Intercepts picked up a call Talon made to one of his guys who we know plans his recruitment fairs.
There is a large weekly market for grain, and annual horse and cattle fairs.
The New Year and Whitsuntide Show fairs only arose during the 9th century.
All fairs and markets were sold with the manor to the inhabitants of the town.
Large markets and fairs are held for corn, hops, cattle and sheep; and the town contains some highly reputed ale breweries, besides paper mills and iron foundries.
granted two fairs to his tenants and residents in the borough, to be held on the vigils, feasts and morrows of St Matthew and of SS.
These fairs have been held without interruption till the present day, their dates being October 2 and May 13.
Fairs are held on the 5th of April, 18th of July, 17th of November and 27th of November.
A weekly market on Wednesdays was granted to John, earl of Richmond, in 1308 together with an eight days' fair beginning on the vigil of St Margaret's day, and in 1445 John de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, one of his successors as lord of the manor, received a further grant of the same market and also two yearly fairs, one on the feast of St Philip and St James and the other at Michaelmas.
Now two yearly fairs for small wares are held on the 13th of May and the 11th of October.
The town is an important agricultural centre, its fairs for sheep and ponies in particular being well attended.
Earl Cholmondeley received a grant of two fairs in 1723.
Fairs are now held on the first Thursday in April, June, September and December, and a cheese fair on the first Thursday in each month except January.
It was provided that the hundred court of Powdershire should always be held there and two fairs at the feasts of St Peter in Cathedra and St Barnabas, both of which are still held, and a Tuesday market (now held on Friday) and that it should be a free borough rendering a yearly rent to the earl of Cornwall.
The principal are Lisnaskea, Irvi nestown(formerly Lowtherstown), M aguires bridge, Tempo, Newtownbutler, Belleek, Derrygonnelly and Kesh, at which fairs are held.
There is a trade in beer, cattle and grain, sold at eleven annual fairs, three of which last for ten days each.
the lord of the manor had two fairs, one on the 24th of August and the other on the 8th of September.
In 1738 fairs were held on the 4th of May and the 8th of September, and a market every Saturday.
Weaving is taught in the girls' school, and fairs are held for the sale of farm produce; but the absence of a railway and the badness of the roads retard commerce.
Rhayader has for some centuries been an important centre for Welsh mutton and wool, and its sheep fairs are largely attended by drovers and buyers from all parts.
The abbot seems to have held a market from very early times, and charters for the holding of markets and fairs were granted by various sovereigns from Edward I.
Finally, a great number of artels on the stock exchange, in the seaports, in the great cities, during the great fairs and on railways have grown up, and have acquired the confidence of tradespeople to such an extent that considerable sums of money and complicated banking operations are frequently handed over to an artelshik (member of an artel) without any receipt, his number or his name being accepted as sufficient guarantee.
The fairs are very numerous.
Altogether, no fewer than 16,600 fairs are held in Russia, 85% of them in European Russia.
Flour-milling and tanning are industries, and monthly cattle fairs are held.
The fairs now held on the 8th of May, the 26th of July and the first Monday after the 10th of October were granted to the bishop in 1227, 12 4 0 and 1300.
Nor could they be effectually excluded from the fairs, the great markets of the 18th century.
But economic laws are often too strong for civil vagaries or sectarian fanaticism, and as the commerce of Austria suffered by the absence of the Jews, it was impossible to exclude the latter from the fairs in the provinces of from the markets of the capital.
granted a Friday market, and two fairs, at the feast of St Philip and St James, and on St Luke's day.
No charter has been found, but a judgment given under a writ of quo warranto in 1578 confirms to the burgesses freedom from toll, passage and pontage, the tolls and stallage of the quay and the right to hold two fairs - privileges which they claimed under charters of Baldwin de Redvers and Isabel de Fortibus, countess of Albemarle, in the 13th century, and Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, in 1405.
Fairs on the 13th and 14th of May and the 2nd and 3rd of October, dating from the 13th century, are still held.
Two annual fairs are now held, namely on the first Monday in April and the second Monday in October.
They like the gossiping and bartering at the rural markets and in the larger fairs, which are sometimes held in strikingly picturesque localities.
Derbyshire cheeses are exported or sent to London in considerable quantities; and cheese fairs are held in various parts of the county, as at Ashbourne and Derby.
