a good dog, gets what she's after, answered Ilagin indifferently, of the red-spotted bitch Erza, for which, a year before, he had given a neighbor three families of house serfs.
She left before anyone could shut her up again in a room, running once she'd closed the door to the hovel the two families shared.
All the Moscow notabilities, all the Rostovs' acquaintances, were at the Razumovskis' chapel, for, as if expecting something to happen, many wealthy families who usually left town for their country estates had not gone away that summer.
Families who owned great houses were able to keep them if they opened them to the public, acted as guides, and only lived in a small part of them.
In 1901, 49,102 families inhabited 48,415 houses, and the proportion of the urban population to the rural was 27.5 to 72.5.
The low shrub oak plateau to which the opposite shore arose stretched away toward the prairies of the West and the steppes of Tartary, affording ample room for all the roving families of men.
She'd taken pity on both men who lost their own families and ended up feeling more than she ever wanted to again.
Hundreds of peasants, among them the Bogucharovo folk, suddenly began selling their cattle and moving in whole families toward the southeast.
Somewhat relieved, she read his biography, impressed by his clientele, who ranged from heads of countries around the world to the richest families on the planet.
They discovered that they had led similar lives, both belonging to families of high standing and wealth.
Their stories circulate around the web and their families make blog posts.
When two-thirds of the priestly families are said to be Zadokites and one-third are of the families of Abiathar, some reconciliation, some adjustment of rivalries, is to be recognized (1 Chron.
El-`Azariyeh is a poor village of about thirty families, with few marks of antiquity; there is no reason to believe that the houses of Mary and Martha and of Simon the Leper, or the sepulchre of Lazarus, still shown by the monks, have any claim to the names they bear.
The final dream produced the names of two families together with time and location.
In 1 533 it was raised to a margraviate by the emperor Charles V., and wds held by various families until in 1799 it passed, through the Sultzbach branch of the Wittelsbachs, to the royal house of Bavaria, by whom it was renounced in favour of the Batavian republic in 1801.
Theoretically, no doubt, this is correct, but the typical members of the two groups are so different from one another that, as a matter of convenience, the retention of the two families seems advisable.
In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
It not only divides states and churches, it divides families; ay, it divides the individual, separating the diabolical in him from the divine.
Time was when this area's families spent their lives here, from birth to death with the soil providing their sustenance and the earth the riches, at least for a few.
Webb, Currencies of the Hindu States of Rajputana (1893); Chiefs and Leading Families of Rajputana (1903); and Rajputana Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1908).
All talk hushed around the tiny table where their families shared their first and last meals of the day.
The population, estimated by James Bruce in 1770 at 10,000 families, had dwindled in 1905 to about 7000.
Families can play trivia games about movies while waiting to be served.
The change of fortune proved disastrous to many families, previously to all appearances in opulent circumstances, but by all classes alike their reverses were borne with the greatest bravery.
The restaurant is casual and suitable for couples, locals and families.
This restaurant is casual, friendly, and great for families.
The trouble was again revived by the repeal in 1790 of the confirming act 2 Several Scotch-Irish families from Lancaster (disambiguation)|Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, accepted Connecticut titles and settled at Hanover under Captain Lazarus Stewart.
An interesting link between divergent marsupial families, still living in Ecuador, the Coenolestes, is another discovery of recent years.
A family or group of families had the same hunting-ground, which was seldom changed, and descended through the males.
When feudal possessions, instead of being purely personal, were vested in the families of the holder after the death of Charlemagne, Tournai was specially assigned to Baldwin of the Iron Arm by [[Charles (disambiguation)|Charles Knights Jousting With Cronells On Tt-Tfir Lances]].
- (Families of instruments are connected by a brace.) Strings: as usual, but subject to minutely complex grouping.
Once Jim extends the invitation, he memorizes all the individuals' names, where they are from, what they do for a living, information about their families, and so forth.
Equally friendly were the great boyar families.
Rienzis revolution in Rome (3471354), and hi~ establishment of a republic upon a fantastic basis, half classical half feudal, proved the temper of the times; while the rise of dynastic families in the cities of the church, claiming the title of papal vicars, but acting in their own interests, Tb weakened the authority of the Holy See.
Because of the vast numbers of families and visitors, the city boasts a large number of museums, restaurants and theaters.
It is also designed for families dedicated to their children.
For those large groups or families who want to stick together, the hotel has connecting staterooms.
Many are geared to families, but there are plenty that maintain a romantic ambiance.
The area's countryside appeal has made it a popular residence for families and retired individuals.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
Kitlas is kid-friendly and the atmosphere is relaxing and quiet, making it ideal for families, friends and romantic dates.
This restaurant is suited for single adults and families with children.
Featuring an affordable price, this restaurant is a great choice for families.
There are several area parks where families can gather for picnics, games and outdoor sports.
This restaurant is an especially ideal option for families and large parties.
Families are welcome and casual dress is preferred at the lodge.
Families should consider sharing the signature appetizer platter, which includes cheese sticks, calamari, and spinach and artichoke dip, before trying a signature sandwiche, soup or burger.
It appears in early times, when Thessaly was mainly governed by a few aristocratic families, as an important city under the rule of the Aleuadae, whose authority extended over the whole district of Pelasgiotis.
The aristocratic Moslem families send their sons to be educated in Constantinople or Vienna.
The merchant families of Iannina are well educated; the dialect spoken in that town is the purest specimen of colloquial Greek.
In 1659 it was bought from the Indians, with the consent of the patroon, by Jan Barentsen Wemp, and several families settled here.
The third descended to the earls of Arundel, falling to the share of the duke of Norfolk in 1415, and being divided in 1502 between the families of Howard and Berkeley.
By the female line, through his children Henry, Bridget and Frances, the Protector has had numerous descendants, and is the ancestor of many well-known families.'
But though comparatively disregarded now, when his day comes, laws unsuspected by most will take effect, and masters of families and rulers will come to him for advice.
Whole families of the Rostovs' and Bolkonskis' relations sometimes came to Bald Hills with sixteen horses and dozens of servants and stayed for months.
Intermarriage (sometimes illicit) was apparently freely used by the dominant families for the concentration of their power.
As the city grew, the right to so many days a year atone or other shrine (or its " gate ") descended in certain families and became a species of property which could be pledged, rented or shared within the family, but not alienated.
The first time, in the forest after they escaped Victor, when they decided they could never return to their families.
She forced herself to recall each of their faces, each of their names, each of their stricken families.
In the skeleton the second and third toes are distinctly more slender than the fourth, showing a tendency towards the character so marked in the following families.
This district was subdivided between the chief heads of families.
The state (law of the 15th of April 1896) imposed this condition in order to determine exactly the aims of the societies, and, while allowing them to give help to their sick, old or feeble members, or aid the families of deceased members, to forbid them to pay old-age pensions, lest they assumed burdens beyond their financial strength.
In addition, the communes have a right to levy a, surtax not exceeding 50% of the quota levied by the state upon lands and buildings; a family tax, or fuocatico, upon the total incomes of families, which, for fiscal purposes, are divided into various categories; a tax based upon the rent-value of houses, and other taxes upon cattle, horses, dogs, carriages and servants; also on licences for shopkeepers, hotel and restaurant keepers, &c.; on the slaughter of animals, stamp duties, one-half of the tax on bicycles, &c. Occasional sources of interest are found in the sale of communal property, the realization of communal credits, and the contraction of debt.
Henceforward ~ Italy changed masters according as one or other of the German families assumed supremacy beyond the Alps.
The elder noble families die out or lose their preponderance~ In some cities, as notably in.
Other communes which stit preserved the shadow of independence, like Perugia and Bologna began once more to dream of republican freedom under theii own leading families.
But these wars were fought for the most part by alien armies; the points at issue were decided beyond the Alps; the gains accrued to royal families whose names were unpronounceable by southern tongues.
