How to use Extant in a sentence
His will, which is extant, was signed on the fourth day before his death.
But he has carefully consulted the best authorities, and his work and that of Livy are the only connected and detailed extant accounts of early Roman history.
Four copies of this work are extant, but in none is the title;page preserved.
The only authentic extant work of Heraclitus is the 7repi 4Gvews.
The first recorded appearance of Henry Chicheley himself is at New College, Oxford, as Checheley, eighth among the undergraduate fellows, in July 1387, in the earliest extant hall-book, which contains weekly lists of those dining in Hall.Advertisement
Indeed all the extant writings by which he has earned his place as a poet and translator belong to this period.
It was a great city under the Sassanids, of which some ruins are extant.
There is extant a Journal of Louise of Savoy, the authenticity of which seems certain.
No MS. of the poem is extant.
In Great Britain wild cats survive only in some of the Scottish forests, and even there it is difficult to decide whether pure-bred specimens are extant.Advertisement
Pilgrim Hall, a large stone building erected by the Pilgrim Society (formed in Plymouth in 1820 as the successor of the Old Colony Club, founded in 1769) in 1824 and remodelled in 1880, is rich in relics of the Pilgrims and of early colonial times, and contains a portrait of Edward Winslow (the only extant portrait of a "Mayflower" passenger), and others of later worthies, and paintings, illustrating the history of the Pilgrims; the hall library contains many old and valuable books and manuscripts - including Governor Bradford's Bible, a copy of Eliot's Indian Bible, and the patent of 1621 from the Council for New England - and Captain Myles Standish's sword.
The adventures of Blanchefleur, wife of Charlemagne, form a variation of the common tale of the innocent wife falsely accused, and are told in Macaire and in the extant fragments of La Reine Sibille (14th century).
Neither of these nor a third ascribed to him by Calderwood, the historian, are extant.
His life was written by Philistus, but the work is not extant.
Chretien de Troyes' treatment of him is contradictory; in the Erec, his earliest extant poem, Lancelot's name appears as third on the list of the knights of Arthur's court.Advertisement
Malory's version of the Charrette adventure differs in many respects from any other extant form, and the source of this special section of his work is still a question of debate among scholars.
His wild extravagance, however, forced his father to forestall his creditors by securing his detention in semi-exile in the country, where he wrote his earliest extant work, the Essai sur le despotisme.
These are perhaps the fullest extant lists.
This assertion is supported by the fact that in seven of the extant MSS.
The Ratitae comprehend the struthious birds, which differ from all others now extant in the combination of several peculiarities, some of which have been mentioned in the preceding pages.Advertisement
The extant inventories of spoil carried off by the ancient conquerors include a variety of utensils and stuffs.
The original deed of the marriage-contract is extant.
The ballads relating to the Cid, of which nearly two hundred are extant, are greatly inferior in merit, though some of them are not unworthy to be ranked with the best in this kind.
Among contemporaries he passed for one of the most formidable polemical or gladiatorial rhetoricians; and a considerable section of his extant works are invectives.
This last book contains a summary of the arguments on either side, a full bibliography of works on the subject, and facsimiles of the title pages, with full descriptions of the various extant copies.Advertisement
Such is Koheleth's view of life, and it is obvious that such a conception of an aimless cosmos is thoroughly non-Jewish, if we may judge Jewish thought by the great body of the extant literature.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
There are no Malay manuscripts extant, no monumental records with inscriptions in Malay, dating from before the spreading of Islam in the archipelago, about the end of the 13th century.
The only extant structures of the classical period are the Hephaesteum, the Dionysiac theatre, and the choragic monument of Lysicrates.
The known extant fragments of Chastellain's Chroniques with his other works were edited by Kervyn de Lettenhove for the Brussels Academy in 1863-1866 (8 vols., Brussels) as Ouvres de Georges Chastellain.
The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.
Cicero delivered four speeches against the bill, of which three are still extant, although the first is mutilated at the beginning.
In 1781 John Bourke, a Mayo man, believed to be descended from the line of "MacWilliam Oughter," was created Viscount Mayo, and four years later earl of Mayo, a peerage still extant.
It is probably the latest of Bede's extant works, as it was written in November 73 4, only six months before his death.
There is extant a letter of Pope Clement III., dated the 8th of June 1188, in which Clement alludes to two of Joachim's works, the Concordia and the Expositio in Apocalypsin, and urges him to continue them.
Papyrus rolls are represented in ancient Egyptian wall-paintings; and extant examples of the rolls themselves are sufficiently numerous.
An examination of extant papyri has had the result of proving that sheets of large size, measuring about 12 in., were sometimes used.
But of the extant papal deeds the earliest to which an authentic date can be attached is a bull of Adrian I.
Of the Merovingian period there are still extant several papyrus deeds, the earliest of the year 625, the latest of 692.
The church erected by him in honour of St Felix in the 4th century is extant in part.
Their report is still extant, and among the movements initiated as a result of their visit was the Circulating School system.
Though the early Hebrews (of the time before the 5th century B.C.) must have reflected on life, there is no trace of such reflection, of a systematic sort, in their extant literature.
The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
By the aid of these auxiliaries the fort of Ala Shehr was captured (1392), Manuel Palaeologus, son of the emperor, being allowed, in common with many other princes, the privilege of serving in the Turkish army, then the best organized and disciplined force extant.
Of the former, his panegyric on the emperor Anastasius alone is extant; the description of the church of St Sophia and the monody on its partial destruction by an earthquake are spurious.
The only points on which his works now extant inform us are his date and his instructors.
The eighth now extant is really an incomplete treatise on logic. Some critics have rejected this book as spurious, since its matter is so different from that of the rest.
Among the objects of interest described by Pausanias as extant in Epidaurus are the image of Athena Cissaea in the Acropolis, the temple of Dionysus and Artemis, a shrine of Aphrodite, statues of Asclepius and his wife Epione, and a temple of Hera.
There are numerous manuscripts of the Defensor pacis extant.
In the former review, a striking paper upon development of doctrine (Dec. 1st, 1898) headed a series of studies apparently taken from an already extant large apologetic work.
