Extinction may come about indirectly and even more surely.
Though now on the way to extinction, Cycadeae are still widely represented in the southern hemisphere by genera which, however, have no counterpart in the Mesozoic era.
The vitality of the prose literature was not much greater though its complete extinction was from the nature of the case impossible.
Mass extinction, deforestation, dead zones in oceans, and on and on and on.
The present structure was erected subsequent to the extinction of the Jacobite rebellion.
In 1742, after the extinction of the two senior lines of this family, the Sulzbach branch became the senior line, and its head, the elector Charles Theodore, inherited Bavaria in 1777.
Whereas Plato's main problem had been the organization of the perfect state, and Aristotle's intellect had ranged with fresh interest over all departments of the knowable, political speculation had become a mockery with the extinction of free political life, and knowledge as such had lost its freshness for the Greeks of the Roman Empire.
On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house, and in 1007 the emperor Henry II.
Many of the species are in process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes tha.t are taking place in the natural conditions of the world by the extension of human population and of cultivation, and by the destruction of forests; hence it is probable that a considerable proportion of the species at present existing will disappear from the face of the earth before we have discovered or preserved any specimens of them.
Before the extinction of the line in 1475, it had succeeded in putting a branch on the throne of Armenia.
It passed in 1559 to Duke John the Younger, founder of the line of Holstein-Sonderburg, on the extinction of which, in 1761, it fell to Denmark, and in 1867, with Schleswig-Holstein, to Prussia.
This ratification of the oligarchical principle, together with the establishment in 1311 of the Council of Ten, completed that famous constitution which endured till the extinction of the republic in 1797.
The Albigensian Crusades, however, belong to French history; and it can only be noted here that their ultimate result was the absorption of the fertile lands, and the extinction of the peculiar civilization, of southern France by the northern monarchy.
In the first chapter of the Literature, which is to a great extent supplementary to the last chapter of the Middle Ages, Hallam sketches the state of literature in Europe down to the end of the 14th century: the extinction of ancient learning which followed the fall of the Roman empire and the rise of Christianity; the preservation of the Latin language in the services of the church; and the slow revival of letters, which began to show itself soon after the 7th century - "the nadir of the human mind" - had been passed.
She was consoled, however, by the acquisition of Cyprus, which came into her possession (1488) on the extinction of the dynasty of Lusignan with the death of James II.
Italy, intellectually first among the peoples, was now politically and practically last; and nothing to her historian is more heartrending than to watch the gradual extinction of her spirit in this age of slavery.
That in this portion of their ritual, however, the Christians of that period were not universally conscious of its direct descent from Mosaic institutions may be inferred perhaps from the "benediction of the incense" used in the days of Charlemagne, which runs as follows: "May the Lord bless this incense to the extinction of every noxious smell, and kindle it to the odour of its sweetness."
There is a well-known story of the last of the race being killed by Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel in 1680, but there is evidence of wolves having survived in Sutherlandshire and other parts into the following century (perhaps as late as 1743), though the date of their final extinction cannot be accurately fixed.
The Deer Removal Act (1851) resulted in the almost total extinction of the forest deer.
But in the 13th century it began to fail, and in 1591 the drying up of the Papireto caused the extinction of the plant in that district.
To this consummation, with its necessary accompaniment in the extinction of prophecy, the book of Haggai already points.
Though instances of Thagi (Thuggee) had been known to the English rulers in India for many years, and sporadic efforts had been made by them towards the extinction of the gangs, it was not till Lord W.
His guiding principles were still simplicity of administration and speedy extinction of all debt, and everything bent to these objects.
On the extinction (1218) of that dynasty both castle and town passed to the counts of Kyburg, and from them, with the rest of their possessions, in 1272 by marriage to the cadet line of the Habsburgs.
Most of the rajas remained loyal; and the capture of the town of Kotah, which had been held by the mutineers of that state, in March 1858, marked the extinction of armed rebellion.
One of the oldest of Venezuelan industries, the Margarita pearl fisheries, was prohibited in 1909 for an indefinite time because of the threatened extinction of the oyster beds.
His work won him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1838, and in 1843 he received its Royal medal for a paper on the "Transparency of the Atmosphere and the Laws of Extinction of the Sun's Rays passing through it."
On the extinction of this family in 1248, most of their fiefs were given by the two bishops to the father-in-law of the last lord of Andechs, Albert, count of Tirol.
In 1406, after the extinction of these princely houses they added Verona, Vicenza and Padua to the territories they claimed on terra firma.
It received town rights from Frederick Barbarossa, and after the extinction of the Hohenstaufen became a free imperial town.
The curacas sorrowfully watched the gradual extinction of their people by the operation of the mita, protesting from time to time against the exactions and cruelty of the Spaniards.
On the extinction of the male line of the house of Habsburg in Spain he was named heir by the will of Charles II.
Pisa and Perugia were threatened with extinction, and Florence dreaded the advance of the Visconti arms, when the plague suddenly cut short his career of treachery and conquest in the year 1402.
By the treaty of the 16th of April 1816, by which the territorial disputes between Austria and Bavaria were settled, the succession to the Baden Palatinate was guaranteed to Maximilian I., king of Bavaria, in the expected event of the extinction of the line of Zahringen.
He opposed the removal of Jewish disabilities, arguing, we are told by a contemporary, " on the part of the Evangelicals," and pleaded for the gradual extinction, in preference to the immediate abolition, of slavery.
Through Spain he then threatened Portugal with extinction unless she too paid a heavy subsidy, a demand with which the court of Lisbon was fain to comply.
This book, which comes down to the year 1526 and the extinction of Czech independence,'was founded on laborious research in the local archives of Bohemia and in the libraries of the chief cities of Europe, and remains the standard authority.
It is improbable, except in the early stages of the rubber tree, that this procedure will succeed; the rubber will ultimately dominate the position to the detriment and ultimate extinction of the other crop, whilst the growth of the rubber tree will be retarded.
Jacobus, James), the name given after the revolution of 1688 to the adherents, first of the exiled English king James II., then of his descendants, and after the extinction of the latter in 1807, of the descendants of Charles I., i.e.
