The independence of Lithuania de facto was recognized by Sweden, Norway, England, Esthonia, Finland, France and Poland; de jure by Germany on March 23 1918, by Soviet Russia on July 12 1920, by Latvia and Esthonia in Feb.
Although his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority by his turbulent vassals.
Nominally the sultan is still ruler, but virtually his powers were greatly curtailed by his conventions with the Dutch-Indian government, under which he surrendered, with the concurrence of his grandees, many of his former rights to the Dutch resident, who became the de facto governor of the easternmost colonial possessions of Holland, especially since the transfer of Dutch New Guinea in 1901.
It is doubtful whether, as is commonly assumed, they were considered as ipso facto enemies; they were rather guests.
In particular, his acceptance of the crown would have guaranteed his followers, under the act of Henry VII., from liability in the future to the charge of high treason for having given allegiance to himself as a de facto king.
When the Visconti dynasty ended by the dukes death in 1447, he pretended to espouse the cause of the Milanese republic, which was then re-established; but he played his cards so subtly as to make himself, by the help of Cosimo de Medici in Florence, duke de facto if not de jure.
After the taking of Constantinople in 1452, the Russian metropolitans were always chosen and consecrated in Russia, appeals ceased, and Moscow became de facto autocephalous (Joyce, ubi sup. p. 379; Mouravieff, op. cit.
8 It was not till 1905 that the zemstvos regained, at least de facto, some of their independent initiative.
7 are dated 1784; and Spedalieri's Confutazione dell' esame del Cristianismo facto da Gibbon was published at Rome (2 vols.
Thus a Dominican prior ranks ipso facto as a prelate during his three years of office, but, if not re-elected, loses this dignity with his jurisdiction.
But this ex post facto argument is the sole proof of this view; and it is quite insufficient to prove the accusation.
This was confirmed in 1641, when it was also provided that the mayor and recorder should be ipso facto justices of the peace.
By an act of the 17th of July 1862 any slave of a disloyal master who was in territory occupied by northern troops was declared ipso facto free.
Egypt, though nominally under Turkish suzerainty, has formed a practically independent principality since 1841, and has been de facto under British protection since 1881.
The tahsildars check the accounts of the kabz-i-mals, and, if they discover peculation, send them at once to be dealt with by the chief official authorities of the Gaza (department); all the electors of a mukhtar are, ipso facto, joint sureties for him.
From that time until his death the city was free from party strife under a de facto despotism, but after the Rinuccini conspiracy of that year the Council of Seventy passed a law declaring attempts on Lorenzo's life to be high treason.
Giuliano became de facto head of the government, but he did not pursue the usual vindictive policy of his house, although he resorted to the Laurentian method of amusing the citizens with splendid festivities.
The Indian government, wishing to enter into relations with Ibrahim Pasha, as de facto ruler of Nejd and El Hasa, with a view to putting down piracy in the Persian Gulf, which was seriously affecting Indian trade, sent a small mission under Captain G.
The de facto line is that of the Sama river (usually dry), which opens on the coast a little south of Sama point, near 18° S., Chile retaining possession of the two above-mentioned provinces in violation of the treaty of Ancon, which she forced upon her defeated antagonist.
By a decree of the Lateran council of 1215, which was enforced in England, no clerk can hold two benefices with cure of souls, and if a beneficed clerk shall take a second benefice with cure of souls, he vacates ipso facto his first benefice.
Although Macao is de facto a colonial possession of Portugal, the Chinese government persistently refused to recognize the claim of the Portuguese to territorial rights, alleging that they were merely lessees or tenants at will, and until 1849 the Portuguese paid to the Chinese an annual rent of X71 per annum.
In 1871 the Danish parliament (Riksdag) passed a law defining the political position of Iceland in the Danish monarchy, which, though never recognized as valid by the Icelanders, became de facto the base of the political relations of Iceland and Denmark.
Carrillo, a legally-named but never de facto governor of California, whose jurisdiction was never recognized in the north; and in1845-1847it was the actual capital.
The change thus established de facto owed its first diplomatic consecration to the developments of international politics in the Old World.
" If a man will not hear the church," when the local church-meeting utters the mind of Christ on a moral issue, he has rejected the final court of appeal and is ipso facto self-excommunicate (Matt.
On, and by Stockmar, the prince thus soon took the de facto place of the sovereign's private secretary, though he had no official status as such; and his system of classifying and annotating the queen's papers and letters resulted in the preservation of what the editors of the Letters of Queen Victoria (1907) describe as" probably the most extraordinary collection of state documents in the world "- those up to 1861 being contained in between Soo and 600 bound volumes at Windsor.
From one point of view they shadow out the great epic of the destinies of the human race; again, the universal solar myth claims a share in them; hoary traditions were brought into ex post facto connexion with them; or they served to commemorate simple meteorological and astronomical facts.
The activities of Prof. Masaryk in Russia, England and America, enthusiastically supported by his compatriots living abroad, and especially by the Czechs and Slovaks who had emigrated to the United States, the self-sacrificing valour of the Czechoslovak legions on the French, Italian and Russian fronts, and the work of the Czechoslovak Council with its headquarters at Paris, moved the Allies to acknowledge the last-named body as the de facto Provisional Government of the Czechoslovak State.
If, on attaining his majority, the king refused to ratify these promises, his subjects were ipso facto absolved from their obedience.
Should the king fail to observe any one of these articles, the nation was ipso facto absolved from its allegiance.
After some fruitless attempts Turkey ceased to send pashas to Algiers - where they were not allowed even to land - and thus recognized the de facto independence of this singular republic. The authority of the deys, moreover, was scarcely more solid than that of the pashas.
