A number of small extinct volcanoes, however, appear in all directions.
The genus is associated with one long extinct in Europe.
Fossil bones of extinct kangaroo species are met with; these kangaroos must have been of enormous size, twice or thrice that of any species now living.
Gamal), the name of the single-humped Arabian Camelus dromedaries, but also applied to the two-humped central Asian C. bactrianus and to the extinct relatives of both.
of Port Blair; and the equally curious isolated mountain, the extinct volcano of Narcondam, rising 2330 ft.
the recognition within the last few years of the existence of an extinct group of plants lying on the borderland between.
slope of the extinct volcano of Rocca Monfina, 27 m.
deep, is almost circular, and was the central point of a large volcanic district, though it is probably not itself an extinct crater.
They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.
This line became extinct on the death of Count Eberhard (1393), who in 1385 had sold half his territory to the count palatine of the Rhine, and held the other half as his feudatory.
Andrews, " On the Extinct Birds of Patagonia," Tr.
Science (1893); Tenison-Woods, The Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales (Sydney, 1883); Ogilvy, Catalogue of Australian Mammals (Sydney, 1892); Aflalo, Natural History of Australia (London, 1896); Flower and Lydekker, Mammals, Living and Extinct (London, 1891); J.
- Extinct Starling of Reunion (Fregilupus varius), adapted from figures by Daubenton, Levaillant and others.
Dinornis, numerous species, recently extinct, New Zealand.
The coins demonstrate that Hellenism had become quite extinct in Persis, while the old historical and mythical traditions and the Zoroastrian religion were supreme.
In view of these differences from the domesticated breed, and the resemblance of the skull or lower jaw to that of the extinct European species, it becomes practically impossible to regard the wild camels as the offspring of animals that have escaped from captivity.
Koirpos, dung, and X LOo, stone), the fossilized excrements of extinct animals.
The male Urach line becoming extinct in 1457, an heiress carried what remained of their possessions in the Breisgau to the house of Baden.
On his death-bed he is said to have requested a friend to hide his body as soon as life was extinct, and, by putting a serpent in its place, induce his townsmen to suppose that he had been carried up to heaven.
m., belonged before the year 1000 to a certain Rutger, whose family became extinct in 1368.
- Extinct Phillip-Island Parrot (Nestor productus).
above the level of the sea, on the narrow south-western edge of the extinct crater of Rocca Monfina.
At present, ten recent and one extinct family of Calyptoblastea (Leptomedusae) may be recognized provisionally: 1.
Lastly must be noted the extinct tall Ratite species of Aepyornis with its several fancy genera.
In three of them the volcanoes are entirely extinct, while the fourth is still in great activity.
The evidence of the peat bogs shows that the Scots fir, which is now extinct, was abundant in Denmark in the Roman period.
The key to the distribution of recent groups lies in that of the extinct forms. Not only have many absolutely new families been discovered, but many kinds of modern birds are now known to have existed also in countries which they are now extinct.
Most Pleistocene birds are generically, even specifically, identical with recent forms; some, however, have become extinct, or they have become exterminated by man.
ELEPHANT, the designation of the two existing representatives of the Proboscidea, a sub-order of ungulate mammals, and also extended to include their more immediate extinct relatives.
Francis, seventh Lord Howard of Effingham, was created earl of Effingham in 1731, a title extinct in 1816 with the fourth earl, but revived again in 1837 for the eleventh baron, who had served as a general officer in the Peninsular campaign, the great-grandfather of the present peer.
At the same time the then existing alpine floras descended to lower levels, though we may agree with Ball that they did not necessarily become extinct at higher ones as long as any land-surface remained uncovered by ice.
But it also follows that, if every extinct and recent bird were known, neither species, nor genera, nor families, nor orders could be defined.
For extinct camels see Tylopoda.
Here may be noticed three genera of large extinct marsupials from the Pleistocene of Australia whose affinities appear to ally them to the wombat-group on the one hand and to the phalangers on the other.
- Extinct Crested Parrot of Mauritius (Lophopsittacus mauritianus).
The African elephant is a very different animal from its Asiatic cousin, both as regards structure and habits; and were it not for the existence of intermediate extinct species, might well be regarded as the representative of a distinct genus.
"At the present time," observes Dr Hamilton, "the wild cat has become almost extinct in many of the above districts.
C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
C. Marsh, Odontornithes: A monograph of the Extinct Toothed Birds of North America (New Haven, Conn., 1880); R.
Remains of extinct birds are, compared with those of other classes of vertebrates, exceedingly scarce, and these have been found in very few, widely separated countries.
It is, of course, quite impossible, in a survey of extinct birds, to divide them into those which are bona fide fossil, sub-fossil, recently extirpated and partially exterminated.
Under the heading of Multituberculata will be found a brief account of certain extinct mammals from the Mesozoic formations of Europe and North America which have been regarded as more or less nearly related to the monotremes.
A great number of birds' bones have been found in caves, and among them some bearing marks of human workmanship. In France we have a large and extinct crane, Grus primigenia, but more interesting are the numerous relics of two species, the concomitants even now of the reindeer, which were abundant in that country at the period when this beast flourished there,and have followed it in its northward retreat.
Order Aepyornithes.-Aepyornis, recently extinct, Madagascar.
All the other lakes of Central Italy, which are scattered through the volcanic districts west of the Apennines, are of an entirely difierent formation, and occupy deep cup-shaped hollows, which have undoubtedly at one time formed the craters of extinct volcanoes.
The Mansfeld family became extinct in 1780 on the death of Josef Wenzel Nepomuk, prince of Fondi, the lands being divided between Saxony and Prussia.
A statement may now be given of Gadow's classification of birds, in which the extinct forms have been intercalated so far as possible.
It is no exaggeration to say that the genus, often even the species, can be determined from almost any recent bone, but in the case of Miocene, and still more, of Eocene fossils, we have often to deal with strange families, which either represent an extinct side branch, or which connect several recent groups with each other.
The same deposits have also yielded remains of extinct types of kangaroo, some of gigantic size, constituting the genera Sthenurus, Procoptodon and Palorchestes.
In the Gnetaceous Welwitschia it possesses a vegetable type whose extraordinary peculiarities make it seem amongst contemporary vegetation much as some strange and extinct animal form would if suddenly endowed with life.
The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
Thomas, son of the fourth duke of Norfolk's marriage with the daughter and heir of Thomas, Lord Audley of Walden, founded the line of the present earls of Suffolk and Berkshire and of the extinct Lords Howard of Escrick.
Thus the old royal house became extinct in the male line, and in 306 Antigonus assumed the title of king.
extremity, is an extinct volcano (4365 ft.).
These chains are: (1) the folded chain of the upper Kapuas, which divides the western division of Dutch Borneo from Sarawak, extends west to east, and attains near the sources of the Kapuas river a height of s000 to 6000 ft.; (2) the Schwaner chain, south of the Kapuas, whose summits range from 3000 to 7500 ft., the latter being the height of Bukit Raja, a plateau which divides the waters of the Kapuas from the rivers of southern Borneo; and (3) the Muller chain, between the eastern parts of the Madi plateau (presently to be mentioned) and the Kapuas chain, a volcanic region presenting heights, such as Bukit Terata (4700 ft.), which were once active but are now long extinct volcanos.
Crustacea occupied an extremely prominent place; there were Phyllocarids such as Hymenocaris, and Ostracods like Entomidella; but by far the most important in numbers and development were the Trilo bites, now extinct, but in palaeozoic times so abundant.