They added "that the public at large have only to know that their rights are imaginary to induce them also to be content with the extant system under which permission is very freely granted by owners of fisheries to the public for angling on the more frequented parts of the Thames."
The Latin sermons of St Augustine, of which 384 are extant, have been taken as their models by all sensible subsequent divines, for it was he who rejected the formal arrangement of the divisions of his theme, and insisted that simplicity and familiarity of style were not incompatible with dignity and religion.
Gassendi's jejune Life (Paris, 1654) is thus the earliest extant of any note.
The extant fragments contain sayings of Jesus, and warnings against Judaism and Polytheism.
He is always worth comparing with the extant English Chronicles; and from 1106 he is an independent annalist, dry but accurate.
In the porch of the church is the most interesting of the extant old tombs, namely, the recumbent effigy of Alexander Stewart, the Wolf of Badenoch (1 3431405; the inscription refers his death to 1394, but this is said to be an error).
At Dalmahoy Castle, near Ratho (pop. 1946), the seat of the earl of Morton, are preserved the only extant copy of the bible of the Scottish parliament and the original warrant for committing Queen Mary to Lochleven Castle in Kinross-shire.
The poem appears, on the authority of Laing, to have been printed at the press of Chepman & Myllar about 1508, but the fragments which Laing saw are not extant.
To these monks the first extant Magyar version of part of the Scriptures (the Vienna or Revai Codex') is directly assigned by Dobrentei, but the exact date either of this copy or of the original translation cannot be ascertained.
With approximate certainty may be ascribed also to Tamas and Balint the original of the still extant transcript, by George Nemeti, of the Four Gospels, the Jciszay or Munich Codex (finished at Tatros in Moldavia in 1466).
From the appearance of the first extant printed Magyar First made known by Coloman Thaly (1871) from a discovery by MM.
One of the only seven perfect copies extant of the Vienna (1574) edition is in the British Museum library.
The first extant work which approaches to a treatise on algebra is by Diophantus, an Alexandrian mathematician, who flourished about A.D.
His treatise on algebra and arithmetic (the latter part of which is only extant in the form of a Latin translation, discovered in 1857) contains nothing that was unknown to the Greeks and Hindus; it exhibits methods allied to those of both races, with the Greek element predominating.
In the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, who erected fortifications, remains of which are still extant.
Chiswick Hall, no longer extant, was formerly a country seat for the masters and sanatorium for the scholars of Westminster school.
These architectural decorations are derived from a style of building found by the recent German expedition extant in an ancient church; courses of stone here alternate in the walls (both inside and out) with beams of wood held by circular clamps.
The west end appears to have been damaged in Roman times and to have been replaced by the attached columns with The Paadroaeion ' 'Erechtheum -e Ma?ple windows between them which appear in old drawings and are still partially extant.
A large number of his works is still extant in MS.
The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.
And the Greek Psalter, though it contains one apocryphal psalm at the close, is essentially the same as the Hebrew; there is nothing to suggest that the Greek was first translated from a less complete Psalter and afterwards extended to agree with the extant Hebrew.
It occupies the site of the ancient Adranon, which took its name from Adranos, a god probably of Phoenician origin, in Roman times identified with Vulcan, whose chief temple was situated here, and was guarded by a thousand huge gods; there are perhaps some substructures of this building still extant outside the town.
A papal diploma, still extant, shows that Count Borel and Bishop Octo or Otho of Ausona were at Rome in January 971, and, as all the other indications point to a corresponding year, enables us to fix the chronology of Gerbert's later life.
Gerbert's extant works may be divided into five classes.
It is, however, to say the least, doubtful whether any of the extant prophecies are as early as the reign of Uzziah.
His book on the monastic life mentioned by `Abadisho' is not known to survive; but some discourses and a letter of his are still extant.
The activity of his life left him little time for writing, but he was the author of " an anaphora, sundry letters, a creed or confession of faith, preserved in Arabic and a secondary Ethiopic translation, and a homily for the Feast of the Annunciation, also extant only in an Arabic translation" (Wright).
In one of the extant fragments he speaks of himself as having begun his wanderings sixty-seven years before, when he was twenty-five years of age, so that he was not less than ninety-two when he died.
The silence of the extant fragments, which have not one word about the unity of Being, favours the one view; the voice of antiquity, which proclaims Xenophanes the founder of Eleaticism, has been thought to favour the other.
Till 1815 the only extant works ascribed (erroneously) to Fronto were two grammatical treatises, De nominum verborumque diferentiis and Exempla elocutionum (the last being really by Arusianus Messius).
Soranus is known by a work, still extant in the Greek original, on the diseases of women, and also by the Latin work of Caelius Aurelianus, three centuries later, on acute and chronic diseases, which is based upon, if not, as some think, an actual translation of, the chief work of Soranus, and which is the principal source of our knowledge of the methodic school.
Alexander of Aphrodisias, who lived and wrote at Athens in the time of Septimius Severus, is best known by his commentaries on Aristotle, but also wrote a treatise on fevers, still extant.
Certain compilations still extant bear the falsely-assumed names of eminent writers, such as Pliny and Hippocrates.
He was the first of the Arabs to treat medicine in a comprehensive and encyclopaedic, manner, surpassing probably in voluminousness Galen himself, though but a small proportion of his works are extant.
According to the extant Lives he was led to take the monastic vows by a vision at the death of bishop Aidan, and the date of his entry at Melrose would be 651.
Medea is the heroine of extant tragedies of Euripides and Seneca; those of Aeschylus and Ennius (adapted from Euripides) are lost.
The Pneumatica in two books is also extant in Greek as is also the Automatopoietica.
The Belopoiica (on engines of war) is extant in Greek, and both this and the Mechanics contain Hero's solution of the problem of the two mean proportionals.
In the i 5th century its walls and ramparts (still extant) were renewed under the direction of Fra Giocondo, two of the gates being built by the Lombardi.
Lambert is also regarded as the author of the Historia Hersfeldensis, the extant fragments of which are published in Band v.
They are important because they form the oldest body of gild ordinances extant in Europe.
