Gold is exported in large quantities from Australia.
And the great tragedy is: During these three years, China exported more than twelve million tons of grain along with a literal cornucopia of other agricultural products.
Australia produces abundant quantities and nearly all varieties of fruits; but the kinds exported are chiefly oranges, pineapples, bananas and apples.
In 1892 the frozen mutton exported was 25,500 tons, and this had increased in 1901 to 63,013 tons.
Enough of the rocky surface is covered with a thin coating of soil to enable the natives to grow yams, taro, bananas, &c., for their support; cotton thrives well, and has even been exported in small quantities, but there is no space available for its cultivation on any considerable scale.
Live-stock and agricultural products are exported; the chief imports are wood and raw silk.
Large quantities of frozen and preserved meat are exported, profitable prices being realized.
Tobacco is grown extensively in southern Albania, especially near Berat and in the upper valley of the Viossa, but the quantity exported is small.
In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.
The sumach is largely grown in the Mirdite district; its leaves are exported to Trieste for use in tanneries and dyeworks.
Large quantities of fresh fish caught in lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba are exported to all parts of the United States.
In 1901 the production of sugar was 151,639 tons, of which 58,000 tons were exported.
The Galapagos Islands are of some commercial importance to Ecuador, on account of the guano and the orchilla moss found on them and exported to Europe.
The value of Australian wheat and flour exported in 1905 was £5,500,000.
Turkestan is a good wheat-producing country, cereals were actually imported from Russia and Siberia and cotton exported in exchange.
A larger product of the vine was in the form of raisins and currants, of which quantities were exported to Russia.
Large quantities of fruits - apples, pears, quinces, peaches, nectarines, apricots, grapes and melons - were exported by special trains to central Europe, where the Turkestan crop was received a short time before the south European supplies ripened.
The cups are the most valuable portion of the valonia, abounding in tannic acid; immature acorns are sometimes exported under the name of "camatina."
The principal are: white beans, largely consumed by the working classes; lentils, much less cultivated than beans; and green peas, largely consumed in Italy, and exported as a spring vegetable.
Both crude and concentrated lime-juice is exported, and essential oils are extracted from the rind of the agrumi, more particularly from that of tile lemon and the berganlot.
In 1905 Italy exported 32,786 and imported 17,766 head of cattle; exported 33,574 and imported 6551 sheep; exported 95,995 and imported 1604 swine.
Very little pig iron is tries US made, most of the iron ore being exported, and iron manufactured consists of old iron resmelted.
Both plaits and hats are largely exported.
A vast variety of trinketsin coral, glass, lava, &c.is exported from Italy, or carried away by the annual host of tourists.
to the north of Venice, was a great source of revenue to the republic. Glass drinking cups and ornamental vessels, some decorated with enamel painting, and "silvered" mirrors were produced in great quantities from the 14th century downwards, and exported.
1024), acorns, preserved fruits and manufactured articles such as carriages and inkstands were exported.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
The chief agricultural products are barley, oats, wheat, and in the north-east flax is also grown, and exported to South Holland and Belgium.
The pigs and fowls of the Bresse and the geese and turkeys of the Dombes are largely exported.
Sugar, molasses, rum (aguardente or cachaca), tobacco and fruit are largely exported.
The only product is cocoa-nut oil, of which about 106,000 gallons are annually exported.
The cultivation of the soil is limited to local needs, except in the production of tobacco, which is exported to neighbouring states.
The open campos afford good pasturage, and live stock is largely exported.
In the vicinity of Cairns are extensive sugar plantations, with sugar mills and refineries; the culture of coffee and tobacco has rapidly extended; bananas, pine-apples and other fruits are exported in considerable quantities and there is a large industry in cedar.
Finland ponies are exported in large numbers.
Modern dairy-farming is only just beginning in Russia, but butter is being exported in increasing quantities to W.
Poultryfarming is being more extensively engaged in, and vast numbers of eggs are exported.
Altogether raw silk and silk yarn to an annual value exceeding 1-1 millions sterling are exported from Russia.
The value of the fish has much increased owing to the introduction of cold storage; as a result of the employment of this method of packing, fish is now exported in a fresh state from the Black Sea to all parts of S.W.
It has a population of about 5000, almost wholly occupied with the manufacture and sale of rose-water, which is largely exported to many parts of Persia as well as to Arabia, India and Java.
Wool forms by far the largest export, and tallow, hides, bones and frozen mutton are also exported.
Rubber and some other natural products are exported.
The tithe had been replaced by an export tax on exported agricultural produce levied at the custom-houses, and the smaller peasant proprietors and shepherds of the mountainous districts were practically exempt from any contribution to the state.
The loss to the country in wealth exported and land going out of cultivation has been very serious.
It is used chiefly in the manufacture of coarse sackcloth, cordage and hammocks, and is exported in large quantities.
About 4,000,000 bottles of water are exported annually, and another article of export is the salt recovered from the water by evaporation.
The cultivation of the palm is indeed the principal occupation; and though the dates are inferior to those of the Barbary States, upwards of 2 2, 500 tons are annually exported.
The refined oil is exported as kerosene or petroleum, the heavier refuse (mazut) is used as fuel.
There are considerable manufactures of cotton and woollen goods, and cotton is largely exported.
The fertility of its territory and its manufacture of black glazed pottery, which was even exported to Etruria, made it prosperous.
Outside of the suburb there are saltpans, most of the proceeds of which are exported to Galicia.
Derbyshire cheeses are exported or sent to London in considerable quantities; and cheese fairs are held in various parts of the county, as at Ashbourne and Derby.
It is equally true that, when under the influence of special local or other demand - proximity to towns, easy railway or other communication, for example - the products which would otherwise be retained on the farm are exported from it, the import of town or other manures is generally an essential condition of such practice.
The remainder, that in the straw, as well as that in the roots and the leguminous crops, is supposed to be retained on the farm, excepting the small amount exported in meat and milk.
But much less potash than phosphoric acid is exported in the cereal grains, much more being retained in the straw, whilst the other products of the rotation - the root and leguminous crops - which are also supposed to be retained on the farm, contain very much more potash than the cereals, and comparatively little of it is exported in meat and milk.
To these sums the value of horses alone contributed about three-fourths, Belgium taking more than half the number of exported horses.
The export trade in cattle, sheep and pigs is practically restricted to pedigree animals required for breeding purposes, and though its aggregate value [[Table Xxvi]].-Quantities and Value of Home-bred Live Stock exported from the United Kingdom, 1900-1905.
The waters are used both internally and externally, and are largely exported.
The smaller branches and the waste portion of the trunks, left in cutting up the timber, are exported as fire-wood, or used for splitting into matches.
The wood is strong, light and very elastic, forming an excellent material for small masts and spars, for which purpose the trunks are used in America, and exported largely to England.
It forms extensive forests in Vancouver Island, British Columbia and Oregon, whence the timber is exported, being highly prized for its strength, durability and even grain, though very heavy; it is of a deep yellow colour, abounding in resin, which oozes from the thick bark.
We find Cretan vessels exported to Melos, Egypt and the Greek mainland.
Grapes, barley, esparto grass, dry figs, almonds and zinc are exported.
Considerable trade was carried on with France and Spain, cloth, Purbeck stone and, later, clay being largely exported.