2 The stem of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded to the priesthood, and the extinction of national hopes gives new importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which Ezekiel had prepared the way by his sentence of disfranchisement against the nonZadokite priests.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
Sir William Howard of Lingfield, younger brother of the great admiral, carried on the Effingham line, his great-grandson succeeding to the barony on the extinction of the earldom.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
Hence from the 10th to the 12th centuries there was great intercourse with Iceland and Greenland on the part of the English, Swedish and Danish, but at the end of the 13th century some change occurred, resulting in the southerly emigration of the Eskimos and the extinction of European civilization in Greenland.
The exhaustion of the nation from its protracted civil and foreign wars, the extinction of the decline (1711court of the Transylvanian princes where the native 1772).
On land reindeer were formerly hunted, to their practical extinction in the south, but in the districts of Godthaab, Sukkertoppen and Holstensborg there are still many reindeer.
In its modern usage it is practically confined to the money endowment given to the younger children of reigning or mediatized houses in Germany and Austria, which reverts to the state or to the head of the family on the extinction of the line of the original grantee.
This explains the eagerness with which he now insisted on the acquisition of the Ionian Isles by France and the political extinction of their present possessor, Venice.
a series of resolutions in favour of the extinction of slavery in the British colonies.
The industry was threatened with extinction, and would certainly have dwindled to insignificant dimensions had not a few earnest artists, working in the face of many difficulties and discouragements, succeeded in striking out new lines and establishing new standar4s for excellence.
The Raskol was threatened with extinction by the gradual dying out of its priests, which led to a further schism within itself, into the Popovshchina (with priests) and the Bezpopovshchina (without priests).
After the foundation of New Paphos and the extinction of the Cinyrad and Ptolemaic dynasties, the importance of the Old Town declined rapidly.
2 Henry II., as an Angevin, was the natural heir of the kingdom of Jerusalem on the extinction of the line descended from Fulk of Anjou.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
In 305, after the extinction of the old royal line of Macedonia, Seleucus, like the other four principal Macedonian chiefs, assumed the style of king.
In respect of foreign trade Bosnia and Herzegovina were in 1882 included in the customs and commercial system of AustriaHungary, to the extinction of all intermediate imposts.
In 1777 on the extinction of the other branch of the house of Wittelsbach, he became elector of Bavaria, and the Palatinate was henceforward united with Bavaria, the elector's capital being Munich.
The younger line became stadtholders of the other states after the extinction of the elder, and were the ancestors of the present royal family of the Netherlands.
Want of power, or other obstacles, delayed the final extinction of tolerated Mahommedanism in all parts of Spain, but by 1525 it was everywhere suppressed.
The climax of this wondrous elevation was reached when, on the extinction of the line of Kettler, the estates of Courland, in June 1737, elected him their reigning duke.
extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period.
Both their origin and the causes which led to their extinction are quite unknown.
This change amounts to the extinction of one of the elements in the old population of Sicily.
On the extinction of his line in 13 4 0 Casimir III.
Humanity is facing extinction as many survivors are infected by an alien virus that is turning them into violent monsters.
The Extinction of Groups.
m.); extinction of British claims to Oregon (280,680
Death is extinction.
After the extinction of the Zaringen dynasty (1218) Bern became a free imperial city, but it had to fight hard for its independence, which was finally secured by the victories of Dornbuhl (1298) over Fribourg and the Habsburgs, and of Laupen (1339) over the neighbouring Burgundian nobles.
This class was largely reinforced, when after the extinction of the royal house of Hohenstaufen in the 13th century, a great number of towns founded by them on their demesne successfully claimed immediate subjection to the crown.
The popes, as the phrase went, became Spanish chaplains, with a fixed territory guaranteed to them by Spanish arms; apart from the addition of Ferrara and one or two other petty principalities on the extinction of the reigning house, its boundaries remained unchanged till Napoleonic times.
The Renaissance may be said to have begun in France with Charles VIII.'s expedition to Naples, and to have continued until the extinction of the house of Valois.
This extinction is achieved in eight ways, namely rectitude of faith, resolve, speech, action, living, effort, thought, self-concentration.
He that has put off all lust and desire, all hope and fear, all will to exist as a sinful, because a sentient, being, has won to the heaven of extinction or Nirvana.
The extinction of the Welsh Court of Great Sessions in 1830 served to remove the last relic of separate jurisdiction in Wales itself, but in 1881 special legislation was once more inaugurated by the Welsh Sunday Closing Act (46 Victoria), forbidding the sale of spirituous liquors by all inn-keepers on Sundays to any but bona fide travellers throughout Wales and Monmouthshire.
But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.
A proof is the mysterious rapid extinction of savages the moment that their group-life is broken up; they are individually so many lost sheep, without self-reliance or initiative.
In 1774, the corporation being in danger of extinction, burgesses were added, but it was not until 1886 that the ratepayers acquired the right of electing representatives to the council, the right up to that time having been exercised by the members of the corporation.
What she actually got was (1) Upper Pomerania, with the islands of Riigen and Usedom, and a strip of Lower Pomerania on the right side of the Oder, including the towns of Stettin, Garz, Damm and Gollnow, and the isle of Wollin, with the right of succession to the rest of Lower Pomerania in the case of the extinction of the Brandenburg Hohenzollerns; (2) the town of Wismar with the districts of Poel and Neukloster; (3) the secularized bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; and (4) 5,000,000 rix-dollars.
Conversely, the extinction of lights is part of the ceremony of excommunication (Pontificate Rom.
On the extinction of the native dynasty of the O'Connors, the town fell into the hands of the De Burgos, the head of a branch of which, under the name of M`William Eighter, long governed it by magistrates of his own appointment.
The king was a strong-willed and weak-minded ascetic, who entrusted his empire to the Jesuits, refused to marry, although the dynasty was threatened with extinction, and Disaster spent years in preparing for a crusade against the Al Kasr. Moors.