Hi is the subject of one of the extant comedies of Aristophanes, the Plutus.
A part of this poem, as is mentioned in the article C.Edmon, is extant only in an Old English translation.
Yet Abu-l-`Ala, ul-Ma'arri (q.v.) was original alike in his use of rhymes and in the philosophical nature of his poems. Ibn Farid is the greatest of the mystic poets, and Busiri (q.v.) wrote the most famous poem extant in praise of the Prophet.
Of Ibn Kathir's History the greatest part is extant.
But most of the extant literature of this kind is, in its present form, much more recent; e.g.
Early evidence of Nestorian missions in China is extant in the tablet found in 1625 at Chang`an in the district of Hsi`en-fu, province of Shensi.
The old forts and bastions of the city have been demolished, but the two linked fortresses, the Oberhaus and the Niederhaus, are still extant.
Philippians is thus the last extant letter we possess from Paul, unless some of the notes embedded in the pastoral epistles are to be dated subsequent to its composition.
Polycarp may have known of more than one Pauline note to Philippi, no longer extant, or he may be referring loosely to 2 Thessalonians, which was addressed to a neighbouring Macedonian church.
Augustus gave it the name of Colonia Julia Pisana; his grandsons Gaius and Lucius were patrons of the colony, and after their death monuments were erected in their honour, as is recorded in two long inscriptions still extant.
Few particulars are extant concerning the real condition of the town; but we occasionally find Pisa mentioned, almost as though it were an independent city, at moments when Italy was overwhelmed by the greatest calamities.
Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.
This Daedalus must not be confused with Daedalus of Sicyon, a great sculptor of the early part of the 4th century B.C., none of whose works is extant.
Such, at least, is Echard's conclusion, derived from an examination of the earliest extant MSS.
The earliest extant list, doubtless compiled from the numerous guide books then current in the Greek world, is that of the epigrammatist Antipater of Sidon (2nd century B.C.).
It is doubtful whether he is the author of certain other extant treatises attributed to him on metrical and grammatical subjects, which will be found in Keil.
There are also extant portions of commentaries on the Gospels from his pen.
How his affairs fell into this condition, why he did not die in his own house, and why in the previous summer he had been in hiding, as we know he was from a letter still extant, are points not clearly explained.
A still nearer approach to literature was probably made in oratory, as we learn from Cicero that the famous speech delivered by Appius Claudius Caecus against concluding peace with Pyrrhus (280 B.C.) was extant in his time.
Yet he is the one extant witness to the humour and vivacity of the Italian temperament at a stage between its early rudeness and rigidity and its subsequent degeneracy.
Cicero, who speaks of 150 of these speeches as extant in his day, praises them for their acuteness, their wit, their conciseness.
The only extant prose work which may be assigned to the end of this period is the treatise on rhetoric known by the title Ad Herennium (c. 84) a work indicative of the attention bestowed on prose style and rhetorical studies during the last century of the republic, and which may be regarded as a precursor of the oratorical treatises of Cicero and of the work of Quintilian.
His two extant works are more valuable as artistic studies of the rival parties in the state and of personal character than as trustworthy narratives of facts.
The imitative and rhetorical tastes of Rome showed themselves in the composition of exotic tragedies, as remote in spirit and character from Greek as from Roman life, of which the only extant specimens are those attributed to the younger Seneca.
The composition of didactic, lyrical and elegiac poetry also was the accomplishment and pastime of an educated dilettante class, the only extant specimens of any interest being some of the Silvae of Statius.
For some notice of the Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew translations of works professedly by Hippocrates (Ibukrat or Bukrat), the number of which greatly exceeds that of the extant Greek originals, reference may be made to Fliigel's contribution to the article " Hippokrates " in the Encyklopadie of Ersch and Gruber.
The ancient wall running east and west, commonly known as the Hellenico, has been found extant in its whole length, and the two boundary walls running up the hill at each end of it, traced.
The foundations of the stage are extant, as well as the orchestra, and the walls and seats of the auditorium.
Besides arranging the works, he seems to have written paraphrases and commentaries, none of which is extant.
Under his name two fragments are extant - the longer from his work on orthography (De orthographia), the shorter (chiefly on the use of prepositions) from another grammatical work.
Recent discoveries have made it practically certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a collection of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Ghaeris, or Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of which was attributed to a Welshman, Bleheris; fragments of this collection have been preserved to us alike in the first continuation of Chretien de Troyes Perceval, due to Wauchier de Denain, and in our vernacular Gawain poems. Among these "Bleheris" poems was one dealing with Gawain's adventures at the Grail castle,where the Grail is represented as non-Christian, and present s features strongly reminiscent of the ancient Nature mysteries.
Alongside Origen we may rank Hippolytus of Rome on the strength of the one sermon of his which is extant, a panegyric on baptism based on the theophany which marked the baptism of Jesus.
The latest edition is Berliner's reprint (1884) of the Editio Sabbioneta (1557) Of all the extant Targums that of Onkelos affords perhaps the most characteristic and consistent example of the exeget i cal methods employed in these works.
Other proteges were Crell, a young Pole, the two young Furlys and Harry Wilkinson, a boy who was sent into Furly's office at Rotterdam, and to whom several of the letters still extant in the Record Office are addressed.
In 1662, as appears by a map still extant, there were i 50 houses within the wall, forming five streets and as many lanes; and the upland districts around were one dense forest of giant oaks and sycamores, yielding an unfailing supply of timber to the woodmen of Carrickfergus.
The original German has never been published, the extant German version being taken from the English.
Of the principal later writers whose works are extant, and to whom we owe what little knowledge we possess of the labours of their predecessors, mention will be made hereafter.
From extant charters it is known to have been in use in England before the close of the 8th century.
Inscriptions of the king himself are not extant; his grandson mentions his buildings in Susa.
Escaping by way of Strassburg he found an asylum in England, where he was made a prebendary of Canterbury, received a pension from Edward VI.'s privy purse, and composed his chief work, A Trajedy or Dialogue of the unjust usurped Primacy of the Bishop of Rome (1549) This remarkable performance, originally written in Latin, is extant only in the translation of John Ponet, bishop of Winchester, a splendid specimen of nervous English.