The water is both drunk and used for bathing by some 40,000 visitors annually, and is exported in bottles.
Other important industries are wood-carving (of an artistic excellence long unknown), artistic iron-working, jewelling, bronze-casting, the production of steam-engines, machinery, matches (largely exported to Turkey, Egypt, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Greece), clock-making, wool-weaving and the manufacture of chemical manures.
The Dniester is an important channel for trade, corn, spirits and timber being exported from Mogilev, Kalus, Zhvanets, Porog and other Podolian river-ports.
An active trade is carried on with Austria, especially through the Isakovets and Gusyatin custom-houses, corn, cattle, horses, skins, wool, linseed and hemp seed being exported, in exchange for wooden wares, linen, woollen stuffs, cotton, glass and agricultural implements.
Northern Nigeria contributes to the cotton exported from Lagos.
Experimental work has been carried on, and in 1904 Uganda exported about 43 bales of cotton, and British East Africa about 177 bales.
The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.
In 1906 the United Kingdom took less than 5% of the cotton exported.
About 50% of the cotton produced is consumed in Indian mills and the remainder is exported.
During recent years a considerable quantity of cotton has been exported, but more than a compensating amount of raw cotton, yarns and textiles, is imported.
The production is not sufficient to meet the home demand; during the five years of normal trade before the war with Russia Japan imported annually about 800,000 bales of cotton, chiefly from British India, China and the United States, and during the same period exported each year some 2000 bales, mainly to Korea.
A considerable amount is used locally, and during the six years ending in 1907 the surplus exported ranged from about 24,000 to 40,000 bales per annum.
The Trans-Caspian railway has been an important factor; almost all the cotton exported passes over this line, and the statistics of this trade indicate the progress made.
In Fiji the cotton exported in the 'sixties and 'seventies was worth £93,000 annually; but the cultivation has been practically abandoned.
In 1899 about 60 bales, and in 1900 about 6 bales, were exported.
The industry has, however, been revived, and in 1906 over ioo bales, valued at £1052, were exported.
Corn, wine, oil, wool, silk, fruits and liquorice (a speciality of the district) are exported.
This bird is exported in large numbers to northern China, where it is much prized on account of its extraordinary power of imitation.
Woo], frozen mutton and agricultural produce are exported from the rich district surrounding.
The market-gardening of the region called the Westland, between the Hague and the Hook of Holland, is remarkable, and large quantities of vegetables are exported to England.
The total acreage of tobacco increased from 12,871 acres in 1906 to 27,596 acres in 1909; the total value of the exported tobacco products increased from $681,642 in 1901 to $5,634,130 in 1909.
About 13,000 head of cattle were exported annually from 1901 to 1905, but much of the best grazing land has since been devoted to the cultivation of sugar-cane.
Indian corn, flour, cattle, horses, mules and hides are exported to the neighbouring states.
Sealskins and other furs, and whale and seal oil, are exported, and the herring fishery is very productive.
There is a quay here where large vessels can discharge, and agricultural produce is exported.
Salt and phosphates of lime are exported.
The soil is fertile and produces rubber, cotton, sugar, coffee, cocoa, tobacco and nutmegs, all of which are exported; pimento (allspice) grows wild in the greatest profusion.
Ivory, cattle, butter, coffee, cotton, myrrh, gums and skins are exported from the Benadir country.
As correct a notion as can be obtained of the numbers annually exported from the continent about the year 1790 by traders cf the several European countries engaged in the traffic is supplied by the following statement: - " By the British, 38,000; by the French, 20,000; by the Dutch, 4000; by the Danes, 2000; by the Portuguese, 10,000; total 74,000."
Lieutenant O'Neill, British consul at Mozambique, writing in 1880, fixed at about 3000 the number then annually exported from the coast between the rivers Rovuma and Zambesi.
The mineral wealth of the Cyclades has hitherto been much neglected; iron ore is exported from Seriphos, manganese and sulphur from Melos, and volcanic cement (pozzolana) from Santorin.
The better (" purple ") varieties are mainly consumed in the island, and the smaller and less juicy " white " varieties exported.
Bananas are grown particularly in the region about Nipe, Gibara and Baracoa, whence they are exported in large quantities, though there is a tendency to lessen their culture in these parts in favour of sugar.
Grahamite and glance-pitch are common, and are exported for use in varnish and paint manufactures.
Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium is exported for the manufacture of insect-powder, and sunflowers are cultivated for the oil contained in their seeds.
All these commodities are exported in considerable quantities, besides bitumen, which is obtained from a mine worked by a French III.
The vine is largely cultivated both in Europe and Asia, and much Turkish wine is exported to France and Italy for mixing purposes.
About a fourth of the salt produced is exported to foreign countries, and of this about three-fourths goes to British India.
The number of steamships belonging to Turkey in1899-1900was 1 77 of 55,93 8 tons, as compared with 87 of 46,498 tons in 1897-1898, the number of sailing Value of Goods Imported into, and Exported from, together with Number vessels in the same years being respectively 2205 of 141,055 tons and Tonnage of Vessels cleared at, Principal Ports of Turkish Empire.
The following tables show the total value of exports and imports arranged according to countries of origin or destination for1905-1906and 1908-1909; the same information for the year1905-1906with respect to the principal ports of the empire, and the tonnage of vessels cleared thereat during the year 1908-1909; and the value of the principal articles imported and exported for the year 1905-1906.
Value of Principal Articles Imported and Exported for the year 1905-1906.
Value of the Goods Imported from or Exported to Principal Countries during the years1905-1906and 1908-1909.
It is bound to purchase all tobacco not exported at prices to be agreed between itself and the cultivators; if no agreement can be arrived at, the price is fixed by experts.
At the same time it was granted an extension of penal powers, and the losses on reftieh (duty on tobacco exported to Egypt) were to be partially borne by the public debt administration.
The proportional rents are fixed by the Mines Administration according to the wealth, area and facility of working of the mine, and are inserted in the imperial firman governing the mine, and must be paid before the minerals are exported.
AustriaHungary had from the first undertaken to withdraw its garrisons from the sanjak of Novibazar - an important concession; after prolonged negotiations and a boycott of all Austrian goods exported to Turkey, it also agreed to pay £ 2,200,000 as compensation for the Turkish crown lands seized in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Zahran district lies four days west of Besha on the crest of the main range: the principal place is Makhwa, a large town and market, from which grain is exported in considerable quantities to Mecca.
Wheat, oats, barley and other cereals are grown and exported, and owing to the abundance of pasture and forage, sheep and cattle-rearing are actively carried on.
15 ), and millstones, salt (from a marsh at the east end of the harbour), and gypsum are still exported.
Stock-raising receives some attention and hides and cattle are exported.
The Lake Of Bizerta, called Tinja by the Arabs, abounds in excellent fish, especially mullets, the dried roe of which, called botargo, is largely exported, and the fishing industry employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
On this account it is often exported in strings or " scrap " and, not usually in biscuits or balls.
Among these are species of Willughbeia and Leuconotis, from which much of the rubber exported from Borneo is derived; Parameria glandulifera, common in Siam and Borneo, and Urceola esculenta and Cryptostegia grandiflora, both common in Burma.
This will operate to the advantage of plantation rubber and against the wild rubber, so long as the latter is not exported in a purer condition.
Ceara rubber is also exported in the form of lumps and cakes.