In the same year was passed the Markets and Fairs (Weighing of Cattle) Act.
In connexion with the internal live stock trade of Great Britain attention must be directed to the Markets and Fairs (Weighing of Cattle) Act 1891.
Competition, in the Darwinian sense, is characteristic not only of modern industrial states, but of all living organisms; and in the narrower sense of the " higgling of the market " is found on the Stock Exchange, in the markets of old towns, in medieval fairs and Oriental bazaars.
also granted the burgesses a market on Saturdays, and three fairs, which were confirmed to them by Henry VII.
In 1587 Elizabeth granted certain privileges to Wareham, but it was not incorporated until 1703, when the existing fairs for April 6 and August 23 were granted.
In 1607 David Waterhouse, lord of the manor of Halifax, obtained a grant of two markets there every week on Friday and Saturday and two fairs every year, each lasting three days, one beginning on the 24th of June, the other on the 11th of November.
Later these fairs and markets were confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of the manor.
The trade with the interior is also carried on very briskly, especially at the twenty-six fairs, the chief of which are Balta and Yarmolintsy.
In 1332 a market on Wednesdays and a fair at the Feast of St Peter ad Vincula were granted to Alice de Lisle and in 1405 this market was ratified and three additional fairs added, viz.
Fishing is extensively carried on and cattle fairs are held.
a Saturday market and four fairs.
Simon and Jude are still held, also five other fairs of uncertain origin.
He read plays, attended the village fairs, shot plovers in the fenland, and enjoyed a dance with his sisters.
Two fairs are held in Nola, on the 14th of June and the 12th of November; and the 26th of July is devoted to a great festival in honour of St Paulinus, one of the early bishops of the city, who invented the church bell (campana, taking its name from Campania).
In 1792 two annual fairs were held, one on Whit Monday, the other on the 10th of October; and a market was held every Saturday.
The market day is still Saturday, but the fairs are discontinued.
They were for some time compelled to find subsistence by exhibitions of feats of strength and agility at fairs and on the streets of London.
Its most important early charter was that granted in 1340 by Hugh le Despenser, whereby the burgesses acquired the right to nominate persons from whom the constable of the castle should select a bailiff and other officers, two ancient fairs, held on the 29th of June and, 9th of September, were confirmed, and extensive trading privileges were granted, including the right to form a merchant gild.
Important cattle and horse fairs are held here.
A weekly market was granted, two fairs yearly at Whitsuntide and Michaelmas, and many other privileges.
This charter obtained until in 1599 a second one incorporated the town by the name of "mayor and jurats" and regranted the market and fairs together with some additional privileges, among others that of returning members to parliament, which, however, was never exercised.
The great fair at Irbit retains its importance, and there are, besides, over 500 fairs in Tobolsk and over 100 in other parts of the region.
in 1330 granted instead two fairs on the vigil and day of St Thomas the Martyr and the vigil and day of SS.
Queen Mary granted three new fairs, and James I.
28), and in 1608 fairs were also held on May day and at the feast of St James (July 25).25).
The market day has been transferred to Friday, but the May and October fairs are continued.
Further annual fairs were granted by Edward III.
The fairs and markets are still held under these charters.
The medieval fairs are no longer held.
conferred on the city various privileges relating to the holding of fairs and markets, and the levying of customs; and by a royal charter of 1452 he gave it pre-eminence over the other burghs.
The first charter of incorporation was granted by Queen Mary in 1553, and instituted a common council consisting of a bailiff, 12 aldermen and 12 chief burgesses; a court of record, one justice of the peace, a Thursday market and two annual fairs.
with some additions, including a weekly wool-market, a horse-market and two additional annual fairs.
Hemp and flax had an importance, lost between 1827 and 1849, but responsible in 1792 for fairs on Saturday and Monday before Palm Sunday.
There is considerable traffic in grain and cattle brought from the surrounding districts; and twice a year there are large horse fairs.
granted two fairs, still kept up in 1792, to be held respectively on St George's day and the day of the Translation of St Edward; another ancient fair, in honour of St Swithin, or perhaps originally of St Editha, is still held (July 26).
More freedom of trade was allowed at all times in the selling of wares by wholesale, and also in retail dealings during the time of markets and fairs.
The fairs of Leipzig and Frankfort-on-Main rose in importance as Novgorod, the stronghold of Hanse trade in the East, was weakened by the attacks of Ivan III.