Not only the Gonzagas, but several other ancient ducal families, died out about the date which we have reached.
He oIdducai left his domains to a natural relative, Cesare dEste, families, who would in earlier days have inherited without dispute, for bastardy had been no bar on more than one occasion in the Este pedigree.
While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.
At the same time the cabinet, as a whole, brought in a Clerical Abuses Bill, threatening with severe punishment priests guilty of disturbing the peace of families, of opposing the laws of the state, or of fomenting disorder.
The total population of the settlement, consisting of convicts, their guards, the supervising, clerical and departmental staff, with the families of the latter, also a certain number of ex-convicts and trading settlers and their families, numbered 16,106.
It is not even possible in all cases to be certain that the polyp-group corresponds exactly to the medusagroup, especially in minor systematic categories, such as families.
With this reservation we may recognize fifteen wellcharacterized families and others of more doubtful nature.
Margelidae (=medusa-family Margelidae+hydroid families Bougainvillidae, Dicorynidae, Bimeridae and Eudendridae).
Podocorynidae(= medusa-families Thamnostomidae and Cytaeidae +hydroid families Podocorynidae and Hydractiniidae).
Corynidae(=hydroid families Corynidae, Syncorynidae and Cladocorynidae+medusan family Sarsiidae).
(So far as the characters of the trophosome are concerned, the seven preceding families are scarcely distinguishable, and they form After E.
a section apart, contrasting sharply with the families next to be mentioned, in none of which are free medusae liberated from the colony, so that only the characters of the trophosome need be considered.) 8.
families are known: - genus, Millepora (figs.
Hickson considers that the families Milleporidae and Stylasteridae should stand quite apart from one another and should not be united in one order.
The Trachomedusae are divided into the following families: I.
Three families of Narcomedusae are recognized (see O.
The Physalina comprise the families Physalidae and Epibulidae, of which the types are Physalia (figs.
With the surrounding district, known as the barony of Sorau, it became the seat of successive noble families; and in 1400 it was united with the barony of Triebel.
All the Malagasy lemurs, which agree in the structure of the internal ear, are now included in the family Lemuridae, confined to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, which comprises the great majority of the group. The other families are the Nycticebidae, common to tropical Asia and Africa, and the Tarsiidae, restricted to the Malay countries.
On the Scheldt, near the Place Laurent, is the Geerard-duivelsteen (château of Gerard the Devil), a 13th-century tower formerly belonging to one of the patrician families, now restored and used as the office of the provincial records.
the Stele In But, unlike the ferns, there is in the seed-plants no in- s d I ~ ternal phloem (except as a special development in ee pan $~$~ certain families) and no internal endodermis.
In certain families of Angiosperms a peculiar tissue, called laticiferous tissue is met with.
In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.
Irregularity of cambium occurs in various families of woody dicotyledonous plants, mostly among the woody climbers, known as lianes, characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical forests.
The formation of additional cambial cylinders or bands occurs in the most various families of Dicotyledons and in some Gymnosperms. They may arise in the pericycle or endocycle of the stele, in the cortex of the stem, or in the parenchyma of the secondary xylem or phloem.
the orders, families, genera and species.
The former is concerned with the division of the earths surface into major districts characterized by particular plants or taxonomic groups of plants, with the subdivision of these floristic districts, and with the geographical distribution (both past and present) of the various taxonomic units, such as species, genera, and families.
If we take with Drude the number of known families of flowering plants at 240, 92 are generally dispersed, 17 are more restricted, while the remainder are either dominant in or peculiar to separate regions.
If we add to the latter figure the families which are widely dispersed, we find that the tropics possess 161 or almost exactly two-thirds of the large groups comprised in the worlds vegetation.
in point of fact, resemblance is in the main confined to the higher groups, such as families and large genera; the smaller genera and species are entirely different.
Amongst arboreous families Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae are prominent; Hevea belonging to the latter is widely distributed in various species in the Amazon basin, and yields Para and other kinds of rubber.
The resemblances consist, in fact, not so much in the existence of one general facies running through the regions, as is the case with the northern flora, but in the presence of peculiar types, such ai those belonging to the families Restiaceae, Proteaceae, Ericaceae Mutisiaceac and Rutaceae.
The numbers of Jewish families driven out of the country by Torquemada is variously stated from Mariana's 1,700,000 to the more probable 800,000 of later historians.
Longfellow - which was built in1785-1786by General Peleg Wadsworth (1748-1829), a soldier of the War of Independence, a representative in Congress from 1793 to 1807, and the grandfather of the poet; was given by Longfellow's sister, Mrs Anne Longfellow Pierce (1810-1901) to the Maine Historical Society; and contains interesting relics of the Wadsworth and Longfellow families, and especially of the poet himself.
So long as the characters of new fossils are only of specific and generic value, it is mostly possible to assign the birds to their proper place, but when these characters indicate new families or orders, for instance Hesperornithes, Ichthyornithes, Palaelodi, their owners are put outside the more tersely constructed classifications applicable to modern birds.
It is no exaggeration to say that the genus, often even the species, can be determined from almost any recent bone, but in the case of Miocene, and still more, of Eocene fossils, we have often to deal with strange families, which either represent an extinct side branch, or which connect several recent groups with each other.
But it also follows that, if every extinct and recent bird were known, neither species, nor genera, nor families, nor orders could be defined.
The key to the distribution of recent groups lies in that of the extinct forms. Not only have many absolutely new families been discovered, but many kinds of modern birds are now known to have existed also in countries which they are now extinct.
The upper Eocene has yielded many birds, most of which are at least close forerunners of recent genera, the differentiation into the leading orders and families being already well marked, e.g.
to those instances in which the members of families, genera and species are mentioned.
The families are those which are enumerated in Garow's classification.
Other peculiar families are much more confined.
But the positive characteristics of the region as a whole are not its peculiar forms alone; there are at least four families which, being feebly represented elsewhere, here attain the maximum of development.
the Peristeropodes and the Alectoropodes, the former composed of the families Megapodiidae, almost wholly Australian, and the Cracidae, entirely Neotropical.
Of families we find twenty-three, or maybe more, absolutely restricted thereto, besides at least eight which, being peculiar to the New World, extend their range into the Nearctic region, but are there so feebly developed that their origin may be safely ascribed to the southern portion of America.
More or less cosmopolitan groups like herons, Falconidae, Anseres, Columbae, &c., and circumtropical families like Parridae, Trogonidae,.
Though Japan is far removed from western Europe, and though a few generic forms and still fewer families inhabit the one without also frequenting the other, yet there is a most astonishing similarity in a large portion of their respective birds.
The entire number of Palaearctic families are, according to Newton, 67, and of the genera 323.
Of other families which, however, extend their range more or less far into the Australian realm, may be mentioned Otididae, the bustards; Meropidae or bee-eaters; Muscicapidae or flycatchers; Sturnidae or starlings.
Between fifty and sixty so-called families of land birds alone are found within its limits, and of them at least nine are peculiar; the typical genera of which are Buphaga, Euryceros, Philepitta, Musophaga, Irrisor, Leptosoma, Colius, Serpentarius, Struthio, Aepyornis.
Euryceros of the Oscines, and Philepitta of the Clamatores, are remarkable enough to form the types of Passeriform families, and Mesites half-way between Galli and Gruiformes is of prime importance.
The Oriental Subregion comprises all the countries and numerous islands between the Palaearctic and Australian areas; it possesses upwards of seventy families, of which, however, only one is peculiar, but this family, the Eurylaemidae or broadbills, is of great importance since it represents all the Subclamatores.
(2) Oscines, the true singing-birds, with more than 5000 recent species, are mostly divided into some thirty " families," few of which can be defined.
Among English families, the house of Howard has long held the first place.