The source of " Ule " rubber exported from Central America, and of the " Caucho " rubber of Peru is Castilloa elastica, Cerv., a lofty tree, N.
It is exported chiefly from San Juan del Norte, or Grey Town, and the larger proportion goes to the United States.
Lastly, from the Altai region, as well as from the Nerchinsk Mountains, precious stones, such as jasper, malachite, beryl, dark quartz, and the like, are exported.
Honey is exported to Russia.
The forests on the Amur yielded a rich return of furs during the first years of the Russian occupation, and the Amur sable, although much inferior to the Yakutsk and Transbaikalian, was largely exported.
In 1902 some 1800 dairies were at work, the greater number in West Siberia, and 40,000 tons of butter were exported.
Granite and wood-pulp are exported, and coal and grain imported.
Large quantities of coal and tea are exported.
Several flour-mills and other factories have recently sprung up. Much grain is exported; timber is brought from the upper Volga, and manufactured wares from Nizhniy Novgorod.
Tame bantin are bred in Bali, near Java, and exported to Singapore.
Corn, raw cotton, hides, wool, nuts and dried fruit are exported.
Joel complains that they were sold to the Grecians (Javan, Ionians).2 It is probable that some Hebrew and Syrian slaves were exported to the Mediterranean coasts from a very early date, and Isa.
A large proportion of the inhabitants of the town and the neighbourhood is engaged in woollen and other textile manufactures, the products of which are exported to all parts of the world.
Marble of very fine quality and grain is extensively quarried and exported for architectural ornamentation and for furniture-making.
Wood-pulp is also exported.
Wheat, flour and silk are exported.
The dried leaves and smaller twigs of mate (Paraguayan tea-hlex paraguayensis) are exported to the southern Spanish American republics, where (as in Rio Grande do Sul) the beverage is exceedingly popular.
The crude methods of preparing jerked beef were also modified to some extent by better equipped abattoirs and establishments for preparing beef extract, preserved meats, &c. There were also mills for crushing the dried mate leaves, cigar and 1 The " bran " exported is from imported wheat and cannot be considered a national product.
Sugar-works were established, and considerable quantities of the produce exported to the mother country.
More important is the cultivation of the black wattle (Acacia mollissima), which began in 1886, the bark being exported for tanning purposes, the wood also commanding a ready sale.
In the last-named year 446,915 tons of coal were exported.
Timber is also exported, being floated in large quantities down the Lule.
Large numbers of horses are exported annually, principally to Austria, Germany, Italy, France and Rumania.
They are not exported, but there is a considerable export trade in wool.
They are exported in large numbers (408,000 in 1905), almost exclusively to Austria.
Of agricultural produce there was barely sufficient for home consumption, but the mining industries had reached a very high level of excellence, and iron, tin and copper were very largely exported from the northern counties to Danzig and other Baltic ports.
A thriving export trade is carried on in agricultural produce, condensed milk is manufactured, and slate is extensively quarried in the neighbourhood, while some coal is exported from the neighbouring fields.
No effort is made to improve the Venezuelan product, a part of which is exported to Cuba for cigar making.
From 1783 to 1825 agricultural produce was exported and coal imported.
Local prosperity was greatly enhanced during the period 18 751905 by the improvement of communications, which enabled the grain, fruit and wine of the Guadiana valley, on the north, and of the upland known as the Tierra de Barros, on the south, to be readily exported by the Merida-Seville railway.
Fishing is carried on, and timber, oil, wine, lemons and other sub-tropical fruits are exported to some extent.
These, salted and dried, are exported to all parts of the world, and form, when taken in connexion with the enormous quantity of fresh cod consumed, a valuable addition to the food resources of the human race.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
The amount exported varies considerably.
In 1895 the quantity of rice exported in the foreign and coastal trade amounted to 1,419,173 tons valued at Rs.9,77, 66, 1 3 2, and in 1905 the figures were 2,187,764 tons, value Rs.
The value of teak exported in 1895 was Rs.1,34,64,303, and in 1905, Rs.1,31,03,401.
The district is agricultural and pastoral, and wool and grain are exported, as well as meat and dairy produce, for which there are large refrigerating works.
Glass for mosaics was also largely made and exported.
During the 16th and 17th centuries Venice exported a prodigious quantity of mirrors, but France and England gradually acquired knowledge and skill in the art, and in 1772 only one glass-house at Murano continued to make mirrors.
Marineus Siculus, writing early in the 16th century, says that the best glass was made at Barcelona; and Gaspar Baneiros, in his Chronographia, published in 1562, states that the glass made at Barcelona was almost equal to that of Venice and that large quantities were exported.
In Roman times Cilicia exported the goats'-hair cloth, Cilicium, of which tents were made.
Cocoa, rice and cotton were also increasingly cultivated and the fall in the value of rubber led to a much larger collection of copal, the amount exported, 2,139 tons in 1911, being 8,719 in 1916.
The fur (q.v.) of this rodent was prized by the ancient Peruvians, who made coverlets and other articles with the skin, and at the present day the skins are exported in large numbers to Europe, where they are made into muffs, tippets and trimmings.
Russia, which gave bounties, was to be allowed to send into European markets not more than i,000,000 tons within the next five years, and Great Britain undertook to give certificates guaranteeing that sugar refined in the United Kingdom and exported had not been bounty-fed.
There is considerable agricultural trade, and iron founding is carried on; while in the neighbourhood some copper, lead, granite and slate are worked and exported in small vessels; coal, timber and general merchandise being imported.
The nitre thus refined is exported chiefly from Valparaiso, whence the name of "Chile saltpetre."
So successful have the results been that American-grown tobacco of the Sumatra type is now exported even to Cuba.
A considerable portion of the tobacco exported to England and Africa is fire-cured.
Thus in 1906 from Cavalla and Xanthi 11,000 tons were exported of a value of about £1,101,000, the range of the various qualities per kilo (2·1 lb) being Ghienbek.
In Ceylon tobacco is grown in the northern portion of the island; the produce is but little suited to the European market and is mainly exported to southern India and Cochin China.
The annual value of tobacco exported is over £300,000.
Flue-cured bright tobacco is principally produced, but sun-cured is also exported; and in1906-1907experiments with Turkish tobacco gave encouraging results.
Cattle and swine are reared, and dairy produce is largely exported; but the sheep of the province are small and their wool indifferent.
The only other mineral product is manjak, a species of asphalt, also found in this district and to some extent exported.
Water is found in it a few feet below the surface, and a little cultivation is carried on at the small oases of Kaf and Ithri, whence salt produced in the neighbouring salt lakes is exported.
The berries are dried in the sun and sent down to Hodeda or Aden, where they are subjected to a process for separating the husk from the bean; the result is about 50% of cleaned berries, bun safe, which is exported, and a residue of husk or kishr, from which the Yemenis make their favourite beverage.
To balance the exports and imports specie was exported in the three years 1902-1904 amounting to £2,319,000; a large proportion of this was perhaps provided by cash brought into the country by pilgrims.
It grows in Mexico along the mountain range of the Sierra Gorda in the neighbourhood of San Luis de la Paz, from which district it is carried down to Tampico, whence it is exported.
It has fine gardens, and its flowers and palms are especially famous: the former are largely exported, while the latter serve for the supply of palm branches for St Peter's at Rome and other churches on Palm Sunday.