A law of the 8th of August 1901 regulated the conditions of election to the lower house, thus ending a long series of parliamentary reforms. The most important of these had provided for the gradual extinction of the right of hereditary peers to sit in the upper house (July 24, 1885), had reduced the number of deputies and fixed the qualifications required for the exercise of the franchise (March 28, 1895); and had abolished the elective branch in the upper house (Sept.
attest the same fact, though the temple and worship were probably kept up until the official extinction of the ancient religion.
The Luxemburg dynasty henceforth ruled over Bohemia up to the time of its extinction at the death of Sigismund (1437).
At the beginning of the 18th century the possibility of the extinction of the male line of the house of Habsburg arose.
The Pterosaurians of the Cretaceous period, just before their extinction both in Europe and in North America, were of enormous size, and some became toothless.
It is probable that these small but practical concessions would have satisfied the lay Roman Catholics and the secular priests, but they were very far from contenting the Jesuits, by whom the results of such leniency were especially feared: "What rigour of laws would not compass in so many years," wrote Henry Tichborne, the Jesuit, in 1598, "this liberty and lenity will effectuate in 20 days, to wit the disfurnishing of the seminaries, the disanimating of men to come and others to return, the expulsion of the society and confusion as in Germany, extinction of zeal and favour, disanimation of princes from the hot pursuit of the enterprise..
For the extinction of all Indian titles the legislature of New Jersey in 1832 appropriated $2000, and since that date almost every vestige of Indian occupation has disappeared.
Further acts followed in the same direction, leading to the gradual extinction, by due compensation of the persons interested, of the old system, the maintenance of the roads being vested in " turnpike trusts and highway boards," empowered to levy local rates.
Under the American regime seal fishing off the Aleutians save by the natives has never been legal, but the depletion of the Pribilof herd, the almost complete extinction of the sea otter, and the rapid decrease of the foxes and other fur animals, have threatened the Aleuts (as the natives are commonly called) with starvation.
On the extinction of that line Gotha came into the possession of the electors of Saxony, and it fell later to the Ernestine line of dukes.
After the death of John Frederick's sons, it came into the possession of Duke Ernest the Pious, the founder of the line of the dukes of Gotha; and on the extinction of this family it was united in 1825 along with the dukedom to Coburg.
The company having met with numberless difficulties and financial troubles, the French government, on the extinction of the company's funds, came to the rescue and provided money for the construction.
g Y Y Extinction of the first line of Counts.
He had already acquired by Burgun= inheritance, purchase or force almost all the other dian Netherland states; and now, with the extinction of Philip the Good.
On the extinction of his line in 1717, it reverted to Austria, and was completely incorporated with Gorz in 1754.
The election of the voivodes, though in the hands of the boiars, was strictly regulated by hereditary principles, and Cantemir describes the extinction of the house of Dragosh in the 16th century as one of the unsettling causes that most contributed to the ruin of the country.
The town voter being mainly British, the bill met with the bitter opposition of the Bond members, who declared that its object was the extinction of their parliamentary power.
After the treachery of the French commander of this expedition a spirit of unity and despairing energy seemed reawakened in them; but this could not avert and scarcely delayed the rapidly approaching extinction of the community.
40 the coast cities had been much enriched by trade with the Roman empire, which both the Satavahanas and the satraps did much to encourage; but after the fall of Palmyra (273) and the extinction of the main Kshaharata dynasty (c. 300) this commerce fell into decay.
represented a younger branch which had transferred itself first to France and then to Italy, but by the extinction of the elder branch the admiral became head of the family; his eldest son, Richard, had married Marie Louise Pelline, the daughter and heiress of Emerich Joseph, duc de Dalberg, a naturalized French noble of ancient German lineage who had entered the French service under Napoleon and represented Louis XVIII.
was to show how far the spirit of particularism was from extinction.
The only monastic chronicler who went on writing for a few years after the extinction of the house of York was the Croyland continuator.
The dugong (Halicore) is distributed in different colonies, at present isolated, throughout the Indian Ocean from Arabia to North Australia; while the Rhytina or northern sea-cow was, for some time before its extinction, limited to a single island in the extreme north of the Pacific Ocean.
in 1660, and, on the failure of his male descendants in the person of his son John, 4th duke, the dukedom of Somserset passed to the descendants of his brother, Francis, Baron Seymour of Trowbridge, and, on the extinction of the latter's male line to the elder branch of the Seymour family, descended from Sir Edward Seymour of Berry Pomeroy, Devon.
of Brabant, to defend the town against Henry III., margrave of Meissen, during the succession contest that followed the extinction of the male line of the Thuringian landgraves in 1247.
Joint deliberation would ensure a majority to the reformers and therefore the abolition of privileges and the extinction of feudal rights of property.
The feathers of the rhea have a considerable market value, and for the purpose of trade in them it is annually killed by thousands, so that' its total extinction as a wild animal is probably only a question of time.
The Liberal Unionists, whose extinction had once been so confidently foretold, had increased from 46 to 71, and the Parnellites, in spite of the most violent clerical opposition, from 9 to 12.
He wrote some Fragments historiques, studies on the sugarquestion, on the construction of a canal through Nicaragua, and on the recruiting of the army, and finally, in the Progres du Pas-de-Calais, a series of articles on social questions which were later embodied in his Extinction du pauperisme (1844).
of the treaty of London (1871) authorized the powers which possess the shores of this part of the Danube to come to an understanding with the view of removing these impediments, and to have the right of levying a provisional tax on vessels of every flag which may henceforth benefit thereby until the extinction of the debt contracted for the execution of the works.
Provision was moreover made by an ordinance of 1906 for the extinction of slavery itself throughout the protectorate, it being enacted that 1 Extract from a despatch of Lord Salisbury to the British ambassador to France, dated 30th of March 1892.
After the extinction of the family of Augustus in the 1st century Gaul had made many emperorsGalba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian; and in the 2nd century she provided Gauls to rule the empireAntoninus (138161) came from Nfmes and Claudius from Lyons, as did also Caracalla later on (211217).
On the extinction of the direct line of the Capets the crown passed to a younger branch, that of the Valois.