An act of 1627, one of several such aimed at aggrandizing families by diverting the descent of dignities in fee from heirs general, entailed the earldom and castle of Arundel upon Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey and the heirs male of his body "and for default of such issue, to the heirs of his body."
His policy of living at peace with England and of arranging marriages between the members of the royal families of the two countries did not commend itself to the turbulent section of his nobles; his artistic tastes and lavish expenditure added to the discontent, and a rebellion broke out.
No measures had been taken to supply these voluntary crusaders with food or clothing; as harvest-time approached, the landlords commanded them to return to reap the fields, and on their refusing to do so, proceeded to maltreat their wives and families and set their armed retainers upon the half-starved multitudes.
Nobility thus implies the vesting of some hereditary privilege or advantage in certain families, without deciding in what such privilege or advantage consists.
That is to say, it consisted of the remains of the old patriciate, together with those plebeian families any members of which had been chosen to curule offices.
These were naturally those families which had been patrician in some other Italian city, but which were plebeian at Rome.
The practical result of the Licinian reform was that the great plebeian families became, for all practical purposes, patrician.
The plebs, like the English commons, contained families differing widely in rank and social position, among them those families which, as soon as an artificial barrier broke down, joined with the patricians to form the new older settlement, a nobility which had once been the whole people, was gradually shorn of all exclusive privilege, and driven to share equal rights with a new people which had grown up around it.
The Venetian nobility is an example of a nobility which gradually arose out of the mass of the people as certain families step by step drew all political power into their own hands.
It was, as might be looked for, commonly filled by members of distinguished families, descendants of ancient magistrates, who were already beginning to be looked on as noble.
Some of the great families which were already looked on as noble were not represented in the council at the time of the shutting; of others some branches were represented and others not.
These families and branches of families, however noble they might be in descent, were thus shut out from all the n political privileges of nobility.
The ducal dignity rarely passed out of a circle of specially old and distinguished families.
That is to say, traditional feeling may give the members of certain families a strong preference, to say the least, in election to office.
C. Fox-Davies's Armorial Families (Edinburgh, 1895, and subsequent editions) represents an unhistorical attempt to create the idea of a noblesse in the United Kingdom.
The chin (gula) is a very characteristic stlerite in beetles, absent only in a few families, such as the weevils.
1, A) are of the usual insectan type, but in many families one, two, or even three of the five foot-segments may be reduced or absent.
The most striking feature in the development of beetles is the great diversity noticeable in the outward form of the larva in different families.
Most of the dominant families - such as the Carabidae (ground-beetles), Scarabaeidae (chafers), or Curculionidae (weevils) have a distribution as wide as the order.
But while some large families, such as the Staphylinidae (rove-beetles) are especially abundant on the great northern continents, becoming scarcer in the tropics, others, the Cicindelidae (tiger-beetles), for example, are most strongly represented in the warmer regions of the earth, and become scarce as the collector journeys far to south or north.
Some families are very restricted in their range.
Notes on habit are given below in the accounts of the various families.
Many beetles of different families have become the "unbidden guests" of civilized man, and may be found in dwelling-houses, stores and ships' cargoes, eating food-stuffs, paper, furniture, tobacco and drugs.
Some fly through the air, others burrow in the earth, while several families have become fully adapted to life in fresh water.
A large number of beetles inhabit the deep limestone caves of Europe and North America, while many genera and some whole families are at home nowhere but in ants' nests.
These stridulating organs were mentioned by C. Darwin as probable examples of the action of sexual selection; they are, however, frequently present in both sexes, and in some families also in the larvae.
In a large number of beetles of different families, stridulating areas occur on various segments of the abdomen, and are scraped by the elytra.
It is remarkable that these organs are found in similar positions in genera belonging to widely divergent families, while two genera of the same family may have them in different positions.
And when we know that the Chrysomelidae and Buprestidae also lived in Triassic, and the Carabidae, Elateridae, Cerambycidae and Scarabaeidae, in Liassic times, we cannot doubt that the great majority of our existing families had already been differentiated at the beginning of the Mesozoic epoch.
About eighty-five families are generally recognized; the difficulty that confronts the zoologists is the arrangement of these families in "superfamilies" or "sub-orders."
In the classification adopted in this article, the attempt has been made to combine the best points in old and recent schemes, and to avoid the inconvenience of a large heterogeneous group including the vast majority of the families.
The generalized arrangement of the wing-nervure and the nature of the larva, which is less unlike the adult than in other beetles, distinguish this tribe as primitive, although the perfect insects are, in the more dominant families, distinctly specialized.
Two very small families of aquatic beetles seem to stand at the base of the series, the Amphizoidae, whose larvae are broad and well armoured with FIG.
The metasternum is without the transverse linear impression that is found in most families of Adephaga.
Two or three families may be regarded as aberrant Adephaga.
They may be distinguished from the Malacodermata by the presence of only five or six abdominal sterna, while six malpighian tubes are present in some of the families.
- This is an important tribe of beetles, including families with four malpighian tubes and only five or six abdominal sterna, while in the thorax there is a backwardly directed process of the prosternum that fits into a mesosternal cavity.
A large number of families, distinguished from each other by more or less trivial characters, are included here, and there is considerable diversity in the form of the larvae.
Of the numerous other families of the Clavicornia may be mentioned the Cucujidae and Cryptophagidae, small beetles, examples of which may be found feeding on stored seeds or vegetable refuse, and the Mycetophagidae, which devour fungi.
Considerable diversity is to be noticed in details of structure within this group, and for an enumeration of all the various families which have been proposed and their distinguishing characters the reader is referred to one of the monographs mentioned below.
These belong to the families Rhipidophoridae and Meloidae.
- The families of beetles included by Kolbe in this group are distinguished by the possession of six malpighian tubes, and a great reduction in one or two of the tarsal segments, so that there seem to be only four or three segments in each foot; hence the names Tetramera and Trimera formerly applied to them.
The larvae have soft-skinned bodies sometimes protected by rows of spiny tubercles, the legs being fairly developed in some families and greatly segments to the foot, but there are really five, the fourth being greatly reduced.
In the Erotylidae and a few other small related families the feet are evidently four-segmented.
The ventraPscleriteof the head-skeleton (gula), well developed in most families of beetles, is absent among the Rhynchophora, while the palps of the maxillae are much reduced.
Of the four families included in this group, the Anthribidae (fig.
Among the large number of systematic writers on the order generally, or on special families, may be mentioned D.
Partly owing to this, and partly to ancient feuds whose origin we cannot trace, the Athenian people was split up into three great factions known as the Plain (Pedieis) led by Lycurgus and Miltiades, both of noble families; the Shore (Parali) led by the Alcmaeonidae, represented at this time by Megacles, who was strong in his wealth and by his recent marriage with Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon; the Hill or Upland (Diacreis, Diacrii) led by Peisistratus, who no doubt owed his influence among these hillmen partly to the possession of large estates at Marathon.
The condition was that their families should be allied by the marriage of Peisistratus to Megacles' daughter Coesyra.
the other noble families which remained he exacted 400 hostages whom he put in the care of his ally Lygdamis.
At the same time the Senate interpreted the law so as to exclude all but heads of families actually engaged in farming from the vote for the Duma.
Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
their ancient liberties, he abolished the popular assembly, removed the great bell to Novgorod, installed his own boyars in the administration, transported 300 of the leading families to other localities, replaced them by 300 families from Moscow, and left in the town a strong garrison of his own troops.
It was proposed, therefore; in 1576, that 6000 families should be registered as a militia under a Polish Hetman for the protection of the country against Tatar raids, and that the remainder of the inhabitants should be assimilated to the ordinary peasants of Poland.
Alexius had been twice married and had left several children by each of his wives, and, as generally happened in such cases, a struggle for power ensued between the two rival families.