- The birth of Christ took place before the death of Herod, and the evidence of Josephus fixes the death of Herod, with some approach to certainty, in the early spring of 4 B.C. Josephus, indeed, while he tells us that Herod died not long before Passover, nowhere names the exact year; but he gives four calculations which serve to connect Herod's death with more or less known points, namely, the length of Herod's own reign, both from his de jure and from his de facto accession, and the length of the reigns of two of his successors, Archelaus and Herod Philip, to the date of their deposition and death respectively.
And xv.) make any treaty or alliance; coin money or make anything, save gold and silver coin, a legal tender; pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; have any but a republican form of government; grant any title of nobility; maintain slavery; abridge the privileges of any citizen of the United States, or deny to him the right of voting on account of race, colour or previous condition of servitude; deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; deny to any person the equal protection of the laws.
The donations of Pippin and Charlemagne established him as sovereign de facto; the donation of Constantine was to proclaim him as sovereign de jure.
In 1800 Henry was able to return to Rome, and in 1803, being now senior cardinal bishop, he became ipso facto dean of the Sacred College and bishop of Ostia and Velletri.
In 1875 the district, till then a sanjak of the vilayet of Tripoli, was made to depend directly on the Ministry of the Interior at Constantinople; and the Senussites soon ceased to be de facto rulers of Cyrenaica.
The Eastern Church had soon de facto as its head the Eastern emperors.
In 1213 the pope, became not only the nominal suzerain but, de facto and de jure, the veritable sovereign of England, and during the last years of John and the first years of Henry III.
Supreme in Europe, the papacy gathered into a body of doctrine of the decisions given in virtue of its enormous de facto power, and promulgated its collected decrees and oracula to form the immutable law of the Christian world.
To the Dalai Lama, who had attempted to obtain British intervention at Peking, it was made clear that he personally had no claim to this, as the British government could only recognize the de facto government in Tibet.
All soldiers on whom " swords of honour " had been already conferred were declared legionaries ipso facto, and all citizens after 25 years' service were declared eligible, whatever their birth, rank or religion.
His reputation as a lawyer began with his connexion with the famous "Lemmon slave case," in which, as one of the special counsel for the state, he secured a decision from the highest state courts that slaves brought into New York while in transit between two slave states were ipso facto free.
In 1898 he appointed his father commander-in-chief of the Servian army, and from that time, or rather from his return to Servia in 1894 until 1900, ex-king Milan was regarded as the de facto ruler of the country.
In his speech of the 18th of December 1865 he asserted that rebellion had ipso facto blotted out of being all states in the South, that that section was then a "conquered province," and that its government was in the hands of Congress, which could do with it as it wished.
The penalty of excommunication ipso facto is only maintained for reading books written by heretics or apostates in defence of heresy, or books condemned by name under pain of excommunication by pontifical letters (not by decrees of the Index).
P. 272 sqq.), and meanwhile his predecessor remained de facto admiral; or the retiring admiral might, after the expiry of his term, hold an appointment as secretary (iiru6ToXein) to one who, though titular admiral, was really placed under his orders or even kept at Sparta altogether.
A recent case of conquest was that effected by the South African War of 18 991902, in which the Transvaal republic and the Orange Free State were extinguished, first de facto by occupation of the whole of their territory, and then de jure by terms of surrender entered into by the Boer generals acting as a government.
In the case of the annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic and Orange Free State, a rather complicated situation arose out of the facts, on the one hand, that the ceding states closed their own existence and left no recourse to third parties against the previous ruling authority, and, on the other, that, having no means owing to the de facto British occupation, of raising money by taxation, the dispossessed governments raised money by selling certain securities, more especially a large holding of shares in the South African Railway Company, to neutral purchasers.
This view makes inference easy: induction is all over before it begins; for, according to Bradley, " every one of the instances is already a universal proposition; and it is not a particular fact or phenomenon at all," so that the moment you observe that this magnet attracts iron, you ipso facto know that every magnet does so, and all that remains for deduction is to identify a second magnet as the same with the first, and conclude that it attracts iron.
That of the perpendicular from point to plane, and therefore a calculus of points and planes is ipso facto a calculus of lines also.
And refused to recognize the existence of the de facto government in any way whatsoever; he would not accept the subsidies it offered him, or allow Catholics to take any part in political life.
After ineffectual conferences at Noyon in 1516 and at Montpellier in 1518, an active effort was made in 1521 to establish him in the de facto sovereignty; but the French troops which had seized the country were ultimately expelled by the Spaniards.
Before the middle of the 14th century the personnel of the Parlement, both presidents and councillors, became fixed de facto if not de jure.
Even the "resolutions" (56y Tara) of the Jerusalem conference were not set forth by the apostles present simply in their own name, nor as ipso facto binding on the conscience of the Antiochene Church.
On the 5th of June 1409 was read the definitive sentence: that as heretics, and therefore separated from the Church, Pedro de Luna (Benedict XIII.) and Angelo Corrario (Gregory XII.) were ipso facto deposed from any office; they must not be obeyed, nor assisted, nor harboured.
Protestantism, indeed, since the Act of Settlement in 1689, has been of the essence of the Constitution, the sovereign forfeiting his or her crown ipso facto by acknowledging the authority of the pope, by accepting " the Romish religion," or by marrying a Roman Catholic; and though of late years efforts have been made to modify or to abrogate this provision, the fact that such efforts have met with widespread opposition shows that it still represents the general attitude of the British nation.
That makes us all de facto millionaires, and very committed to remaining so.