This indictment against liberal thought from the standpoint of the theological school was afterwards answered in Spain by Averroes; but in Bagdad it heralded the extinction of the light of philosophy.
The fen-drainage resulted in the extinction of many local industries, such as the trade in goose-feathers and the export of wild fowl to the London markets, a 17th-century writer terming this county "the aviary of England, 3000 mallards with other birds having been caught sometimes in August at one draught."
This so-called prophecy bewails the extinction of the Ascanian rulers of Brandenburg and the rise of the Hohenzollern dynasty to power; each successive ruler of the latter house down to the eleventh generation is described, the date of the extinction of the race fixed, and the restoration of the Roman Catholic Church foretold.
After the extinction of the Pergamenian dynasty (130 B.C.) Mysia became a part of the Roman province of Asia, and from this time disappears from history.
It became a direct apanage of the Bohemian crown in 1625 at the extinction of the male line of its dukes, and since 1766 it bore the name of Saxe-Teschen, owing to the fact that Prince Albert of Saxony, who married a daughter of Maria Theresa, received it as part of his wife's dowry.
Malus that the interposition of a doubly refracting plate between a polarizer and an analyser regulated for extinction has the effect of partially restoring the light, and he used this property to discover double refraction in cases in which the separation of the two refracted streams was too slight to be directly detected.
(Reference should be made to the article Crystallography for illustrations, and for applications of these phenomena to the determination of crystal form.) With an uniaxal plate perpendicular to the optic axis, the curves of constant retardation are concentric circles and the lines of like polarization are the radii: thus with polarizer and analyser regulated for extinction, the pattern consists of a series of bright and dark circles interrupted by a black cross with its arms parallel to the planes of polarization and analysation.
The optical constants (refractive index and co-efficient of extinction) of the metal may then be obtained from observations of the principal incidence and the elliptic polarization then produced.
The higher the co-efficient of extinction for light of a given period, the more copious will be reflection of that constituent of a mixed pencil.
For an accurate determination of the plane of polarization analysers that act by extinction are not of much practical use, and a different device has to be employed.
With the extinction of the Western Empire (476 or 479) the kings of the Visigoths became more and more the representatives of authority, which they exercised on Roman lines, and with an implied or formal deference to the distant emperor at Constantinople.
1375); but the actual possession was re covered by the elder line before the extinction of the younger branch.
For in- Practical.) stance, the queen (or " king " of the hives as it was termed by our forefathers) is of paramount importance at certain seasons, her death or disablement during the period when the male element is absent meaning extinction of the whole colony.
The year before, the soldiers had been withdrawn; by the second year after there was serious trouble with the Indians, and for several years following the population was greatly reduced and the post threatened with extinction.
He died on the 22nd of December 1419, and all visitors to the Baptistery at Florence may admire, under its high baldacchino, the sombre figure sculptured by Donatello of the dethroned pontiff, who had at least the merit of bowing his head under his chastisement, and of contributing by his passive resignation to the extinction of the series of popes which sprang from the council of Pisa.
From its local lords it passed by 1127 to the house of Zahringen, and on its extinction (1218) to the counts of Kyburg.
The bliss to which the soul attains, by the extinction of desire, in the supreme home, is not absorption in the Lord, but union with Him in abiding individuality.
Other influences were at work to bring about their extinction.
Their strength, however, was perhaps more usefully shown in their ability to resist the nobles, a proceeding which saved industry and commerce from extinction at a time of unbridled lawlessness.
In the century which followed the extinction of the Ascanian house, liberty degenerated into licence, and the country was given over to anarchy.
Anhalt-Bernburg had been weakened by partitions, but its princes had added several districts to their lands; and in 1812, on the extinction of a cadet branch, it was again united under a single ruler.
Offa's policy was apparently the extinction of the dependent kingdoms. In his reign the dynasties of Kent, Sussex and the Hwicce seem to have disappeared, or at all events to have given up the kingly title.
The family of the counts palatine of Neuburg was threatened with extinction and the emperor Charles VI.
avifauna of the area is in the second of two human-caused bird extinction events.
Phase 2: Mass extinction of marine benthos, including deep-water sponges in BC and many shallow-water taxa including brachiopods in Tibet.
brink of extinction.
clings precariously to the brink of extinction, scattered across the desolate land, living in the darkest age in history.
We are moving toward a universal compassion because, if we do not, we will cause our own extinction.
Its distinctive approach is to unite all the main actors in the first ever concerted approach to avert a major extinction crisis.
The results will help conservationists to develop a national plan to save the dormouse from extinction.
These same indigenous peoples are being driven to extinction by the activities of the oil, timber and mining corporations.
With a third of species facing extinction over the next fifty years your support has never been more vital.
And how did the instrumentalists themselves feel about the threatened extinction of their craft?
Such an event is now widely believe to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period.
Local Action Since the early 1990's, regional campaigns to prevent the extinction of red squirrel in Northern England have been in operation.
Ferns survived the mass extinction which wiped out the dinosaurs, 65 million years ago.
All species of sea turtles are threatened by extinction.
I do not feel that enough information was made available in the article for the enormity of the Permian extinction to be appreciated.
atmospheric extinction Not included; good choice of telluric standards should minimize problems.
Such an event might unleash a mass extinction not seen for the last 200 million years.
The destructive forces of capitalism are driving us headlong into the sixth great species extinction of the earth's 5 billion year history.
Whitman commented on the state of the near extinction of the Osprey in England.
extinction coefficient k in the infrared wavelength transparent region of the thin film.
What's the current state of debate on dinosaur extinction?
For the past 65 million years, the rate of species extinction has remained at about one species per million per year.
The Triassic period begins in the wake of the greatest mass extinction of all time.
extinction of one species has a ' knock-on effect on at least 16 other species, ' he says.
extinction of the species.
Mammals dominated the land fauna following the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous.
High extinction polarizing filters for microscopy are preferable for polarization studies (a microscope dealer's own brand should be of good quality ).
Over hunting, which caused the extinction of the larger herbivores, led also to the loss of open ground.