Late in life he wrote a work on the great Roman families, wrongly identified with an extant poem De progenie Augusti Caesaris bearing the name of Messalla, but really a 15th-century production.
When the Parthian War (162-5) broke out, Polyaenus, too old to share in the campaign, dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus a work, still extant, called Strategica or Strategemata, a historical collection of stratagems and maxims of strategy written in Greek and strung together in the form of anecdotes.
It is divided into eight books (parts of the sixth and seventh are lost), and originally contained nine hundred anecdotes, of which eight hundred and thirty-three are extant.
He never mentions his authorities, but amongst authors still extant he used Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch, Frontinus and Suetonius; amongst authors of whom only fragments now remain he drew upon Ctesias, Ephorus, Timaeus, Phylarchus and Nicolaus Damascenus.
The correspondence is extant and gives us the means of observing the principles and tendencies of the emperor as a civil governor.
A translation of the Andria and three original comedies from his pen are extant, the precise dates of which are uncertain, though the greatest of them was first printed at Rome in 1524.
Michelant (same series, 1859); Mainet (fragments only extant), ed.
He was the first in extant literature to interpret certain passages in Revelation of Nero.
He was the author of a lost work De Accentibus, and of an extant treatise De Die Natali, written in 238, and dedicated to his patron Quintus Caerellius as a birthday gift.
In the middle ages Aire belonged to the counts of Flanders, from whom in 1188 it received a charter, which is still extant.
Many letters and other short productions of his pen are extant in MS., especially five thick volumes of Amsdorfiana, in the Weimar library.
There was introduced into it a courtly element, clear traces of which, with all its accompaniments, are found in the extant works of the school.
The best extant specimen is the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius; the most characteristic is the Alexandra or Cassandra of Lycophron, the obscurity of which is almost proverbial.
There are still extant three or four varying lists of the seven great dramatists who composed the Pleiad of Alexandria.
The chief source of information is a life written by St Jerome; it was based upon a letter, no longer extant, written by St Epiphanius, who had known Hilarion.
These are the walls of which the remains are still extant.
The extant imperial charter does not specify what were the municipal rights that were conceded, but it is certain that at this time they were very limited.
The fresco paintings in the galleries are perhaps the most interesting of the extant remains.
His extant works are - (i) a speech before Arcadius, De regno; (2) Dio, sive de suo ipsius instituto, in which he signifies his purpose to devote himself to true philosophy; (3) Encomium calvitii (he was himself bald), a literary jeu d'esprit, suggested by Dio Chrysostom's Praise of Hair; (4) De providentia, in two books; (5) De insomniis; (6) 157 Epistolae; (7) 12 Hymni, of a contemplative, Neoplatonic character; and several homilies and occasional speeches.
At any rate it is clear from the extant work of Herodotus that he must have devoted himself early to the literary life, and commenced that extensive course of reading which renders him one of the most instructive as well as one of the most charming of ancient writers.
A code of laws issued by him which is still extant is probably the oldest document in the English language, and contains a list of money fines for various crimes.
His only extant work is a short treatise (with a commentary by Pappus) On the Magnitudes and Distances of the Sun and Moon.
The charter of Henry I., although no longer extant, is quoted in later confirmation charters of Richard I., Henry III., Edward III.
There are also early Hebrew works, of which one by Gedaliah is extant.
Of the Greek translations by Capito Lycius and Paeanius, the version of the latter is extant in an almost complete state.
But it revived, and most of its fine Moslem mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belongs to the reign of Sultan Kalaun (1282) and the succeeding century, during which Abulfeda describes it as a very strong place.
On this occasion the defence was undertaken by Cicero in the extant speech Pro Cluentio.
Finally, in 1571, as he tells us in an inscription still extant, he retired to Montaigne to take up his abode there, having given up his magistracy the year before.
The recovery of its concluding sections in the same MS. which brought the Didache to light, proves beyond question that we have here the earliest extant sermon preached before a Christian congregation, about A.D.
The extant remains of the town of Mycenae are spread over the hill between the village of Charvati and the Acropolis.
Cicero defended one of its members in an extant speech.
Ebed Jesu in the 14th century mentions it together with Letters and Homilies, as well as the Tragedy, or a Letters to Cosmas, the Theopaschites (of which some fragments are still extant) and the Liturgy, which is still used by the Nestorian Church.
The only extant manuscript of the Chronicon is in the British Museum.
Hegesippus wrote in the 2nd century a collection of memoirs containing accounts of the early days of the church, only fragments of which are extant.
In the 14th century Nicephorus Callisti undertook a complete church history which covers in its extant form the first six centuries.
Before writing his history Eusebius produced a world chronicle which was based upon a similar work by Julius Africanus and is now extant only in part.
If this supposition be correct, Arno was the first extant writer to apply the name Deutsch (theodisca) to the German language.
Michel in his Tristan (1835), a collection of all the extant fragments of Tristan poems; "Tristan Menestrel" from the Perceval, ed.
He also edited Hesiod and Pindar, Euripides and Aristophanes, besides composing brief introductions to the several plays, parts of which are still extant.
The twenty-one plays of Plautus accepted by Varro are doubtless the twenty now extant, together with the lost Vidularia.
His contemporary Asconius is best known as the author of an extant historical commentary on five of the speeches of Cicero.
The Renaissance theory of a humanistic education is illustrated by several treatises still extant.
In Rome he lectured on rhetoric and philosophy, and collected around him many eminent pupils, amongst whom Cicero was the most famous and the most enthusiastic. None of his works is extant; our knowledge of his views is derived from Numenius, Sextus Empiricus and Cicero.
Unfortunately the version is only extant in a fragmentary form, being preserved partly in MSS., partly in quotations of the Fathers.
It has only been possible here to indicate in the briefest way what is involved in the collection and critical sifting of the extant evidence for the text of the Old Testament, Results of how much of the work has been done and how much Criticism.
It is therefore not surprising, though a piece of great good fortune, that there should be still extant a list of the New Testament books that may be roughly dated from the end of the century.