At first he was under the tutelage of Menshikov, who wished him to marry his daughter, but he soon contrived, with the aid of the Dolgorukis and other old families, to get his imperious tutor arrested and exiled to Siberia.
He was the youngest son of Juan de Jasso, privy councillor to Jean d'Albret, king of Navarre, and his wife, Maria de Azpilcueta y Xavier, sole heiress of two noble Navarrese families.
The "spiritualistic" movement spread like an epidemic. "Spirit circles" were soon formed in many families.
He had been fortunate in obtaining the aid of Don Pascual de Gayangos, then professor of Arabic literature at Madrid, by whose offices he was enabled to obtain material not only from the public archives of Spain but from the muniment rooms of the great Spanish families.
" In London," says he, " I was lost in the crowd; I ranked with the first families in Lausanne, and my style of prudent expense enabled me to maintain a fair balance of reciprocal civilities..
The other masons warned their families, and 1VIanole was forced to sacrifice his own wife.
"The flight of the earls," one of the most celebrated episodes in Irish history, occurred on the 14th of September 1607, when Tyrone and Tyrconnel embarked at midnight at Rathmullen on Lough Swilly, with their wives, families and retainers, numbering ninety-nine persons, and sailed for Spain.
The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.
In these forms, however, the third joint is really a complex, which in many families bears in addition a jointed bristle (arista) or style, representing the terminal joints of the primitive antenna.
Bristles are usually present on the legs, and in the case of many families on the body also; those on the head and thorax are of great importance in classification.
The sexes in Diptera are usually alike, though in a number of families with short antennae the males are distinguished by the fact that their eyes meet together (or nearly so) on the forehead.
Diptera are divided into some sixty families, the exact classification of which has not yet been finally settled.
Within the divisions named - Orthorrhapha Nematocera, Orthorrhapha Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha - the constituent families are usually grouped into a series of "superfamilies," distinguished by features of structure or habit.
Certain extremely aberrant Diptera, which, in consequence of the adoption of a parasitic mode of life, have undergone great structural modification, are further remarkable for their peculiar mode of reproduction, on account of which the families composing the group are often termed Pupipara.
Before leaving the subject of classification it may be noted in passing that in 1906 Professor Lameere, of Brussels, proposed a :scheme for the classification of Diptera which as regards both the limits of the families and their grouping into higher categories, differs considerably from that in current use.
Little light on the relationship and evolution of the various :families of Diptera is afforded by fossil forms, since as a rule the latter are readily referable to existing families.
In amber, as proved by the deposits on the shores of the Baltic, the proverbial "fly" is more numerous than any other creatures, and with very few exceptions representatives of all the existing families have been found.
The famous Tertiary beds :at Florissant, Colorado, have yielded a considerable number, or remarkably well-preserved Tipulidae (in which family are included the most primitive of existing Diptera), as also species belonging to other families, such as Mycetophilidae and even, Oestridae.
Most families and a large proportion of genera are :represented throughout the world, but in some cases (e.g.
The foreign policy of this period brought about the complete isolation of Austria, and the ingratitude towards Russia, as shown during the period of the Crimean War, which has become proverbial, caused a permanent estrangement between the two great Eastern empires and the imperial families.
The members of each group lived on terms of equality, the families forming a society of worship the rites of which were conducted by the head.
Abraham, it was believed, came from Harran (Carrhae), primarily from Babylonia, and Jacob re-enters from Gilead in the north-east with his Aramaean wives and concubines and their families (Benjamin excepted).
A massacre ensued in which the royal families of Israel and Judah perished.
which gives a list of families who returned from exile each to its own city, and (b) in the return of the holy vessels in the time of Cyrus (contrast 1 Esdras iv.
It includes Caleb and Jerahmeel, Kenite or Rechabite families, scribes, &c., and these, as " sons " of Hezron, claim some relationship with Gilead.
Although Judah was always closely connected with the south, these " southern " features (once clearly more extensive and complete) are found in the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations, and their presence in the historical records can hardly be severed from the prominence of " southern " families in the vicinity of Jerusalem, some time after the fall of Jerusalem.
presupposes the desolation after that disaster, and some traces of these families are found in Nehemiah's time; and while the traditions know of a separation from Edom (viz.
Tobiah and his son Johanan were related by marriage to Judaean secular and priestly families, and active intrigues resulted, in which nobles and prophets took their part.
Even members of the priestly families had intermarried with Tobiah and Sanballat; the former had his own chamber in the precincts of the Temple, the daughter of the latter was the wife of a son of Joiada the son of the high priest Eliashib.
With his priests and Levites, and with the chiefs and nobles of the Jewish families, the high priest directs this small state, and his death marks an epoch as truly as did that of the monarchs in the past.
Such strange enactments as the Familianten-Gesetz, which prohibited more than one member of a family from marrying, broke up families by forcing the men to emigrate.
A special class of Roman prelatures exist at Rome, endowed as a kind of ecclesiastical majority to which those members of certain families who are destined for the clerical life naturally succeed.
ANTOINE AGENOR ALFRED GRAMONT, Duc DE, Duc DE Guiche, Prince De Bidache (1819-1880), French diplomatist and statesman, was born at Paris on the 14th of August 1819, of one of the most illustrious families of the old noblesse, a cadet branch of the viscounts of Aure, which took its name from the seigniory of Gramont in Navarre.
It is interesting and suggestive that in a few families of digging Hymenoptera (such as the Mutillidae), allied to the ants, the females are wingless.
The Indian flora contains a more general and complete illustration of almost all the chief natural families of all parts of the world than any other country.
A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.
The number of families relative to the area is very small, and the number of genera and species equally restricted, in very many cases a single species being the only representative of an order.
S.) Ethnology Asia, including its outlying islands, has become the dwelling-place of all the great families into which the races of men have been divided.
The emperor is head of the state and the high priest, who sacrifices to Heaven on behalf of his people, but he can be deposed, and no divine right is inherent in certain families as in Japan and Turkey.
The government was originally autocratic, but as early as the 7th century the most characteristic feature of Japanese politics - the power of great families who overshadowed the throne - makes its appearance.
He was no longer an outlaw with a band of wandering companions, but a petty chieftain, head of a small colony of men, allied with families of Caleb and Jezreel (in Judah), and on friendly footing with the sheikhs south of Hebron.
And although the Levitical organization, as ascribed to David, is manifestly post-exilic, it is at least certain that many of the Levitical families were of southern origin.
In the Oligochaetes it is only the families Aeolosomatidae and Naididae that show the same phenomenon.
The paired disposition of these organs is the prevalent one among the Oligochaeta, and occurs in all of twelve out of the thirteen families into which the group is divided.
Among the Megascolicidae, however, which in number of genera and species nearly equals the remaining families taken together, another form of the excretory system occurs.
Among the aquatic Oligochaeta and many earthworms (the families Lumbricidae, Geoscolicidae and a few other genera) the spermathecae are simple structures, as has been described.
We have thus the replacement of a spermatheca, corresponding to those of the remaining families of Oligochaeta, and derived, as is believed, from the epidermis, by a structure performing the same function, but derived from the mesoblastic tissues, and with a cavity which is coelom.
Among the purely aquatic families such structures are very rare, and are represented by two caeca in the genus Limnodriloides.
The following families constitute the group, viz.
Earthworms are divided into the following families, viz.
Few Englishmen retained estates of any importance after the Conquest, but one, Elfin, an under-tenant of Henry de Ferrers, not only held a considerable property but was the ancestor of the Derbyshire family of Brailsford, The families of Shirley and Gresley can also boast an unbroken descent.
The approach of the " Monitor " and the Union gunboats up the James river caused a partial and temporary panic; President Davis appointed a day for prayer, and the families of some of the cabinet secretaries and many citizens fled the city precipitately; but confidence, restored by " Bacon's Rebellion," was auditor-general of the colony from 1687 until his death, and was a member of the committee which founded the College of William and Mary.
