Tobacco factories 16,000
rope-walks, a tool factory, cigar factories, paper mills, &c.
In the town are cotton factories and a tannery.
Soon after the introduction of machinery, spinning factories were erected, and the first built in Bolton is said to have been set up in 1780.
See also Meakin's Model Factories and Villages (1905).
Nantwich has tanneries, a manufacture of boots and shoes, and clothing factories; and corn-milling and iron-founding are carried on.
Nantwich has tanneries, a manufacture of boots and shoes, and clothing factories; and corn-milling and iron-founding are carried on.
Battersea is a district mainly consisting of artisans' houses, and there are several large factories by the river.
In 1898f 899 there were only four sugar factories, with an output of 5972 tons; In 1905 there were thirty-three, with an output of 93,916 tons.
There are factories for ginning and pressing cotton.
The jute industry is concentrated in a few large factories, which from 1887 onwards have more than supplied the home market, and have begun considerably to export.
The jute industry is concentrated in a few large factories, which from 1887 onwards have more than supplied the home market, and have begun considerably to export.
Among the industrial establishments of the city are stove and range factories, flour mills, rolling mills, distilleries, breweries, shoe factories, copper refining works, nail and tack factories, glass works and agricultural implement factories.
Helmond is one of the industrial centres of the province, and possesses over a score of factories for cotton and silk weaving, cotton printing, dyeing, iron founding, brewing, soap boiling and tobacco dressing, as well as engine works and a margarine factory.
The total salt production in 1902 was 458,497 tons, of which 248,2i5 were produced in the government salt factories and the rest in the free salt-works of Sicily.
Among the industrial establishments of the city are stove and range factories, flour mills, rolling mills, distilleries, breweries, shoe factories, copper refining works, nail and tack factories, glass works and agricultural implement factories.
There were bazaars, shops, warehouses, market stalls, granaries--for the most part still stocked with goods-- and there were factories and workshops, palaces and wealthy houses filled with luxuries, hospitals, prisons, government offices, churches, and cathedrals.
When all the factories run themselves, when energy is free, when scarcity is ended, when material needs are all met, it will be a different world.
So these former farmers got jobs in factories, learned to repair equipment, solved problems, became line managers, suggested improvements to processes, and got paid for their effort.
(Not to mention the fact that, if the stuff all hits the fan, widget factories like yours would almost certainly be marked with bull's-eyes on the enemy's aerial bombing maps.)
There are a sugar refinery and cooperage works, as well as large sawmills, shingle factories and many other industrial concerns.
Here are iron, machinery and brick works, tanneries, distilleries, and factories for jam, mustard and mead.
In 1902-1903 there were 219 match factories scattered throughout Italy, but especially in Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia.
The number has been reduced to less than half since 1897 by the suppression of smaller factories, while the production has increased from 47,690 millions to 59,741 millions.
Brilliantly colored spots and patches follow the action of acid fumes on the vegetation near towns and factories, and such particoloured leaves often present striking resemblance to autumn foliage.
and central Russia, and have led recently to the establishment of factories for canning fruit and for making jam and pickles.
At Lodz alone the workmen, in great part Germans and Jews, number between 50,000 and 60,000, and the total output of the factories is estimated at £9,000,000 to £10,500,000 annually.
Out of these have grown large factories, employing as many as 10,000 to 12,000 men each; but when harvest comes round, these men leave the factories and repair to their fields, and meantime the factories stand still for two or three months.
It is the principal seat of the linen trade in the county, and has extensive cloth and thread factories, bleachfields and chemical works.
There are extensive woollen and cotton factories, and, in the neighbourhood, a large limestone quarry.
There are factories for coir-matting.
Rubber factories 9,000 2 000
The cotton factories excel chiefly in the production of red and printed cottons.
Extensive coal mines are in the vicinity, and there are manufactures of iron and steel, mill machinery, door and sash factories, etc., as well as several shipbuilding yards.
along both banks of the river, the mills and factories occupying the valley by the stream, the villas and better-class houses the high-lying ground on either side.
It has iron foundries, machinery factories, railway workshops and a considerable trade in cattle, and among its other industries are weaving and malting and the manufacture of cloth.
The industries of the town and its environs (Sandnaes, &c.) are prosperous, including factories for preserved foods, woollens and linens, lime, iodine from seaweed, and domestic commodities.
of Bay City, are beet-sugar factories - sugar beets are extensively grown in the vicinity.
Asheville is a market for live-stock, dairy products, lumber and fruits, and has various manufactories (in which a good water-power is utilized), including tanneries, cotton mills, brick and tile factories, and a wood-working and veneer plant.
It is in the heart of the manufacturing district of the West Riding, and has large woollen and worsted factories; carpets, machinery and soap are also produced.
from its own port of Punta Santiago, with which it is connected by a good road; a railway was under construction in 1908, and some of the sugar factories of the department are now connected by rail with the port.
As a river-port and the terminus of railways from Varna and from Sofia via Trnovo, it has much commercial importance; and it possesses tobacco and cigarette factories, soap-works, breweries, aerated water factories, dyeworks, tanneries, sawmills, brick and tile works and a celebrated pottery.
It has several ginning factories and a cotton-mill; two high schools, one maintained by the Government and the other by the Basel German Mission.
For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.
In the case of factories the exhaust steam from the engines used for driving the working machinery is made use of and forms the most economical method of heating possible.
In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries.
The lack of employment in factories naturally affected the coal mining industry, and indeed every industry in the states, except those connected with the export trade, was severely affected.
This report led to the passing of a number of acts which, proving ineffectual, were followed by the Factories and Shops Act of 1896, passed by the ministry of Mr (afterwards Sir Alexander) Peacock.
The general administration of the Factories and Shops Acts, to which the special boards owe their being, is vested in a chief inspector of factories, subject to the control of the minister of Labour in matters of policy.
Factories for cleaning and baling raw cotton and for extracting cotton oil were set up, and employed a large number of people, mostly in Ferghana.
Furniture and cabinet-making in great factories are carried on particularly in Lombardy and Piedmont.
Bent-wood factories have been established in Venetia and Liguria.
Taxable revenue corresponds to two-thirds of actual income from factories and to three-fourths of actual income from houses; it is ascertained by the agents of the financial administration.
The main industries are cotton-spinning, flax-spinning, cottonprinting, tanning and sugar refining; in addition to which there are iron and copper foundries, machine-building works, breweries and factories of soap, paper, tobacco, &c. As a trading centre the city is even more important.
In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.
From the tenth voyage of the East India Company, commanded by Captain Best, who left England in 1612, dates the establishment of permanent British factories on the coast of India.
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 were various large and important manufactories, including railway shops, foundries, slaughterhouses, ice factories and brick-yards.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
There are factories for coffee-cleaning, employing several hundred hands; for coir-pressing and timber-cutting.
It contains breweries, tanneries, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and silk factories, and exports skins, cloth, cocoons, cereals, attar of roses, "dried fruit, &c. Sofia forms the centre of a railway system radiating to Constantinople (300 m.), Belgrade (206 m.) and central Europe, Varna, Rustchuk and the Danube, and Kiustendil near the Macedonian frontier.
Tanneries exist in nearly every government, but it is especially at Warsaw and St Petersburg, and after these at Moscow, that the largest and best modern tanneries and shoe and glove factories are established.
From the tenth voyage of the East India Company, commanded by Captain Best, who left England in 1612, dates the establishment of permanent British factories on the coast of India.
During the day, the city is mixed with the hubbub of steel fabrication, milling and plastic factories.
Erith has large engineering and gun factories, and in the neighbourhood are gunpowder, oil, glue and manure works.
It is estimated that for domestic purposes nearly 150,000,000 tons of wood are consumed every year, while the steamships, railways and factories consume another 20 or 25 million tons.
Much of the natural gas is piped out of the state into Ohio (even into the northern parts), Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Maryland; within the state gas has been utilized as a fuel in carbon black and glass factories.
Alcohol is made from the refuse molasses obtained from these beet-sugar factories.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 there were many large manufactories, including the repair shops of the Southern railroad; iron and steel, car wheels and cotton-oil were among the products of the suburban factories.
Falun has also railway rolling-stock factories.
Sugar beet is extensively grown to supply the sugar factories.
The plaiting is done by country women, while the hats are made up in factories.
Since their emancipation in 1861, the peasants of the central governments of Russia have in large numbers drifted away into the black earth zone, or have gone to the factories.
before the 19th century, that is to say, industries carried on with capital and machinery in large factories.
The governments of Orel (shoe factories), Kherson, Vyatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm, Kiev and Kazan rank next in this respect.
Furniture factories are developing greatly, as is the paper industry.
Flour-mills play an important part in the general industry of Russia, and there are several tobacco and hemp factories.
Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
Such statistics of the special census of manufactures (under the factory system) of 1905 as are comparable with those of 1900 show 99 factories in 1900 and 115 in 1905, an increase of 16.2%.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
The only manufacturing industries of importance are cotton mills, sugar factories and distilleries, one of the largest sugar usines in Brazil being located at Riachuelo near Larangeiras.
There are many industries in the town, especially silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture of cutlery and scientific instruments.
Mossley has foundries, mill-works, woollen factories, and large cotton-spinning mills.
It is a district of poor streets, inhabited by a labouring population employed in leather and other factories, and in the Surrey Commercial Docks and the wharves bordering the river.
His policy during the occupation of the factories by the workmen organized by Bolshevist leaders in Sept.
It has a royal shell factory, calico-printing mills, lignite mines, stone quarries and pottery and tobacco factories.
Soap is produced at fifteen factories in the principal towns, and there are two distilleries of cognac at Candia.
It is a market for live-stock, and for dairy and farm products, and has slaughtering and packing establishments, flour mills, creameries and cheese factories, canning and preserving factories, carriage works, a flax fibre mill and grain elevators.
Besides the petroleum refineries the town possesses oil-works (for fuel), flour-mills, sulphuric acid works and tobacco factories.
There are cotton and cigarette factories at the town of Tepic, besides sugar works and distilleries on the plantations.
Columbus is situated in a fine farming region, and has extensive tanneries, threshingmachine and traction and automobile engine works, structural iron works, tool and machine shops, canneries and furniture factories.
Manufacturing industry is confined to a few articles and commodities, such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries, tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries.
There are soap and flour mills and metallurgic factories in the town, and iron, copper and lead mines in the neighbouring Sierra de Almenara.
The ancient glass-bead industry (conterie), which some years since suffered severely from over-production, has now regained its position through the union of the different factories, by which the output is controlled in such a way as to render trade profitable.
Fambri was ruined by his enterprise, but other manufacturers, more expert than he, drew profit from his initiative, and founded flourishing factories at Pellestrina and Burano.
Sugar factories, distilleries, flour-mills, woollen mills, tanneries, potteries, tobacco factories, breweries, candle and soap factories, have an annual output valued at 4,000,000.
The French and Dutch factories were taken possession of by the English in the years 1778 and 1781 respectively.
has veneer mills here, and there are large box factories.
Buali, the capital, was situated on the banks of a small river not far from the port of Loango, where were several European "factories."
Most of the trade of Brielle was diverted to Hellevoetsluis by the cutting of the Voornsche Canal in 1829, but it still has some business in corn and fodder, as well as a few factories.
It possesses distilleries and brick-making factories, and has trade in cereals and cattle.
It has cotton factories, smelting works, potteries, tanneries, distilleries, and wagon and tobacco factories.
Manufacturing interests soon became important, and during the Civil War Atlanta was the seat of Confederate military factories and a depot of supplies.
The chief industries include distilleries, breweries, glass works, cigar factories and the ancient linen and cutlery manufactures.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
The principal industries are shipbuilding (iron), boiler and engineering works, iron and brass foundries, steam saw and planing mills, flour-mills, paper and paint factories, and soapworks.
In 1904 the total number of factories was 391, almost entirely cotton presses and ginning factories, which received an immense impetus from the rise in cotton prices.
Near the station, below the town, are factories of india-rubber and calcium carbide.
Elbeuf, a town of wide, clean streets, with handsome houses and factories, stands on the left bank of the Seine at the foot of hills over which extends the forest of Elbeuf.
Here is situated the Dreher brewery, the largest in the monarchy; and there are also important smelting and iron works, cotton-spinning, factories of electrical plant, &c. The meeting at Schwechat of the emperor Leopold I.
There are also iron foundries and machine factories.
Speculators either directly employed slaves as artisans or commercial and banking agents, or hired them out, sometimes for work in mines or factories, sometimes for service in private houses, as cooks, flute-players, &c., or for viler uses.
In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.
When Edwards wrote (1791), the number of European factories on the coasts of Africa was 40; of these 14 were English, 3 French, 15 Dutch, 4 Portuguese and 4 Danish.
It is the home of great numbers of the working classes of Sydney and some of the largest factories and most important docks are situated here.
Meissen also contains iron foundries, factories for making earthenware stoves and pottery, sugar refineries, breweries and tanneries.
Between 1900 and 1905 furniture factories and planing mills became somewhat important.
Since about 1880 there have been central factories, and their increase has been a very prominent factor in the development of the industry, as it has been in Cuba.
The tobacco industries are very largely concentrated in Havana, and there are factories in Santiago de las Vegas and Bejucal.
It has woollen mills, cotton compresses, clothing, furniture, and spoke and stave factories and machine shops, and is a cotton market.
Besides the sugar-refinery already mentioned, there were in Ig00 four tobacco factories, a national printing-press, an annular furnace for brick-burning, an iron-foundry and several blast-furnaces, under the management of the state.
Among the larger private establishments there existed in the same year seven breweries, one brandy distillery, two jam, two soap and candle factories, two building and furniture works, a factory for spinning thread, one iron and steel works, one paper and one ammonia and soda factory, and one mineral-oil refinery.
There is a national bank in Serajevo, which carries on a hypothecary credit business and manages the wholesale trade of the tobacco factories.
As a result some 60,000,000 mulberry trees were planted in Turkey during 1890-1910, involving the plantation of about 130,000 acres, and new magnaneries and spinning factories sprang up in every direction; while the revenue (silk tithe) increased in the regions administered by the council from £T17,000 in1881-1882to LT125,000 in 1906-1907, the value of the silk crop in those regions having thus advanced by over £Tr,000,000.
The father was secretary in one of the numerous factories erected on the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean by the warlike and enterprising merchants of Pisa.
There are factories of linen and cotton goods, and of felt hats, paper mills, and a celebrated bell foundry at Annecy le Vieux.
Factories exist near Pnom-Penh for the shelling of cotton-seeds.
The city is situated in an agricultural and cotton-raising region, and has cotton compresses and gins, cotton mills, cotton-seed oil refineries, foundries and machine shops, and furniture and wagon factories.
Trautenau is the centre of the Bohemian linen industry and has factories for the manufacture of paper and for the utilization of the waste products of the other mills.
Besides the foregoing there are cocoa, chocolate, confectionery and baking-powder factories, coffee-roasting and ham-curing and smoking establishments, lard refineries, margarine manufactories and fish-curing, preserving and packing factories.
There are numerous breweries, producing annually about 24,000,000 gallons of beer, spirit distilleries and factories of artificial.
Yarns, textile goods and weaving industries generally have not attained any great dimensions, but there are large jute-spinning mills and factories for cotton-wool and cotton driving - belts.
It is a centre of the iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, calcium carbide and paper-roofing, brickworks and breweries.
within the city limits and furnishes water-power for factories; among the manufactures are textiles, boots and shoes, leather belting, sash, doors and blinds, carriages, machinery and bricks.
Several flour-mills and other factories have recently sprung up. Much grain is exported; timber is brought from the upper Volga, and manufactured wares from Nizhniy Novgorod.
There are indigo factories and two coal-mines.
His lucid style and the perfection of his experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at his house with a small circle of young students.
The centre of its great industrial activity is the capital, Vienna (q.v.); but in the region of the Wiener Wald up to the Semmering, owing to its many waters, which can be transformed into motive power, many factories are spread.
The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs.
Like Tilburg and Helmond it has developed in modern times into a flourishing industrial centre, having linen,, woollen, cotton, tobacco and cigar, matches, &c., factories and several breweries.
long, 27,000 tons) in the German mercantile marine, were built; and also sugar, cement and other factories.
In the 18th century Ashby was celebrated as one of the best markets for horses in England, and had besides prosperous factories for woollen and cotton stockings and for hats.
The losses of the Letts were due to: (a) the evacuation of the factories by the Russian Government; (b) the partly forced removal of the population of Courland before the German advance; (c) the wars.
There are cotton presses and ginning factories.
Most of the older buildings have made way for factories, so that the town-hall, dating from 1551, is an almost solitary witness to the town's medieval prosperity.
The industries embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services.
It has important cloth factories and a lively trade in fruit and wine.
There are cloth, artificial flower, and cigar factories, glass-works, potteries, and in the neighbourhood large granite quarries.
Since the creation of the republic, extreme protective measures have caused the creation of a large number of cotton factories and other manufactures, but these are able to supply only a part of the consumption, and the importation of cotton and woollen fabrics, silks, readymade clothing, boots and shoes, &c., is large.
cigarette factories, small chocolate factories, hat factories, brick and tile yards, potteries, tanneries, saddleries, and many other small industries common to all large communities.