It is probably the best extant witness to the type of Greek text which was in use in Italy at an early time.
In the Pauline epistles it is doubtful whether it is extant at all, though some have found it in the cod.
The general character of the version is late, but there are many places in which the Old Syriac basis can be recognized, and in the Acts and Epistles, where the Old Syriac is no longer extant, this is sometimes very valuable evidence.
It is unfortunately not found in any extant MS. The second stage is that found in the quotations of Origen which is fairly well represented in B, though Origen seems at times to have used MSS.
The question, therefore, is whether we ought not to base our text on the versions and ecclesiastical quotations rather than on the extant Greek MSS.
This Saturninus was the middle one of the three governors of Syria named above, and as his successor Varus must have arrived by the middle of 6 B.C. at latest (for coins of Varus are extant of the twenty-fifth year of the era of Actium), his own tenure must have fallen about 8 and 7 B.C., and his census cannot be placed later than 7 or 7-6 B.C. The independence of Tertullian's information about this census is guaranteed by the mere fact of his knowledge of the governor's name; and if there was a census about that date, it would be unreasonable not to identify it with St Luke's census of the Nativity.
On the other hand, coins whose genuineness there is no apparent reason to doubt are extant of Agrippa's ninth year; and this can only be reconciled even with A.D.
Unless we suppose that the latter was suddenly expanded into the stories which thenceforth persisted, it may be inferred that an old extra-canonical tradition (for which a case can be made) continued to survive the compilation of Genesis (q.v.) and ultimately assumed the various exaggerated forms now extant.
The earlier stages in the growth of the extant Rabbinical Midrashim cannot be traced with any certainty.
In an extant letter, dated A.D.
Copies of the full text of the Scotichronicon, by different scribes, are extant.
There are extant three letters from Dr John Craig to Tycho Brahe, which show that he was on the most friendly terms with him.
Roman remains are to be seen, but the place owes its celebrity to the megalithic monuments in the vicinity, some of which are among the largest extant.
Walsingham's earliest extant communications with the government date from 1567; and in that and the following two yea.rs he was supplying Cecil with information about the movements of foreign spies in London.
Grenfell and Hunt conclude therefore - " So great indeed are the divergences between this account and the extant and no doubt well-informed authorities with regard to the topography and ritual of the Temple that it is hardly possible to avoid the conclusion that much of the local colour is due to the imagination of the author who was aiming chiefly at dramatic effect and was not really well acquainted with the Temple.
The earliest mention of Port Chester in any extant record is in the year 1732.
This last is well preserved, and is one of the finest cloisters both for size and beauty of detail now extant.
From the composition of a speech in Paul's name (for, though the farewell in Acts goes back to first-hand tradition, it represents the author's standpoint as well as Paul's), it was but a step to compose letters in his name, especially on the basis of some of his extant notes.
A number of miscellaneous poems, a few letters and Four Orations to the Cross complete the list of Grazzini's extant works.
Several of his coins are extant.
Only four Books have survived in Greek; three more are extant in Arabic; the eighth has never been found.
The south porch is one of the finest Norman examples extant, both the outer and the inner doorways (especially the first) exhibiting the typical ornament of the period in remarkable exuberance.
These may be either extant or non-extant.
The evidence of extant manuscripts must be ascertained by collation.
The work cannot be considered complete till all the extant manuscripts have been collated or at least examined.
Perhaps there is only one extant MS. of the text, as in the case of the Mimes of Herodas and the Annals and Histories of Tacitus.
In the first place we shall discard all manuscripts which are derived by copying from other extant manuscripts.
Careful and continuous regard to the various kinds of errors and defaults that are found in transcription will enable us to judge whether a reading which it is suggested stood in the archetype of our text is likely to have been corrupted to the reading, or readings, which stand in the extant manuscripts or editions.
Although Tertullian's extant works are both numerous and copious, our knowledge of his life is very vague.
The latest extant works of Tertullian (all after 217) are his controversial writings against the laxity of the Catholics, full of the bitterest attacks, especially upon Calixtus, the bishop of Rome; these are De monogamic, De jejunio, De pudicitia, and De ecstasi Libri VII.
Many, no doubt, are spurious; but some are genuine, and a few perhaps cited in Aristotle's extant works.
In both periods, too, as we shall find in the sequel, he was already occupied in composing some of the extant writings which were afterwards to form parts of his final philosophical system.
Composition Of His Extant Works The system which was taught by Aristotle at Athens in the fourth period of his life, and which is now known as the Aristototelian philosophy, is contained not in fragments but in extant books.
It will be best then to give at once a list of these extant works, following the traditional order in which they have long been arranged, and marking with a dagger (j) those which are now usually considered not to be genuine, though not always with sufficient reason.
When at fifty he returned to Athens, as head of the Peripatetic school, he no doubt wrote much of his extant philosophy during the twelve remaining years of his life (335-322).
It follows that Aristotle, from early manhood, not only wrote dialogues and didactic works, surviving only in fragments, but also began some of the philosophical works which are still parts of his extant writings.
At present the Politics will supply us with a conspicuous example of the imperfect arrangement of some, as well as of the gradual composition of all, of Aristotle's extant writings.
But two corollaries follow from our present investigation of his extant writings; the first, that it was the long continuance of the Peripatetic school which gradually caused the publication, and in some cases the forgery, of the separate writings; and the second, that his Peripatetic successors arranged and edited some of Aristotle's writings, and gradually arrived by the time of Andronicus, the eleventh from Aristotle, at an order of the whole body of writings forming the system.
What he mainly wanted was the time, the leisure and the labour, which we have supposed to have been given to the gradual composition of the extant Aristotelian writings.
Turning to the extant writings, we find that some are more under the influence of Plato, while others are more original and Aristotelian.
There are two kinds of quotations in Aristotle's extant works, the quotation of another book, and the quotation of a historical fact.
Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).
But none of his extant writings is so much dialectic, like a Platonic dialogue.