It was both in ancient and medieval times closely connected with Rhodes; it was held by noble families under Venetian suzerainty, notably the Cornari from 1306 to 1540, when it finally passed into the possession of the Turks.
Plants of the gramineous, the leguminous and of other families were operated upon.
His father belonged to the class of Dihkans (the old native country families and landed proprietors of Persia, who had preserved their influence and status under the A ab rule), and possessed an estate in the neighbourhood of Cus (in Khorasan).
distinguished as three families: - Atlantidae, Carinariidae and Pterotrachaeidae.
This is the largest group of Mollusca, including nearly sixty families, some of which are insufficiently known from the anatomical point of view.
The three following families have neither radula nor jaws, and are therefore called Aglossa.
The next three families form the group formerly known as Thecosomatous Pteropods.
The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body.
The last three families constitute the sub-tribe Porostomata, characterized by the reduction of the buccal mass, which is modified into a suctorial apparatus.
The priory church, now the parish church of the suburb of Monkton, contains monuments of the families of Meyrick of Bush and Owen of Orielton.
The father's literary tastes, general inquisitiveness, and powers of intrigue reappeared in Napoleon, who, however, derived from his mother Letizia (a descendant of the Ramolino and Pietra Santa families) the force of will, the power of forming a quick decision and of maintaining it against all odds, which made him so terrible an opponent both in war and in diplomacy.
The priesthood has three grades: (I) the Sh'kanda or deacon is generally chosen from episcopal or priestly families, and must be without bodily blemish.
In the 17th century, according to the old travellers, they numbered about 20,000 families, but at the present day they hardly number more than 1200 souls.
Numerous wealthy families reside here, and the town has a trade in olive-oil, silk and velvet.
Latreille in 1825 (Families naturelles du regne animal), since it has the advantage of expressing, in a single word, an important characteristic of the group. The terms "Hexapoda " and " hexapod " had already been used by F.
of the families Belo- stomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae and Hydrometridae have a pulsating sac at each knee-joint to assist the flow of blood through the legs, while in dragon-flies and locusts (Acridazdae) there is a ventral pulsating dia phragm, which forms the roof of a sinus enclosing the nerve-cords.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases, the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.
Includes two families - the Forficulidae or earwigs (q.v.) and the Hemimeridae.
Includes the three families of dragon-flies.
Pupa free in the lowest families, in most cases incompletely or completely obtect.
Geological History The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders, and in many cases to recent families.
From the Trias of Colorado, Scudder has described cockroaches intermediate between their Carboniferous precursors and their present-day descendants, while the existence of endopterygotous Hexapods is shown by the remains of Coleoptera of several families.
In the Jurassic rocks are found Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as Hemiptera, referable to existing families, some representatives of which had already appeared in.
In Tertiary times the higher Diptera, besides Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, referable to existing families, become fairly abundant.
Most of the families and a large proportion of the genera of insects are exceedingly widespread, but a study of the genera and species in any of the more important families shows that faunas can be distinguished whose headquarters agree fairly with the regions that have been proposed to express the distribution of the higher vertebrates.
A large and dominant Holoarctic fauna, with numerous subdivisions, ranges over the great northern continents, and is characterized by the abundance of certain families like the Carahidae and Staphylinidae among the Coleoptera and the Tenthredinidae among the Hymenoptera.
The Australian fauna is rich in characteristic and peculiar genera, and New Zealand, while possessing some remarkable insects of its own, lacks entirely several families with an almost world-wide range - for example, the Notodontidae, Lasiocampidae, and other families of Lepidoptera.
The occurrence of weevils - among the most specialized of the Coleoptera - in Triassic rocks shows us that this great order of metabolous insects had become differentiated into its leading families at the dawn of the Mesozoic era, and that we must go far back into the Palaeozoic for the origin of the Endopterygota.
The standing of the Trichoptera in a position almost ancestral to the Lepidoptera is one of the assured results of recent morphological study, the mobile mandibulate pupa and the imperfectly suctorial maxillae of the Trichoptera reappearing in the lowest families of the Lepidoptera.
The specialization of form in the constricted abdomen and in the suctorial " tongue " that characterizes the higher families of the order is correlated with the habit of careful egg-laying and provision of food for the young.
" Observations on the Natural Affinities that connect the Orders and Families of Birds," read before the Linnean Society of London in 1823, and afterwards published in its Transactions (xiv.
Notice has next to be taken of a Memoir on the Employment of Sternal Characters in establishing Natural Families among Birds, which was read by De Blainville before the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1815, 5 but not published in full for more than five years later (Journal de physique.
4 These are the forms which composed the family previously termed Cursores by De Blainville; but L'Herminier was able to distinguish no fewer than thirty-four families of " Oiseaux normaux," and the judgment with which their separation and definition were effected must be deemed on the whole to be most creditable to him.
L'Herminier thus separated the families of " Normal Birds ": 1.
Two years later Nitzsch, who was indefatigable in his endeavour to discover the natural families of birds and had been pursuing a series of researches into their vascular system, published the result, at Halle in Saxony, in his Observationes de avium arteria carotide communi, in which is included a classification drawn up in accordance with the variation of structure which that important vessel presented in the several groups that he had opportunities of examining.
To enable the reader to compare the several groups of Nitzsch with the families of L'Herminier, the numbers applied by the latter to his families are suffixed in square brackets to the names of the former; and, disregarding the order of sequence, which is here immaterial, the essential correspondence of the two systems is worthy of all attention, for it obviously means that these two investigators, starting from different points, must have been on the right track, when they so often coincided as to the limits of what they considered to be, and what we are now almost justified in calling, natural groups.'
Herein the author first assigned anatomical reasons for rearranging the order Anseres of Linnaeus and Natatores of Illiger, who, so long before as 1811, had proposed a new distribution of it into six families, the definitions of which, as was his wont, he had drawn from external characters only.
But again Muller made his third " tribe " Picarii also to contain the Tyrannidae, of which mention has just been made, though it is so obvious as now to be generally admitted that they have no very intimate relationship to the other families with which they are there associated.
Starting from the basis " that the phrase `birds are greatly modified reptiles' would hardly be an exaggerated expression of the closeness " of the resemblance between the two classes, which he had previously brigaded under the name of Sauropsida (as he had brigaded the Pisces and Amphibia as Ichthyopsida), he drew in bold outline both their likenesses and their differences, and then proceeded to inquire how the A y es could be most appropriately subdivided into orders, suborders and families.
3 In reply to some critical remarks (Ibis, 1868, pp. 8 5-9 6), chiefly aimed at showing the inexpediency of relying solely on one set of characters, especially when those afforded by the palatal bones were not, even within the limits of families, wholly diagnostic, the author (Ibis, 1868, pp. 357-362) announced a slight modification of his original scheme, by introducing three more groups into it, and concluded by indicating how its bearings upon the great question of " genetic classification" might be represented so far as the different groups of Carinatae are concerned: - 1 These names are compounded respectively of Dromaeus, the generic name applied to the emeu, 7xQ-a, a split or cleft, SEVµa, a bond or tying, a finch, and, in each case, yvaBos, a jaw.
Certhiomorphae.-3 families: tree-creepers, nut-hatches.
Cinnyrimorphae.-5 families: sun-birds, honey-suckers.
The first of them, Accipitres, comprehending all the birds-of-prey, were separated into 4 " cohorts " in his original work, but these were reduced in his appendix to two - Nyctharpages or owls with 4 families divided into 2 series, and Hemeroharpages containing all the rest, and comprising io families (the last of which is the seriema, Dicholophus) divided into 2 groups as Rapaces and Saprophagi - the latter including the vultures.