The Church persecuted heretics, who denied the divinity of Jesus, into extinction.
humpback population from near extinction to an estimated 11,000 today has been widely reported as a success for the IWC.
The population of bald ibis has been in decline and the species is in danger of extinction.
In the beginning of the 20th century synthetic indigo drove natural indigo production to commercial extinction.
Professor Graeme Hays, from Swansea UniversityÃ¢s School of the Environment and Society, has led international efforts to save the leatherback from extinction.
macaw species, driving them to the brink of extinction.
You could spot alligators, exotic birds and maybe even the gentle manatee, close to extinction and now highly protected.
The same dramatic changes brought about the extinction of the giant marsupials at the end of this period.
Predation by the introduced American mink is thought to have a severe impact on the water voles populations, even causing local extinction.
molar extinction coefficient using the Beer-Lambert Law.
Any significant penalty could lead to Ehux being replaced by other phytoplankton in the sea, and hence, eventually, its extinction.
Extinction It seems that something much more random could have played a significant role.
rarest species are most at risk of extinction.
The progress of an artist is a continual self-sacrifice, a continual extinction of personality.
sensuous sinking lip on lip, into starry extinction!
Those confined to the tops of mountains or below impassable barriers may face extinction as their habitat grows smaller.
The rarest species are most at risk of extinction.
threatened with extinction, including one quarter of the mammal species.
typify approach typified much of the literature on dinosaurian extinction from the 1930s to the 1960s.
unfolding tragedy of biodiversity loss and species extinction.
verge of extinction over the past thirty years.
wildflower from extinction?
BBC " What does it take to save a wildflower from extinction?
In 1825 the extinction of the family ruling Saxe-Gotha made a rearrangement of the Saxon duchies necessary, and SaxeMeiningen benefited greatly by the settlement of 1826, its area being more than doubled by the receipt of 530 sq.
took place at Frankfort-onMain, a precedent followed till the extinction of the Empire.
This was the regular extinction of the line of pontiffs who, if the validity of the election of Urban VI.
The younger Dionysius came back and from his island fortress again oppressed the citizens; the plight of the city, torn by faction and conflicts and plundered by foreign troops, was so utterly wretched that all Greek life seemed on the verge of extinction (Plato, Epist.
The transition from the evolutionist criterion of survival - which in itself it is difficult to regard as anything but non-moral - to the criterion of happiness is effected by means of the psychological argument that pleasure promotes function and that living beings must, upon pain of extinction, sooner or later take pleasure in actions which are conducive to their survival.
Subsequently to the extinction of El Censor (1820-1823) there was nothing of any value until the Cartas espanolas (1832), since known as the Revista espanola (1832-1836) and as the Revista de Madrid (1838).
The council of Constance assembled in 1414 under auspices hopeful not only for the extinction of the schism but for the general reform of the Church.
In 1695 these two branches of the family entered conjointly into an agreement with Brandenburg, which provided that, in case of the extinction of either of the Swabian branches, the remaining branch should inherit its lands; and if both branches became extinct the principalities should revert to Brandenburg.
In general we find an analogy between the development of groups and of organs; we discover that each phyletic branch of certain organisms traverses a geologic career comparable to the life of an individual, that we may often distinguish, especially among invertebrates, a phase of youth, a phase of maturity, a phase of senility or degeneration foreshadowing the extinction of a type.
Naturalist, 1906, pp. 7 6 9-795, 82 9- 8 59) finds that foremost in the long series of causes which lead to extinction are the grander environmental changes, such as physiographic changes, diminished or contracted land areas, substitution of insular for continental conditions; changes of climate and secular lowering of temperature accompanied by deforestation and checking of the food supply; changes influencing the mating period as well as fertility; changes causing increased humidity, which in turn favours enemies among insect life.
In the sphere of living environment, the varied evolution of plant life, the periods of forestation and deforestation, the introduction of deleterious plants simultaneously with harsh conditions of life and enforced migration, as well as of mechanically dangerous plants, are among the well-ascertained causes of diminution and extinction.
also Allotments And Small Holdings), and under the Workmen's Compensation Act 1906 to workmen, in respect of accidents in the course of their employment (see Employers' Liability); and under the Licensing Act 1904, to the payments to be made on the extinction of licences to sell intoxicants.
above freezing, the severity of frosts in winter is thus obviated, and the growth, especially of the roots of grasses, is encouraged; (2) nourishment or plant food is actually brought on to the soil, by which it is absorbed and retained, both for the immediate and for the future use of the vegetation, which also itself obtains some nutrient material directly; (3) solution and redistribution of the plant food already present in the soil occur mainly through the solvent action of the carbonic acid gas present in a dissolved state in the irrigation-water; (4) oxidation of any excess of organic matter in the soil, with consequent production of useful carbonic acid and nitrogen compounds, takes place through the dissolved oxygen in the water sent on and through the soil where the drainage is good; and (5) improvement of the grasses, and especially of the miscellaneous herbage, of the meadow is promoted through the encouragement of some at least of the better species and the extinction or reduction of mosses and of the innutritious weeds.
A curious difficulty, a relic of an older state of society, aros in the principality of Lippe, in consequence of the extinction of the elder ruling line and a dispute as to the succession (see LIPPE).
The present constitution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (see Austria) is based on the Pragmatic Sanction of the emperor Charles VI., first promulgated on the 19th of April 1713, whereby the succession to the throne is settled in the dynasty of Habsburg-Lorraine, descending by right of primogeniture and lineal succession to male heirs, and, in case of their extinction, to the female line, and whereby the indissolubility and indivisibility of the monarchy are determined; is based, further, on the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I.
nirva, " to blow,"fora calm or sinless state or condition of the mind reached by a dying out or extinction of sin (see Buddhism).
The nation wished for the establishmentof internal unity through religious tolerance and the extinction of private organizations; it looked for the extension of Frances external power through the abasement of the house of Spain, protection of the Protestants in the Netherlands and Germany, and independence of Rome.
The power of the Internet and associated technologies we have so far described, combined with our new understanding of the genome, dooms disease to eventual extinction.
Is n't its meaning the lilac petals on water, camomile 's sensuous sinking lip on lip, into starry extinction !