Among these are flour mills, factories for the cutting of wire nails and making hollow ware from sheet iron, and factories for the manufacture of umbrellas, boots and shoes, &c.
There were 155 of these factories in 1895, but in 1905 only 108 were in operation, with 715,000 spindles, and about 37, 00 o operatives.
The factories are widely distributed, and some are favoured by state legislation in addition to the national tariff.
The manufacture of woollen blankets, cashmeres, flannels, &c., had also undergone noteworthy development and is carried on in fifteen factories, located principally in Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.
Biscuit-making is represented by a large number of factories, for the most part in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and there are a number of breweries of the most modern type in the same two states.
The arts and crafts associated with furniture work, paper-making and coach-building may also be specified, whilst tanneries, glassworks, india-rubber and vulcanite factories, brass-founding, machinery works, the making of biscuits, tea-bread and confectionery are all prominent.
Among Bristol's manufacturing establishments are machine shops, rolling mills, a planing mill, yarn, hosiery and worsted mills, and factories for making carpets, wall paper and patent leather.
Factories sprang up in the South in a few months, supplying the army with arms and munitions of war, and the energy of the president was everywhere apparent.
One of the first provincial factories and consulates of the British Turkey (Levant) Company was established there in the reign of James I.; and a British agent had been in residence there even in Elizabeth's time.
There are several large tobacco factories, flour mills, boot factories, sugar refineries, tanneries, tallow works, meat-preserving, glue and kerosene-oil factories and soap works.
It still contains, however, large factories for firearms military and sporting, and side arms, besides ironworks, machine-works, potteries and tanneries.
Water from the river is carried to factories by a canal on each side of the river and parallel to it; the first canal was built on the north side in1845-1847and is 1 m.
Besides the rock-salt, which is excavated by blasting, the saline deposits of Stassfurt yield a considerable quantity of deliquescent salts and other saline products, which have encouraged the foundation of numerous chemical factories in the town and in the neighbouring village of Leopoldshall, which lies in Anhalt territory.
The rock-salt works are mainly government property, while the chemical factories are in private hands.
There are a number of flour mills and jam factories in various centres.
Its industries include canneries, tanneries and wooden ware factories.
There are many large factories just outside the city limits.
It is an important centre of the silk industry, and has several silkspinning factories.
There are boot and shoe factories, chemical works and a manufactory of fustians, with salt-works and iron-works in the adjacent township of Wheelock.
But of late years the beauties of the Rhine have become sadly marred; the banks in places, especially between Coblenz and Bonn, disfigured by quarrying, the air made dense with the smoke of cement factories and steam-tugs, commanding spots falling a prey to the speculative builder and villages growing into towns.
The valley of the Lea is also thickly populated, but chiefly by an industrial population working in the numerous factories along this river.
The Council controls the provision of fire escapes in factories employing over 40 persons, under an act of 1901; it also compels the mainten ance of proper precautions against fire in theatres and places of entertainments.
No part of London can be pointed out as essentially a manufacturing quarter, and there is a strong tendency for manufacturing firms to establish their factories outside the metropolis.
Certain industries (not confined to factories) have long been associated with particular localities.
Its industrial establishments include factories for tobacco, cloth, matches, leather, artificial manure, besides breweries and distilleries.
Among the city's manufactories are breweries, iron and brass foundries, stove factories, knitting mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cigar and cigarette factories, and manufactories of adhesive pastes, court plaster, spring beds, ribbed underwear, aniline dyes, chemicals, gas meters, fire-brick, and glazed paper and cardboard.
Besides the making of vessels of all kinds the factories of Murano had for a long period almost an entire monopoly of two other branches of the art - the making of mirrors and of beads.
The positions of the factories were determined by the supply of wood for fuel, and subsequently, when the craft of glass-cutting was introduced, by the accessibility of water-power.
Owing to theAfashion of Dutch and Flemish painters introducing glass vases and drinking-glasses into their paintings of still life, interiors and scenes of conviviality, Holland and Belgium at the present day possess more accurate records of the products of their ancient glass factories than any other countries.
There were 105 factories in England, io in Scotland and io in Ireland.
obtained large concessions in the interior to develop the cultivation of the oil-palm and to erect factories on the spot for crushing the oil.
The Army operates (1) by outdoor meetings and processions; (2) by visiting public-houses, prisons, private houses; (3) by holding meetings in theatres, factories and other unusual buildings; (4) by using the most popular song-tunes and the language of everyday life, &c.; (5) by making every convert a dailywitness for Christ, both in public and private.
There C are no important industries, except a few flour-mills, some glass works, iron foundries, a motor car factory, straw hat factories, and power-houses supplying electricity for lighting and for the numerous tramcars.
Besides its copper works the town at present possesses extensive tinplate, steel and galvanized sheet works as well as iron and brass foundries, steam-engine factories, brick and tile works, engineering works, flannel factories and chemical works.
Many of the factories derive their motive power from the falls of a mountain torrent known as the Salto de las Aguas.
Hence in the latest designs for large factories it has been proposed that as much normal juice as can be extracted by double crushing only shall be treated by itself, and that the megass shall then be soused with twice as much water as there is juice remaining in it; after which, on being subjected to a third crushing, it will yield a degraded juice, which would also be treated by itself.
Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.
When a sufficient number are not available for a two hours' defecation, it is the practice in some factories to skim off the scums that rise to the top, and then boil up the juice for a few minutes and skim again, and, after repeating the operation once or twice, to run off the juice to separators or subsiders of any of the kinds previously described.
In some factories they are collected in suitable tanks, and steam is blown into them, which further coagulates the albuminous par Scums. tides.
In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass were consumed to make woo kilos of sugar.
Very similar kinds of sugar are also produced for local consumption in Central America and in Mexico, under the names of " Panela " and " Chancaca," but in those countries the sugar is generally boiled in pans placed over special fire-places, and the factories making it are on a comparatively small scale, whereas in the Straits Settlements the " basket sugar " factories are of considerable importance, and are fitted with the most approved machinery.
For this reason alone, and without taking into consideration any increase in the yield of sugar brought about by " crystallization in movement," the system is worthy of adoption in all sugar factories making crystal sugar.
Numerous central factories have been erected in several countries with plant of large capacity, and many of them work day and night for six days in the week.
There were 173 of these factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which the " Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,00o tons in the same time.
Of the 178 factories at work in Java in 1908-1909, nearly all had most efficient plant for treating the excellent canes grown in that favoured island.
Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.
In other factories the cells are arranged in lines and are charged from the slicer by suitable telescopic pipes or other convenient means.
These cakes, sold as food for cattle, fetch as much as £4 per ton in Rumania, where four or five beetroot factories are now at work.
In some factories for refining sugar made from beet or canes this system of carbonatation is used, and enables the refiner to work with syrups distinctly alkaline and to economize a notable amount of animal charcoal.
As in the beetroot factories, these machines work on different systems, but nearly all are arranged to turn out sugar in lumps or tablets presenting an appearance similar to that of loaf sugar made in moulds, as this kind of sugar meets with the greatest demand.
- Systematic feeding for the vacuum pan and systematic washing of the massecuite have been recently introduced not only into refineries, but also into sugar houses or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great advantages have resulted from their employment.
and beetroot factories were established at many centres both in Germany and in France.
It winds, a continuous strip of houses and factories, for 9 m.
In the centre of the town are a number of irregular and narrow streets, and the river, polluted by the refuse of dye-works and factories, constitutes a constant eyesore.
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
American experts are frequently employed to superintend the estates and factories.
There are large shoe factories and other manufactories.
The few other industries include rum distilleries and factories for chemicals, ice and tobacco.
The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.
The counter at London, first called the Steelyard in a parliamentary petition of 142 2, claimed jurisdiction over the other factories in England.
by rail from Zurich, and is the meeting-point of the routes from Italy over many Alpine passes (the Lukmanier, the Splugen, the San Bernardino) as well as from the Engadine (Albula, Julier), so that it is the centre of an active trade (particularly in wine from the Valtelline), though it possesses also a few local factories.
There are large woollen factories at Cuzco and Lima, the Santa Catalina factory at the latter place turning out cloth and cashmere for the army, blankets, counterpanes and underclothing.
There are cotton factories about Lima, at Ica and at Arequipa.
There are large cigarette factories in Lima, and others in Arequipa, Callao, Piura and Trujillo.
A large trade is carried on at Burgdorf in the cheese of the Emmenthal, while among the industrial establishments are railway workis, and factories of cloth, white lead and tinfoil.
Corn and saw mills, distilleries, chemical factories, breweries, candle-works, ink-works, foundries, agricultural machine and automobile works, have been established and are flourishing.
Several marble quarries are worked in the neighbourhood, and there are some large cement factories.