Next stands the order Gallinae with 4 " cohorts "; (I) Tetraonomorphae, comprising 2 families, the sand-grouse (Pterocles) and the grouse proper, among which the Central American Oreophasis finds itself; (2) Phasianomorphae, with 4 families, pheasants peacocks, turkeys, guinea fowls, partridges, quails, and hemipodes (Turnix); (3) Macronyches, the megapodes, with 2 families; (4) the Duodecimpennatae, the curassows and guans, also with 2 families; (5) the Struthioniformes, composed of the tinamous; and (6) the Subgrallatores with 2 families, one consisting of the curious South American genera Thinocorus and Attagis and the other of the sheathbill (Chionis).
The fifth order (the third of the Dasypaedes) is formed by the Grallatores, divided into 2 " series " - (I) Altinares, consisting of 2 " cohorts," Herodii with I family, the herons, and Pelargi with 4 families, spoonbills, ibises, storks, and the umbre (Scopus), with Balaeniceps; (2) Humilinares, also consisting of 2 " cohorts," Limicolae with 2 families, sandpipers and snipes, stilts and avocets, and Cursores with 8 families, including plovers, bustards, cranes, rails, and all the other " waders."
The sixth order, Natatores, consists of all the birds that habitually swim and a few that do not, containing 6 " cohorts ": Longipennes and Pygopodes with 3 families each; Totipalmatae with I family; Tubinares with 3 families; Impennes with I family, penguins; and Lamellirostres with 2 families, flamingoes and ducks.
The seventh order, Proceres, is divided into 2 " cohorts " - Veri with 2 families, ostriches and emeus; and Subnobiles, consisting of the genus Apteryx.
Internally this period is characterized by the attempt of three powerful families, the Particiachi, the Candiani and the Orseoli, to create an hereditary dogeship, and the violent resistance offered by the people.
During the same period we also note the development of certain families, thanks to the accumulation of wealth by trade, and here we get the beginnings of that commercial aristocracy whose evolution was the dominant factor in the constitutional history of the republic.
In order to hold these possessions, she borrowed from the Franks the feudal system, and granted fiefs in the Greek islands to her more powerful families, on condition that they held the trade route open for her.
To secure for themselves the command of trade the leading commercial families resolved to erect themselves into a close gild, which should have in its hands the sole direction of the business concern, the exploitation of the East.
The duchy was held by various families during the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, and at length in 1335 was bestowed by Louis the Bavarian on the dukes of Austria.
Of the two-score or so of families most prominent in the first century hardly one retained place in the similar list for the early years of the second.
With them went about 1100 Tory refugees, many of them of the finest families of the city and province.
Although the species are fewer in number than in most other families of fishes, they are widely spread and extremely abundant, peopling by countless schools the oceans of the tropical and temperate zones, and approaching the coasts only accidentally, occasionally, or periodically.
Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.
It was formerly supposed that this custom was peculiar to a single species, which was called the "gossamer" spider from the fact that the floating webs, when brought to the earth by rain or intercepted by bushes and trees, coat the foliage or grass with a sheeting of gossamer-like silk; but the habit is now known to be practised by the newly-hatched young of a great variety of species belonging to several distinct families.
It is in this and related families that the greatest diversity in the colour and form of the cocoon is found.
Species of other families (Lycosidae, Clubionidae) may live for a few seasons, hibernating in the soil or amongst dead leaves; and examples of the larger spiders (Aviculariidae) have been kept alive in captivity for several years.
Spiders of various families will, when alarmed, lie absolutely still with legs tucked up and allow themselves to be pushed and rolled, and handled in various ways without betraying that they are alive by the slightest movement.
No doubt large numbers are devoured by insectivorous birds, mammals and reptiles, but the mortality due to them and other foes sinks into insignificance beside that caused by the persecution of hymenopterous insects of the families Ichneumonidae and Pompilidae, especially of the latter, many species of which systematically ransack the country for spiders wherewith to feed their young in the breeding season.
It is no exaggeration to say that countless thousands of spiders of all families are annually destroyed by these insects, and there is no reason to doubt that destruction on at least as great a scale has been going on for centuries, too many even to guess at.
In several families of spiders, but principally in those like the Clubionidae and Salticidae, which are terrestrial in habits, there are species which not only live amongst ants, but so closely resemble them in their shape, size, colour and actions that it requires a practised eye to distinguish the Arachnid from the insect.
But since ants are not persecuted by these two families of Hymenoptera, the greatest enemies spiders have to contend with, it is evident that mimicry of ants is of supreme advantage to spiders.
Sharp on the Dyticidae and other families of Coleoptera of the whole world.
In 1749 the settlement was revived, but the settlers did not bring their families to the frontier until 1752.
(casale) the rustici were grouped in families (foci): the tenants paid from 4 to a of the crop, besides a poll-tax and labour-dues.
Each town with its surrounding district seems to have constituted a small separate state; the conduct of affairs naturally devolved upon the noble families.
Families, Carinellidae, Hubrechtiidae.
Families, Eunemertidae, Ototy Phlonemertidae, Prosorhocmidae, Amphiporidae, Tet Rastemmatidae, Nectonemertidae, Pelagonemertidae, M Alacobdellidae.
Families, Eupoliidae, Lineidae.
The following families and genera are represented on the British coasts: Carinellidae, Cannella; Cephalothricidae, Cephalothrix, Carinoma; Eunemertidae, Eunemertes; Ototy Phlone Me Rtidae, Ototyphlonemertes; AM PHI PO Ridae, Amphiporus, Drepanophorus; TET Rastemmidae, Tetrastemma, Prosorhocmus; M Alacobdellidae, Malacobdella; Eu Poliidae, Eupolia, Valencinia, Oxypolia; Lineidae, Lineus, Euborlasia, Micrura, Cerebratulus, Micrella.
As ancestors of the Artiodactyle section of the Ungulata, we may look to forms more or less closely related to the North American Lower Eocene genera Mioclaenus and Pantolestes, respectively typifying the families Mioclaenidae and Pantolestidae.
Here they remained, and with one or two other great families governed Geneva, and sent forth many representatives to seek their fortune and win distinction in the service of foreign princes, both as soldiers and ministers.
The families Limacidae, Arionidae and Oncidiidae of the same sub-order, include nearly all the slugs.
The land-snails which have no gill-plume in the mantle-chamber and breathe air, but have the sexes separated, and possess an operculum, belong to the orders Aspidobranchia and Pectinibranchia, and constitute the families Helicinidae, Proserpinidae, Hydrocenidae, Cyclophoridae, Cyclostomatidae and Aciculidae.
Hamann has divided the group into three families, to which a fourth must be added.
He derived his surname from the fact that his ancestors were burgraves or chatelains of the town; his parents, who belonged to illustrious Flemish families, were probably the Jean Chastellain and his wife Marie de Masmines mentioned in the town records in 1425 and 1432.
There are hot sulphurous springs in the town, which has also a fine climate; and many of the wealthy families from Malaga reside here in summer.
He was ordained priest on the 31st of December 1837, and a few weeks later was made apostolic delegate of the small papal territory of Benevento, where he had to deal with brigands and smugglers, who enjoyed the protection of some of the noble families of the district.
In law these slaves were at first absolutely at the disposal of their masters; they had no property in the strict sense of the word, and could be sold to another proprietor and separated from their families.
They were not even adscripti glebae, though forbidden to migrate; an imperial ukase of 1721 says, " the proprietors sell their peasants and domestic servants, not even in families, but one by one, like cattle."
The serfs were bought, sold, and given in presents, sometimes with the land, sometimes without it, sometimes in families and sometimes individually, sale by public auction being alone forbidden, as " unbecoming in a European state."
He came of old Highland families on both sides.
The islands, though seldom visited by foreigners, are for the most part highly interesting and picturesque, notwithstanding their somewhat barren appearance when viewed from the sea; many of them bear traces of the feudal rule of Venetian families in the middle ages, and their inhabitants in general may be regarded as presenting the best type of the Greek race.