The campaign for extinction is being lead by Tory shadow cabinet member, Bernard Jenkin.
Customers do n't want to buy products linked to rainforest destruction or species extinction.
Much of the world 's wildlife is threatened with extinction, including one quarter of the mammal species.
This approach typified much of the literature on dinosaurian extinction from the 1930s to the 1960s.
Conservation successes document that we should not be passive by-standers in the unfolding tragedy of biodiversity loss and species extinction.
Against all odds, Manx Gaelic has clawed itself back from the verge of extinction over the past thirty years.
BBC What does it take to save a wildflower from extinction?
Many species are counted to be precariously on the edge of extinction.
Species extinction: A large number of animals are in danger of extinction due to human and environmental causes.
Whenever forests are destroyed, the new space decreases biodiversity and increases the greenhouse effect, not to mention how it displaces animals and people, leading to the extinction of some animal and plant species.
Fortunately, since it is such a helpful herbal product, steps have been taken to preserve the trees from extinction by planting a lot of them to farm for their bark.
Old breeds struggling to evade extinction and new breeds in development both find themselves classed as Rare Dog Breeds when they are approved for registry with the AKC's Foundation Stock Service.
Opening up to foreign trade brought quite a boon to Japan, but it also brought something else; a depletion of natural pearls and near extinction of the nation's clam beds.
The South bombs the Heimdal and lets loose ARK, an ancient organism bred for the extinction of humanity.
You are a sarcastic, trigger-happy gray alien named Crypto whose race faces extinction due to genetic deterioration.
Everyone in the Empire was confused because their existence was now on a deadly threshold of extinction.
Extinction is a type of discipline that seeks to prevent inadvertent positive reinforcement for negative behavior.
Withholding privileges is another form of extinction that is more appropriate for older children and adolescents.
The Webkinz polar bear became an instant hit because of its uniqueness and the possibility of extinction of its real-life counterpart within the next century.
Not just women - some species of birds were pushed to the edge of extinction because their feathers were in demand for hat adornment.
With the introduction of television, people were convinced radio would be forced into extinction, and with the advent of the Internet, no more need for TV.
The chief spokesman, Bal Thackery, called lesbianism "a sort of social AIDS" and worried that it would spread and lead to the eventual extinction of humanity.
One India has a trailer named Jurassic Park 4: The Extinction that also pieces together clips to form a "new" trailer for the latest Jurassic Park movie.
Among the most frequent speculation by modern day enthusiasts is that the Loch Ness Monster is actually a plesiosaur or its descendant that survived the extinction of the dinosaurs by migrating between the sea and lochs.
The Smithsonian National Zoological Park was designed to preserve animals on the brink of extinction.
He works with underprivileged youth and is an advocate for preventing the extinction of the rhinoceros.
His work has been featured in I Am Legend, Resident Evil:Extinction, Independence Day and Underworld.
In most cases, humanity is brought to the brink of extinction.
The struggle against the unknown often involves superior forces or dangerous methods and could leave humanity on the brink of extinction.
His whole kingdom was to be unified; Judaism was an eccentricity and as such doomed to extinction.
[[Table Xiv]].-Numbers of Cattle, Sheep and Pigs imported into the United Kingdom, 1891-1905 The animals come mainly from the United States of America, Canada and Argentina, and the traffic in cattle is more uniform than that in sheep, whilst that in pigs seems practically to have reached extinction.
This was the last serious attempt at a Crusade on behalf of the dying kingdom of Jerusalem which was made in the West; and its collapse was quickly followed by the final extinction of the kingdom.
The extinction of the western caliphate and the dispersion of the once noble heritage of the Ommayads into numerous petty independent states, had taken place some thirty years previously, so that Castilian and Moslem were once again upon equal terms, the country being almost equally divided between them.
This proposal was accepted by the Turkish government, which undertook to continue the annual payment of £T114,000 to the public debt administration until the extinction of the debt.
Were it not for the use of some such device the arc would be liable to constant fluctuation and to frequent extinction.
and his cousin, the cardinal Giulio de' Medici, were much perplexed about the management of the republic. It seemed necessary, if possible, in the gradual extinction of their family to give the city at least a semblance of self-government.
After the extinction of the main line of the counts of Mansfeld, Eisleben fell to Saxony, and, in the partition of Saxony by the congress of Vienna in 1815, was assigned to Prussia.
In consequence, a divorce began to be talked of at court; and it seemed not impossible that Francis, alarmed at the possible extinction of the royal house, might listen to such a proposal.
She died on the 5th of January 1589, a short time before the assassination of Henry, and the consequent extinction of the House of Valois.
There are cantonal courts and two 1 It should be noticed, however, that the Salic law is subordinate to the Nassau family law, which provides for the succession in the case of the complete extinction of males.
of the Nassau Pact of the 30th of June 1783 provides "that in the event of the extinction of males, the rights of succession pass to the daughter or nearest heiress of the last male."
By her marriage with Claude of Lorraine, duke of Chevreuse, Marie de Rohan, the widow of the first duke of Luynes, acquired in 1655 the duchy of Chevreuse, which she gave in 1663 to Louis Charles d'Albert, her son by her first husband; and from that time the title of duke of Chevreuse and duke of Luynes was borne by the eldest sons of the family of Luynes, which also inherited the title of duke of Chaulnes on the extinction of the descendants of Honore d'Albert in 1698.
1864), who, owing to the extinction of the family of Hohenzollern-Hechingen in 1869, was called simply prince of Hohenzollern.
But on the extinction of that house towards the end of the 15th century the castle passed through various hands until it came by marriage in 1665 to the family of Baron van Tuyll van Serooskerke.
In 1345 it became a fief of the landgraves of Thuringia, to whom it escheated in 1385 with the extinction of the line of Otto III.
From his death may be dated the disastrous line of policy which led to the extinction of the state as.
had promised that in case of the extinction of his family Lauenburg should pass to the family of Wettin, an arrangement which had been confirmed by the emperor Maximilian I.