The principal crops are millet, wheat, other food grains, pulse, oilseeds and cotton; there is some manufacture of cotton-cloth and blankets, and there are ginning factories in the town.
Among the other manufactories are flouring and grist mills, planing mills, foundries, and factories for making agricultural implements, United States mail boxes, furniture, pianos, organs, automobiles, toys and electrical supplies.
There are several factories for pressing cotton, and for cleaning coffee, oilcake presses, tanneries and saltpetre refineries.
In 1900 there were 1678 factories, and in 1905, 1617 factories.'
The total capital invested in manufacturing in 1850 was $12,935,676; in 1890, $126,483,401, and in 1900, $183,784,587, of which $176,901,606 was in factories; in 1905 the capital invested in factories was $215,901,375.
He has recorded the fact that " the very first opinion which he ever was called upon to give in cabinet " was an opinion in favour of withdrawing the bill providing education for children in factories, to which vehement opposition was offered by the Dissenters, on the ground that it was too favourable to the Established Church.
Queretaro has one of the oldest and largest cotton factories in Mexico, employing about 2000 operatives, and maintaining a small private military force for protection.
From that time forward the Arita factories turned out large quantities of porcelain profusely decorated with blue under the glaze and colored enamels over it.
The Nabeshima porcelainso called because of its production at private factories under the special patronage of Nabeshima Naoshige, feudal chief of Hizenwas produced at Okawachiyama.
After Ninseis time, the most renowned ceramists of the Awata factories were Kenzan (1688-1740); Ebisei, a contemporary of Kenzan; Dhachi (1751-1763), who subsequently moved to Kiyomizu-zaka, another part of Kieto, the faience of which constitutes the Kiyomizu-yaki mentioned above; Kinkzan (1745-1760); Hezan (I69o-~-I72I); Taizan (1760-1800); Bizan (1810-1838); and Tanzan, who was still living in 1909.
But in Bokus time, and indeed as long as the factories flourished, many other kinds of faience were produced, the principal having rich black or fiamb glazes, while a few were green or yellow monochromes.
Even during the 300 years of its conspicuous prosperity as the administrative capital of the Tokugawa shoguns, it had no noted factories, doubtless owing to the absence of any suitable potters clay in the immediate vicinity.
Many other factories for decoration were established from time to time in Tokyo.
In other respects the Hirado factories do not produce wares nearly so beautiful as those manufactured there between 1759 and 1840, when the Hirado-yakz stood at the head of all Japanese porcelain on account of its pure, close-grained pate, its lustrous milk-white glaze, and the soft clear blue of its carefully executed decoration.
The mud from the Ysel furnishes the material for large brick-works and potteries; there are also a celebrated manufactory of stearine candles, a yarn factory, an oil refinery and cigar factories.
It is not necessary to the promotion of this manufacture that the spinners and weavers should be congregated in large towns, or united in crowded and unwholesome factories.
Baths, lunch-rooms, restrooms, clubs, lectures, schools and kindergartens have been supplied, and the company has also cultivated domestic pride by offering prizes for the best-kept gardens, &c. From April to July 1901 there was a strike in the already thoroughly unionized factories; complaint was made of the hectoring of union men by a certain foreman, the use in toilet-rooms of towels laundered in non-union shops (the company replied by allowing the men to supply towels themselves), the use on doors of springs not union-made (these were removed by the company), and especially the discharge of four men whom the company refused to reinstate.
Considerable progress has been made in manufacturing industries, and there are a large number of sugar-mills, cotton factories, woollen mills, smelting works and iron and steel works.
There are indigo factories, and other industries include the weaving of tussur silk and the making of coarse glass.
It possesses excellent wharves, does a large import trade in coal, and has shipbuilding yards, breweries, distilleries, cloth aid paper factories, glass-works, copper-works, soap-works and rice mills.
There are several factories for ginning and pressing cotton.
It is near the great mineral deposits of Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina; an important distributing point for iron, coal and coke; and has tanneries and lumber mills, iron furnaces, tobacco factories, furniture factories and packing houses.
In the lowland part of the city and in the suburbs there are many factories, their number having so much increased in recent years that Tokyo may now be described as an industrial town.
Serge is manufactured in Ashburton, and there are breweries, paint factories and saw-mills.
In the year ending 30th September 1909, the number of persons received into the "elevators" or factories was reported as 6425, of women and girls received into rescue homes as 2559.
1 In the United Kingdom ex-criminals are now received in the ordinary labour homes and factories.
Then came the establishment of commercial posts or factories for the purposes of trade.
They supply the motive power for the factories of the town.
west, and in Endicott, another suburb, are large boot and shoe factories.
Fishing, shipbuilding and various small factories provide occupation for the population.
In 1557 the Portuguese were permitted to erect factories on the peninsula, and in 1573 the Chinese built across the isthmus the wall which still cuts off the barbarian from the rest of the island.
There are also some factories of preserved fruits and tobacco.
The industries include paper-mills, flour-mills, distilleries, copper works, and linen factories; and the samovars (tea-urns) and sausages made here are famous.
There are also potteries, paper, soap and shoe factories, flour mills and breweries, and the many mineral springs.
It has various industries, including saw and planing mills, shipbuilding, glassworks and factories for wood-pulp, barrels and potato flour; and an active trade in exporting timber, ice, wood-pulp and granite, chiefly to Great Britain, and in importing from the same country coal and salt.
The employment of children under fourteen years of age in factories is forbidden by statute.
Constance is the centre of a brisk transit trade, while it has various factories and other industrial establishments.
It is the only proper industrial town in Servia, having numerous small factories for the manufacture of thin cloth (shayak), woollen braid (gaytan), and especially carpets.
Syra is the seat of several industries, ship-building, tanneries, flour and cotton mills, rope-walks, factories for confectionery ("Turkish delight"), hats, kerchiefs, furniture, pottery and distilleries.
Electric power for its factories is furnished by Niagara Falls.
Tarrasa is now mostly a modern industrial town, with fine public buildings, including the royal college, built in 1864 for 450 students besides day scholars, the school of arts and handicrafts, the industrial institute, chamber of commerce, hospitals, town hall, clubs, theatres and many large textile factories.
There are ship-yards, iron foundries and forges, machine shops, shirt factories, a pottery for the manufacture of sanitary earthenware, a woollen mill and canning factories.
Besides the iron furnaces, situated in the south near the Lorraine plateau, there are tanneries, weaving and glove-making factories, paper-mills for all sorts of paper, breweries and distilleries, and sugar refineries.
The principal products of its numerous factories are silk, cotton, woollen and mixed fabrics, velvet, iron goods, machinery, shoes, cables, soap and cigars.
Manufactures.-The value of the manufactured products of Texas in 1905 was $150,528,389, the capital invested in manufacturing being $115,664,871, and the number of factories, 3158.
In 1905 the gross value of the manufactured product (of establishments on the factory system) was $160,572,313, as against $132,870,865 in 1900, an increase of 20.8%; whereas, even including the products of smaller establishments not technically factories, the value of the product in 1850 was only $3,551,783, and in 1880 was only $71,045,926.
The principal branches of manufacturing industry are flour-milling, potteries, ironworks and tobacco factories.
of the city and wells throughout the city; petroleum is largely employed as fuel in factories.
Formerly farmers' daughters of native stock were much employed in factories; but since operatives of foreign birth or parentage have in great part 1 The population of the state was 378,787 in 1790; 422,845 in 1800; 472,040 in 1810; 523,287 in 1820; 610,408 in 1830; 737,699 in 18 4 0; 994,5 1 4 in 1850; 1,231,066 in 1860; 1,457,351 in 1870; 1,783,085 in 1880; 2,238,943 in 1890; and 2,805,346 in 1900.
A large fleet is engaged in the fishery; and a great number of factories extract the oil for tanning and currying, and for adulterating other more expensive oils, and manufacture the refuse into a valuable guano.
Perhaps the most important of these manufactories are the cotton mills, of which there are 13, and the cigar and cigarette factories, of which there are 10.
There are numerous sugar factories and rum distilleries.
There are saw-mills and textile factories in Piatra, which has a considerable trade in wine and timber.
There are mechanical works, match factories and stockinet factories, and a mineral spring rich in iron, the water of which is bottled for export.
A first-class arsenal, which can renew the materiel and equipment of a large army, embraces a gun factory, carriage factory, laboratory and small-arms ammunition factory, small-arms factory, harness, saddlery and tent factories, and a powder factory; in addition it must possess great store-houses.
In a second-class arsenal the factories would be replaced by workshops.
Under B - Gun factory, carriage factory, laboratory, small-arms factory, harness and tent factory, powder factory, &c. In a secondclass arsenal there would be workshops instead of these factories.