Ruins are also seen of a Franciscan foundation attributed to the 13th century; it was a celebrated seat of learning and an extant memorial of the work of its monks is the Book of Ballymote (c. 1391) in the possession of the Royal Irish Academy, a miscellaneous collection in prose and verse of historical, genealogical and romantic writings.
There are extant similar orations by Ausonius, six or seven strings, one played by a Moor; both have the tailpiece in the form of a crescent.
The real Servian commentary practically gives the only complete extant edition of a classic author written before the destruction of the empire.
The ancient fortifications, still extant in the beginning of the 19th century, have disappeared almost entirely, but of the four gateways one named after St Lawrence remains nearly perfect, consisting of two loopholed circular towers; and there are considerable ruins of another, the West or Butler Gate.
His industry was exemplary and unremitting, and the number of his literary works would be incredible, if the originals, all in his own handwriting, were not still extant.
Street in 1860, is remarkable; the richness of the work within increases from west to east, culminating in a choir arcade decorated with work among the finest of its period extant; the period is that of the choir of Westminster Abbey, and from a comparison of building materials, choir arcades and sculpture of foliage, a common architect has been suggested.
The only extant songs of any importance are the seventy-one Ballads of Gower (Stengel, Gower's Minnesang, 1886).
Besides a preface, there are extant eleven complete books and considerable fragments.
A single manuscript by Holinshed is known to be extant.
The oldest extant specimen bears a faithfully copied Arabic inscription.
The latter founded a colony of veterans and built a new harbour, the projecting moles of which are still extant.
The phrase dies cinerum appears in the earliest extant copies of the Gregorian Sacramentary, and it is probable that the custom was already established by the 8th century.
The extant hexameter poem De viribus (or virtutibus) herbarum, ascribed to Macer, is a medieval production by Odo Magdunensis, a French physician.
As no Teutonic inscriptions are extant from before the 3rd or 4th centuries, it cannot be stated with absolute certainty what types of objects are characteristic of Teutonic civilization in the bronze and earliest iron ages.
Of the Historia there are about a hundred manuscripts extant.
The first printed edition extant is Charteris's (Edinburgh, 1571); the second is Hart's (Edinburgh, 1616).
As regards native philology, the most ancient work extant is a grammar of the Tibetan tongue preserved in the Bstan-hgyur (mdo cxxiv.).
Both the personal character and the literary accuracy of Llorente have been assailed, but although he was not an exact historian there is no doubt that he made an honest use of documents relating to the Inquisition which are no longer extant.
According to tradition, Daventry was created a borough by King John, but there is no extant charter before that of Elizabeth in 1576, by which the town was incorporated under the name of the bailiff, burgesses and commonalty of the borough of Daventry.
The large pillars erected at intervals of two miles the whole way, to mark the daily halting-place of the imperial pilgrim, are still extant.
Up to 1188 he relies almost entirely upon extant sources; but from that date onwards is usually an independent authority.
The earliest extant building on the site is the temple of Hera, which probably dates in its original form from about moo B.C. There were various traditions as to the origin of the games.
It is probably the oldest of extant Greek temples, and may date from about 1000 B.C. It has colonnades of six columns each at east and west, and of sixteen each (counting the corner columns again) at north and south.
The extant lists of his authorities amount to many more than 400, including 146 of Roman and 327 of Greek and other sources of information.
The extant fragments and conglomerations of the Sibylline oracles, heathen, Jewish and Christian, were collected, examined, translated and explained by C. Alexandre in a monumental edition full of exemplary learning and acumen.
The cultivation of it is shown and was no doubt promoted by the many philological works (grammars, lexicons and masorah) which are extant from the 10th century onward.
Writings which bore his name were extant in antiquity; but as Aristotle, when he speaks of Thales's doctrine, always depends upon tradition, there can be little doubt that they were forgeries.
For the first time in the earth's history we find Foraminifera taking a prominent part in the marine faunas; the genus Fusulina was abundant in what is now Russia, China, Japan, North America; Valvulina had a wide range, as also had Endothyra and Archaediscus; Saccammina is a form well known in Britain and Belgium, and many others have been described; some Carboniferous genera are still extant.
He quickly became conversant with the English, French and Italian languages, but all his extant letters written in English appear singularly ill-spelt and illiterate.
With this view he entered into secret negotiations for a French alliance g which, as far as can be gathered from extant records, had for its objects the conquest and partition by the United allies of the Belgic provinces, and joint action in was widened.
The original Digenes epic is lost, but four poems are extant, in which the different incidents of the legend have been worked up by different hands.
It is, moreover, highly probable that Sumerian had primitively a system of voice-tones similar to that now extant in Chinese.
He is said to have written over a hundred works, of which only four or five are known to be extant.
He composed an apologetic work under the title Sefer Ha-Berith ("Book of the Bond"), a fragment of which is extant, and translated into Hebrew the ethico-philosophical work of Balhya ibn Paquda ("Duties of the Heart").
There is a tradition, supported by a reference on a plea roll, that Randle, earl of Chester (1181-1232) made Macclesfield a free borough, but the earliest charter extant is that granted by Edward, prince of Wales and earl of Chester, in 1261, constituting Macclesfield a free borough with a merchant gild, and according certain privileges in the royal forest of Macclesfield to the burgesses.
Nothing in the shape of a lectionary is extant older than the 8th century, though there is evidence that Claudianus Mamercus made one for the church at Vienne in 450, and that Musaeus made one for the church at Marseilles c. 458.
The first two books, and parts of the third, eleventh and fifteenth, are only extant in epitome, but otherwise we seem to possess the work entire.
The most important monument of the Middle Kingdom now extant at Thebes is the funerary temple of Menthotp III.
His Historia Ecclesiastica, in eighteen books, brings the narrative down to 610; for the first four centuries the author is largely dependent on his predecessors, Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret and Evagrius, his additions showing very little critical faculty; for the later period his labours, based on documents now no longer extant, to which he had free access, though he used them also with small discrimination, are much more valuable.
An extant Ars grammatica (discovered by Jovianus Pontanus in the 15th century) and other unimportant treatises on similar subjects have been wrongly ascribed to him.