The ship and cargo were burnt, but soon after cases of a suspicious form of disease were observed in the hospital and in the poorest parts of the town; and in the summer a fearful epidemic of plague developed itself which destroyed 40,000 or 50,000 persons, and then became extinct without spreading to other parts of Sicily.
The Irish wolfhound is now extinct, but appears to have been a powerful race heavier than the deerhound but similar to it in general characters.
It is in favour of the theory that it spread by some means from Holland that plague had been all but extinct in London for some seventeen years, and prevailed in Holland in 1663-1664.
- This order has been constituted for a peculiar group of palaeozoic fossils, which have been interpreted as the remains of the skeletons of Hydrozoa of an extinct type.
Two of his sons succeeded in turn to the earldom of Nottingham, extinct on the death of Charles, the third earl in 1681.
In old days New Mexico was the home of a breed of hairless cats, said to have been kept by the ancient Aztecs, but now well-nigh if not completely extinct.
The natural antipathy between the two sections of the race, though less evident than in former times, is far from extinct.
There are genera so far removed from every living genus that many connecting links must have become extinct.
There are some porcupines, red foxes, minks and martens, but the moose, wolf and lynx are practically extinct.
A former woollen trade is extinct.
Rodriguez was inhabited by Pezophaps, the solitaire, Necropsittacus and Palaeornis exsul, which is now probably extinct.
The Rallidae present the very noteworthy woodhens, Ocydromus, and the takahe, Notornis, which is almost extinct.
Notornis, New Zealand, flightless, nearly extinct.
Aptornis, New Zealand, flightless, extinct.
In common with an allied ruminant from the same district, previously described as Euceratherium, it seems probable that Preptoceras is related on the one hand to the musk-ox, and on the other to the Asiatic takin, while it is also supposed to have affinities with the sheep. If these extinct forms really serve to connect the takin with the musk-ox, their systematic importance will be very great.
The plant is now extinct in Lower Egypt, but is found in the Upper Nile regions and in Abyssinia.
Hares, for a long period extinct, were reintroduced about 1830, rabbits are very numerous, and the northern limit of the hedgehog is drawn at Lerwick.
In the tapirs and many extinct forms the fifth toe also remains on the fore-limb, but its presence does not interfere with the symmetrical arrangement of the remainder of the foot on each side of the median line of the third or middle digit.
The Perissodactyla may be divided into the four following sections, namely the extinct Titanotheroidea, the Hippoidea, represented by the horse tribe and their ancestors, the Tapiroidea, typified by the tapirs, and the Rhinocerotoidea, which includes the modern rhinoceroses and their forerunners.
The section is divisible into the families Equidae and Palaeotheriidae, of which the latter is extinct.
This group is also divided into two families, the Tapiridae and Lophiodontidae, the latter extinct.
Nearly related is the extinct family Lophiodontidae (inclusive of the American Helaletidae), in which both the upper and lower first premolar may be absent, while the upper molars present a more rhinoceros-like form, owing to the lateral compression and consequent lengthening of the outer columns, of which the hinder is bent somewhat inwards and is more or less concave externally, thus forming a more complete outer wall.
Rhinoceros Group. - The last section of the Perissodactyla is that of the Rhinocerotoidea, represented by the modern rhinoceroses and their extinct allies.
In North America rhinoceroses became extinct before the close of the Pliocene period; but in the Old World, although their geographical distribution has become greatly restricted, at least five well-marked species survive.
Atacatzo is an extinct volcano, with nothing noteworthy in its appearance and history.
Aphanapteryx (Mauritius) = Erythromachus (Rodriguez) = Diaphorapteryx (Chatham Island), flightless and recently extinct.
Dididae, flightless, recently extinct.
The elder line was soon extinct.
1489), son of Stephen, count palatine of Zimmern-Veldenz, founded the line of the dukes of Zweibriicken, which became extinct in 1731, when the duchy passed to the Birkenfeld branch, whence it came under the sway of Bavaria in 1799.
It is an extinct volcano rising to 4365 ft.
For a hundred years the Brethren were almost extinct.
Hinduism, which was once the religion of Java, but has been extinct there for four centuries, is still in vogue in the islands of Bali and Lombok, where the cruel custom of widow-burning (suttee) is still practised, and the Hindu system of the four castes, with a fifth or Pariah caste (called Chandala), adhered to.
During this period, which lasted from 1725 to 1762, the male line of the Romanov dynasty became extinct, and the succession passed to various members of the female line, which intermarried with German princes.
p. 272) mentions it as one of the extinct cities of Sicily.
A small wolf, the loup-renard of de Bougainville, is extinct, the last having been seen about 1875 on the West Falkland.
of its nearest neighbour, and therefore scarcely belongs geographically to the group, all the islands are considerably elevated, with several extinct or quiescent craters rising from 2000 ft.
Of the extremely limited Samoan fauna, consisting mainly of an indigenous rat, four species of snakes and a few birds, the most interesting member is the Didunculus strigirostris, a ground pigeon of iridescent greenish-black and bright chestnut plumage, which forms a link between the extinct dodo and the living African Treroninae.
Harting in his work on Extinct British Animals, from which the following account is abridged.
(1485-1509) that wolves appear to have become finally extinct in England.
The prevailing soils are sand and gravel loams, but other varieties are numerous, ranging from rich alluvial beds of extinct lakes, as in parts of Lyon and Esmeralda counties, to the strongly alkaline plains of the southern deserts.
1761), left a son Arthur, whose legitimacy was doubted, and the peerage became extinct.
All the male descendants of the 1st earl of Anglesey became extinct in the person of George, 2nd earl of Mountnorris, in 1844, when the titles of Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris passed to his cousin Arthur Annesley (1785-1863), who thus became 10th Viscount Valentia, being descended from the 1st Viscount Valentia, the father of the 1st earl of Anglesey in the Annesley family.
Dying unmarried, when the earldom therefore became extinct, Charles was succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by his brother John Bruce Richard (1780-1855), a general in the British army; on whose death without issue in 1855 the male line in the United Kingdom became extinct.
Art was still by no means extinct, and its forms and decorative elements are simply later derivatives of the great palace style.
In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.
In Burma also there is at least one extinct volcano.
He died in 1833 and was succeeded by his son Sivaji, on whose death in 1855 without an heir the house became extinct.
The earldom, and the viscounty of the United Kingdom, being limited to heirs male, became extinct, but the barony, being to heirs general, passed to his daughter, Sophia Charlotte (1762-1835), who married the Hon.
One of the most ancient towns in Thuringia, Saalfeld, once the capital of the extinct duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, is still partly surrounded by old walls and bastions, and contains some interesting medieval buildings, among them being a palace,, built in 1679 on the site of the Benedictine abbey of St Peter, which was destroyed during the Peasants' War.
Extinct volcanoes are numerous in several of the ranges, e.g.
the boundary between Russian and Turkish Armenia, having Ararat at its eastern extremity and the extinct volcano of Kessa-dagh (11,260 ft.) at its western.
Genus includes several hundred extinct species ranging from the Silurian to the Tertiary.
Also extinct, from Cambrian to Cretaceous.
5.-Velainiellidae, an extinct family from the Eocene.
All extinct, Cambrian to Cretaceous.
Extinct, Cambrian and Silurian.
Tylopoma, extinct, Tertiary.
