Lewis, however, has shown that the fainter component of the binary system is often the more massive.
With the development of observational astronomy the sidereal universe was arbitrarily divided into areas characterized by special assemblages of stars; these assemblages were named asterisms by Ptolemy, who termed the brightest stars "of the fi rst magnitude," and the progressively fainter Stars.
The same result for the great mass of fainter stars has been shown by Seeliger.
But their claims to be the principal authors of the Aegean remains grew fainter with every fresh Aegean discovery, and every new light thrown on their own proper products; with the Cretan revelations they ceased altogether to be considered except by a few Homeric enthusiasts.
It may be that these fainter components are still in the stage when the temperature is rising, and the luminosity is as yet comparatively small; but it is not impossible that the massive stars (owing to their greater gravitation) pass through the earlier stages of evolution more rapidly than the smaller stars.
With catalogues containing fainter stars the proportion of large proper motions is somewhat smaller, thus the corresponding percentages for the Groombridge stars are 12 and 31 respectively.
There is no a priori reason to expect the same result from the different classes of stars, such as the brighter or fainter, northern or southern, nearer or more distant, Solar type or Sirian stars.
There is for example some evidence that the declination of the solar apex is really increased when the motion is referred to fainter stars.
They have been shown to prevail among fainter stars down to magnitude 9.5, by an examination of the Greenwich-Carri,Igton proper motions; these, however, only cover a region within 9° of the north pole.
In general, the fainter the stars included in the discussion the more marked is their crowding towards the galactic plane.
Dyson and Thackeray's tables show the same result for the Groombridge stars down to magnitude 6.5; but the fainter stars (with centennial proper motions greater than 5") show a marked tendency to draw towards the galactic circle.
Intensity is zero, and this band is accompanied by a number of fainter images corresponding to the diffraction of a star image in a telescope.
Another interesting feature is that, where the two components differ in brightness, the fainter component is often the one possessing the greater mass.
The plan of settling Leix and Offaly by dividing the country between colonists and natives holding by English tenure failed, owing to the unconquerable love of the people for their own customs. But resistance gradually grew fainter, and we hear little of the O'Connors after this.
The caleche flew over the ground as fast as the horses could draw it, but for a long time Count Rostopchin still heard the insane despairing screams growing fainter in the distance, while his eyes saw nothing but the astonished, frightened, bloodstained face of "the traitor" in the fur-lined coat.
Sometimes an outer bow, the secondary rainbow, is observed; this is much fainter than the primary bow, and it exhibits the same play of colours, with the important distinction that the order is reversed, the red being inside and the violet outside.
Thus, rays suffering one internal reflection will all lie within a cone of about 42°; in this direction the illumination will be most intense; within the cone the illumination will be fainter, while, without it, no light will be transmitted to the eye.
We thus see that the order of colours in the secondary bow is the reverse of that in the primary; the secondary is half as broad again (3°), and is much fainter, owing to the longer path of the ray in the drop, and the increased dispersion.
The colours are much fainter, and according to Aristotle, who claims to be the first observer of this phenomenon, the lunar bows are only seen when the moon is full.
In this case the second bow is much fainter, and has its centre as much above the horizon as that of the direct system is below it.
10 A screen of wire gauze, placed in front of the segment through which the fainter star is viewed, was, employed by Bessel to equalize the brilliancy of the images under observation.
In the spectroscope calcium exhibits two intense lines-an orange line (a), (X 6163), a green line (a), (X 4229), and a fainter indigo line.
With the object of reaching fainter stars, Professor Pickering constructed another instrument of larger dimensions, and with this more than a million observations have been made.
Generally speaking, the colour of the head, neck, and upper-parts of the body was reddish-brown, irregularly banded and marked with dark brown stripes, stronger on the head and neck and gradually becoming fainter until lost behind the shoulder.
Corum, a double star, of magnitudes 3 and 6; this star was named Cor Caroli, or The Heart of Charles II., by Edmund Halley, on the suggestion of Sir Charles Scarborough (1616-1694), the court physician; a cluster of stars of the firth magnitude and fainter, extremely rich in variables, of the goo stars examined no less than 132 being regularly variable.
The most complete hydrogen spectrum is that measured by Evershed 8 in the flash spectrum observed during a total solar eclipse, and contains thirty-one lines, all of which agree with considerable accuracy with the formula, if the frequency number n is calculated correctly by reducing the wave-length to vacuo.9 It is a characteristic of Balmer's formula that the frequency approaches a definite limit as s is increased, and it was soon discovered that in several other spectra besides hydrogen, series of lines could be found, which gradually come nearer and nearer to each other as they become fainter, and approach a definite limit.
The psychological conception, then, on the basis of which Hume proceeds to discuss the theory of knowledge, is that of conscious experience as containing merely the succession of isolated impressions and their fainter copies, ideas, and as bound on.
It is almost superfluous to remark, first, that Hume here deliberately gives up his fundamental principle that ideas are but the fainter copies of impressions, for it can never be maintained that order of disposition is an impression, and, secondly, that he fails to offer any explanation of the mode in which coexistence and succession are possible elements, of cognition in a conscious experience made up of isolated presentations and representations.
These are the fainter images produced by repeated sensations, the " ideas " resulting from previous " impressions "- sensations at second-hand as it were, which are stored up in memory, and which a general name serves to recall.
Of the behaviour of stars fainter than magnitude 9.5 there is at present no direct evidence.
We infer that nearly all the stars down to magnitude 6.5, whose proper motions exceed 5", are at a distance from the sun less than SP, whilst of the fainter stars with equally great proper motions a large proportion are at a distance greater than SP. This result enables us to form some sort of idea of the distance SP.
The result of course only applies to the brighter stars, for we have very little knowledge of the spectra 'of stars fainter than about magnitude 7.5.
In the middle of the wide intervals between the broad black stripes of the flanks and haunches fainter stripes are generally seen.
Some lines of certain elements are always seen fainter or thinner than on the photosphere, or even wholly obliterated; others sometimes show the same features, but not always; other lines of the same elements, perhaps originating at a level above the spot, are not affected; there are also bright streaks where even the general absorption of the spot is absent, and sometimes such a bright line will correspond to a dark line on the photosphere; most generally the lines are intensified, generally in breadth, sometimes in darkness, sometimes in both together, sometimes in one at the expense of the other; certain lines not seen in the photosphere show only across the umbra, others cross umbra and penumbra, others reach a short distance over the photosphere.
Several estimates have been made which agree well together; whether direct use is made of known parallaxes, or comparison is made with binaries of well-determined orbits of the same spectral type as the sun, in which therefore it may be assumed there is the same relation between mass and brilliancy (Gore), the result is found that the sun's magnitude is - 26.5, or the sun is Io n times as brilliant as a first magnitude star; it would follow that the sun viewed from a Centauri would appear as of magnitude 0.7, and from a star of average distance which has a parallax certainly less than o 1 ", it would be at least fainter than the fifth magnitude, or, say, upon the border-line for naked-eye visibility.