There are several steam factories for pressing cotton, and indigo vats.
It has iron and brass foundries, machine factories and textile establishments.
It is an important centre of trade with Rajputana, and has factories for ginning and pressing cotton, and metal manufactures.
Busto Arsizio is an active manufacturing town, the cotton factories being especially important.
Though not yet quite equal in importance to wool or frozen meat, dairy-farming is almost entirely carried on by small farmers and their families, who supply milk to factories.
Up to January 1891 the Conservative forces which overthrew Sir George Grey in 1879 controlled the country in effect though not always in name, and for ten years progressive legislation was confined to a mild experiment in offering crown lands on perpetual lease, with a right of purchase (1882), a still milder instalment of local option (1881) and an inoffensive Factories Act (1886).
These laws deal with truck, employers' liability, contractors' workmen, the recovery of workmen's wages, the hours of closing in shops and merchants' offices, conspiracy amongst trade unionists, and with factories, mines, shipping and seamen..
Shipbuilding is carried on at Danzig and Elbing, and in various places there are iron and glass works, saw-mills, sugar factories and distilleries.
The town has large cigar factories.
Two other accounts in Genesis, originally independent, give supplementary information drawn from the Sabaean colonies, the stations and factories established to facilitate trade through the desert.
At the height of the coffee-growing enterprise 20,000 men, women and children, chiefly Sinhalese and Tamils, found employment in the large factories and stores of the merchants scattered over the town, where the coffee Was cleaned, prepared, sorted and packed for shipment.
In 1905 the value of the products of the factories of Anaconda and Great Falls was 63.5% of that for the entire state.
Nearly one-half of the motive power used in Saxon factories is supplied by the streams, of which the Mulde, in this respect, is the chief.
There are wood-pulp factories (one worked by an English company employing over 1000 hands), factories for calcium carbide (used for manufacturing acetylene gas), paper and aluminium; and spinning and weaving mills.
The lace factories are also important and employ 5000 hands.
At first indeed, since the war was only expected to last a short time, there was little disposition to incur the heavy expenditure necessary in order to secure a share in the manufacture of war material; but this attitude was soon changed, and within six months factories everywhere had been adapted to the supply of munitions and all the variety of other things required by the Government for the armies.
These boards also undertook other functions, such as introducing new methods of manufacture and supplying the workers in the munition factories with beer.
Sisal hemp is grown, sponges are found in some quantities off the coast and there are four sponge-curing factories on the Caicos Islands.
There are steam flour mills, furniture factories and various other small manufactories; but the main economic interest of the city is in brickyards and coal-mines in its immediate vicinity.
in 1789, with a royal casino, and large silk factories which are still active.
The product-value of the city's factories in 1905 was $9 6, 473, 0 5 0; 93.5% consisting of the product of the wholesale slaughtering and meat-packing houses.
Rice-mills, saw-mills and a few distilleries of locally consumed liquor, one or two brick and tile factories, and here and there a shed in which coarse pottery is made, are all Siam has in the way of factories.
There are tallow-melting houses, steam flourmills, candle and soap works, distilleries and tobacco factories.
Though the Portuguese traders frequented the coast of Java, they annexed no territory either there or in Sumatra; but farther east they founded numerous forts and factories, notably in Amboyna, the Banda Island, Celebes and Halmahera.
In the neighbourhood large quantities of wheat, hemp, fruit and cider are produced; and there are important coal and iron mines, foundries, and factories for the manufacture of coarse cloth.
The industries consist of iron-foundries and factories for sugar and soap; and there is a military school.
The city has also flour and woollen mills, breweries and ice factories.
At first a trade was carried on in wine, colonial wares, alcoholic liquors and salt; there are now manufactures of earthenware, glass and crystal, arms, paper, woollens, tools, lead, copper and zinc work, as well as breweries, and tobacco and cigar factories, and a trade in corn and butter.
In practice moderate discussion was still proceeding in 1921 with the view of giving a more democratic character to factories and other undertakings and assuring a closer cooperation of the workers in the management.
The idea underlying these councils was to create, as it were, a certain constitution for factories by which the workman who had hitherto been a mere machine should become a creative factor, closely identified with the organization of the undertaking, conscious of responsibility, and thus making of democracy the same reality in economic life as it had already become in political life.
In 1920-1 some 715,000 tons of sugar were produced, 189 factories and refineries being engaged in the industry, and 300,000 tons were available for export.
Of porcelain 30,000 tons is produced annually in 68 factories, Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad) being the chief centre of the pottery industry.
Boot factories employ 40,000 workmen, glove manufactories the same number.
The agriculture of the republic supplies the material for several important industries, including the production of sugar, beer and spirits, starch (120 factories), syrup, glucose, chicory, coffee substitutes from rye and barley, jams. Alcohol and spirits are distilled in 1,100 distilleries employing 18,000 workmen and producing annually some.
Sarzana has one of the most important glass-bottle factories in Italy, also brick-works and a patent fuel factory.
Andijan is a centre for the trade in raw cotton and has cotton factories.
Christiansand is an important fishing centre (salmon, mackerel, lobsters), and sawmills, wood-pulp factories, shipbuilding yards and mechanical workshops are the principal industrial works.
But it first rose into importance in the second half of the 19th century owing to its share in the extraordinary industrial development of the Twente district, and now possesses numerous cotton and damask factories.
The city's river commerce, though of less relative importance since the advent of railways, is large and brings to its wharves much bulky freight, such as coal, iron and lumber; it also helps to distribute the products of the city's factories; and the National government has done much to sustain this commerce by deepening and lighting the channel.
Employment for large numbers of work-people was found in the copper factories.
There are railway works, coach factories, tanneries, breweries, flour-mills and manufactures of boots and shoes and other commodities.
The value of its factory products in 1905 was $ 1 7, 1 4 6, 33 8 (1 4.3% more than in 1900), the more important being those of steel works and rolling mills ($4,528,907), blast furnaces, steam railway repair shops, cigar and cigarette factories ($1,258,498), foundries and machine shops ($953,617), boot and shoe factories ($922,568), flouring and grist mills, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments and silk mills.
There are large morocco factories.
The principal manufactories are of tobacco, boatbuilding, agricultural implements, foundries and cloth factories.
army corps, being a place of some military importance, with large barracks and military factories.
Among his other works may be named Paroles d'un revolte (1884); La Conquete du pain (1888); L' Anarchic: sa philosophie, son ideal (1896); The State, its Part in History (1898); Fields, Factories and Workshops (1899); Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1900); Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution (1902); Modern Science and Anarchism (Philadelphia, 1903); The Desiccation of Asia (1904); The Orography of Asia (1904); and Russian Literature (1905).
By the glass factories and iron furnaces the country was being rapidly depleted of wood, while no attempt was being made to replace the damage by planting.
Child labour is regulated by an act passed by the General Assembly in 1908; this act prohibits the employment of children less than 14 years of age in any gainful occupation during the session of school or in stores, factories, mines, offices, hotels or messenger service during vacations, and prohibits the employment of children between 14 and 16 unless they have employment certificates issued by a superintendent of schools or some other properly authorized person, showing the child's ability to read and write English, giving information as to the child's age (based upon a birth certificate if possible), and identifying the child by giving height and weight and colour of eyes and hair.
(Markets and Fairs (Cattle) Acts 1887, 1891; Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887; Factory and Workshop Act 1878.) Useful statutes have also been passed to protect the working class, as in checking the weighing instruments used in mines in Great Britain, over which instruments wages are paid, and in the inspection of similar instruments used in factories and workshops.
The imports largely consist of railway material, industrial machinery, cotton, woollen and linen textiles and yarns for national factories, hardware, furniture, building material, mining supplies, drugs and chemicals, wines and spirits, wheat, Indian corn, paper and military supplies and e9uipment.
Coffee has become an important article of export, but cotton does not yield enough for the domestic factories.
Large factories are now to be found in all parts of Mexico, and good and serviceable grades of broadcloths, cassimeres, blankets and other fabrics are turned out.
The most important textile industry is cotton manufacture, which has become a highly successful feature in the industrial life of the republic. There were 146 factories in 1905, of which 19 were idle, and these were distributed over a very large part of the country.
The cotton factories of 1905 were equipped with 22,021 looms having 678,058 spindles, and with 38 stamping machines, employed 30,162 operatives, and turned out 13,731,638 pieces of cloth.
There were 467 tobacco factories reported in 1905 to be engaged in the manufacture of cigars, cheroots, cigarettes, snuff and cut tobaccos for the pipe.
The number of factories reported for 1899 was 743, but as the consumption of leaf, tobacco increased from 5,546,677 to 8,587,356 kilogrammes, it may be assumed that the decrease in factories is due to the absorption or disappearance of the small shops using old-fashioned methods.