- Purpurinidae, extinct.
A l a r i a, Spinigera, Diartema, extinct.
He thus set up a formal theory of allegorical exegesis, which is not quite extinct in the churches even yet, but in his own system was of fundamental importance.
The title of Granville descended to his son Robert, who died without issue in 1776, when the earldom of this creation became extinct.
Geological History The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders, and in many cases to recent families.
The Hexapoda, being aerial, terrestrial and fresh-water animals, are but occasionally preserved in stratified rocks, and our knowledge of extinct members of the class is therefore fragmentary, while the description, as insects, of various obscure fossils, which are perhaps not even Arthropods, has not tended to the advancement of this branch of zoology.
Rothschild's Extinct Birds (1907, quarto).
The skull and sternum were at the time unknown, and indeed the whole order, without doubt entirely extinct, rested exclusively on the celebrated fossil, then unique, Archaeopteryx.
The unlookedfor discovery in France of remains which he has referred to, forms now existing it is true, but existing only in countries far removed from Europe, forms such as Collocalia, Leptosomus, Psittacus, Serpentarius and Trogon, is perhaps even more suggestive than the finding that France was once inhabited by forms that are wholly extinct, of which in the older formations there is abundance.
In 1880 Marsh brought out Odontornithes, a monograph of the extinct toothed birds of North America.
Harting, Extinct British Animals, 1880).
The famous manufacture of fine muslins is almost extinct, but the carving of shells, carried on from ancient times, is an important industry in the city.
In this struggle Hesse-Cassel took the other side, and the rivalry between the two landgraviates was increased by a dispute over Hesse-Marburg, the ruling family of which had become extinct in 1604.
When this line became extinct in 1784 the lordship reverted to Prussia, being claimed both by the king as personal property and by the state.
The ruling population was already spread too thin for the work which it had to do; and exhausted by its efforts, it gradually became extinct.
Thus the Shiite caliphate became extinct: in the mosques of Cairo the name of the caliph of Bagdad was now used; and the long-disunited Mahommedans at last faced the Christians as a solid body.
among the peculiar species are the red bay or" Florida Mahogany," satinwood and cachibou, and the Florida yew and savin, both almost extinct.
The system, however, was not even then extinct, for it was described by Chaeremon the Stoic, a contemporary of Strabo's.
The middle toe was the largest, and the weight of the body was mainly supported on this and the two adjoining digits, which appear to have been encased in hoofs, thus foreshadowing the tridactyle type common in perissodactyle and certain extinct groups of ungulates.
The agouti and the armadillo are practically extinct and the only other mammals are ground squirrels, rats, a few other small rodents, and some bats.
To the south-east of the lake is the Monte Nuovo, a volcanic hill upheaved in 1538, with a deep extinct crater in the centre.
In the middle ages Zutphen was the seat of a line of counts, which became extinct in the 12th century.
The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries.
About 1120 another Giso, count of Gudensberg, secured possession of the lands of the Werners; on his death in 1137 his daughter and heiress, Hedwig, married Louis, landgrave of Thuringia; and from this date until 1247, when the Thuringian ruling family became extinct, Hesse formed part of Thuringia.
The lines ruling in HesseRheinfels and Hesse-Marburg, or upper Hesse, became extinct in 1583 and 1604 respectively, and these lands passed to the two remaining branches of the family.
As he died without issue the title became extinct.
GNU, the Hottentot name for the large white-tailed South African antelope, now nearly extinct, know to the Boers as the black wildebeest, and to naturalists as Connochaetes (or Catoblepas) gnu.
The village Bolgari near Kanzan, surrounded by numerous graves in which most interesting archaeological finds have been made, occupies the site of one of the cities - perhaps the capital - of that extinct kingdom.
These strains seem to be now extinct, having been replaced by foxhounds, a large variety of which is employed in stag-hunting.
They were employed as animated roasting jacks, turning round and round the wire cage in which they were confined, but with the employment of mechanical jacks their use ceased and the race appears to be extinct.
By the end of the 18th century slavery was practically extinct among Friends, and the Society as a whole laboured for its abolition, which came about in 1865, the poet 'Whittier being one of the chief writers and workers in the cause.
This order became extinct about 1850.
Mr Crowe, consul-general in the island, in 1885, stated that " the institution was rapidly dying, - that in a year, or at most two, slavery, even in its then mild form, would be extinct."
The traffic in slaves has been repeatedly declared by the Ottoman Porte to be illegal throughout its dominions, and a law for its suppression was published in 1889, but it cannot be said to be extinct, owing to the laxity and too often the complicity of the government officials.
Apparently the musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus) has little or no near relationship to either the oxen or the sheep; and it is not improbable that its affinities are with the Asiatic takin (Budorcas) and the extinct European Criotherium of the Pliocene of Samos.
The somewhat imperfect skull of an extinct species of musk-ox from the gravels of the Klondike has enabled Mr W.
To this group belongs the extinct European and Asiatic woolly rhinoceros, Rhinoceros (Diceros) antiquitatis, of Pleistocene age, of which the frozen bodies are sometimes found in Siberia, and R.
Volcanic in origin - the Jebel ed-Druz is a group of extinct volcanoes - the friable volcanic soil is extraordinarily fertile.
Many regard them as products of an extinct volcano; according to others they are of vegetable origin (they are found in conjunction with gypsum).
Black bears, wolves and deer are not yet extinct, and more rarely a " wild cat " (lynx) or " panther " (puma) is seen in the swamps.
They are supposed to have been practically extinct by 1550.
The lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) had almost become extinct in 1900; but several varieties of eagle and falcon are left.
A variation from this was provided as soon as the priority bonds should become extinct; but these bonds having since been repaid (as mentioned below) by a further issue of unified bonds, this variation lapses.
It may, however, well be that both peach and almond are derived from some pre-existing and now extinct form whose descendants have spread over the whole geographic area mentioned; but this is a mere speculation, though indirect evidence in its support might be obtained from the nectarine, of which no mention is made in ancient literature, and which, as we have seen, originates from the peach and reproduces itself by seed, thus offering the characteristics of a species in the act of developing itself.
The most interesting feature of the glacial epoch is the extinct Lake Agassiz, which the receding ice of the later glacial period left in the Red River Valley of Minnesota,.
7raXat6s, old, and Mos, stone), in anthropology, the characteristic epithet of the Drift or early Stone Age when Man shared the possession of Europe with the mammoth, the cave-bear, the woolly-haired rhinoceros and other extinct animals.
Taddeo fled to Paris, where he died in 1647, and with him the family became extinct in the male line.
On the Pacific slope extinct volcanoes (mentioned in Chinese annals) have been reported in the Ilkhuri-alin mountains in northern Manchuria.
In addition to these, there exists in the interior of the dorsal valve of some genera a variously modified, thin, calcified, ribbon-shaped skeleton for the support of the ciliated arms, and the form of this ribbon serves as one of the chief generic characters of both recent and extinct forms. This brachial skeleton is more developed in some genera than in others.
In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.
The industry is now extinct.
In the allied extinct Eurypterines it is well developed, and resembles that of Scorpio.
With those considerations in mind, the claim of the extinct group of the trilobites to be considered as representatives of the lower and more primitive steps in the Arachnidan genealogy must, it seems, receive a favourable judgment.
But little is known of the structure of these extinct animals; we are therefore compelled to deal with such special points of resemblance and difference as their remains still exhibit.