There are manufactures of machinery and agricultural implements, and trade in the products of the district, such as cider and malt, and several fairs are held annually.
James I., in his charter of incorporation, granted fairs on Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun week, and confirmed an ancient fair at Michaelmas and a market on Monday.
There are two great fairs held in the town, - the Ostermesse, or spring fair, and the Herbstmesse, or autumn fair.
This resulted in a pestilence which not only lessened the population, but threatened to give the death-blow to the great annual fairs; and at the close of the war it was found that it had cost the city no less than 228,93, gulden.
A considerable agricultural trade is carried on, and cattle-shows and fairs are held.
Frequent agricultural fairs are held.
Bishop Stapledon obtained a Saturday market, and two annual fairs lasting three days at the feasts of St Laurence (August io) and St Martin in winter (November II).
In 1672 John Ford was granted a Tuesday market for the sale of wool and woollen goods made from English yarn, and in 1705 Andrew Quicke obtained two annual fairs, on the first Thursdays in March and June, for the sale of cattle, corn and merchandise.
to Edmund Leversedge, then lord of the manor, granted the right to have fairs on the 22nd of July and the 21st of September.
In the 18th century two other fairs on the 24th of February and the 25th of November were held.
Cattle fairs are now held on the last Wednesday in February and November, and a cheese fair on the last Wednesday in September.
The fair granted in 1326 and the three fairs granted in 1733 have all given place to others.
The market was subsequently changed to Friday, and three additional fairs were granted.
The yearly fairs at these places received the imports from Europe and the colonial trade of the Pacific coast, first collected at Panama and then carried over the isthmus.
Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinmas.
Other fairs on the 27th of December, the 22nd of July, and the Monday before Palm Sunday, were held under a charter of 1289.
Three days' fairs were granted to the abbots in 1129 for the feast of St Peter ad Vincula by Henry for Holy Rood day; in 1282 for Ascension day; and a market on Mondays was obtained in 1282.
These fairs still survive.
The early foundation of the Leipzig fairs, and the enlightened policy of the rulers of the country, have also done much to develop its commercial and industrial resources.
Two annual fairs and two weekly markets were granted by Henry VIII.'s charter, and are still held.
Linen goods are manufactured; fairs are held twice yearly, and numerous flour mills are worked by the river.
Fairs are periodically held in the town; and the trade in timber, cereals, and linen and woollen goods is generally brisk.
The fairs of Geneva (held 4 times a year) are mentioned as early as 1262, and attained the height of their prosperity about Industry.
1 45 0, but declined after Louis XI.'s grants of 1462-1463 in favour of the fairs of Lyons.
Among the chief articles brought to these fairs (which were largely frequented by Italian, French and Swiss merchants) were cloth, silk, armour, groceries, wine, timber and salt, this last coming mainly from Provence.
In the early 15th century the town of Fribourg made an alliance with Geneva for commercial purposes (the cloth warehouses of Fribourg at Geneva being enlarged in 1432 and 1465), as the cloth manufactured at Fribourg found a market in the fairs of Geneva (which are mentioned as early as 1262, and were at the height of their prosperity about 1450).
of France, to forbid French merchants to attend the fairs of Geneva, altering also the days of the fairs at Lyons (established in 1 4 20 and increased in number in 1463) so as to make them clash with those fixed for the fairs of Geneva.
Hence the transit trade has always been very considerable (it has four large fairs annually), while the local wine is mentioned as early as the 7th century.
It carries on a large trade in cattle, horses and grain, and has two annual fairs, held at Whitsuntide and in June.
The town is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and large markets and fairs are held.
in 1271, and fairs were held on Easter Monday, on August 26 and November 8.
Three charters of John granting the bishop fairs on the feasts of St Nicholas, St Ursula and St Margaret are extant, and another of Edward changing the last to the feast of St Peter ad Vincula (Aug.