At the outbreak of the war the production was about 80,000 tons; in 1905 the production of sugar and molasses amounted to 161,851 metric tons, of which 134,344 were exported.
It is the staple food everywhere, and little is exported.
Cocaine is also derived from coca leaves, and a considerably quantity of the drug is exported.
The fruit is commonly used for the manufacture of oil, which is consumed in the country, and only a small part is exported.
A superior grade of hemp is exported.
The principal articles imported are cotton and cotton goods, coffee, coal, cereals, hides, fruit and tobacco; the principal articles exported are wool and woollen goods,.
The value of trade probably exceeds 2,000,000, principal exports being rice, raw silk, dry fruit, fish, sheep and cattle, wool and cotton, and cocoons, the principal imports sugar, cotton goods, silkworm "seed" or eggs (70,160 worth in 1906-7), petroleum, glass and china., The trade in dried silkworm cocoons has increased remarkably since 1893, when only 76,150 lb valued at 6475 were exported; during the year 1906-7 ending 10th March, 2,717,540 lb valued at 238,000 were exported.
Among the other manufactures are food preparations, wooden ware, wagons and carriages, stoves and furnaces, boots and shoes, tobacco and cigars, flour, candy, gloves, bricks, tile and pottery, furniture, paper boxes and firearms. Utica is a shipping point for the products of a fertile agricultural region, from which are exported dairy products (especially cheese), nursery products, flowers (especially roses), small fruits and vegetables, honey and hops.
Many tons of these flowers are exported from the Scilly Isles to the London markets in spring.
Cargoes of rum, manufactured from West Indian sugar and molasses, were exported to Africa and exchanged for slaves to be sold in the southern colonies and the West Indies.
Many pieces were exported by the Dutch, and some also were specially manufactured to their order.
In spite of their artistic defects, these specimens were exported in considerable numbers by merchants in the foreign settlements, and their first cost being very low, they found a not unreniunerative market.
It is necessary to insist upon this fact, because it has been stated with apparent authority that numerous specimens which began to be exported from 1865 were the outcome of industry commencing in the 16th century and reaching its point of culmination at the beginning of the 18th.
There followed then a period of gradual decline, and the enamels exported to Europe showed so much inferiority that they were supposed to be the products of a widely different era and of different makers.
A third, at least, of the annual supply of timber is exported.
A special branch is the making of scythes and sickles which are exported in large quantities.
Cod-liver oil and salted fish are exported with some reindeer-skins, fox-skins and eiderdown; and coal and salt for curing are imported.
Wine, fruit, cork, baskets and sumach are exported in small coasting vessels; there are important sardine and tunny fisheries; and boats, sails and cordage are manufactured.
This wine is not exported in any quantity, as it will not bear a voyage well and is not made to keep. Bee-keeping is general, and there is an export of eggs to Egypt.
In 1920 were exported farm products, live stock, fowls, timber and flax valued at 501,797,000 marks, and imported foreign products and machines at 428,728,000 marks.
Turtle-shell is also largely exported.
It exported wine and carried on coral fisheries.
As an industrial centre Corinth achieved pre-eminence in pottery, metal-work and decorative handicraft, and was the reputed "inventor" of painting and tiling; her bronze and her pottery, moulded from the soft white clay of Oneium, were widely exported over the Mediterranean.
The other trades are olive-oil refining, barrel-making and soap-boiling; corn, honey and fruit are largely exported.
Some of the best oranges in the world are grown, and exported; but sufficient care is not taken to keep down insect pests, and to replace old trees.
Pottery is manufactured on a small scale; ornamental carvings are made in Maltese stone and exported to a limited extent.
Olive oil is manufactured, and the fisheries are important, notably those of sponges and of octopuses (exported to Greece).
gallons of wine (mostly sweet wine), and 'goo tons of dried raisins, to the value of £34,720, were exported.
The town has several linen manufactories and a large cotton spinnery, but is chiefly famed for its many extensive breweries, which mainly produce a black beer, not unlike English porter, which is largely exported.
lithia waters, which are largely exported.
It is highly fertile, cereals and fruits growing well; and dairy products are extensively exported.
Coal and wine are leading imports, while cereals, timber, wool, fruit and industrial products are exported.
The articles exported were ivory, rubber, skins and hides, and livestock (for consumption in East Africa).
Small quantities of ebony and sandal-wood are exported.
Wool was very largely exported, and the fact that it was brought to this port to be shipped probably led to the first establishment of the woollen trade in the W.
A little slate is quarried, being taken from the rocks below the church, and exported in the small vessels which can visit Tintagel Haven in calm weather.
The orchards and gardens in which many villages are embosomed yield delicious fruits of almost every description, and great quantities, dried, are exported, principally to Russia.
The two last are largely exported.
It exported iron from Elba, mosaics, pottery, manufactured locally with earth from Ischia (which was in considerable demand until 1883), sulphur (which indeed was extracted in the neighbourhood until the 18th century), probably alum (which is still worked), perfumes, pozzolana earth (taking its name from the place), cretaceous earth for mixing with grain (alica) from the Leucogaean hills, glass cups engraved with views of Puteoli, mineral dyes (the blue invented.
In London, New Zealand cheese fetches as high a price as Canadian; the value of the cheese exported was £662,000 in 1907.
In 1907 the gold exported was valued at £2,027,000.4.
The total value of the gold exported from New Zealand from the discovery of the metal in 1857 to 1907 was, roundly, £70,000,000.
above sea-level, has a temperate, healthy climate with a mean annual temperature of 78° F., and is surrounded by a highly productive country from which are exported coffee, sugar, cacao and rum.
n w), but exported only through the Gebanites, whose kings received custom dues on it, compared with xii.
Vosges in summer, and large quantities of cheese (Munster cheese) are made and exported.
Brown coal or lignite is found chiefly in the north and north-west, but not in sufficiently large quantities to be exported; the total value of the output in 1907 was nearly £3,500,000.
Coal from the Oviedo mines is exported coastwise, and in 1904 the shipments from Aviles for the first time exceeded those from Gijon, reaching a total of more than 290,000 tons.
After 1910 an ever-increasing quantity of cotton had to be exported.
The output of alum averages 4000 to 5000 tons a year, and is mostly exported from Civitavecchia.
Most of the so-called Burma teak exported from Moulmein is floated down from Siamese territory.
Tobacco of good quality supplies local requirements but is not exported; pepper, grown chiefly in Chantabun and southern Siam, annually yields about 900 tons for export.
The trade is very active and increasing, Kishinev being a centre for the Bessarabian trade in grain, wine, tobacco, tallow, wool and skins, exported to Austria and to Odessa.
A great proportion of the exports goes to the mother country, though a considerable quantity of rice is exported to China.
In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.
It produces much corn and fruit; a great quantity of the latter, dried, is exported.
Of beer 13 million hectolitres are brewed annually, of which one million are exported.
Exceptionally fine hops are grown in the Zatec (Saaz) district of Bohemia, and of these no less than 40% are exported.
Bohemian glass enjoys a world-wide reputation, which is well deserved: the crystal ware of Bor (Haida), the imitation jewelry and stones of Jablonec (Gablonz), the paste and semi-precious stones of Turnov, are exported to every part of the globe.
Some three-fourths of the entire output in both these wares are exported, largely to England and to Germany.