- Extinct archaic Arachnida, in which (as in the Entomostracous Crustacea) the number of well-developed somites may be more or less than eighteen and may be grouped only as head (prosoma) and trunk or may be further differentiated.
They became extinct in Palaeozoic times, and are chiefly found in the Upper Silurian, though extending upwards as far as the Carboniferous.
(From Lankester, " Limulus and Arachnid.") Galeodes has been made the means of a comparison between the structure of the Arachnida and Hexapod insects by Haeckel and other writers, and it was at one time suggested that there was a genetic affinity between the two groups - through Galeodes, or extinct forms similar to it.
Apparently related to the Opiliones are two extinct groups, the Anthracomarti and Phalangiotarbi, which are not known to have survived the Carboniferous period.
Of the Pleistocene and recent deposits the most interesting are the remains of extinct animals (Glyptodon, Mylodon, Megatherium, &c.) in the caves of the Sao Francisco.
Of the cadet branches of the house, the oldest was that of Powyke and Alcester, which obtained a barony in 1447 and became extinct in 1496; from it sprang the Beauchamps, Lords St Amand from 1448, of whom was Richard, bishop of Salisbury, first chancellor of the order of the Garter, and who became extinct in 1508, being the last known male heirs of the race.
Another cadet was Sir John Beauchamp of Holt, minister of Richard II., who was created Lord Beauchamp of Kidderminster (the first baron created by patent) 1387, but beheaded 1388; the barony became extinct with his son in 1400.
About the middle of the 18th century the present dynasty of Mirs established its footing in the place of the old one which had become extinct.
Systems Of Classification Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time.
Another special distinction of Cuvier is his remarkable work in comparing extinct with recent organisms, his descriptions of the fossil Mammalia of the Paris basin, and his general application of the knowledge of recent animals to the reconstruction of extinct ones, as indicated by fragments only of their skeletons.
Owen not only occupied himself with the dissection of rare animals, such as the Pearly Nautilus, Lingula, Limulus, Protopterus, Apteryx, &c., and with the description and reconstruction of extinct reptiles, birds and mammals - following the Cuvierian tradition - but gave precision and currency to the morphological doctrines which had taken their rise in the beginning of the century by the introduction of two terms, " homology " and " analogy," which were defined so as to express two different kinds of agreement in animal structures, which, owing to the want of such " counters of thought," had been hitherto continually confused.
The woollen manufactures for which the town was formerly famous are extinct.
It is probable that the Iranian element was stronger among the Sarmatae, whose power extended as the ruling clan of the Scyths became extinct; but it is quite likely that they in their turn were officered by some new horde from upper Asia.
In the 14th century the original house of Dalberg became extinct in the male line, the fiefs passing to Johann Gerhard, chamberlain of the see of Worms, who married the heiress of his cousin, Anton of Dalberg, about 1330.
The elder line of the family of DalbergDalberg became extinct in 1848, the younger, that of DalbergHerrnsheim, in 1833.
The male line of the Dalbergs is now represented only by the family of Hessloch, descended from Gerhard of Dalberg (c. 1239), which in 1809 succeeded to the title and estates in Moravia and Bohemia of the extinct counts of Ostein.
A few elephants, giraffes and zebras (equus burchelli - the true zebra is extinct) are still found in the north and north-eastern districts and in the same regions lions and leopards survive in fair numbers.
It is not found in a wild state and the auffalo (bos caffer) is almost if not quite extinct in the Transvaal.
1461), Rupert's fourth son, who had obtained Mosbach, died without sons in 1 499, and this line became extinct, leaving only the two remaining lines with interests in the Rhenish Palatinate.
He too died without sons in 1559, when the senior branch became extinct, leaving only the branch descended from Rupert's third son, Stephen.
In August 1680 the elector Charles Louis died, and when his son and successor, Charles, followed him to the grave five years later the ruling family became extinct in the senior line.
The junior of these, that of Veldentz, became extinct in 1694, but the senior, that of Zweibriicken proper, was still very flourishing.
At a somewhat earlier period the grammar school, now extinct, was of such repute as to be chosen as the model for the constitution of the school of St Paul's.
With his death the Hohenstaufen race became extinct.
Nail-making, once famous, is another extinct industry.
He was killed in battle in 1246, when the male line of the Babenbergs became extinct.
It was longer-lived than that of Herophilus, for it still numbered many adherents in the 2nd century after Christ, a century after the latter had become extinct.
Numerous extinct volcanoes rise near Neuwied.
Other names pointing to the existence of pastimes now extinct are found elsewhere in London, as in Balls Pond Road, Islington, where in the 17th century was a proprietary pond for the sport of duck-hunting.
In most places they have become extinct or absorbed in the surrounding populations owing to their habit of incorporating prisoners in the tribe.
Toryism), was extinct," but as a sentiment it remained for some time longer, and may even be said to exist to-day.
slope of the extinct volcano Ala-geuz, according to legend, built by Armais, a grandson of Haik, in 1980 B.C., and the capital of the Armenian kings till the and century A.D.
This new creation became extinct on the death of the comte de Chambord in 1883.
Popa, a detached peak in the Myingyan district, belongs to this system and rises to a height of nearly 5000 f t., but it is interesting mainly as an extinct volcano, a landmark and an object of superstitious folklore, throughout the whole of Central Burma.
north-north-east of Yenangyaung the extinct volcano of Popa rises to a height of 3000 ft.
MEGATHERIUM (properly Megalotherium), a huge extinct edentate mammal from the Pleistocene deposits of Buenos Aires, typifying the family Megatheriidae (or Megalotheriidae), and by far the largest representative of the Edentata.
Women as well as men learned to read and write, and in Semitic times this involved a knowledge of the extinct Sumerian as well as of a most complicated and extensive syllabary.
That chinchillas have not under such circumstances become rare, if not extinct, is owing to their extraordinary fecundity, the female usually producing five or six young twice a year.
James of Armagnac, grandson of Bernard VII., was made duke of Nemours in 1462, and was succeeded in the dukedom by his second son, John, who died without issue, and his third son, Louis, in whom the house of Armagnac became extinct in 1503.
The linen trade introduced in the middle of the 18th century is extinct, and a like fate has overtaken the kelp and straw-plaiting industries.
When the mark was divided in 1258, Stendal became the seat of the elder or Stendal branch of the house of Ascania, which, however, became extinct in 1320.
(1596) the Grubenhagen line became extinct.
An extinct volcano occurs at Aden, and volcanic rocks are found at other places near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
That the ascetic ideal was by no means wholly extinct is evident from the Book of Governors written by Thomas, bishop of Marga, in 840 which bears witness to a Syrian monasticism founded by one Awgin of Egyptian descent, who settled in Nisibis about 3 50, and lasting uninterruptedly until the time of Thomas, though it had long been absorbed in the great Nestorian movement that had annexed the church in Mesopotamia.
The Nevado de Toluca, an extinct volcano, rises to a height of 14,950 ft.
The number of trees in this grove has been gradually diminishing, and as no young trees or seedlings occur, the grove will probably become extinct in course of time.
Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).
In 1880 the present writer saw lions killed in the north-west of Tunisia, but by 1902 the lion was regarded as practically extinct in the regency, though occasional rumours of his appearance come from the Khmir Mountains and near Feriana.
The hartebeest appears now to be quite extinct; so also is the leucoryx, though formerly these two antelopes were found right up to the centre of Tunisia, as was also the ostrich, now entirely absent from the country.