Every living organism reacts to its environment; if the reaction is unfavourable, disability leading to ultimate extinction is the result.
consisting at first of various loosely connected entities, naturally centrifugal, but temporarily drawn together by the urgent need of combination against a superior foe, who threatened them separately with extinction.
The year 690 is regarded as the date of the temporary extinction of Greek in Italy, but, in the first quarters of the 8th and the 9th centuries, the iconoclastic decrees of the Byzantine emperors drove many of the Greek monks and their lay adherents to the south of Italy, and even to Rome itself.
Important efforts were made to attract French colonists to the country, the colonization of Algeria appearing as a means towards the extinction of pauperism in the mother-country.
On the extinction of the house of Horn in 1540, the countship passed to the famous Philip of Montmorency, who, with the count of Egmont, was executed in Brussels in 1568 by order of the duke of Alva.
After the extinction of the prophetic voice, an ever-increasing weight was not unnaturally laid on the predictive element in their writings.
In England Robert Hooke (1635-1703) held to the theory of extinction of fossil forms, and advanced the two most fertile ideas of deriving from fossils a chronology, or series of time intervals in the earth's history, and of primary changes of climate, to account for the former existence of tropical species in England.
He especially pointed out the laws of the " extinction of the specialized " and " survival of the non-specialized " forms of life, and challenged Darwin's principle of selection as an explanation of the origin of adaptations by saying that the " survival of the fittest " does not explain the " origin of the fittest."
Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.
- We have seen that different lines vary in vitality and in longevity, that from the earliest times senescent branches are given off, that different lines vary in the rate of evolution, that extinction is often heralded by symptoms of racial old age, which, however, vary widely in different groups.
Internal causes of extinction are to be found in exaggeration of body size, in the hypertrophy or over-specialization of certain organs, in the irreversibility of evolution, and possibly, although this has not been demonstrated, in a progressive reduction of variability.
Osborn (" Causes of Extinction of the Mammalia," Amer.
In the Roman Catholic Church the most characteristic ritual feature of the festival is now the solemn extinction of the paschal candle after the Gospel at high mass.
This candle, lighted at every mass for the forty days after Easter, symbolizes the presence of Christ with his disciples, and its extinction his parting from them.
In 1143 Heribert of Bierum, bishop of Utrecht, converted the office into an hereditary fief in favour of his brother Liffert, on the extinction of whose male line it was partitioned between the families of Koevorden (or Coevorden) and van den Hove.
and his son in 1471, so complete was the extinction of their line that its representation vested in the heirs of the two daughters of John of Gaunt by the heiress of Lancaster, viz.
Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates willipush it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the states, old as well as new - North as well as South."
One of the most ardent of these enemies was Lothair of Supplinburg, whom Henry himself had made duke of Saxony upon the extinction of the~ Billung family in 1106.
Sigismund, who died in December 1437, was succeeded on the German throne and also in Hungary and Bohemia by his son-in-law Albert of Austria, and from this time, ~ ~ although remaining in theory elective, the German crown was always conferred upon a member of the house of Habsburg until the extinction of the male line of this family in 1740.
On the extinction of the family in 1429 the county fell to the counts of Stolberg, who founded the StolbergWernigerode branch in 1645.
Leopold and his descendants ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place among the German states.
In 1552, on the temporary extinction of the diocese of Durham, Gateshead was attached to Newcastle, but in 1554 was regranted to Bishop Tunstall.
There was a tendency towards concentration in large cities of the new type, which caused many of the lesser towns, like Lebedus, Myus or Colophon, to sink to insignificance, while Ephesus grew in greatness and wealth, and Smyrna rose again after an extinction of four centuries.
The Mahmal, a kind of covered litter, first originated by Queen Sheger-ed-Dur, is brought into the city in procession, though not with as much pomp as when it leaves with the pilgrims. These and other processions have lost much of their effect since the extinction of the Mamelukes, and the gradual disuse of gorgeous dress for the retainers of the,, officers of state.
The results of the battle of Omdurman were the practical destruction of the khalifas army, the extinction of Mahdism in the Sudan, and the recovery of nearly all the country formerly under Egyptian authority.
(1702) Drente remained for a term of years without a stadtholder, but in 1722 William Charles Henry of the house of Nassau-Siegen, who, through the extinction of the elder line, had become prince of Orange, was elected stadtholder.
This division of national sentiment within the monarchy, complicated by the approaching extinction of the Oldenburg line of the house of Denmark, by which, in the normal course under the Salic law, the succession to Holstein would have passed away from the Danish crown, opened up the whole complicated SchleswigHolstein Question with all its momentous consequences.
To the ruin of learning and education wrought by the Danes, and the practical extinction of the knowledge of Latin even among the clergy, the preface to Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care bears eloquent testimony.
Projects for the assertion of this claim by force of arms had been formed by more than one of Frederick's predecessors, and the extinction of the male line of the house of Habsburg may well have seemed to him a unique opportunity for realizing an ambition traditional in his family.
The Slavonic masses, however, both Servian and Bulgarian, preserved their language, which saved these nationalities from extinction.
Originally a settlement of the Sorbian Wends, and in the 12th century part of the possessions of the bishops of Merseburg, Delitzsch ultimately passed to the Saxe-Merseburg family, and, on their extinction in 1738, was incorporated with Electoral Saxony.
until its gradual extinction about 1768.
If such be indeed the case, perhaps the noblest of all primitive races may yet be saved from what at one time seemed inevitable extinction; and the Maori, the Samoans, and Tahitians may, like the Hawaiians, take their place beside the Europeans as free citizens of the various states of which they are now subjects.
On leaving the Senate, in 1893, he became chairman of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes (sometimes called the Dawes Indian Commission), and served in this capacity for ten years, negotiating with the tribes for the extinction of the communal title to their land and for the dissolution of the tribal governments, with the object of making the tribes a constituent part of the United States.'
In the western provinces about Kandahar (amongst the Durani Afghans - the people who claim to be Beni-Israel), and especially in Zamindawar, the spirit of fanaticism runs high, and every other Afghan is a possible Ghazi - a man who has devoted his life to the extinction of other creeds.