The Confraternity Book of Durham is extant and embraces some 20,000 names in the course of eight centuries.
Beyond this again, bounded on the south by the street known as the Strada dell' Abbondanza, is a large and spacious edifice, which, as we learn from an extant inscription, was erected by a priestess named Eumachia.
The fifth temple, that of Venus Pompeiana, lay to the west of the basilica; traces of two earlier periods underlie the extant temple, which was in progress of rebuilding at the time of the eruption.
Consequently his commentary on the epistle to the Romans, mentioned by the historian Socrates, and his epistles, mentioned by Philostorgius and Photius, are no longer extant.
The exposition of faith ("EKO&rts Tns wiz-Taos), called forth by the demand of Theodosius, is still extant, and has been edited by Valesius in his notes to Socrates, and by Ch.
Of this extensive work there are still extant only the first five books, treating of the mythic history of the Egyptians, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Greeks; and also the i i th to the 20th books inclusive, beginning with the second Persian War, and ending with the history of the successors of Alexander, previous to the partition of the Macedonian empire (302).
Johnson might easily in a few months have made himself well acquainted with every old play that was extant.
The details of this narrative are unfortunately lost, as the genuine conclusion of Mark is not extant.
If the limits within which the Geography was composed are to be more nearly defined, we may say that, from isolated traces of Arab rule (which in Armenia dates from 651), it must have been written certainly after that year, and perhaps about the year 657.9 Another extant work of Moses is a Manual of Rhetoric, in ten books, dedicated to his pupil Theodorus.
As, moreover, the extant Epitome is based on our Homilies, it is natural to suppose it was also the basis of earlier orthodox recensions, one or more of which may be used in certain Florilegia of the 7th century and later.
It has been needful to cite so much of the evidence proving that our Homilies and Recognitions are both recensions of a common basis, at first known as the Circuits of Peter and later by titles connecting it rather with Clement, its ostensible author, because it affords data also for the historical problems touching (a) the contents and origin of the primary Clementine work, and (b) the conditions under which our extant recensions of it arose.
If we assume, then, that the common source of our extant Clementines arose in Syria, perhaps c. 265, 1 had it also a written source or sources which we can trace?
Later the Homilies underwent further adaptation to Catholic feeling even before the Epitome, in its two extant forms, was made by more drastic methods of expurgation.
The thirty-four extant are but a small fraction.
The literary tact which is so remarkable in the extant speeches is that of a singularly flexible intelligence, always obedient to an instinct of gracefulness.
Of these, the fragmentary speech For Pherenicus belongs to 381 or 380 B.C., and is thus the latest known work of Lysias.2 In literary and historical interest, the first place among the extant speeches of Lysias belongs to that Against Eratosthenes (403 B.C.), one of the Thirty Tyrants, whom Lysias arraigns as the murderer of his brother Polemarchus.
So popular were the decemvirs that another board of ten was appointed for the following year, some of whom, if the extant list of names is correct, were certainly plebeians.
No charter of incorporation is extant, but in 1563 contests were carried on under the name of the bailiffs, burgesses and commonalty, and a list of borough accounts exists for 1696.
At the inquisition of 1336 the burgesses claimed an annual fair on St Peter's Day, and depositions in 1577 mention a borough market held on Tuesday and Friday, but these were apparently extinct in Camden's day, and no grant of them is extant.
Some passages are evidently fragmentary; and a few detached pieces are still extant which were originally parts of the Koran, although they have been omitted by Zaid.
Thousands of commentaries on the Koran, some of them of prodigious size, have been written by Moslems; and even the number of those still extant in manuscript is by no means small.
The principal extant monuments are a triple triumphal arch, with inscription, through which ran the road to Xanthus, and the walls, discernible on either hand of it; the theatre, 265 ft.
In the first half of the 5th century the sacred marriage was represented on an extant metope from a temple at Selinus.
The chief of these, extant in a longer and a shorter version, is called The book of that which is in the Nether World (familiarly known as the Am Dual) and deals with the journey of the sun during the twelve hours of the night.
His works are not certainly known, and none are extant.
The history, which had an apologetic aim, is no longer extant, but copious extracts from it are to be found in the Chronicon of Eusebius, who used it extensively in compiling the early episcopal lists.
His terse and pertinent letter to Origen, impugning the authority of the apocryphal book of Susanna, and Origen's wordy and uncritical answer, are both extant.
The earliest extant record of the Wayland legend is the repre - sentation in carved ivory on a casket of Northumbrian workmanship of a date not later than the beginning of the 8th century.
Of works certainly executed by him during his years of travel there are extant, besides the Basel wood-block, only a much-injured portrait of himself, very finely dressed and in the first bloom of his admirable manly beauty, dated 1493 and originally painted on vellum but since transferred to canvas (this is the portrait of the Felix Goldschmid collection); a miniature painting on vellum at Vienna (a small figure of the Child-Christ); and some half a dozen drawings, of which the most important are the characteristic pen portrait of himself at Erlangen, with a Holy Family on the reverse much in the manner of Schongauer; another Holy Family in nearly the same style at Berlin; a study from the female nude in the Bonnat collection; a man and woman on horseback in Berlin; a man on horseback, and an executioner about to behead a young man, at the British Museum, &c. These drawings all show Diirer intent above all things on the sternly accurate delineation of ungeneralized individual forms by means of strongly accented outline and shadings curved, somewhat like the shadings of Martin Schongauer's engravings, so as to follow their modellings and roundness.
At any rate a whole series of extant drawings enables us to trace the German gradually working out his own ideas of a canon of human proportion in the composition of his famous engraving of "Adam and Eve" (1504); which at first, as a drawing in the British Museum proves, had been intended to be an Apollo and Diana conceived on lines somewhat similar to one of Barbari's.
In them, working with infinite preliminary pains, as a vast number of extant drawings and studies testify, he produced what have been accounted his four capital works in painting, besides several others of minor importance.
For a great group of the Madonna surrounded with saints there are extant two varying sketches of the whole composition and a number of finished studies for individual heads and figures.
The principal extant paintings of Diirer, with the places where they are to be found, have been mentioned above.