By subsequent journeys in Hungary, Transylvania, Italy, Sicily, France and Germany he extended his knowledge of volcanic phenomena; and in 1826 the results of his observations were given in a work entitled A Description of Active and Extinct Volcanos (2nd ed., 1848).
created his brother, Jean Baptiste Gaston, duke of Orleans, and having become extinct on the death of this prince in 1660 the title was revived in the following year by Louis XIV.
the Syrian (Isaurian) dynasty became extinct.
In 1846 about 50 whaling vessels sailed from Rhode Island ports; but by the close of the century the industry had become practically extinct.
In the neighborhood of ~ ~, Nagasaki, over the celebrated solfataras of Unzen-take KlilshIiI (called also Onsen) stands an extinct volcano, whose summit, Fugen-dake, is 4865 ft.
There are neither sulphuric exhalations nor escapes of steam at present, and it would seem that this great volcano is permanently extinct.
Azuma-yama (Fuku- Long considered extinct, but has erupted shima) 7733.
A triple-peaked volcano in the solfatara stage, extinct at the summit, but displaying considerable activity at its base in the form of numerous fumaroles and boiling sulilhur springs.
This volcano is all but extinct.
cones (extinct), on the N.
In 1554 it became a separate duchy, its line of rulers being founded by Duke John Frederick, a son of the dispossessed elector of Saxony, John Frederick, and becoming extinct in 1638.
1691), whose family, having inherited Altenburg, became extinct in February 1825 with the death of Duke Frederick IV.
In 1503 the family of Baden Sausenberg became extinct, and the whole of Baden was united by Christopher, who divided it, however, before his death in 1527 among his three sons.
Members of the group have existed in both east and west hemispheres since the beginning of the Miocene period; but in America they all became extinct before the end of the Pliocene period, and in the Old World their distribution has become greatly restricted.
In its old haunts in the south it is practically extinct; but ten were reported from a reserve in Zululand in 1902.
The Bassarab dynasty became extinct with Constantine Sherban in 1658.
They had their own kings, who, they pretend, were descended from David, from the 10th century until 1800, when the royal race became extinct, and they then became subject to the Abyssinian kingdom of Tigre.
The peerage became extinct at his death.
When the family became extinct in 1673 this office of king of the pipers (Pfeiferkonig) passed to the counts palatine of Zweibriicken-Birkenfeld.
In May Harley obtained the earldom of Oxford and was made lord treasurer, while in July St John was greatly disappointed at receiving only his viscountcy instead of the earldom lately extinct in his family, and at being passed over for the Garter.
Feudalism is practically extinct among them and with the decline of the Druses, and the great stake they have acquired in agriculture, they have laid aside much of their warlike habit together with their arms. Even their instinct of nationality is being sensibly impaired by their gradual assimilation to the Papal Church, whose agents exercise from Beirut an increasing influence on their ecclesiastical elections and church government.
According to the Thuggee and Dacoity Report for 1879, the number of registered Punjabi and Hindustani Thugs then still amounted to 344; but all of these had already been registered as such before 1852, and the whole fraternity may now be considered as extinct.
The family became extinct in 1724.
mamant; the Tatar word mama, earth, from which it is supposed to be derived, is not known to exist), a name given to an extinct elephant, Elephas primigenius of Blumenbach.
Probably no extinct animal has left such abundant evidence of its former existence; immense numbers of bones, teeth, and more or less entire carcases, or " mummies," as they may be called, having been discovered, with the flesh, skin and hair in situ, in the frozen soil of the tundra of northern Siberia.
It is chiefly by the characters of the molar teeth that the various extinct modifications of the elephant type are distinguished.
The evidence upon which these opinions were based had been gathered by such anthropologists as Schmerling, Boucher de Perthes and others, and it had to do chiefly with the finding of implements of human construction associated with the remains of extinct animals in the beds of caves, and with the recovery of similar antiquities from alluvial deposits the great age of which was demonstrated by their depth.
The title became extinct in 1790.
in area; the highest point, an extinct crater, is 2743 ft.
1295) took Tirol, and the younger G6rz; but in 1500 the latter's line became extinct, and the elder line inherited its possessions.
In none of the existing, and in but few of the extinct types, are collar-bones, or clavicles, developed; and the scaphoid and lunar bones of the carpus are separate.
The remaining and less typical subordinal groups - sometimes ranked as orders by themselves - include among living animals the Proboscidea, cr elephants, and the Hyracoidea, or hyraxes, and among extinct groups the Amblypoda, Ancylopoda, Barypoda, Condylarthra, Litopterna and Toxodontia.
The extinct law seems to have been revived for the occasion.
the direct male line of John of Gaunt became extinct.
The manganese nodules afford the most ample proof of the prodigious period of time which has elapsed since the formation of the red clay began; the sharks' teeth and whales' ear-bones which serve as nuclei belong in some cases to extinct species or even to forms derived from those familiar in the fossils from the seas of the Tertiary period.
As contrasted with the Perissodactyla living, and in a great degree extinct, Artiodactyla are characterized by the following structural features.
The extinct Anthracotheriidae were evidently nearly allied to the Hippopotamidae, of which they are in all probability the ancestral stock.
The elder branch of his descendants became extinct in the male line in 1482, and was merged through the female line in the house of Bourbon-Vendome.
1510), founded the family of Luxemburg-Brienne, the senior branch of which became extinct in 1608.
The branch of the dukes of Luxemburg-Piney became extinct in 1697.
In the northern part of the country it spreads into several side valleys, from one of which rises the extinct volcano Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa (19,321 ft.).
in diameter - of an extinct volcano, the rim of which rises in several Rivers.
The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.
Fergusson Island clearly shows remains of extinct craters, and possesses numerous hot springs, saline lakes and solfataras depositing sulphur and alum.
In the event of the male line of the present ruling family becoming extinct, the female line will succeed in Waldeck, but Pyrmont wil y fall to Prussia.
The Landau branch of the family became extinct in 1 495, and in 1631 Waldeck inherited the county of Pyrmont, which had originally belonged to a branch of the Schwalenberg family.
for "mill-tooth" from µuXwv and Mobs), a genus of extinct American edentate mammals, typified by a species (M.
North and north-west the lake is closed in by the volcanic Buru hills; to the south towers the extinct volcano of Longonot.
Brittany, belonged in early times to a house which bore its name, and of which the eldest branch became extinct in the 13th century in the Chabot family.
With the death of the last male of the house of Gondi in 1676 the duche-pairie became extinct; the lordship passed to the house of Neuville-Villeroy.
When this family became extinct in 1486 Hohenberg passed to the Habsburgs.
The former industry had died out before the War of Independence; the latter is not yet quite extinct.
Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial deposits of England and the continent of Europe; while in the Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant extinct beaver, Trogontherium cuvieri, representing a genus by itself.
His title became extinct, but his grand-nephew and heir, W.
Ameghino argues that this creature is still living, while Dr Moreno advances the theory that the animal has been extinct for a long period, and that it was domesticated by a people of great antiquity, who dwelt there prior to the Indians.
IGUANODON, a large extinct herbivorous land reptile from the Wealden formation of western Europe, almost completely known by numerous skeletons from Bernissart, near Mons, Belgium.