In 1919 the republic exported merchandise to the extent of 566 million tons and imported 183 millions.
Many foreign merchants made the city their residence, and these included a colony of Scots, who exported produce to Edinburgh.
A great variety of vegetables and of fruits, especially the orange, is exported.
Fresh fish are exported to France, dried and preserved fish to Spain and Italy.
More than the half of this total 5,845,895 tons, was exported to England.
The development of the banana trade dates from 1881, when 3500 bunches of fruit were exported to New Orleans.
On the irrigated lowlands rice, wheat and other cereals are cultivated, and exported to the highlands.
Cotton is widely grown and exported.
To these may be added wool-weaving, centred at Sedan, and minor industries such as the manufacture of basket-work, wooden shoes, &c. Coal and raw wool are prominent imports, while iron goods, cloth, timber, live-stock, alcohol and the products of the soil are exported.
Seeing the good reasons for this digit having been exported to the West from Egypt--from the presence of the 18.23 cubit in Egypt, and from the 0.729 digit being the decimal base of the Greek long measures--it is not surprising to find it in use in Italy as a digit, and multiplied by 16 as a foot.
Bees find a highly congenial habitat in Mexico, and some honey is exported.
A peculiar and highly profitable branch of Mexican agriculture is the cultivation of the Agave for two widely different purposes - one for its fibre, which is exported, and the other for its sap, which is manufactured into intoxicating liquors called "pulque " and " mescal."
elongata are cultivated, from which large quantities of " henequen " or " sisal," as the fibre is called, are exported.
Mother-of-pearl or abalone and other shells are also found, and, with sponges, are exported.
Fishing for the tortoiseshell turtle gives employment to a large number of natives in the season, and considerable quantities of the shell are exported.
The industry is protected by a high tariff, as is also the production of raw cotton, and further encouragement is offered through a remission of internal revenue taxes where Mexican fabrics are exported for foreign consumption.
The district has thirty-three villages and is famous for its celebrated shkhan dates, which are exported in great quantities; it also produces much tobacco and fruit.
inland (W.S.W.) from it, on the slope of Monte Caputo, overlooking the beautiful and very fertile valley called "La Conca d'oro" (the Golden Shell), famed for its orange, olive and almond trees, the produce of which is exported in large quantities.
Maize, wine and timber are largely exported.
There is a small dock, and phosphate of lime is extensively dug in the neighbourhood and exported for use as manure.
in 1902, he introduced taxes on sugar and exported coal (1901), and in 1902 proposed the reimposition of the registration duty on corn and flour which had been abolished in 1869 by Mr Lowe.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Guatemala had practically no export trade; but between 1825 and 1850 cochineal was largely exported, the centre of production being the Amatitlan district.
The vastly greater part of mineral products are used in manufactures within the United States, and only an insignificant part (for example, 247% in 1902) is exported in the crude form.
Local products, including kat, firewood, live animals, ghi, dates, honey, wax, gums and sesame oil, to the value of about £125,000, were exported in 1919-20.1,065 steam vessels of aggregate tonnage 2,736,391 and sailing craft of tonnage 365,569 cleared in the year ending March 1919.
Gold, silver, copper and other minerals are largely exported, chiefly in an unrefined state and almost entirely to the United States.
Wood pulp for the manufacture of paper is exported chiefly to the United States.
Sudbury, in Ontario, is the centre of the nickel production of the world, the mines being chiefly in American hands, and the product exported to the United States.
The principal fisheries are those on the Atlantic coast, carried on by the inhabitants of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and the eastern section of Quebec. Cod, herring, mackerel and lobsters are the fish chiefly caught, though halibut, salmon, anchovies and so-called sardines are also exported.
In the twelve months of 1907 Canada exported 37,503,057 bushels of wheat of the value of $34,132,759 and 1,858,485 barrels of flour of the value of $7,626,408.
Before the adoption of the McKinley tariff about nine million bushels of barley were exported annually, involving the loss of immense stores of plant food.
In 1907, with an annual production of nearly fifty million bushels, only a trifling percentage was exported, the rest being fed at home and exported in the form of produce without loss from impoverishment of the soil.
Regular supplies are exported during every week of the year.
Large quantities of lard, brawn and pigs' feet are exported.
By the Meat and Canned Foods Act of 1907 of the Dominion parliament and regulations thereunder, the trade is carried on under the strictest government supervision, and no canned articles of food may be exported unless passed as absolutely wholesome and officially marked as such by government inspectors.
Apples and pears are the chief sorts of fruit exported.
Apples are exported in barrels and also in boxes containing about one bushel each.
Large quantities are also evaporated and exported.
The processes of manufacture have been improved by the introduction of specially constructed evaporators, and quantities of maple sugar and syrup are annually exported.
The Black Forest produces excellent timber, which is partly sawn in the valleys and partly exported down the Rhine in logs.
The great catches are herring, cod and ling, but lobsters and crabs are also exported in large quantities.
Euboea at the present time produces a large amount of grain, and its mineral wealth is also considerable, great quantities of magnesia and lignite being exported.
The quantity of brick tea thus exported in 1904 was upwards of 10 million lb.
Cienfuegos is a centre of the sugar trade on the south coast; tobacco too is exported.
The chief local industries are tanning and the manufacture of petroleum drums. The opening, in 1895, of the railway to Bucharest, which crosses the Danube by a bridge at Cerna Voda, brought Constantza a considerable transit trade in grain and petroleum, which are largely exported; coal and coke head the list of imports, followed by machinery, iron goods, and cotton and woollen fabrics.
Sugar, rum and molasses are exported, and corn, yams, coffee and fruit are grown.
In the neighbourhood there are quarries of granite, which is exported chiefly to Germany.
(4) During the process of reeling from the cocoon the silk often breaks; and both in finding a true and [[Table Iv]].-Silk Goods exported from the United Kingdom.
Nearly all of it is exported to the United States.
In 1909 about 4500 acres were in coffee, the value of the crop was $350,000; and 1,763,119 lb of coffee, valued at $206,460, were exported from Hawaii to the mainland of the United States.
A few bananas and (especially from Oahu) pineapples of fine quality are exported; since 1901 the canning of 3 The entomological department of the Hawaii Experiment Station undertakes " mosquito control," and in 1905-1906 imported top-minnows (Poeciliidae) to destroy mosquito larvae.
pineapples has been successfully carried on, and in the year ending May 31, 1907, 186,700 cases were exported, being packed in nine canneries.
None of the Corfu wines is much exported.
Wheat and wool were exported in the 4th century, when, as we have said, Britain was especially prosperous.
Coal and coke are largely exported, and corn, timber and esparto grass are imported.
In 1900 it exported watches to the value of nearly £3,000,000 sterling.
The following table, taken from the Manchester Guardian, gives in thousands of lb the amounts of cotton yarns exported from Great Britain during 1903, 1904 and 1905 respectively, according to the Board of Trade returns, together with the average value per lb for each of the countries: It should be understood, however, that in some cases the Board of Trade figures represent only an approximation to the ultimate distribution, as the exports are sometimes assigned to the intermediate country, and in particular it is understood that a considerable part of the yarn sent to the Netherlands is destined for Germany or Austria.
Grey and white shirtings are exported to all the principal Eastern markets and also to Near Eastern, European, South American, &c. markets.