The emperor's rough and severe habits and his rigid administration prompted Antiochene lampoons, to which he replied in the curious satiric apologia, still extant, which he called Misopogon.
Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.
In 1459 Ralph, Lord Greystock, is said to have granted a charter, no longer extant, to his tenants in the manor, and in 1674 the freeholders, "borough-holders" and copyholders, of Wem brought an action against Daniel Wicherley, then lord of the manor, for the establishment of customs and privileges chiefly connected with the tenure of their lands and tenements, which was decided in their favour.
He could not in the time have assimilated all the materials even then extant, and later accumulations would necessitate a complete revision.
Several anthems composed by him are extant; and one at least, 0 Lord, the Maker of all Things, is still occasionally rendered in English cathedrals.
Several of the decretal letters of Siricius are extant, in which, at the request of certain groups of Western bishops, he sets forth the rules of ecclesiastical discipline.
It was generally supposed to 1 Scanty remains of the ancient town walls, of a gymnasium near the harbour and of the amphitheatre are still extant.
At the time when the Ancren Riwle was addressed to them the anchoresses did not belong to any of the monastic orders, but the monastery was under the Cistercian rule before 1266.3 There are extant seven English MSS.
A tradition is extant to the effect that Singapore was an important trading centre in the 12th and 13th centuries, but neither Marco Polo nor Ibn Batuta, both of whom wintered in Sumatra on their way back to Europe from China, have left anything on record confirmatory of this.
Of their hymns many are yet extant ("Jerusalem mirabilis," "In gottes namen faren wir," &c.).
In any case it is what the compilers of the oldest extant documents believed their teacher to have regarded as the most important points in his teaching.
These books remained the only authorities for about five centuries, but they all, except only our extant Pali Nikayas, have been lost in India.
And it is a most fortunate chance that this - the oldest, the most complete, and the most authentic collection of folklore extant - has thus been preserved intact to the present day.
Many of these works are extant in MS.; but only five or six of the more important have so far been published.
This tragic story is the subject of one of the extant plays of Euripides.4 The famous friendship between Theseus and Pirithous, king of the Lapiths, originated thus.
Caine claimed to have received a charter from Stephen and a confirmation of the same from Henry III., but no record of these is extant, and the charter actually issued to the borough by James II.
There is extant a Daniel prophecy which, in the time of the Latin empire, foretells the restoration of the Greek rule.
His despatches on this occasion are still extant, and whatever we may think of the cause on which he was engaged, they certainly give a wonderful impression of the zeal and ability with which he discharged his functions.
It is said that he wrote a formal Palinodia or retractation of his book De vera obedientia, but it does not seem to be now extant; and the reference is probably to his sermon on Advent Sunday 15J4, after Cardinal Pole had absolved the kingdom from schism.
An extant poem (70 hexameters) also bears her name.
There are also several original writings by Alexander still extant.
The statement that he proceeded along the coasts of Europe "from Gades to the Tanais" is evidently based upon the supposition that this would be a simple and direct course along the northern shores of Germany and Scythia - Polybius himself, in common with the other Greek geographers till a much later period, being ignorant of the projection of the Danish or Cimbric peninsula, and the circumnavigation that it involved - of all which no trace is found in the extant notices of Pytheas.
The ruins still extant are very remarkable, and, with the noble Roman theatre, the finest in the world, have earned for the place (as is the case with certain other great monuments) a legendary connexion with Solomon's Sheban queen.
A document, no longer extant, which was partially incorporated into the Gospels of St Matthew and St Luke.
He was the author of a number of Biblical commentaries (no longer extant), which are said to have been characterized by great erudition.
But to regard Hezekiah as a Jewish Pisistratus is to ascribe to the time a literary spirit of which the extant documents give no hint; the literature of the age was wholly occupied with the past history, the religious conditions and the political fortunes of the nation, subjects alien to the book of Proverbs.
His earliest extant performances, in considerable number, are at Cortona, whither he was sent during his novitiate, and here apparently he spent all the opening years of his monastic life.
According to Suidas he composed a number of songs and proems; none of these is extant; the fragment of a hymn to Poseidon attributed to him (Aelian, Hist.An.xii.45) is spurious and was probably written in Attica in the time of Euripides.
The political history is relatively slight and uneven, and the framework is rehandled in Chronicles upon more developed lines and from a later ecclesiastical standpoint, which suggests that many traditions of the monarchy were extant in a late dress.
It may perhaps be no mere chance that with the dynasties of Omri and Jehu the historical continuity is more firm, that older forms of prophetical narrative are preserved (the times from Ahab to Jehu), and that to the reign of the great Jeroboam (first half of the 8th century), the canonical writers have ascribed the earliest of the extant prophetical writings (Amos and Hosea).
On the northern side of this terrace, between the second temple and the Cyclopean supporting wall, a long stoa or colonnade runs from east to west abutting at the west end in structures which evidently contained a well-house and waterworks; while at the eastern end of this stoa a number of chambers were erected against the hill, in front of which were placed statues and inscriptions, the bases for which are still extant.
A borough seal dated 1469 is extant, but the corporation is not mentioned in the grant made by Edward VI.
John Gerson, the foremost theologian of France, wrote a manual of instructions (still extant) for the first of his tutors, Jean Majoris, a canon of Reims. His second tutor, Bernard of Armagnac, was noted for his piety and humility.
Tradition states that Asoka set up 64,000 memorial columns; and the thirty-five inscriptions extant in our own day show how widely these royal sermons were spread over India.
Constantine is walled, the extant medieval wall having been largely constructed out of Roman material.
The borough, first claimed as such in the reign of Henry I., was in existence by the middle of the 13th century, since a deed of Gilbert Fitz-Stephen, lord of the manor, mentions the services due from "his burgesses of Dertemue," and a borough seal of 1280 is extant.
A collection of forty fables by Aphthonius, of ter the style of Aesop, is also extant.
Considerable fragments of the latter work are still extant.
A speech delivered in this year, pro Quinctio, is still extant; it is concerned with a technical point of law and has little literary merit.
The extant speech was written by Cicero at his leisure.