Other important manufactories are flour mills, of which there were over 500 in 1904; iron and steel works, of which there are 7 large establishments, including the immense plant at Monterey; 90 smelters for the reduction of precious metals; tanneries, potteries, and factories for the manufacture of hats, paper, linen, hammocks, harness and saddles, matches, explosives, aerated waters, soap, furniture, chocolate and sweetmeats.
Factories for arms and ammunition have been established with modern machinery, and uniforms and other equipment are made in the country.
Many farmers abandoned their sterile farms and made new homes in the West, where soil yielded larger returns for labour, and a foreign-born population, consisting largely of French Canadians, came to the cities in response to the demand for labour in the mills and factories.
The first mill in Bradford was built in 1798; there were 20 mills in the town in 1820, 34 in 1833, and 70 in 1841; and at the present time there are over 300, of much greater magnitude than the earlier factories.
The cheapness of labour attracted capitalists, who started extensive factories in that quarter of the town known even now as the Liberties.
It is a shipping and transfer point and has paper mills, machine shops, flour mills, sash, door and blind factories, a launch and pleasure-boat factory, and knitting works, cheese factories and dairies, brick yards and grain elevators.
On the southern border of the borough is Lake Bantam (about 900 acres, the largest lake in the state) whose falls, at its outlet, provide water power for factories of carriages and electrical appliances.
Factories are still in infancy, but silk is spun.
The city is especially important as a salmon fishing and packing centre (cod, halibut and smaller fish also being abundant); it has also an extensive lumber trade, important lumber manufactories, pressed brick and terra-cotta factories, and dairy interests.
In addition to the breweries, rum and brandy distilleries, sugar mills and tobacco factories, which are sometimes worked as adjuncts to the plantations, there are many purely urban industries, such as the manufacture of woollen and cotton goods on a large scale, and manufactures of building material and furniture; but these industries are far less important than agriculture.
This is well shown in the falls of the Potomac a few miles above Washington; in the rapids 01 the lower Susquehanna; and in the falls of the Schuylkill, a branch which joins the Delaware at Philadelphia, where the water-power has long been used in extensive factories.
The magnitude in 1905 of each of the leading items, and its increase since 1900, then appear as follows: number of factories, 216,262, increase 4.2%; capital invested, $12,686,265,673, increase 41.3% salaries, $574,761,231, increase 50.9%; total wages, $2,009,735,799, increase 29.9%; miscellaneous expenses, $1,455,019,473, increase 60-7%; cost of materials, $8,503,949,756, increase 29.3%; value of products, including custom work and repairing (in such factories), $14,802,147,087, being an increase of 29.7%.
Of the last item $3,269,757,067 represented the value of the products of rural factories (that is, those in cities of under 8000 inhabitants).
The increase of the different items during the five years was greater in every case in the rural than in the urban factories.
The extent to which manufactures are controlled by large factories is shown by the fact that although in 1905 only II~2% of the total number reported products valued at $100,000 or over, these establishments controlled 81.5% of the capital, employed 7 ~6% of the wage earners, and produced 793% of the value of the products, of all establishments reported.
Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
Wool is produced to some extent and is woven for the local market in the woollen factories of Pasto.
Berlin is a flourishing manufacturing town, and contains a beet sugar refinery, automobile, leather, furniture, shirt and collar, felt, glove, button and rubber factories.
It has cotton mills for spinning and weaving, besides many handlooms, and factories for ginning and pressing cotton.
Power from Niagara Falls is used by factories in the city, and the manufactures are extensive and greatly diversified.
At Quebec is a Dominion arsenal, rifle and ammunition factories.
In 1891 cheese factories and creameries numbered 1 733, and in 1899 there were 3649.
In 1908 there were 4355 of these factories, of which 1284 were in Ontario, 2806 in Quebec, and 265 in the remaining seven provinces of Canada.
Establishments for evaporating fruit are now found in most of the larger apple-growing districts, and canning factories and jam factories have been established in many parts of Canada, and are conducted with advantage and profit.
Besides furnishing technical and general information as to the carrying on of dairying operations, the government has established and maintained illustration cheese factories and creameries in different places for the purpose of introducing the best methods of co-operative dairying in both the manufacturing and shipping of butter and cheese.
The factories of the United States, unduly developed by an extreme system of protection, sought in Canada a slaughter market for their surplus products, to the detriment or destruction of Canadian industries.
Meanwhile the republic, which had for many years drained Canada of hundreds of thousands of artisans to work its factories, steadily declined to consider any suggestion for improving trade relations between the two countries.
It has an interesting church, dating from the 12th century, and notable tanneries and leather factories, woollen and cloth mills.
There are several indigo factories.
Water-power for factories is secured by a system of "water-power canals" from a large dam across the Savannah, built in 1847 and enlarged in 1871; the principal canal, owned by the city, is so valuable as nearly to pay the interest on the municipal debt.
During the Civil War Augusta was the seat of extensive military factories, the tall chimney of the Confederate powder mills still standing as a memorial.
There are several indigo factories and saltpetre refineries, and a tobacco factory.
To the south-west are Majorna and Masthugget, with numerous factories.
Its principal industrial establishments are mechanical works (both in the city and at Lundby), saw-mills, dealing with the timber which is brought down the Gota, flour-mills, margarine factories, breweries and distilleries, tobacco works, cotton mills, dyeing and bleaching works (at Levanten in the vicinity), furniture factories, paper and leather works, and shipbuilding yards.
The valley of the Irwell, now largely occupied by factories, separates the higher ground of Broughton from that of Pendleton, and is flattest at the south where it joins the Manchester boundary.
In the decade 1890-1900 the number of turpentine factories increased from 7 to 152, and their product in 1900 and in 1905 ranked Alabama third among the states in that industry.
The establishments include slaughtering and meat-packing houses, whose product is by far the most valuable in the city, bleacheries, finishing factories, glassworks, machine shops, tube works, jewelry factories, and a desk factory.
In that year 1 there were 67 mills engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods, with a capital of $24,158,159, and they yielded a gross product valued at $ 18, 457, 6 45; the increase between 1900 and 1905 was actually much larger (and proportionately very much larger) than between 1890 and 1900; the number of factories in 1905 was 103 (an increase of 53.7% over 1900); their capital was $42,349,618 (75.3% more than in 1900); and their gross product was valued at $35,174,248 (an increase of 90 6% since 1900).
Cotton-seed oil and cake factories increased in number from 17 to 43 from 1890 to 1900, and to 112 in 1905, and the value of their product increased from $1,670,19610 $8,064,112, or 382.8%in 1890-1900, and to $13,539,899 in 1905, or an increase of 67.9% over 1900, and in 1900 and in 1905 the state ranked second (to Texas) in this industry in the United States.
The older shipyards have been considerably extended, and shipbuilding is actively carried on, especially by the Orlando yard which builds large ships for the Italian navy, while new industries - namely, glass-making and copper and brass-founding, electric power works, a cement factory, porcelain factories, flour-mills, oil-mills, a cotton yarn spinning factory, electric plant works, a ship-breaking yard, a motorboat yard, &c. - have been established.
Other industries are engineering, shipbuilding and brewing, and there are cloth, jute, hat, wood-pulp and paper factories.
The iron works are very important: smelting is carried on in the Harz and near Osnabruck; there are extensive foundries and machine factories at Hanover, Linden, Osnabruck, Hameln, Geestemunde, Harburg, Osterode, &c., and manufactories of arms at Herzberg, and of cutlery in the towns of the Harz and in the Sollinger Forest.
Wax is bleached to a considerable extent, and there are numerous tobacco factories, tanneries, breweries, vinegar works and brandy distilleries.
Other industrial establishments of importance include petroleum refineries, ship-yards, brick, stone and lime works, saddlery and harness factories, lithographing establishments, patent medicine works, chemical works, and copper smelters and refineries.
He now founded "St George's Guild," himself contributing £7000, the object of which was to form a model industrial and social movement, to buy lands, mills and factories, and to start a model industry on co-operative or Socialist lines.
Natural gas for domestic use and for factories is piped from the Kansas gas fields.
There are saw-mills, breweries, brickfields and distilleries in the town, and numerous sugar factories in the vicinity, notably at Millaquin, on the river below the town.
The remedy for this is the extension of factories and home industries; but European capital is difficult to obtain in India, and the native capitalist prefers to hoard his rupees.
Mansura has several cottonginning, cotton, linen and sail-cloth factories.
There is a leather factory at Morar; cotton-presses at Morena, Baghana and Ujjain; ginning factories at Agar, Nalkhera, Shajapur and Sonkach; and a cotton-mill at Ujjain.
About half the inhabitants are employed in the textile factories.