16 X 15 (threads to the 4 in.), largely exported to China and India, are made in various localities and by many manufacturers.
Mexicans are exported to various markets and also used in the home trade.
T Cloth is a plain grey calico, similar in kind to the Mexican and exported to the same markets.
In Great Britain it is employed rather loosely, but commonly to describe the kind of cloth which if exported would be called a Mexican.
The dhootie is one of the principal staples for India and is exported both white and grey.
It is now exported grey or white to India and other countries.
Sarong, the Malay ward for a garment wrapped round the lower part of the body and used by both men and women, is now applied to plain or printed cloths exported to the Indian or Eastern Archipelago for this purpose.
Jeans are exported to China and other markets, and are also used in the home trade.
It gives in thousands of yards the quantities of cotton goods exported from Great Britain during 1903, 1904 and 1905 respectively, together with average value per yard for each of the countries.
The following table gives, approximately, in thousands of yards the quantities exported of the four main divisions of cotton cloths: - In the case of cloth, too, the Board of Trade returns must not be taken as an absolute record of imports to the particular countries, as the ultimate recipient is not always determined.
The extension of the railway system has, however, had its usual effect in fostering commerce, and the mineral and manufactured products of the province are freely exported.
Tibet produces a large number of medicinal plants much prized by the medical profession in China and Mongolia, among others the Cordyceps sinensis, the Coptis teeta, Wall., and Pickorhiza kuwoa, Royle, &c. Rhubarb is also found in great quantities in eastern Tibet and Amdo; it is largely exported for European use, but does not appear to be used medicinally in the country.
These, with the paper, linen and cotton goods manufactured locally in small quantities, are exported from Adra.
White cocoons are exported to western Europe (394 cwt.
Wool is also exported to France, and hides to Turkey.
There are three main varieties, of which the worst is dark in colour and strong in flavour; the best, grown in the districts of Diryus and Amamareh, is light and aromatic, and is exported mainly to Alexandria; but much goes also to Constantinople, Cyprus and direct to Europe.
The Ivory coast extends from Cape Palmas to 3° W., and obtained its name from the quantity of ivory exported therefrom.
Sugar is largely exported.
is the village of Vasiliki, whence the currant crop is exported.
Some quantity of cutch is exported, as also stick-lac, which the Red Karens graft so as to foster the production.
Other valuable forest produce exists, but is not exported.
Almost the only crop grown is rice, which is exported in large quantities to Rangoon.
The oil exported from Calcutta to Europe is prepared by shelling and crushing the seeds between rollers.
Coal and coke are largely exported to London and Hull.
It was also considerably exported.
At Rio Tinto the ore is divided into three classes: (I) The poorest, containing an average of about I i% of copper, which is treated locally by leaching with water and liquor containing ferric sulphate, whereby the copper is dissolved out and afterwards precipitated by pig-iron, whilst the residue is exported as ordinary iron-pyrites.
From the west coast and Palembang coffee is also exported, and from Deli, tobacco.
It is the principal commercial centre of South Bohemia, being an important railway junction, as well as a river port, and carries on a large trade in corn, timber, lignite, salt, industrial products and beer, the latter mostly exported to America.
The annual collection of fur skins varies considerably in quantity according to the demand and to the good or had climatic conditions of the season; and it is impossible to give a complete record, as many skins are used in the country of their origin or exported direct to merchants.
The best skins are exported to France, Spain and Italy, and used for carriage rugs and military purposes.
Thousands of the kids are also dyed black and worked into cross-shaped pieces, in which shape they are largely exported to Germany, France, Great Britain and America, and sold by the retail as caracal, kid or caracul.
Mongolian lambs, size 24 X15 in., are of a short wavy loose curl, creamy white colour, and are usually exported from China dressed, the majority being ready-made into cross-shaped coats or linings.
The majority of heads, gills or throats, sides or flanks, paws and pieces of skins cut up in the fur workshops of Great Britain, America and France, weighing many tons, are chiefly exported to Leipzig, and made up in neighbouring countries and Greece, where labour can be obtained at an alarmingly low rate.
Gum copal is exported.
Most of the gold exported from the Gold Coast in 1902 and following years came from the Obuassi mines.
Fine breeds of horses and cattle are kept on the larger estates of the nobility, and cattle are exported to Austria.
Of other mineral produce, chalk, exported from Lublin, a few quarries of marble and many of building stones, are worthy of notice.
It is, however, an important inlet, being the channel by which the valuable produce of central Gujarat and the British districts of Ahmedabad and Broach is exported; but the railway from Bombay to Baroda and Ahmedabad, near Cambay, has for some time past been attracting the trade to itself.
The leaves are stripped, withered, rolled and sorted, then packed in sacks and exported, chiefly to Argentina.
Medical experts state that the beverage infused from the leaves has a stimulating effect, and is also slightly diuretic. The total amount exported from Paraguay in 1908 was 4133 tons.
Oranges are exported to Buenos Aires, Rosario and Montevideo, and are largely used for fattening hogs.
The orange groves are often uncultivated, but yield abundantly; 10,700,000 dozens of oranges were exported in 1908.
Pineapples are also exported, and sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and ramie are cultivated.
Tobacco, although of inferior quality, is grown to a considerable extent; the quantity exported rose from about 35 tons in 1900 to 5014 tons in 1908.
Tobacco is chiefly exported to Germany.
Stone quarried in the vicinity is exported, and the city is near the centre of the Sauk county iron range.
Manila is the greatest hemp market in the world; 110, 399 tons, valued at $19,444,769, were exported from the archipelago in 1906, almost all being shipped from Manila.
The vines are grown on artificial banks, probably for want of the necessary wood to trellis them - the grapes being largely exported in a semi-dried state.
Fruit, indeed, besides being largely exported, forms the chief staple of the food supply of the inhabitants throughout Afghanistan.
Salt, phosphates and cattle are exported.
There are a school of navigation, and tobacco and match factories, the produce of which, together with timber and oats, is exported.
Millstones and pumice were also exported, but for the former the more gritty lava of Rocca Monfina was later on preferred.
The villa of P. Fannius Synhistor, not far off, was excavated in 190o; it contained fine wall paintings, which, despite their importance, were allowed to be exported, and sold by auction in Paris (some now in the Louvre).
Anthracite and steam-coal from the collieries of the coast and along the Loughor Valley are exported from the extensive docks; and there are also large works for the smelting of copper and the manufacture of tin plates.
Of the exported quantity referred to tea.
Burhanpur is celebrated for its muslins, flowered silks, and brocades, which, according to Tavernier, who visited it in 1668, were exported in great quantities to Persia, Egypt, Turkey, Russia and Poland.
Saltpetre is largely refined in Tirhoot, Saran and Champaran, and is exported both by rail and river to Calcutta.
Hats, baskets, cloths and rope are woven and are exported to a limited extent; small quantities of copra are also exported.
Butter is also largely exported to England from the North Sea districts and from Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg.
The yield in 1905 amounted to about 153,000 tons; of which 20,000 tons were exported.
Copper is found principally in the Mansfeld district of the Prussian province of Saxony and near Arnsberg in the Sauerland, the ore yielding 31,713 tons in 1905, of which 5000 tons were exported.
In 1905 no less than 198,000 tons of block zinc were produced, of which 16,500 tons were exported.