The pelvis and hind-limbs much resemble those of a running bird, such as those of an emu or the extinct moa; but the basal bones (metatarsals) of the three-toed foot remain separate throughout life, thus differing from those of the running birds, which are firmly fused together even in the young adult.
urus, the wild ox, and "ox") or Urus, the name of the extinct wild ox of Europe (Bos taurus primigenius), which after the disappearance of that animal became transferred to the bison.
leucophaeus) is extinct.
Only a few lines can be devoted to extinct antelopes, the earliest of which apparently date from the European Miocene.
in September 1889; and in February 1892 was raised to the peerage as Lord Hood of Avalon, but on his death the title became extinct.
Here the puma (" panther ") has become extinct and the Canada lynx is rare.
It first appears as a town in 942 and until 1108 was the seat of the counts of Rothenburg-Komburg; when this line became extinct it passed to the family of Hohenstaufen, one member of which took the title of duke of Rothenburg.
The Pleistocene swamp deposits are rich in the bones of the moa and other gigantic extinct birds, which lived on until they were exterminated by the Maori.
In their natural state the islands were without land mammals, and the Polynesian immigrants brought but two in their canoes - a dog, now extinct, and a black rat, now rarely seen.
Shipbuilding and whaling are extinct.
Wine is said to have been grown here in the iith century; the Saxon vineyards, chiefly on the banks of the Elbe near Meissen and Dresden, have of late years, owing to the ravages of the phylloxera, become almost extinct.
Of the four universities founded by the Saxon electors at Leipzig, Jena, Wittenberg, later transferred to Halle, and Erfurt, now extinct, only the first is included in the present kingdom of Saxony.
Francis, who did something to improve the administration of his duchy, was succeeded in turn by his two sons and his two grandsons; but on the death of Julius Francis, the younger of his grandsons, in 1689 the family became extinct.
Lavish expenditure during the progress of the council of Constance reduced Rudolph to poverty, and on the death in 1422 of his brother Albert III., who succeeded him in 1419, this branch of the Ascanian family became extinct.
By 1746, however, these lines were all extinct, and their possessions had returned to the main line.
Saxe-Neustadt was a short-lived branch from Saxe-Zeitz, extinct in 1714.
All these, however, were extinct by 1741, and their possessions returned to the main line, which had adopted the principle of primogeniture in 1719.
5 seq., but which had become extinct before the Chronicler wrote.
The greater part of the James River Valley lies in the bed of the extinct Lake Dakota, which was once a very narrow body of water extending northward from about the latitude of the present town of Mitchell for a short distance into what is now North Dakota.
Large game within the state is practically extinct.
It is the chief place in the Tolfa Mountains, an extinct volcanic group between Civitavecchia and the Lake of Bracciano.
Another industry now practically extinct was the manufacture of woollen cloth.
The family of Leiborne of Leiborne Castle, of whom Sir Roger Leiborne took an active part in the barons' wars, became extinct in the 14th century.
He defeated Conrad near Frankfort in August 1246, but died in the following year at the Wartburg, when the male line of the family became extinct.
The branch is now extinct.
into Lake Agassiz, now extinct.
As the Red river valley is the bed of the extinct Lake Agassiz, its soil is composed of the fine detritus and silty deposits carried into the lake by its tributaries.
C. Seward and others, and has led to important discoveries on the nature of extinct groups of plants and also on the phylogeny of existing groups.
Nothing in the general physiognomy of the islands is more remarkable than the number and distribution of the volcanoes, active or extinct.
Maximian, one of the Constantinopolitan clergy, a native of Rome, was promoted to the vacant see, and Nestorius was henceforward represented in the city of his former patriarchate only by one small congregation, which also a short time afterwards became extinct.
The union even then met with resistance from a number of bishops, who, rather than accede.to it, submitted to deposition and expulsion from their sees; and it was not until these had all died out that, as the result of stringent imperial edicts, Nestorianism may be said to have become extinct throughout the Roman empire.
Fossil remains of extinct bears first occur in strata of the Pliocene age.
1566), son of Louis I., prince of Conde, became extinct in the legitimate male line in 1641.
of Savoy bought the county of the Genevois, as the dynasty of its rulers had become extinct.
In the long strife over dogma the old belief of the Greeks in the value of knowledge had made itself felt, and this faith was not extinct in the Eastern Church.
What men call their souls become extinct when the body dies.
In 1807 he had married Anne Louisa Emily, daughter of Sir George Cranfield Berkeley, under whom he had served on the North American station, and by her he had three daughters, the baronetcy becoming extinct.
The fauna of Algeria resembles that of the Mediterranean system generally, though many animals once common to South Europe and North Africa - such as the lion, panther, hyena and jackal - are now extinct in Europe.
It is impossible to estimate the total number of the islands; an atoll, for instance, which may slate in the Marquesas, which afford a type of the extinct volcanic islands, as does Tahiti.
In other areas, however, there is still volcanic activity, and in many cases volcanoes to which only tradition attributes eruptions can hardly be classified as extinct.
A younger branch of the Palaeologi held the principality of Monferrat from 1305 to 1533, when it became extinct.
The family fell into poor circumstances and became extinct in the 19th century.
Before the close of the century, however, the dynasty was extinct, and Bokhara was at once desolated by a Kirghiz invasion and distracted by a disputed succession.
of Cincinnati) have been found many bones of extinct mammals, such as the mastodon and the longlegged bison.'
BORIS FEDOROVICH GODUNOV, tsar of Muscovy (c. 1551-1605), the most famous member of an ancient, now extinct, Russian family of Tatar origin, which migrated from the Horde to Muscovy in the 14th century.
i vra, beings, and Aayla, discourse, science), the science of extinct forms of life.
Cockerell, including the plants of its shores, the insects which lived upon them, the fluctuations of its level, and many other characteristics of this extinct water body, now in the heart of the arid region of the Rocky Mountains.
The great philosophical impulse was that given by Darwin in 1859 through his demonstration of the theory of descent, which gave tremendous zest to the search for pedigrees (phylogeny) of the existing and extinct types of animal and plant life.
Pallas (1741-1811) in his great journey (1768-1 77 4) through Siberia discovered the vast deposits of extinct mammoths and rhinoceroses.
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.
Early trained as a comparative anatomist, the discovery of Upper Eocene mammals in the gypsum quarries of Montmartre found him fully prepared (1798), and in 1812 appeared his Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, brilliantly written and constituting the foundation of the modern study of the extinct vertebrates.
Extending the knowledge of the extinct mammals of Germany, the principal contributors were Georg August Goldfuss (1782-1848), Georg Friedrich von Jaegar (1785-1866), Felix F.
Successive discoveries gradually revealed the world of extinct Reptilia; in 1821 Charles Konig (1784-1851), the first keeper of the mineralogical collection in the British Museum, described Ichthyosaurus from the Jurassic; in the same year William Daniel Conybeare (1787-1857) described Plesiosaurus; and a year later (1822) Mosasaurus; in 1824 William Buckland described the great carnivorous dinosaur Megalosaurus; while Gideon Algernon Mantell (1790--1852) in 1848 announced the discovery of Iguanodon.
Non-committal as regards evolution, he vastly broadened the field of vertebrate palaeontology by his descriptions of the extinct fauna of England, of South America (including especially the great edentates revealed by the voyage of the " Beagle "), of Australia (the ancient and modern marsupials) and of New Zealand (the great struthious birds).