(Markets and Fairs (Cattle) Acts 1887, 1891; Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887; Factory and Workshop Act 1878.) Useful statutes have also been passed to protect the working class, as in checking the weighing instruments used in mines in Great Britain, over which instruments wages are paid, and in the inspection of similar instruments used in factories and workshops.
to Sir Thomas Pilkington, fairs are still held on March 5, May 3, and September 18, and a market was formerly held under the same grant on Thursday, which has, however, been long replaced by a customary market on Saturday.
to the Sao Francisco, Cachoeira and Santo Amaro near the capital in the Reconcavo, Caravellas and Ilheos on the southern coast, with tolerably good harbours, the former being the port for the Bahia & Minas railway, Feira de Santa Anna on the border of the sertao and long celebrated for its cattle fairs, and Jacobina, an inland town N.W.
granted to certain feoffees in whom he had vested his manor of Bradford a market on Thursday every week and two yearly fairs, one on the feast of the Deposition of St William of York and two days preceding, the other on the feast of St Peter in Cathedra and two days.
(who married Hereford's co-heiress), by Henry V., who gave the town two more fairs, and by the Stafford family, to which the castle and lordship were allotted on the partition of the Bohun estates in 1421.
There are five ancient fairs for stock, and formerly each of them was preceded by a leather fair.
The fairs held in May and November were also for hiring, much of the hiring being now done at the Guildhall, and not in the streets as used to be the case.
Fairs on the 17th of July and the 6th of November were held under grant of Henry VII., and were important for the sale of leather and of woollen cloth, both made in the town.
Four fairs are held yearly, the most important being on the 12th of June and the 15th of August.
Adjacent to the city is Oakwood cemetery, overlooking the lake; and north-west of the city are the state fair grounds, with extensive exhibition halls and barns, where the annual fairs of the New York State Agricultural Society are held.
Encouragement to seedgrowing is given by the holding of seed fairs, and bulletins are issued on weeds, the methods of treating seed-wheat against smut and on other subjects.
In 1792 fairs were held on the 28th of March, the 28th of April and the 29th of June, but in 1891 they had ceased entirely.
Another fair at the beginning of Lent was added in 1468, and a second market on Thursday, and fairs at Midsummer and on the 21st of September were added in 1554.
The medieval importance of these markets and fairs for the sale of wool and wine and later of cloth has gone.
Three fairs on the feasts of St Martin and St Peter and on 25th of February were granted in 1708.
In 1381 Edward III., while inspecting former charters, granted that the burgesses might hold the borough with fairs, markets and free customs at a fee-farm of £70, and that every year they might choose a mayor and four bailiffs.
Besides the fairs granted to the burgesses by Edward I., two others were granted by Charles II.
The first account of the borough and its privileges is contained in an inquisition taken in 1333 after the death of Anthony, bishop of Durham, which shows that the burgesses held the town with the markets and fairs at a fee-farm rent of 40 marks yearly, and that they had two reeves who sat in court with the bishop's bailiff to hear the disputes of the townspeople.
A prescriptive market is held on Saturdays; two fairs of like nature have disappeared.
The fairs and markets belonged to the archbishops of York until they were transferred to the bishop of Ripon in 1837.
renewed the bishop's licence to hold a Monday market, and annual fairs were held here from very early times.
The fairs granted in 1553 for the 1st of February and the 10th of September are now held on altered dates.
Fairs were granted by Richard I.
The first existing grant of a market and fairs to Bridport is dated 1593, but it appears from the Quo Warranto Rolls that Edward I.
Five fairs are held annually.
The charter of 1576 confirms this market and fair to the burgesses, and grants them two new fairs each continuing for two days, on Tuesday after Easter and on the feast of St Matthew the Apostle.
to the monks of Tavistock; and in 1552 two fairs on April 23 and November 28 were granted by Edward VI.
instituted a Tuesday market and fairs on the Thursday after Whitsunday and at the feast of St Swithin.
In 1822 the old fairs were abolished in favour of six fairs on the second Wednesdays in May, July, September, October, November and December.
The cattle and sheep fairs are important, and an agricultural show is held every May.
Fairs were granted in 1300, 1353 and 1529, to be held at the feasts of Trinity, Michaelmas and St Simon and St Jude, and are now held on Trinity Monday, the 14th of March, the 19th of September and the 8th of November.
a moiety of the manor was purchased by Sir Walter Beauchamp, who granted a charter to the inhabitants of the town establishing a Tuesday market for corn, cattle, and all kinds of merchandise, and also obtained grants of fairs at the feasts of St Giles (afterwards transferred to the feast of St Faith) and St Barnabas.
The ancient fairs survived to the end of the 19th century.
The charter of 1562 granted three annual fairs to Langport, on the 28th of June, the 11th of November and the second Monday in Lent.