Hardware also, the production of which is centred in Solingen, Heilbronn, Esslingen, &c., is largely exported.
In the textile industry for flax and hemp there were, in 1905, 276,000 fine spindles, 22,300 hand-looms and 17,600 power-looms in operation, and, in 1905, linen and jute materials were exported of an estimated value of over 2,000,000.
It ma~ be remarked that the beer brewed in Bavaria is generally of darke color than that produced In other states, and extra strong brew are exported largely into the beer excise district and abroad.
Principal Articles exported by Great Britain to Germany.
was more than sufficient for the population; as long as they exported corn, potatoes and cattle, they required no protection from foreign competition, and they enjoyed the advantages of being able to purchase colonial goods and manufactured articles cheaply.
Copper ore was once exported in as great quantities as 25,000 tons annually, but the best days of the mines were in the middle of the 19th century.
The waters are used both for drinking and bathing, and of the two chief springs, the Oberbrunnen and the Kronenquelle, nearly two million bottles are annually exported.
Natural gas is produced in the counties of Welland and Essex, and exported in pipes to Buffalo and Detroit.
Timber and wood-pulp are exported (over half of each to Great Britain), with paper, ice and some cobalt and nickel ore.
Sicily, formerly called the granary of Italy, exported grain until the end of the 18th century.
These also are largely exported to central Europe for use in the manufacture of chocolate.
The formation of the Anglo-Italian sulphur syndicate arrested the downward tendency of prices and increased the output of sulphur, so that the amount exported in 1899 was 424,018 tons, worth £ 1, 73 8, 475, whereas some years previously the value of sulphur exported had hardly been £800,000.
About half this quantity is exported, principally to Norway.
Pumice stone is also exported from Lipari (II,oio tons in 1904).
In 1899, wine was exported to the value of more than £120,000, while in 1906, 24,080 pipes of the value of £361,200 were shipped.
The quantity consumed in Italy is far greater than that exported abroad.
Artichokes and tomato sauce are the principal of these products, of which several dozen million tins are annually exported from Sicily to the Italian mainland, to Germany and to South America.
Mott Company), and machinery of almost every character, much of it being exported to foreign countries.
A considerable export trade in copper, tin and granite was formerly carried on, and the last is still exported, hut the chief trade is in grain; while timber, coal and limestone are imported.
Extensive coal mines exist in the vicinity; and at Gateshead Fell are large quarries for grindstones, which are much esteemed and are exported to all parts of the world.
The quantity of palm oil exported annually exceeds 12.000,000 gallons, and is worth over £600,000.
Salt and " potash " are imported from Absen in the Sahara; and ivory, ostrich feathers and leather goods are exported to Tripoli.
The cotton exported was valued in 1907 at E23,598,00ci, in 1908 at fE.17,o91,6I2.
The sugar exported varied in annual value in the period 1884-1905 from 400,000 to 765,000.
Two kinds are cultivated: Sultani, a summer crop, and Sabaini, a flood crop. Sabaini is a favorite food of the fellahin, while Suhtani rice is largely exported.
The onion is grown in great quantities along the Nile banks in tipper Egypt, largely for export~ Among other vegetables commonly raised are tomatoes (the bulk of which are exported), potatoes (of poor quality), leeks, marrows, cucumbers, cauliflowers, lettuce, asparagus and spinach.
The tobacco is imported chiefly from Turkey and Greece, is made into cigarettes in Egypt, and in this form exported to the value of about 500,000 yearly.
The cotton exported, of which Great Britain takes more than half, is worth over three-fourths of the total value of goods sent abroad.
Next to cotton, sugar is the most important article exported.
In 1907 the total value of the merchandise imported and exported, exclusive of transit, reexportation and specie, was ~E.54,I34,o0oconstituting a record trade return.
Corn was the staple produce of Egypt and may have been exported regularly, and especially when there was famine in other countries.
The production of margarine is large, but not much is exported, margarine being largely consumed in Denmark instead of butter, which is exported.
Next to butter the most important article of Danish export is bacon, and huge quantities of eggs are also exported.
It is the natural shipping-port for these territories and for the southern districts of the province of Buenos Aires, from which great quantities of wheat and wool are exported.
More important is the breeding of a sturdy race of horses, thousands of which are annually exported.
The fishing is very productive, the fish being exported to Turkestan, Mer y and Russia.
The marble, which was exported from the 6th century B.C., and used by Praxiteles and other great Greek sculptors, was obtained by means of subterranean quarries driven horizontally or at a descending angle into the rock, and the marble thus quarried by lamplight got the name of Lychnites, Lychneus (from lychnos, a lamp), or Lygdos (Plin.
Several attempts to work the marble have been made in modern times, but it has not been exported in any great quantities.
Granite is quarried and exported.
Liquorice also is collected and exported.
Much dairy produce is exported, besides sheep and cattle.
With the exception of the counties of Orkney, Shetland, Caithness, Sutherland and Inverness, granite is quarried in every shire in Scotland, but the industry predominates in Aberdeenshire, and is of considerable importance in Kirkcudbrightshire; limestone is quarried in half of the counties, but especially in Midlothian and Fife; large quantities of paving-stones are exported from Caithness and Forfarshire, and there are extensive slate quarries at Ballachulish and other places in Argyllshire, which furnishes three-fourths of the total supply.
The manufacture of cloth from flax is of very ancient date, and towards the close of the 16th century Scottish linen cloths were largely exported to foreign countries, as well as to England.
All these products are exported.
Coal from the collieries of the vicinity is largely exported.
The principal are the Hunyadi-Janos spring, of which about 1,000,000 bottles are exported annually, the Arpad spring, and the Apenta spring.
The white fir, or Norway spruce (Abies excelsa), is exported fro Russia, Sweden and Norway, where it grows in enormous quantit It is the tallest and straightest of European firs, growing with a slender trunk to a height of from 80 to 100 ft.
The white pine (Pinus strobus) is exported from the northern parts of the United States of America and from Canada.
Baltic oak is grown in Norway, Russia and Germany, and is exported from the Baltic ports.
Sharks are caught in enormous numbers with hook and harpoon; the flesh is considered by some to have aphrodisiacal properties; the dried fins and tails are exported to China; the oil is used for smearing boats.
The turtle is also found, the carapace being exported as tortoiseshell, the animal being gently roasted or boiled alive over a slow fire to facilitate the separation of the shell from the flesh.
The total value of pearls exported was estimated in 1905 at about £ 1,500,000, the value at current prices of the 1919 outturn was probably about £2,500,000.
Motherof-pearl was exported before the World War to the value of £20,000; after the war high freights and absence of demand from Hamburg, the principal market, killed the trade for the time being.
The islands retain the exemption from direct taxation which they enjoyed under the British protectorate; in lieu of this there is an ad valorem tax of 202% on exported oil and a tax of 6% on wine exported to Greek ports; these commodities are further liable to an export duty of 12%, which is levied on all agricultural produce and articles of local manufacture for the maintenance and construction of roads.
The annual value of the wine exported often exceeded £500,000.
Bananas, tomatoes, potatoes, sugar and wine are exported.
Pulau Dat, a small island in the near neighbourhood of Labuan, is the site of a fine coco-nut plantation whence nuts and copra are exported in bulk.
Corn, tar, and especially timber are exported.