Fine examples of the spirit of the period as applied to extinct Mammalia are Gaudry's Animaux fossiles et geologie de l'Attique (1862) on the Upper Miocene fauna of Pikermi near Athens, and the remarkable memoirs of Vladimir Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1842-1883), published in 1873.
This line of hypothesis and demonstration is typical of the palaeogeographic methods generally - namely, that vertebrate palaeontologists, impressed by the sudden appearance of extinct forms of continental life, demand land connexion or migration tracts from common centres of origin and dispersal, while the invertebrate palaeontologist alone is able to restore ancient coast-lines and determine the extent and width of these tracts.
The theory of past migrations from continent to continent, suggested by Cuvier to explain the replacement of the animal life which had become extinct through sudden geologic changes, was prophetic of one of the chief features of modern method - namely, the tracing of migrations.
This branch of the science has reached the highest development in its application to the history of the extinct mammalia of the Tertiary through the original work o Cope and Henri Filhol, which has been brought to a much higher degree of exactness recently through the studies of H.
Among extinct Tertiary mammals we can actually trace the giving off of these radii in all directions, for taking advantage of every possibility to secure food, to escape enemies and to reproduce kind; further, among such well-known quadrupeds as the horses, rhinoceroses and titanotheres, the modifications involved in these radiations can be clearly traced.
The larger bell-bird (Anthornis melanocephala) has become quite scarce; the magnificent fruit-pigeon (Carpophaga chathamensis), and the two endemic rails (Nesolimnas dieffenbachii and Cabalus modestus), the one of which was confined to Whairikauri and the other to Mangare Island, are extinct.
Forbes, namely, a true species of raven (Palaeocorax moriorum), a remarkable rail (Diaphorapteryx), closely related to the extinct Aphanapteryx of Mauritius, and a large coot (Palaeolimnas chathamensis).
The swan is identical with an extinct species found in caves and kitchen-middens in New Zealand, which was contemporaneous with the prehistoric Maoris and was largely used by them for food.
Andrews, "The Extinct Birds of the Chatham Islands," Novitates Zoologicae, vol.
This part of Mexico is highly volcanic in character, the transverse ridge just described having a large number of extinct volcanoes and at least three (Colima, Jorullo and Ceboruco) that are either active or semi-active.
It has been quiescent since 1566, and is now completely extinct.
In 1864 Don Manuel Orozco y Berra found no fewer than 51 distinct languages and 69 dialects among the Indian inhabitants of Mexico, to which he added 62 extinct idioms - making a total of 182 idioms, each representing a.
In the nearly unexplored central part of Nicaragua Dr Lehmann found fragments of painted polychrome clay pottery similar to objects known from the Ulloa Valley (Honduras) amongst other ceramic pieces which seem to have been left by the ancestors of the Sumo Indians, now extinct in that territory.
is the Matagalpan, now extinct in Nicaragua, and nearly identical with the Matagalpan is the language spoken by the Indians of Cacaopera in Salvador (Ultra-Lempa territory).
The Chorotega or Mangue language, so closely affiliated to the Chiapanec, is now extinct, but its former extension is to be recognized by many Indian local names.
The notion that the ruined cities now buried in the Central-American forests were of great antiquity and the work of extinct nations has no solid evidence; some of them may have been already abandoned before the conquest, but others were inhabited by the ancestors of the Indians who now build their mean huts and till their patches of maize round the relics of the grander life of their ancestors.
These were rapidly reduced in number by the white man, the wild pigeons are extinct, and the moose, caribou, bear, wolf, lynx and beaver have become rare, but, under the protection of laws enacted during the latter part of the 19th century, deer and ruffed grouse are again quite plentiful.
TRILOBITES, extinct Arthropoda, formerly classified with the Crustacea, but of late years relegated to the Arachnida, which occurred abundantly in seas of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, but disappeared entirely at the close of the Palaeozoic epoch.
Various subdivisions and collateral lines were formed, but by 1599 all were extinct but the present two.
It is in association with this field of extinct volcanic activity that a remarkable group of geysers and hot springs has been developed, from which the Yellowstone river, a branch of the Missouri, flows northeastward, and the Snake river, a branch of the Columbia, flows south-westward.
In the west the Quaternary deposits are not, in all cases, sharply separated from the late Tertiary, but the deposits of glacial drift, referable to two or more glacial epochs, are readily differentiated from the Tertiary; so, also, are certain lacustrine deposits, such as those of the extinct lakes Bonneville and Lahontan.
The bison, although now nearly extinct, formerly roamed over nearly the entire region between the Appalachian and the Rocky Mountains.
All it does is to declare that a conflict exists between two laws of different degrees of authority, whence it necessarily follows that the weaker law is extinct.
(For the characteristics of this animal see Babirusa.) Extinct Swine.
It is an extinct volcano, rising 2989 ft.
of Zweibriicken, whose line became extinct in 1569, when the countship reverted to Lorraine.
After the annexation of Hohenems (its lords having become extinct in 1759), Maria Theresa united all these lordships into an administrative district of Hither Austria, under the name Vorarlberg, the governor residing at Bregenz.
They remained under the rule of Norse earls until 1231, when the line of the jarls became extinct.
It contains the following extinct families.
Several extinct genera.
Extinct, Carboniferous to Cretaceous.
The two following families, together known as Rudistae, are closely allied to the preceding; they are extinct marine forms from Secondary deposits.
- Extinct; Secondary and Tertiary.
- Extinct; Palaeozoic. Pholadella.
- Extinct; Secondary.
The title became extinct at his death in 1900.
In him the male line of the counts of Champagne and kings of Navarre, became extinct.
Regained for the Hohenstaufen by Henry's son, Frederick II., in 1214, the German kingdom passed to his son, Conrad IV., and when Conrad's son Conradin was beheaded in Italy in 1268, the male line of the Hohenstaufen became extinct.
Extinct species of capybara occur in the tertiary deposits of Argentina, some of which were considerably larger than the living form.
(See Hare and Rabbit.) Extinct Rodents Among extinct rodents, only a few of the more important types may be noticed.
It may be mentioned, however, that the distribution of these later Tertiary types accords very closely with that of their existing relatives; the families of South American hystricoids being represented by a number of extinct genera in the formations of Argentina and Brazil.
It spread into England and America, but is now practically extinct.
Many Glasites joined the general body of Scottish Congregationalists, and the sect may now be considered extinct.
Vordate, Molu and south-eastern Yamdena have a maximum height of 820 ft.; the rest are low and flat, except Laibobar, apparently a volcanic islet on the west, which has an extinct crater 2000 ft.
The male representation of the family, being extinct in the royal lines, is claimed by the earls of Galloway and also by the Stewarts of Castlemilk, but the claims of both are more than doubtful.
slopes, and has on its summit an extinct pit-crater which is one of the largest in the world.
So elastic a solution established a dominant Hegelian school, which is now practically extinct, in Germany, and from Germany spread Hegelianism to France, England, America, and, in fact, diffused it over the civilized world to such an extent that it is still a widespread fashion outside Germany to believe that the world of being is a world of thought.
The Celtic element, never quite extinct in those hills and, like most forms of barbarism, reasserting itself in this wild age - not without reinforcement from Ireland - challenged the remnants of Roman civilization and in the end absorbed them.
Upon the floor of older rock rise a number of volcanoes, some of which are now extinct while others are still active.
There is, however, a minute upper canine developed at first, which is early shed; and in extinct forms this tooth was FIG.