The history of furs can be read in Marco Polo, as he grows eloquent with the description of the rich skins of the khan of Tatary; in the early fathers of the church, who lament their introduction into Rome and Byzantium as an evidence of barbaric and debasing luxury; in the political history of Russia, stretching out a powerful arm over Siberia to secure her rich treasures; in the story of the French occupation of Canada, and the ascent of the St Lawrence to Lake Superior, and the subsequent contest to retain possession against England; in the history of early settlements of New England, New York and Virginia; in Irving's Astoria; in the records of the Hudson's Bay Company; and in the annals of the fairs held at Nizhniy Novgorod and Leipzig.
Fairs are also held in Siberia, Russia and Germany for the distribution of fur skins as follows: January: Frankfort-on-theSmall collection of pro Oder vincial produce, such as otter, fox, fitch and marten.
There is a large trade in cattle with Petropavlovsk, and considerable export of grain, tallow, meat, hides, butter, game and fish, there being three large fairs in the year.
The fairs and markets in Darlington were formerly held by the bishop and were in existence as early as the 1 ith century.
The markets and fairs were finally in 1854 purchased by the local authority, and now belong to the corporation.
in 1684 by a grant of fairs in April and September.
Except during the three winter months fairs are now held monthly, the chief being "Barnaby" in June, when the town keeps a week's holiday.
With the extension of the railways the fairs have lost much of their importance, but their aggregate yearly returns are still estimated at £3,000,000.
The principal fairs are held at Warsaw (wool, hemp, hops), Lcczyca in Kalisz, Skaryszew in Radom, Ciechanoviec in Lomza, and Lowicz in Warsaw.
A fair was granted in the time of Henry II., and fairs in the seasons of Michaelmas and the feasts of St Philip and St James and of Edward the Confessor,.
Charters to the burghers authorized fairs on the days of St Peter and of St Simon and St Jude in 1554, on St Bartholomew's day in 1605, in Mid-lent week in 1665, and on the feast of the Purification and on the 2nd of May in 1685; these fairs have modern representatives.
A market for each Saturday was granted to Corfe in 1214, and in 1248 the town obtained a fair and a market on each Thursday, while Elizabeth granted fairs on the feasts of St Philip and St James and of St Luke; both of these still survive.
Of the fairs, those on December 7th to 9th and March 24th to 26th are held under a charter of Henry IV.
The Tirgului supplies water-power for several paper-mills; annual fairs are held on the 10th of July and the 24th of October; and there is a considerable traffic with Transylvania,over the Torzburg Pass, 15 m.
In 1316 the prior of Tywardreath, as lord of the manor, obtained the right to hold a Monday market and two fairs on the feasts of St Finbar and St Lucy, but by the charter of 1690 provision was made for a Saturday market and three fairs, on the 1st of May, 10th of September and Shrove Tuesday, and only these three continue to be held.
A mayor of Altrincham is mentioned by name in 1452, but the office probably existed long before this date; it has now for centuries been a purely nominal appointment, the chief duty consisting in the opening of the annual fairs.
The leading manufactures are ginghams, tweeds and shirtings, and the town is also an important agricultural centre, stock sales taking place at regular intervals and cattle and horse fairs being held every year.
There was to be a court of record, a market on Saturdays and fairs at Michaelmas and Candlemas.
provided that there should be a mayor and II aldermen, 36 free burgesses, 4 fairs and a court of pie powder.
In 1574 a charter of incorporation was granted, providing for a mayor and 11 burgesses, also for a market on Wednesdays and two fairs.
Of the markets and fairs only the markets on Wednesdays and Saturdays and a fair on the 6th of May remain.
They dance in public, at fairs and religious festivals, and at private festivities, but, it is said, not in respectable houses.
Independently of the illustration of written or printed books, for which purpose woodcuts were almost exclusively used, separate engravings or sets of engravings in both kinds were produced, the more finely wrought and more expensive, appealing especially to the more educated classes, on copper, the bolder, simpler and cheaper on wood; and both kinds found a ready sale at all the markets, fairs and church festivals of the land.
It is certain that Richard king of the Romans provided that the three fairs, on the two feasts of St Michael and at Mid-Lent, and the three markets which had hitherto been held by the priors of St Michael's Mount on land not their own at Marghasbighan, should in future be held on their own land at Marchadyou.