The manufactures are chiefly sugar, fertilizers, and such products of the foundry and machine shop as are required for the machinery of the sugar factories.
The ribbon industry is of less importance than formerly, but there are ironworks, cotton, hat, elastic and worsted factories, and tanneries; the making of drain-pipes, tiles and blue and red bricks is a considerable industry.
It is a trading and shipping centre of an extensive farming territory devoted to the raising of live-stock and to the growing of cotton, Indian corn, fruit, &c. It has large cotton gins and compresses, a large cotton mill, flour mills, canning and ice factories, railway repair shops, planing mills and carriage works.
There are iron mines and foundries and optical instrument factories.
The factories which have been erected in the north of Ireland, on the outskirts of London and elsewhere turn out millions of garments that would, under the old conditions, have been made at home.
The same law prescribes conditions under which children between fourteen and eighteen years of age may be employed in the manufacture of white-lead, red-lead, paints, phosphorus, poisonous acids, tobacco or cigars, in mercantile establishments, stores, hotels, offices or in other places requiring protection to their health or safety; and it forbids the employment of boys under sixteen years of age or of girls under eighteen years of age in such factories or establishments more than ten hours a day (unless it be to prepare for a short day) or for more than fifty-eight hours to be chosen for the same term of service each voter shall vote for one only, and when three are to be chosen he shall vote for no more than two; candidates highest in vote shall be declared elected."
a week, or their employment there between nine o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning, except that in the factories requiring continuous night and day employment boys not under fourteen years of age may be employed partly by day and partly by night not exceeding nine hours in any twenty-four.
The manufacture of porcelain was at the time attracting great attention in England, and while the factories at Bow, Chelsea, Worcester and Derby were introducing the artificial glassy porcelain, Cookworthy, following the accounts of Pere d'Entrecolles, spent many years in searching for English materials similar to those used by the Chinese.
It has several factories for ginning and pressing cotton - some on a large scale.
The town is regularly built, with wide streets, some of them lined with trees, and is a wealthy town, which has become an industrial centre for the region especially on account of its steam flour-mills, in which it is second only to Odessa, its distilleries, mechanical workshops, tobacco and tallow factories and brickworks.
in length, it passes through the populous towns of Barmen and Elberfeld and supplies water-power to about five hundred mills and factories.
There are some chemical and other factories.
The greater part of the space thus enclosed is occupied by comparatively modern suburbs and gardens of almost tropical luxuriance, strongly contrasting with the huge factories and busy port of the original city in their midst.
There are many factories or packing houses where the byproducts are prepared for market.
Besides the manufacture of sheeting, towelling, ticks, dowlas and sail-cloth, the principal industries include flax-spinning, net-making, bleaching, dyeing, tanning, brewing, brass and iron founding, and there are potteries, flour-mills, engineering works, fisheries, and factories for the making of oil-cloth and linoleum.
In July 1888 the Societe Metallurgique Suisse erected plant driven by a 500 h.p. turbine to carry out Heroult's alloy process, and at the end of that year the Allgemeine Elektricitais Gesellschaft united with the Swiss firm in organizing the Aluminium Industrie Actien Gesellschaft of Neuhasen, which has factories in Switzerland, Germany and Austria.
In 1907 a new company, The Aluminium Corporation, was started in England to carry out the production of the metal by the Heroult process, and new factories were constructed near Conway in North Wales and at Wallsend-on-Tyne, quite close to where, twenty years before, the Alliance Aluminium Co.
It is situated on rising ground west of the river Dearne, and, though it loses in attraction owing to its numerous factories, its neighbourhood has considerable natural beauty.
Cotton spinning and the manufacture of cotton and muslin are extensively carried on, and there are also iron and brass foundries and boiler factories.
Iron mines are also worked in the Jura, while the Heimberg potteries, near Thun, produce a locally famous ware, and there are both quarries of building stone and tile factories.
Their name is preserved, but since the seat of this industry was removed to Wilton near Salisbury, the inhabitants of Axminster have found employment in brush factories, corn mills, timber yards and an iron foundry.
Stock-breeding, like agriculture, has considerably improved under the care of the government (state and provincial), which grants subsidies for breeding, irrigation of pasture-lands, the importation of finer breeds of cattle and horses, the erection of factories for dairy produce, schools, &c.
Bergamo has fine modern buildings and numerous silk and cotton factories.
The only very large establishment is one for the construction of iron steamers, engines, &c., but some factories have been erected within the area of the free port for the purpose of working up imported raw materials duty free.
In the town and its vicinity are numerous steam saw-mills, besides wood-pulp factories, steelworks, brickworks, engineering shops, breweries and joineries, but Sundsvall owes its chief importance to its export trade in timber (6 to 7 million cub.
The imports consist mainly of raw material for working up in the factories of the district, while the principal exports are coal, fruit, wine, dyes, cloth, silk and other manufactured articles of various descriptions.
Whereas in 1864 the annual production of all factories in Poland was valued at not more than 54 millions sterling, in 1875, when the workers numbered 27,000, the output was estimated at even less; but in 1905 the value of the industrial production reached 53 millions sterling.
The sugar factories and refineries, situated chiefly in the governments of Warsaw, Lublin and Plock, turn out approximately one million tons of sugar in the year, the Polish sugar industry being exceeded in Russia only by that of Kiev.
Other notable branches of manufacturing industry, besides those already named, are flour-mills, jute, hosiery, lace, paper, cement, hats, haberdashery, machinery, tobacco, soap and candle factories, iron and steel works, distilleries, breweries, potteries, vinegar, chocolate, varnish, furniture, clothing and brickworks.
The city is situated in an important broom-corn raising district, and has broom factories, a tile factory and planing mills.
The increase in the herds has caused the owners of saladero establishments in Argentina and Uruguay to try the working of factories in Paraguay for the preparation of tasajo (jerked beef) and the manufacture of extract of meat.
The industrial establishments include a few ironfoundries, wool-spinning mills, carriage and machine factories, dyeworks, tanneries, brick-fields, soap-works, breweries, distilleries, numerous limekilns and tar-boiling works, tobacco and cigar factories, and numerous mills of various kinds.
In the narrowest portion of this gorge, not far from Bellegarde at its lower end, there formerly existed the famous (described by Saussure in his Voyages dans les Alpes, chapter xvii.), where for a certain distance the river disappeared in a subterranean channel; but this natural phenomenon has been destroyed, partly by blasting, and partly by the diversion of the water for the use of the factories of Bellegarde.
North of San Nicholas is Tondo, the most densely populated district; in the suburbs, outside the fire limits, the greater part of the inhabitants live in native houses of bamboo frames roofed and sided with nipa palm, and the thoroughfares consist of narrow streets and navigable streams. Paco, south-west of Intramuros, has some large cigar factories, and a large cemetery where the dead are buried in niches in two concentric circular walls.
Brescia has considerable factories of iron ware, particularly fire-arms and weapons (one of the government small arms factories being situated here), also of woollens, linens and silks, matches, candles, &c. The stone quarries of Mazzano, 8 m.
There are cement factories in the town, and calcium carbide is an important article .of export.
The falls in the river afford motive power to the cloth and cotton mills (spinning and weaving)-the staple industries-and to factories for sugar, paper, lithography, tobacco and carpets, joinery works and breweries.
There are boot factories, soap works, breweries, tanneries, tobacco works, &c. The climate is on the whole dry and healthy, but during summer the temperature is high, the mean shade temperature being about 70° F.
It is also noted for its bleach and dye works, its engine works, foundries, paper factories, and production of silk goods, watches, jewelry, mathematical instruments, leather, chemicals, &c. Augsburg is also the centre of the acetylene gas industry of Germany.
There are a school of navigation, and tobacco and match factories, the produce of which, together with timber and oats, is exported.
There are coal mines in the neighbourhood, and the town possesses silk factories, print-works and cotton mills.
The chief exports are cocoanut products, for the preparation of which there are factories, and tea; and the chief import is rice.
The Russians have themselves established several important factories at Hankow, which is the chief seat of this industry, and to which place they import in large quantities tea-dust and small broken tea from India, Ceylon and Java.
In the northern part of the borough are numerous factories, including the great Doulton pottery works.
In Prussia large factories are in operation in the Rhine province, in Leather.
The number of factories was, in 1905, 376, and the amount of raw sugar and molasses produced amounted to 2,643,531 metric tons, and of refined sugar 1,711,063 tons.
Every one employed on railways, mines and factories was to be insured in an imperial office; the premium was to be divided equally between masters, workmen and the state.