For many years extinct representatives of the Hyracoidea were unknown, partly owing to the fact that certain fossils were not recognized as really belonging to that group. The longest known of these was originally named Leptodon graecus, but, on account of the preoccupation of the generic title, the designation has been changed to Pliohyrax graecus.
Bonvalot noted some extinct volcanoes in the northern Tibet desert.
1849-1853) received an appreciation which is not yet extinct.
ANTHRACOTHERIUM ("coal-animal," so called from the fact of the remains first described having been obtained from the Tertiary lignite-beds of Europe), a genus of extinct artiodactyle ungulate mammals, characterized by having 44 teeth, with five semi-crescentic cusps on the crowns of the upper molars.
All volcanic action is now extinct.
For the purposes of everyday life, however, the people spoke not Greek, but Aramaic. As elsewhere, the Roman rule tended to obliterate characteristic features of national life, and under it the native language and institutions of Phoenicia became extinct.
The hand-loom lingered longer here than in any other place in Scotland and is not yet wholly extinct.
It was also for a long period the chief seat of the Greenland trade, but the Arctic seal and whale fishery is now extinct.
The trade is now extinct.
The northern form of wild turkey, whose habits have been described in much detail by all the chief writers on North American birds, is now extinct in the settled parts of Canada and the eastern states of the Union, where it was once so numerous; and in Mexico the southern form, which would seem to have been never abundant since the conquest, has been for many years rare.
Of the extinct North American peccaries, the typical Dicotyles occur in the Pliocene while the Miocene Bothriolabis, which has tusks of the peccary type, approximates in the structure of its cheek-teeth to the European Miocene genus among the Suinae.
Owen, approximating more closely than any other living birds to the extinct moas of New Zealand.
His barony became extinct at his death.
The volcanoes have long been extinct, but the diminished energy now causes hot springs and geysers in all parts of the plateau, about loo in number.
DINOTHERIUM, an extinct mammal, fossil remains of which occur in the Miocene beds of France, Germany, Greece and Northern India.
In Tasmania the aborigines are extinct, the last pure-blooded native dying in 1876.
Malting is carried on and there is a large iron-foundry; but the silk manufactures, once prosperous, are now extinct.
At that date the wool-trade also was very prosperous, and the manufactures of silk and parchment are among the extinct industries of the town.
The lammergeyer (Gypaetus barbatus), once common, is now extremely rare, even if it has not already become extinct in the Alps; but the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) still holds its own.
When John died in 1425 this family became extinct, and after a contest between various claimants Bavaria-Straubing was divided between the three remaining branches of the family.
At his death, without issue, on the 30th of December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession passed to Charles Theodore, the elector palatine.
The extinct Gryptochitonidae, Pilsbry, with other Palaeozoic genera, narrow and elongated in form with terminal margins of end valves elevated, belong to this group.
Corals, both reef-builders and others, flourished in the clearer waters; rugose forms are represented by Amplexoid, Zaphrentid and Cyathophyllid types, and by Lithostrotion and Phillipsastraea; common tabulate forms are Chaetetes, Chladochonus, Michelinia, &c. Amongst the echinoderms crinoids were the most numerous individually, dense submarine thickets of the long-stemmed kinds appear to have flourished in many places where their remains consolidated into thick beds of rock; prominent genera are Cyathocrinus, Woodocrinus, Actinocrinus; sea-urchins, Archaeocidaris, Palaeechinus, &c., were present; while the curious extinct Blastoids, which included the groups of Pentremitidae and Codasteridae, attained their maximum development.
The mountainous regions contain numerous lakes, many evidently occupying the craters of extinct volcanoes.
Codomannus the dynasty became extinct and the Persian empire came to an end (330).
The slopes below Velletri, on the other hand, derive much of their moisture from the space between the inner and outer ring of the Alban volcano, which it was impossible to drain: and this in turn receives much moisture from the basin of the extinct inner crater.'
But by far the most important of these extinct cities was Alba, on the lake to which it gave its name, which was, according to universally received tradition, the parent of Rome, as well as of numerous other cities within the limits of Latium, including Gabii, Fidenae, Collatia, Nomentum and other well-known towns.
But Badoaro failed disgracefully in 1559, and the academy was extinct in 1562.
The Ronsdorf sect, the members of which called themselves Zionites, is now extinct.
The only lake of any size is the Laacher See, the largest of the "maare" or extinct crater lakes of the Eifel.
Paisley has been an important manufacturing centre since the beginning of the 18th century, but the earlier linen, lawn and silk-gauze industries have become extinct, and even the famous Paisley shawls (imitation cashmere), the sale of which at one time exceeded i,000,000 yearly in value, have ceased to be woven.
As regards its general characters, the skull of the okapi appears to be intermediate between that of the giraffe on the one hand and that of the extinct Palaeotragus (or Samotherium) of the Lower Pliocene deposits of southern Europe on the other.
For these and other allied extinct genera see Pecora; for a full description of the okapi itself the reader should refer to an illustrated memoir by Sir E.
At the present time very few Indian diamonds find their way out of the country, and, so far as the world's supply is concerned, Indian mining of diamonds may be considered extinct.
Edward his heir, the " Black Prince," left an only son, who succeeded his grandfather as Richard II., on whose death (1399) this line became extinct.
Although no other dynasty has reigned so long over England since the Norman Conquest, the whole legitimate male issue of Count Geoffrey Plantagenet is clearly proved to have become extinct in 1499.
Having made peace with Henry, count palatine of the Rhine and brother of Otto IV., and settled a dispute about the lands of the extinct family of Zahringen in the south-west Germany of the country, Frederick left Germany in August in Freder1220; engaged in his bitter contest with the Papacy icks and the Lombard cities, in ruling Sicily, and, after absence.
The struggle to maintain the position of the Hohenstaufen in Italy was continued after this event; but in October 1268, by the execution of Conrads son Conradin, the family became extinct.
For some time before this event the most powerful prince in Germany had been Ottakar II., king of Bohemia, who by marriage and conquest had obtained large territories outside his native kingdom, including the duchy of Austria and other possessions of the extinct family of Babenberg.
Carinthia was given to Meinhard, count of Tirol, on condition that when his male line became extinct it should pass to the Habsburgs.
in Italy, where he hoped rn/nans to restore the claims, dormant, perhaps even extinct, wars/n of the German kings.
A deficiency of lean meat is a common characteristic of the breed, which is almost extinct.
On the death of his elder brother Federigo, he was advised to quit the church and marry, that his family might not become extinct.
London, for example, is built on the old shore of Lake Warren, the highest of the extinct lakes; and St Catharines, Hamilton and Toronto are on the old shore of Lake Iroquois, the lowest.
The old cloth industry is almost extinct.
When the house of Babenberg became extinct in 1246, Austria, stretching from Passau almost to Pressburg, had the frontiers which it retains to-day, and this increase of territory had been accompanied by a corresponding increase in wealth and general prosperity.
Continuing his career of violence and oppression, Duke Frederick was killed in battle by the Hungarians in June 1246, when the family of Babenberg became extinct.
At the inquisition of 1336 the burgesses claimed an annual fair on St Peter's Day, and depositions in 1577 mention a borough market held on Tuesday and Friday, but these were apparently extinct in Camden's day, and no grant of them is extant.
Khnum was likewise identified with Zeus probably through his similarity to Ammon; his proper animal having early become extinct, Ammon horns in course of time were attributed to this god also.
At the same time, the other forms of the Koran did not at once become extinct.