He transferred in fact the fairs and markets from the demesne lands of the Bloyous in Marazion to those of the prior.
Of the fairs only the Michaelmas fair has survived and all the markets have gone.
In 1227 a market on Monday and a fair on the vigil and day of St Luke the Evangelist were granted to the archbishop, and in 1320 Archbishop Melton obtained the right of holding two new fairs on the feasts of St James the Apostle lasting five days and of SS.
confirmed the three existing fairs and granted an additional fair on the Thursday before Quinquagesima Sunday.
Peter and Paul, which was maintained until within recent years, when fairs were also held at the feast of St Mark, chiefly for linen cloth, under grant from Charles I.
In 1504 the bailiff and inhabitants of Boroughbridge received a grant of two fairs, and Charles II.
in 1670 created three new fairs in the borough, on the 12th of June, the 5th of August and the 12th of October, and leased them to Francis Calvert and Thomas Wilkinson for ninety-nine years.
Considerable agricultural markets and fairs are held.
The market and fairs had, however, existed before the granting of these charters.
The fairs are still held, as well as the Wednesday chartered market, besides a Saturday market which is probably customary.
in 1235 granted to the abbot two annual fairs, one in December (which still survives), the other the great St Matthew's fair, which was abolished by the Fairs Act of 1871.
The reversion of the fairs and two markets on Wednesday and Saturday were granted by James I.
Buying and selling in their aspects most characteristic of India are to be seen, not at these great towns, nor even at the weekly markets, but at the fairs which are held periodically at certain spots in most districts.
A weekly market and yearly fairs were granted to Sir John Lowther in 1660; two fairs were held in 1888; and the market days are now Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday.
In 1125 Beaucaire came into the possession of the counts of Toulouse, one of whom, Raymund VI., established the importance of its fairs by the grant of privileges.
granted the earl of Dorset a market on Thursday instead of the Saturday market, and fairs on the 16th of April and the 26th of September every year.
Important horse and cattle fairs are held in the town.
Dulwich Park (72 acres) and Peckham Rye Common and Park (113 acres) are the largest of several public grounds, and Camberwell Green was once celebrated for its fairs.
As is common throughout Malayan lands, the trade of North Borneo is largely in the hands of Chinese shopkeepers who send their agents inland to attend the Tamus (Malay, temu, to meet) or fairs, which are the recognized scenes of barter between the natives of the interior and those of the coast.
The same holds good with regard to all other stuffs, the prices of wool (provisionally established at the earlier fairs of south-western Russia) being ultimately settled at Nizhniy, as well as those of raw silk.
Two other fairs of some importance are held at Nizhniy - one for wooden wares on the ice of the Oka, and another, in June, for horses.
Fairs are now held on the 4th of May and the 29th of October under the original grants.
in 1680 gave the burgesses another charter granting among other privileges that of holding two extra fairs, but of this they never appear to have taken advantage.
In 1275 Amicia, countess of Devon, claimed to hold fairs at Tiverton at the feasts of St Andrew and St Giles, and at the translation of St Thomas the Martyr.
In 1618 the borough received its first charter of incorporation from James I., instituting a governing body of a mayor, 12 chief burgesses, and 12 assistant burgesses, with a recorder, deputy-recorder, townclerk and two serjeants-at-mace; a court of record every fortnight on Tuesday; and fairs at Michaelmas and on the second Tuesday after Trinity Sunday, which were kept up until within the last fifty years.
granted by charter to John Mansel a weekly market on Monday and two fairs, each of three days, beginning on the eve of Ascension Day and on the eve of All Saints' Day, October 28th.
It has a population (1907) of 54,437, is the capital of the rich province of Gharbia, and is noted for its fairs and Moslem festivals, which are held three times a year in honour of Seyyid el-Bedawi, and are sometimes attended by 200,000 pilgrims and traders.
From very early times markets were held within the borough on Thursday and Saturday, and in 1285 Richard Fitzalan, earl of Arundel, obtained a grant of two annual fairs on the 14th of May and the 17th of December.
There are no early charters extant, but in 1586 Elizabeth acknowledged the right of the mayor and burgesses to be a body corporate and to hold a court for pleas under forty shillings, two weekly markets and four annual fairs - which rights they claimed to have exercised from time immemorial.