It applied only to those occupations, mines and factories, in which the use of machinery was common; it threw the whole burden of compensation on to the masters; but, on the other hand, for the first thirteen weeks after an accident the injured workman received compensation from the sick fund, so that the cost only fell on the masters in the more serious cases.
part of the city has most of the factories; the principal manufactures are flour, agricultural implements, windmills, gasolene engines, harness and proprietary medicines.
There are also foundries, soap-works, tan-yards and cigar factories.
The town has rope and carriage factories, and close by is a large tannery, worked by convict labour, and supplying the army.
Salt works, flour mills, canning factories, and the manufacture of type-setting machines are the principal industries.
In 1884 and 1885 important laws were passed regulating the work in mines and factories, and introducing a maximum working day of eleven hours in factories, and ten hours in mines.
There seems no doubt that the condition of the workmen in the factories of Moravia and the oil-mines of Galicia was peculiarly unfortunate; the hours of work were very long, the Count convictions, and on the first day of the session Rieger S' g unless he could speak and write German.
A crowd of small settlements from the old Phoenicia, settlements for trade rather than for dominion, factories rather than colonies, grew up on promontories and small islands all round the coast (Thuc. vi.
The trade was confined to the coast, the Dualla and other tribes being recognized intermediaries between the coast "factories" and the tribes in the interior, whither they allowed no strange trader to proceed.
The principal industries are planing mills and cement works, cheese factories and distilleries.
In 1905 Trenton contained 312 factories, employing 14,252 labourers, and the total value of the factory products was $32,719,945.
There are large iron works (including foundries and factories for engines, boilers, chains and cables), shipbuilding yards, glass manufactories, chemical, soap and candle works, brick and tile works, breweries and tanneries.
It lies on both sides of the river Calder, and the scenery of the valley is beautiful in spite of the numerous factories.
It is remarkable mainly for its textile factories.
There was no assertion of political rights by the white men, who were largely at the mercy of the natives, and who rarely ventured far from their ships or the " factories " established on the various rivers and estuaries.
In Bulak are several factories founded by Mehemet Ali for spinning, weaving and printing cotton, and a paper-mill established by the khedive Ismail in 1870.
The town is an important industrial centre, having tobacco and leather factories, electrical and other mechanical works, and breweries.
In Upper Egypt there are a number of factories for sugar-crushing andrefining, and one or two towns of the Delta possess rice mills.
Ismail had collected 500 field-guns, 200 Armstrong cannon., and had created factories of warlike and other stores.
In some cases they appear to lie where they were chipped on the sites of flint factories.
He created for himself a monopoly in the chief products of the country, to the furtber impoverishment of the people, and set up and kept going for years factories which never paid.
From that period until the establishment of monopolies prices have gradually increased; but the great increase has chiefly taken place since 1824, when the pasha established his regular army, navy and factories.
The principal industrial establishments include flour-mills (Limerick supplying most of the west of Ireland with flour), factories for bacon-curing and for condensed milk and creameries.
In connexion with the cultivation of potatoes, factories are established for making spirits, treacle, potato-meal, and straw-paper.
The factories of Denmark supply mainly local needs.
In 1779 it passed into the hands of the state, and has remained there ever since, though there are also private factories.
It has also a large grain market, cotton presses, ginning factories and oil mills.
The manufactories include rice mills, saw mills, sash, door and blind factories, shingle mills, iron works, oil refineries, broom factories and a dynamite factory.
Besides the large number of saw and planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and naphtha.
The town has a Gothic church (1581), a château, schools, cloth and cigar factories, iron-foundries, flour and saw mills and factories for machine building.
The foregoing description represents the procedure in use in many English factories.
Norwood's manufactories include printing-ink and glue factories, tanneries, an iron foundry, and the printing-presses and binderies of J.
There are numerous saw-mills, shipbuilding yards, engineering works, distilleries, sugar refineries, tobacco factories, linen bleacheries and stained glass, salt and white lead works.
It is the centre of the large grazing and farming district of Southland; and has a number of factories, including breweries, foundries, woollen mills and timber-works.
Coal and salt are raised, and the other industries include fustian, towel, couch, chair and nail factories, iron and brass foundries, stone quarries and corn mills.
Factories and mills line both banks, but the business blocks are nearly all along the foot of the E.
Of almost equal importance are the sugar refineries and chicory factories.
There are also distilleries and breweries, and factories for the manufacture of cotton and silk goods.
children in textile factories; and the Conspiracy Act, which removed certain restrictions on trade unions.
He introduced and passed bills for the better protection of women and children in brickyards and for the limitation of their labours in factories;.
There are woollen factories, especially for the universally worn "poncho."
The principal industry is the spinning and weaving of silk, chiefly from tussur or jungle silkworms. There are also several lac factories.
There are some cotton factories and sugar mills provided with modern machinery, but the cotton and woollen cloths of the country are commonly coarse and manufactured in the most primitive manner.
Among other manufactories, all for the home market, may be mentioned: flour-mills, sugar refineries, rum distilleries, breweries, chocolate factories, a candle factory, sawmills and tanneries.
It has cotton and knitting mills, cotton-seed oil factories, machine shops, and wagon, stove, plough and fertilizer factories; and is a market and jobbing centre for a fertile agricultural region.
has stimulated the inventive genius; in many cases blacksmith shops have been transformed into machinery factories; also wellestablished companies of the eastern states have been induced to remove to Illinois by the low prices of iron and wood, due to cheap transportation rates on the Great Lakes.
A Bureau of Labor Statistics (1879), whose members are styled Commissioners of Labor, makes a study of economic and financial problems and publishes biennial reports; a Mining Board (1883) and an inspector of factories and workshops (since 1893) have for their duty the enforcement of labour legislation.
The employment of children under 14 years of age in factories or mines, and working employees under 16 years of age for more than 60 hours a week, are forbidden by statute.
Annonay is built on the hill overlooking the meeting of the deep gorges of the DeOme and the Cance, the waters of which supply power to the factories of the town.
Towards the end of the 16th century the Dutch made their appearance in Indian waters as rivals of the Portuguese; and in 1616 the first British " factories " of the East India Co.
It has large cotton factories and the offices of numerous European merchants.
Its chief manufactures are skates, files, locks and similar articles, and it has also cloth and cotton factories.
It has factories for glass, porcelain, machinery, cotton-spinning, iron-foundries and coal-mines.
The village has woollen mills, knitting mills, stereoscope, box, and collar and cuff factories and machine shops.
Till 1791 the French had had factories and business establishments at Acre;' el-Jazzar ordered them in that year summarily to leave the town.
This has led some factories which had introduced such furnaces to revert to hand-wrought muffle-furnaces.
When its deleterious effects upon vegetation, building materials, &c., became better known, and when at the same time an outlet had been found for moderate quantities of hydrochloric acid, most factories made more or less successful attempts to " condense " the gas by absorption in water.
The hand-wrought black-ash furnace has been mostly superseded in the large factories by the revolving black-ash furnace, shown in fig.
The greater portion of all the soda-ash of commerce is now made by Solvay's apparatus, which alone we shall describe in this place, although it should be borne in mind that the principles laid down by Dyar and Hemming have been and are still successfully carried out in a number of factories by an entirely different kind of apparatus.
Of the cigar factories, some of which are in former public and private palaces, more than a hundred may be reckoned as of the first class.
The amir's factories at Kabul for arms and ammunition are said to turn out about 20,000 cartridges and 15 rifles daily, with 2 guns per week; but-the arms thus produced are very heterogeneous, and the different varieties of cartridge used would cause endless complications.
At the same time large sums of money have been expended on strategic works along the north-west frontier, supply and transport has been reorganized, rifle, gun and ammunition factories have been established, and a Staff College at Quetta.
At the Kohat mines, and in the salt evaporation works on the sea-coast, with the exception of a few of the Madras factories, the government does not come between the manufacturer and the merchant, except in so far as is necessary in order to levy the duty from the salt as it issues from the factory.
The opium, known as " provision opium," is manufactured in government factories at Patna and Ghazipur, and sold by auction at Calcutta for export to China.
A considerable amount bf the bark from private plantations is bought by the government and treated at the government factories.
In addition to these and the cotton and jute mills there are indigo factories, rice mills, timber mills, coffee works, oil mills, iron and brass foundries, tile factories, printing presses, lac factories, silk mills, and paper mills.
Ultimately he reached Calicut, and established factories both there and at Cochin, in the face of active hostility from the natives.
Within a few years the Dutch had established factories on the continent of India, in Ceylon, in Sumatra, on the Persian Gulf and on the Red Sea, besides having obtained exclusive possession of the Moluccas.
Here the English obtained their first grant of Indian soil, apart from the plots on which their factories were built.
From this time onwards they saw that they could no longer trust to defenceless factories.
The British, the French and the Dutch had each factories at Cossimbazar, as well as at Dacca, Patna and Malda.
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