As instances of his close intimacy with illustrious Florentine families, it may be mentioned that he held the young Francesco Guicciardini at the font, and that he helped to cast the horoscope of the Casa Strozzi in the Via Tornabuoni.
At Geneva are three large collections - Augustin Pyrame de Candolle's, containing the typical specimens of the Prodromus, a large series of monographs of the families of flowering plants, Benjamin Delessert's fine series at the Botanic Garden, and the Boissier Herbarium, which is rich in Mediterranean and Oriental plants.
Almost without exception, they had their origin in small burial areas, the property of private persons or of families, gradually ramifying and receiving additions of one subterranean storey after another as each was required for interments.
The group is represented by the families Palaeosyopidae and Titanotheriidae in the Tertiary deposits of North America.
Both families are described under the heading Titanotheriidae.
The section is divisible into the families Equidae and Palaeotheriidae, of which the latter is extinct.
This group is also divided into two families, the Tapiridae and Lophiodontidae, the latter extinct.
There are about fifty Greek families, the rest of the population (4000) being Moslem.
The arrests of Sims and of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of "Jerry" M`Henry, in Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories.
During and after the war of 1868-1878, when many Cuban estates were confiscated, many families emigrated, and many others were ruined, the ownership of plantations largely passed from the hands of Cubans to Spaniards.
Mainly owing to the large element of transient foreign whites without families (long characteristic of Cuba), males outnumber females - in 1907 as 21 to 19.
After the cession of the Spanish portion of San Domingo to France hundreds of Spanish families emigrated to Cuba, and many thousand more immigrants, mainly French, followed them from the entire island during the revolution of the blacks.
Many families of good character now settled at the Bahamas, and some progress was made in developing the resources of the colony, although this was interrupted by the tyrannical conduct of some of the governors who succeeded Captain Woodes Rogers.
The abundant documents in the hands of her descendants, the families of Broglie and Haussonville, have indeed furnished material for books and papers, but these are almost wholly on the social aspect of Mme de Stael, not on her literary merit.
Parisian families, but in 1675 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Protestant university of Sedan.
The castle and lordship descended by heirship, male and female, through the families of De Clare, Despenser, Beauchamp and Neville to Richard III., on whose fall they escheated to the Crown, and were granted later, first to Jasper Tudor, and finally by Edward VI.
Quatrefages classes them, together with the Voguls, as two families of the Ugrian sub-branch, this last, together with the Sabmes (Lapps), forming part of the Ugrian.
The governing body consisted of 180 members, chosen from certain influential families, and the executive was entrusted to a select committee of artynae (from apTUVEav, to manage).
The remaining two families of Enteropneusta, Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae, contain species of which probably all pursue an indirect course of development, culminating in a metamorphosis by which the adult form is attained.
As the ark started, it was hailed with the cry,"Arise, Yahweh, let thine enemies be scattered, let them that hate thee flee from before thee," and when it came to rest, the cry again rang out, "Return, O Yahweh, to the myriads of families of Israel" (Num.
of the Cochecho Falls; the present name was adopted in 1639, and with the development of manufacturing and trading interests the population gradually removed nearer the falls; Hilton and his followers were Anglicans, but in 1633 they were joined by several Puritan families under Captain Thomas Wiggin, who settled on Dover Neck (1 m.
Proselytes are still not allowed, in Orthodox circles, to become the wives of reputed descendants of the priestly families, but otherwise marriage with proselytes is altogether equal to marriage between born Jews.
Douglas, The Principal Noble Families of Rome (Rome, 1905).
Before its incorporation with the domains of the crown of Naples Sarno gave its name to a countship held in succession by the Orsini, Cappola, Suttavilla and Colonna families.
The interior of the shell varies very much according to families and genera.
In the Rhynchonellidae there are two short slender curved laminae, while in many genera and even families, such as the Productidae, Strophomenidae, Lingulidae, Discinidae, &c., there exists no calcified support for the labial appendages.
Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.
The protegulum has been found in members of almost all the families of Brachiopod, and it is thought to occur throughout the group. It resembles the shell of the Cambrian .4 genus Iphidea [Paterina], and the Phylembryo is frequently referred to as the Paterina stage.
Lophophore supported by calcareous loops, &c. [[Families.
The president of this council, or ruling chief - chosen from among the members of the two recognized reigning families - is called the alake, a word meaning "Lord of Ake," Ake being the name of the principal quarter of Abeokuta, after the ancient capital of the Egbas.
He was educated at the Wigton grammar school, and about 1754 went to Virginia, where he became a private tutor in the families of Virginia planters.
In Hindu (the Puranas), Parsi and Arab tradition, Mer y is looked upon as the ancient Paradise, the cradle of the Aryan families of mankind, and so of the human race.
The overlordship then fell to the crown, and the families of Frossard, Mauley and Salvin successively held the manor as underlords.
In theory, the twelve plebeian centuries were open to all freeborn youths of the age of seventeen, although in practice preference was given to the members of the older families.
Two families: 1.
Two families: i.
ti Families - Thera phosidae (Avicularia, Poecilotheria).
Principal families - Hypochilidae (Hypochilus).
Intromittent organ of male lodged on the dorsal side of the 1st pair of prosomatic appendages.) Families - Hexisopodidae (Hexisopus).
This industry was introduced in 1746, and has since prospered in the hands of several wealthy families which are closely connected by intermarriage, and lend each other support.
The interruption of maritime intercourse, the stagnation of industry and trade, the rise in the price of the necessaries of life, the impossibility of adequately providing for the families of those - call them reservists, " landwehr," or what you will - who are torn away from their daily toil to serve in the tented field, - these are considerations that may well make us pause before we abandon a peaceful solution and appeal to brute force.
The heads of these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of Erlaucht (illustrious, most honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire 2 (Reichsgrafen), descendants of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806), were Reichsstiindisch, i.e.
2 This title is borne by certain English families, e.g.
He was surrounded by a patriarchal establishment of wives and children; and to him most of the distinguished families of Bahia still trace their lineage.
Female orphans of noble families were given in marriage to the officers, and portioned from the royal estates, and orphan boys were sent to be educated by the Jesuits.
He imagines certain combinations by which this triple tyranny can be abolished, but his solution seems to require the creation of families without heads, countries without governments and property without rights of possession.
The parish church contains the tombs of the Forresters, of old the leading family of the district, with full-length sculptured figures, and at the base of Corstorphine Hill - from one point of which (" Rest and be Thankful ") is to be had one of the best views of Edinburgh - are the seats of several well-known families.
To the south of the metropolis are Colinton (pop. 5499), on the Water of Leith, with several mansions that once belonged to famous men, such as Dreghorn Castle and Bonally Tower; and Currie (pop. 2513), which was a Roman station and near which are Curriehill Castle (held by the rebels against Queen Mary), the ruins of Lennox Tower, and Riccarton, the seat of the GibsonCraigs, one of the best-known Midlothian families.
Public opinion as to the " hospital " system of board and education, however, underwent a revolutionary change after the Education Act of 1872 introduced school boards, and the Merchant Company - acting as governors for most of the institutions - determined to board out the children on the foundation with families in the town, and convert the buildings into adequately equipped primary and secondary day-schools.
Exasperated by the tyranny of the Salimbeni and other patrician families allied to the Ghibellines, it decreed in 127 7 the exclusion of all nobles from the supreme magistracy (consisting since 1270 of thirty-six instead of twenty-four members), and insisted that this council should be formed solely of Guelf traders and men of the middle class.
The riformatori were ousted from power and expelled the city, and the trade of Siena suffered no little injury by the exile of so many artisan families.
Thus began a new order or monte del popolo, composed of families of the same class as the riformatori, but having had no part in the government during the latter's rule.
Tong church, of fine early Perpendicular work, contains a remarkable series of ornate tombs, mainly of the 15th and 16th centuries, to members of the Vernon and Stanley families, former owners of the castle.