The upland tracts also afford good pasturage for a number of cobs and ponies, which obtain high prices at the local fairs, and Pembrokeshire and Cardiganshire have long been famous for their breed of horses and ponies.
Under the domination of the counts of Champagne, it became the scene of important fairs which did not cease till 1648.
This is no longer held, but fairs at Candlemas and St James, of ancient but uncertain origin, remain.
In 1813 a weekly market on Saturday and four annual fairs were granted.
Fairs known as Tarr fair and Michaelmas fair are now held on the second Mondays in September and October and are chiefly important for the sale of horses and cattle.
The old dramatists came to write for the lower classes only, and though the school lingered on, its productions were performed solely by travelling companies at country fairs.
In the 14th century the abbot of Fecamp held weekly markets in the borough on Wednesdays and Saturdays, and fairs at the Nativity of the Virgin and the Feast of St Michael, by prescriptive right.
Four annual fairs were appointed, namely on the 8th of May, 2nd of July, 15th of August and 8th of October - the first, however, being the only new one.
Fifteen diets were held here during the middle ages, when its fairs enjoyed the importance which was afterwards transferred to those of Leipzig.
Two fairs, one of which has considerable importance for the whole of south-eastern Russia, are held here yearly.
1266 he granted fairs at the Feasts of the Assumption and St Matthew.
Besides the fairs already mentioned a third was added by Elizabeth's charter to be held on Ascension Day.
These are still among the most considerable cattle fairs in the county.
The markets and fairs are good, and the ales, mills (corn and paper) and tanneries locally famous.
Three annual fairs are held.
Two fairs, on Michaelmas day and September 21, were granted in 1399.
The Tuesday market, which is still held, and two fairs on October 28 and May 6, were granted in 1417 to Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick.
For purposes of markets certain provisions of the Markets and Fairs Clauses Act 1847 are incorporated with the Public Health Act.
A great number of other statutes confer powers or impose duties upon district councils, such as the acts relating to town gardens, agricultural gangs, fairs, petroleum, infant life protection, commons, open spaces, canal boats, factories and workshops, margarine, sale of horse-flesh and shop hours.
granted two fairs on Basingstoke Down at Easter and on the Loth and 11th of September.
Queen Mary's charter instituted a Wednesday market and fairs at the feasts of the Annunciation and the Invention of the Holy Cross.
In 3579 John Pakington obtained a grant of two annual fairs to be held on the day before Palm Sunday and on the feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross, and a Monday market for the sale of horses and other animals, grain and merchandise.
A number of small trading villages exist throughout the district, and each locality has its periodical fairs for purposes of traffic. The material condition of the people is good.
In the reign of Elizabeth the market was held on Monday, and there were two annual fairs at the feasts of the Purification of the Virgin and the Decollation of John the Baptist.
The market was transferred to Thursday in the next reign, and the fairs in the 18th century had become seven in number.
The art of the glass-workers was taken under the protection of the Government in 1275, and regulated by a special code of laws and privileges; two fairs were held annually, and the export of all materials, such as alum and sand, which enter into the composition of glass was absolutely forbidden.
It carries on an active trade in cattle, horses, corn and honey, while four well-attended fairs are held annually.
At all events, long before Mahomet we find Mecca established in the twofold quality of a commercial centre and a privileged holy place, surrounded by an inviolable territory (the Haram), which was not the sanctuary of a single tribe but a place of pilgrimage, where religious observances were associated with a series of annual fairs at different points in the vicinity.
The first of the series of fairs in which the Meccans had an interest was at Okaz on the easier road between Mecca and Taif, where there was also a sanctuary, and from it the visitors moved on to points still nearer Mecca (Majanna, and finally Dhul-Majaz, on the flank of Jebel Kabkab behind Arafa) where further fairs were held, 3 culminating in the special religious ceremonies of the great feast at `Arafa, Quzah (Mozdalifa), and Mecca itself.
But the ancient "fairs of heathenism" were given up, and the traffic of the pilgrim season, sanctioned by the Prophet in Sur.
' The older fairs were not entirely deserted till the troubles of the last days of the Ornayyads (Azraqi, p. 131).
It is uncertain when the Thursday market was granted, but the present fairs on the Feasts of SS Philip and James and All Saints were granted in 1453.
Several well-attended fairs are held here annually.