Meagre as were the results which the earlier thinkers had obtained, the extinction of philosophy just at the time when the liberal arts became more technical and consequently less available as employments of leisure, threatened to leave a blank in Hellenic life.
Its extinction is contemporaneous with the rise of Hinduism, and belongs to a subsequent part of this sketch.
The defenceless condition of these birds led to their extinction after the island was colonized.
A special interest attaches to the great auk (Alca impennis), owing to its recent extinction and the value of its eggs to collectors.
We thus obtain four periods in the development of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion: (i) the oldest period from_ C. 3500 B.C. to the time of Khammurabi (c. 2250 B.C.); (2) the post-Khammurabic period in Babylonia; (3) the Assyrian period (c. 2000 B.C.) to the destruction of Nineveh in 606 B.C.; (4) the neo-Babylonian period beginning with Nabopolassar (625-604 B.C.), the first independent ruler under whom Babylonia inaugurates a new though short-lived era of power and prosperity, which ends with Cyrus's conquest of Babylon and Babylonia in 539 B.C., though since the religion proceeds on its undisturbed course for several centuries after the end of the political independence, we might legitimately carry this period to the Greek conquest of the Euphrates valley (331 B.C.), when new influences began to make themselves felt which gradually led to the extinction of the old cults.
The belief in the imminent collapse of the Ottoman dominion was weakened almost to extinction; so was the belief, which inspired the treaty cf 1856, in the capacity of Turkey to reform and develop itself on European lines.
The pious Quakers of Pennsylvania at the end of the 18th century had realized a deeper duty towards the offenders than their extinction, and sought to amend and reform the living.
In 1537 Frederick II., duke of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau, concluded with Joachim II., elector of Brandenburg, a treaty according to which his duchy was to pass to the house of Brandenburg in the event of the extinction of his line.
Having thus preserved the empire from extinction, Leo proceeded to consolidate its adminis tration, which in the previous years of anarchy had become completely disorganized.
Salmon, once threatened with extinction, have been saved, maintained in good supply, and indeed have probably regained their pristine abundance.
Similarly secular elevations of temperature, either accompanied by moisture or desiccation, by increasing droughts or by disturbance of the balance of nature, have been followed by great waves of extinction of the Mammalia.
The evolution of insect life in driving animals from feeding ranges and in the spread of disease probably has been a prime cause of extinction.
Great waves of extinction have followed the long periods of the slow evolution of relatively inadaptive types of tooth and foot structure, as first demonstrated by Waldemar Kowalevsky; thus mammals are repeatedly observed in a cul-de-sac of structure from which there is no escape in an adaptive direction.
Little proof is afforded among the mammals of extinction through arrested evolution or through the limiting of variation, although such laws undoubtedly exist.
This survey of the phenomena of extinction in one great class of animals certainly establishes the existence of an almost infinite variety of causes, some of which are internal, some external in origin, operating on animals of different kinds.
1904), " The Causes of Extinction of Mammalia " (Amer.
Seeing then that the Catholic sovereigns had been forced to expel them, that many bishops and other eminent persons demanded their extinction, and that the Society had ceased to fulfil the intention of its institute, the pope declares it necessary for the peace of the Church that it should be suppressed, extinguished, abolished and abrogated for ever, with all its houses, colleges, schools and hospitals; transfers all the authority of its general or officers to the local ordinaries; forbids the reception of any more novices, directing that such as were actually in probation should be dismissed, and declaring that profession in the Society should not serve as a title to holy orders.
After 1896 substantial annual surpluses were spent in reducing taxation and in the extinction of debt.
McDougall was in 1868 sent to England to negotiate with the Hudson's Bay Company (q.v.) for the extinction of its claims, and to arrange with the imperial government for the transfer of the territory.
Afterwards there arose a natural rivalry between the Seljuks and the Danishmand, which ended with the extinction of the latter about 1175.
Measures for its refunding, but not for its extinction, have been taken.
The third bride was sickly and unsympathetic, and from her Sigismund soon lost all hope of progeny, to his despair, for being the last male of the Jagiellos in the direct line, the dynasty was threatened with extinction.
In 1617 he aided his brother, Duke Christian, to add Grubenhagen to Luneburg, and after the extinction of the family of BrunswickWolfenbuttel in 1634, he obtained Calenberg for himself, making Hanover the capital of his small dukedom.
Owing to this attitude the German imperial government refused to allow him to take possession of the duchy of Brunswick, which he inherited on the extinction of the elder branch of his family in 1884, and again in 1906 when the same subject came up for settlement on the death of the regent, Prince Albert of Prussia.
The extinction of the Latin kingdom might now seem imminent; and envoys were sent to the West with anxious appeals for assistance in 1169, 1171 and 1173.
Returning to Europe on the expulsion of the Jesuits from South America, he settled at Vienna, obtained the friendship of Maria Theresa, survived the extinction of his order, composed the history of his mission, and died on the 17th of July 1791.
He is directly responsible for the beginnings of the feudal anarchy which wellnigh led to the extinction of the monarchy at the end of the 13th century.
To save his flock from extinction or dispersion, Ulfilas decided to withdraw both himself and his people.
This pamphlet excited considerable controversy, and is supposed to have influenced Pitt in re-establishing the sinking fund for the extinction of the national debt, which had been created by Walpole in 1716 and abolished in 1733.
The means, however, which Price proposed for the extinction of the debt are described by Lord Overstone 1 as " a sort of hocus-pocus machinery," supposed to work " without loss to any one," and consequently unsound.
His indefatigable activity on behalf of Western civilization, now threatened with extinction by the Ottomans, excites admiration and adds an undying lustre to his memory.
Henceforth, too, annexations of territory were frequently carried out by the Bohemian crown on the extinction of Silesian dynasties, and the surviving princes showed an increasing reluctance to the exercise of their authority.
Then on the extinction of this family in 1884 it lapsed to the crown of Prussia.
On the extinction of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain by the death of Charles II.
Statutes were granted in 1476, but the order fell into abeyance at the extinction of the dynasty in 1609.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.