At the end of 1843 there were not more than 500 Dutch families left in Natal.
Each of these again was divided into sumuns or squadrons, each containing 150 families.
Including families and domestic servants, 2,605,000 persons or 13.5% of the total population were dependent on industries for their livelihood in Hungary in 1900.
To this vindictive legislation, which converted the labouring population into a sullenly hostile 1 It should be remembered that at this time one-third of the land belonged to the church, and the remainder was in the hands of less than a dozen great families who had also appropriated the royal domains.
According to contemporary records the number of prelates and priests in the three parts of Hungary at the beginning of the 17th century was but 103, all told, and of the great families not above half a dozen still clung to Catholicism.
The Jesuit programme in Hungary was the same as it had been in Poland a generation earlier, and may be summed up thus: convert the great families and all the rest will follow.
Five years later there remained but four noble Protestant families in royal Hungary.
She also attracted the gentry to her capital by forming a Magyar body-guard from the cadets of noble families.
BEAUCHAMP, the name of several important English families.
The two most notable cases were the formation of the Uskok pirate settlements along the Dalmatian coast in the 16th century, and the settlement of the Serbian patriarch and many thousand Serb refugee families in Slavonia and S.
During the spring of 1915 the official organ at Sarajevo published list after list of Bosnian-Serb families who were thus declared to have forfeited their citizenship: and many thousands of women and children were driven across the Montenegrin frontier, often with only the clothes in which they stood.
The whole " system " or scheme of classification was termed a genealogical tree (Stammbaum); the main branches were termed " phyla," their branchings " sub-phyla "; the great branches of the sub-phyla were termed " cladi," and the " cladi " divided into " classes," these into sub-classes, these into legions, legions into orders, orders into sub-orders, suborders into tribes, tribes into families, families into genera, genera into species.
Special studies of small families or orders of animals with this object in view were taken in hand by many zoologists.
The terms used for indicating groups are " Phylum " for the large diverging branches of the genealogical tree as introduced by Haeckel, each Phylum bears secondary branches which are termed " classes," classes again branch or divide into orders, orders into families, families into genera, genera into species.
His father belonged to one of the noblest priestly families, and through his mother he claimed descent from the Asmonaean high priest Jonathan.
Between 1902 and 1907 about 55 o families were placed on the land, their holdings aggregating over 500,000 acres.
At this time there were settled north of the Vaal about 5000 families of European extraction - about 40,000 persons, including young children.
14: " All persons, other than natives, conforming themselves to the laws of the South African Republic (a) will have full liberty, with their families, to enter, travel, or reside in any part of the South African Republic; (b) they will be entitled to hire or possess houses, manufactories, warehouses, shops and premises; (c) they may carry on their commerce either in person or by any agents whom they may think fit to employ; (d) they will not be subject, in respect of their persons or property, or in respect of their commerce or industry, to any taxes, whether general or local, other than those which are or may be imposed upon citizens of the said Republic."
The enemy invariably dispersed before superior forces, and the removal of the women and children from the farms did not have the effect of disheartening the burghers as had been anticipated - it rather mended their vitality by relieving them of responsibility for their families' welfare.
He was admitted into the intimacy of young men of the best families, such as Scipio, Laelius and Furius Philus; and he enjoyed the favour of older men of literary distinction and official position.
Insect life is perhaps poorer and less varied than in Brazil, but in the 14 orders of insects there are no less than 98 families, each including many genera and species.
There are 8 families of Coleoptera, 6 of Orthoptera, 23 of Hymenoptera, 14 of Lepidoptera and 7 of Diptera.
The population consists of a small percentage of whites of European descent, chiefly Spaniards, various tribes and settlements of Indians, largely of the Arawak and Carib families, and a large percentage of mestizos, or mixed bloods.
The suborder Anacanthini is, nevertheless, maintained for the Muraenolepididae Gadids and two related families, Macruridae and Muraenolepididae, and may be thus defined: - Air-bladder without open duct.
To heredity, as an indirect or predisposing cause, has probably been assigned too great importance, and the many facts brought forward of the relative frequency of cancer in members of one family only justify the conclusion that the tissue-resistance of certain families is lowered.
At this time, too, about zoo fugitive immigrant families from Santo Domingo greatly augmented its industrial importance.
It should also be remembered that he was of an Asclepiad family, and received that partly medical education which was traditional in such families, and also himself is said to have practised medicine as an amateur.
It may well be assumed that Lucretius was a member of the Roman aristocracy, belonging either to a senatorian or to one of the great equestrian families.
The "Cycle of the White Rose" - the white rose being the badge of the Stuarts - composed of members of the principal Welsh families around Wrexham, including the Williams-Wynns of Wynnstay, lasted from 1710 until some time between 1850 and 1860.
Jacobite traditions also lingered among the great families of the Scottish Highlands; the last person to suffer death as a Jacobite was Archibald Cameron, a son of Cameron of Lochiel, who was executed in 1 753.
Its ancient castle is picturesquely situated on a lofty porphyry rock, and is memorable as the place from which, in 1455, Kunz von Kaufungen carried off the young princes Albert and Ernest, the founders of the present royal and ducal families of Saxony.
In 1624 arrived eighteen families of Dutch Walloons, the first actual permanent settlers, as distinguished from traders.
Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities and eatables.
From this period began the records in England of the great glass-making families of Hennezel, de Thietry, du Thisac and du Houx from Lorraine, and of de Bongar and de Cacqueray from Normandy.
The streets and piazze of the city are celebrated for their splendid palaces, formerly, and in many cases even to-day the residences of the noble families of Florence.
the noble families who had towers, and the arti or trade and merchant gilds.
At first the consules, of whom there seem to have been twelve, two for each sestiere or ward, were chosen by the men of the towers, and assisted by a council of loo boni homines, in which the arti were predominant; the government thus came to be in the hands of a few powerful families.
By 1176 the Florentines were masters of all the territory comprised in the dioceses of Florence and Fiesole; but civil commotion within nobles, headed by the Alberti and strengthened by the many feudal families who had been forced to leave their castles and dwell in the city (1177-1180).
Discord among the great families broke out again, and the attempt to put an end to it by a marriage between Buondelmonte de' Buondelmonti and a daughter of the Amidei, only led to further strife (1215), although the causes of these broils were deeper and wider, being derived from the general division between Guelphs and Ghibellines all over Italy.
elected the gonfaloniere, also for two months; there were the capitudini or councils of the gilds, and two savi for each sestiere, with 1000 soldiers at their disposal; the number of the grandi families was fixed at 38 (later 72).
Several subsequent risings of the ciompi, largely of an economic character, were put down, and the Guelph families gradually regained much of their lost power, of which they availed themselves to exile their opponents and revive the odious system of ammonizioni.
A severe persecution was initiated against the Alberti and other families, who were disfranchised and exiled.
end of Lake Champlain was granted to Colonel Philip Skene (1725-1810), who fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and in 1759, and who established here in 1761 a settlement of about thirty families which he called Skenesborough and which was patented in 1765.
Such remains as there are of their language, a few expressions and the proper names of ancient chieftains still borne by certain families, connect it with the Berber dialects.
The mediatized families are included in the Almanach de Gotha.
- MoNozoA This order comprises a few heterogeneous forms which probably constitute at least three families.
The reproductive organs are usually repeated in each proglottis, and in some families two complete sets of such organs occur in each segment; in a few cases, parts only of the system are duplicated.
In a few genera the place of the chitinoid coat is taken by a ciliary investment and in most families the structure of the layers is characteristic.
Both of these families are distributed over the whole of the northern hemisphere, but whereas the Cervidae are absent from Africa south of the Sahara and well represented in South America, the Bovidae are unknown in the latter area, but are extraordinarily abundant in Africa.