He also altered the market-day from Sunday to Wednesday, and gave licence for the fairs, which had been held " from time immemorial " on the feasts of SS.
Large fairs are held for the sale of agricultural produce and livestock.
Annual fairs are held.
The village consists of wooden cottages with an inn (gdstgifvaregard), a church, and frequently a collection of huts without windows, closed in summer, but inhabited by the Lapps when they come down from the mountains to the winter fairs.
The only seaport of importance in the county, it has a considerable export trade in peat fuel, extensive fisheries, and flagstone quarries; while general fairs, horse fairs and annual agricultural shows are held.
In 1553 Mary granted two fairs to the earl of Derby.
incorporated the town under a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 26 burgesses, granted three new fairs and confirmed the old fair and market.
In 1708 Anne granted four fairs to the earl of Bridgewater, and in 1886 the borough had a new charter of incorporation under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors under the Municipal Corporations Act of 1882.
(who granted two annual fairs) in 1.606, and by Charles I.
The fairs and markets became so unimportant that they were discontinued about the middle of the 19th century.
The foreign articles of luxury (dress, ornaments, wine, &c.) required by them were brought to the great oenachs or fairs held periodically in various parts of the country.
Tradition connects the better known of these fairs with pagan rites performed round the tombs of the heroes of the race; thus the assembly of Telltown was stated to have been instituted by Lugaid Lamfada.
The following description by a resident in Munster was published in The Times of the 5th of November 1885: " Boycotting means that a peaceable subject of the queen is denied food and drink, and that he is ruined in his business; that his cattle are unsaleable at fairs; that the smith will not shoe his horse, nor the carpenter mend his cart; that old friends pass him by on the other side, making the sign of the cross; that his children are hooted at the village school; that.
The town, which has a town-hall and assembly rooms, possesses iron foundries and a considerable agricultural trade, with cattle fairs.
In it he granted them the same privileges as the citizens of York, among these being a gild merchant and freedom from toll throughout the whole of Yorkshire, with right to take it at all the markets and fairs in their town except at the three principal fairs, the toll of which belonged to the archbishop. In 1200 King John granted the town a new charter, for which the burgesses had to pay 500 marks.
In 1 5541 555 Queen Mary granted the three fairs on the feasts of St John the Confessor, the Translation of St John and the Nativity of St John the Baptist, together with the weekly markets on Wednesday and Saturday, which had been held by the archbishops of York by traditional grant of Edward the Confessor to the burgesses of the town.
The whole, in the time of the great fairs, when every available place is packed with merchandise and thronged with a motley crowd, presents the semblance of an oriental bazaar.
Here is the new Gewandhaus, or Konzerthaus, built in 1880-1884, in which the famous concerts called after its name are given, the old Gewandhaus, or Drapers' Hall, in the inner town having again been devoted to commercial use as a market hall during the fairs.
- The outstanding importance of Leipzig as a commercial town is mainly derived from its three great fairs, which annually attract an enormous concourse of merchants from all parts of Europe, and from Persia, Armenia and other Asiatic countries.
The most important fairs are held at Easter and Michaelmas, and are said to have been founded as markets about 1170.
In 1268 the margrave of Meissen granted a safe-conduct to all frequenters of the fairs, and in 1497 and 1507 the emperor Maximilian I.
During the Thirty Years' War, the Seven Years' War and the troubles consequent upon the French Revolution, the trade of the Leipzig fairs considerably decreased, but it recovered after the accession of Saxony to the German Customs Union (Zollverein) in 1834, and for the next twenty years rapidly and steadily increased.
Since then, owing to the greater facilities of communication, the transactions at the fairs have diminished in relative, though they have increased in actual, value.
Wares that can be safely purchased by sample appear at the fairs in steadily diminishing quantities, while others, such as hides, furs and leather, which require to be actually examined, show as marked an increase.
It was no longer upon religion or morality, it was upon imperial and Roman rights that these chevaliers s lois based the princes omnipotence; and nothing more clearly marks the new tradition which was being elaborated than the fact that all the great events of Philip the Fairs reign were lawsuits.
Italy not only gave him a taste for art and letters, but furnished him with an arsenal of despotic maxims. Yet his true masters were the jurists of the southern universities, passionately addicted to centralization and autocracy, men like Duprat and Poyet, who revived the persistent tradition of Philip the Fairs legists.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.