The value of the oranges exported from Jaffa in 1906 was £162,000; this amount increases annually, and of course in addition a considerable quantity is retained for home consumption.
The walnut and edible pine-nut are both wild growths, which are exported.
Saffron is grown and exported.
Tobacco is grown very generally; that of Kandahar has much repute, and is exported to India and Bokhara.
Fresh or preserved, they form a principal food of a large class of the people, and the dry fruit is largely exported.
Those exported to India are usually bred in Maimana and other places in Afghan culture.
Much of the white wool is exported to Persia, and now largely to Europe by Bombay.
The water taken from this sacred spot is exported by pilgrims to India and sold at a high price.
Malwa opium is exported from Bombay, the duty having previously been levied on its passage into British territory.
per 82 Ib on exported rice.
The grain is consumed almost entirely in India, though a small amount is exported.
Bengal and the United Provinces are at present the chief sources of supply for the foreign demand, but gingelly is largely exported from Madras, and, to a smaller extent, from Burma.
But a very large quantity of the seeds is exported.
The total value of oils and oil-seeds exported in1905-1906was over 72 millions sterling.
About half the total crop is exported, and the remainder used in the jute mills centred round Calcutta, which supply cloth and bags for the grain export trade.
Gold dust, cotton, ivory and gum are also exported.
Its products are exported from Puntarenas, on the Pacific Ocean, 32 m.
The quantity of sugar exported rose from 102,000 tons in 1854 to 189,164 tons in 1877.
The Brussels Sugar Convention of 1902 led to an increase in production, the average annual weight of sugar exported for the three years1904-1906being 182,000 tons.
Thus in 1878 the value of the sugar exported was £3,408,000; in 1888 it had sunk to £1,911,000, and in 1898 to £1,632,000.
In addition, a considerable quantity of molasses and smaller quantities of rum, vanilla and coco-nut oil are exported.
Nearly all the aloe-fibre exported is taken by Great Britain and France, while the molasses goes to India.
Wax, gum, coffee and ivory are also exported.
It reached the height of its prosperity in the 15th century, and in the 17th century it was the depot for much of the merchandise exported from Saxony and Bavaria to the mouth of the Elbe; then after a period of decay the 19th century witnessed a revival of its prosperity.
Many varieties are cultivated by the Chinese, who distinguish them by the shape and size of their fruits, which are not only much valued as dessert fruit in China, but are also occasionally exported to England.
The staple article of manufacture and commerce is beer, which is exported to all parts of the world.
The coal exported is brought from the Kaiping colliery to the east of Tientsin; its output in 1885 was 181,039 tons and in 1904 28,956 tons.
The Jews, who are numerous, carry on a brisk trade in tobacco and grain exported to Galicia and Odessa.
Of its large commerce, grain is the chief commodity; it is estimated that about four-fifths of that exported from the port of New York is shipped from here, and the borough's grain elevators have an estimated storage capacity of about 20,000,000 bushels.
The most considerable towns of the interior were Gangra, in ancient times the capital of the Paphlagonian kings, afterwards called Germanicopolis, situated near the frontier of Galatia, and Pompeiopolis, in the valley of the Amnias (a tributary of the Halys), near which were extensive mines of the mineral called by Strabo sandarake (red arsenic), which was largely exported from Sinope.
The volume of trade is not very great, although some of the productions are exported all over Europe, and in some cases to other continents as well.
The rubber is mainly exported to England, the palm products to Germany, and the ground-nuts to France.
Shrimp are abundant; the shrimp fishers are Chinese and fourfifths of the catch is exported to China.
The acreage given to it in 1899 was one-fourth the total cereal acreage, and San Francisco in 1902-1904 was the shipping point of the larger part of American exported barley, of (roughly) three-quarters in 1902, seven-eighths in 1903 and four-fifths in 1904.
Cotton and leather are manufactured; the country around is fertile, and in the neighbourhood are large forests of oak, beech, elm, chestnut and pine, the timber of which is partly used locally and partly exported to Constantinople.
Hazel-nuts, under the name of Barcelona or Spanish nuts, are largely exported from France and Portugal, and especially Tarragona and other places in Spain.
The McKinley Bill reduced revenues by its high and in many cases almost prohibitive duties; it put sugar on the free list with a discriminating duty of 30th of one cent a pound on sugar imported from countries giving a bounty for sugar exported, and it gave bounties to American sugar growers; it attempted to protect many "infant" industries such as the manufacture of tin-plate; under its provision for reciprocal trade agreements (a favourite project of James G.
Palm-trees are abundant in great variety, including the nipah, which is much used for thatching, the cabbage, fan, sugar, coco and sago palms. The last two furnish large supplies of food to the natives, some copra is exported, and sago factories, mostly in the hands of Chinese, prepare sago for the Dutch and British markets.
Rice is grown in irrigated lands near the rivers and in the swamps, and also in rude clearings in the interior; sugar-cane of superior quality in Sambas and Montrado; cotton, sometimes exported in small quantities, on the banks of the Negara, a tributary of the Barito; tobacco, used very largely now in the production of cigars, in various parts of northern Borneo; and tobacco for native consumption, which is of small commercial importance, is cultivated in most parts of the island.
Coal has been found in the neighbourhood of Cowie Harbour and elsewhere, but though its quality is believed to be as good as that exported from Dutch Borneo, it is not yet known whether it exists in payable quantities.
On the Caribbean coast bananas are cultivated and largely exported to the United States.
Sugar is grown and there are many small sugar factories, but little of the output is exported.
Dye-woods and indigo are exported, but the demand for vegetable dyes has decreased.
The principal industry of the surrounding country is mining, and gold and silver are exported in considerable quantities.
Coffee and hides are also exported, but the trade of the city has been greatly impeded by difficulties of transportation.
The chief business is in stock of every kind, dairy and agricultural produce and fresh-water fish, a large quantity of which is exported to France.
Great numbers of cattle are reared; and cheese, butter and hides, as well as salted meat and fish, are exported.
Twenty thousand pounds of tobacco were exported in.
The annual value of timber exported is above X1,000,000.
Besides the raising of cereals, fruit is extensively cultivated in the surrounding district; its apples and apricots are largely exported, large quantities of wine are produced, and cattlerearing constitutes another great source of revenue.
Although France produces such enormous quantities of wine it is a remarkable fact that more wine is imported into France than is exported from that country.
For wines exported to England very little liqueur is employed; in the case of some wines, known as Brut or Nature, none at all is added.
For the period1906-1907the total number of bottles in stock amounted to over 121 millions, the bottles exported to over 23 millions, and the bottles required for internal commerce in France to something over 10 millions.
The chief trade in champagne is with the United Kingdom, to which the finest varieties are exported.
These wines formerly were largely exported as y in de cargaison to South America, the United States, Australia, &c., and were also much employed for local consumption in other parts of France.
This is dry and sound, and forms a great part of the sherry exported to the United Kingdom.
It is generally, as exported, a blend made Malaga.
Wines Of Portugal In the north-east of Portugal, not far from the town of Oporto - from which it takes its name and whence it is exported - is produced the wine, unique in its full-bodied and generous character, known as port.
A white port is also made in the Alto Douro, and this, although little known in England, is exported in considerable quantities to Germany and Russia.
In the period preceding the 'seventies of the last century practically the whole of the wine exported from Oporto came to Great Britain.
Thus in the year 1864 there were exported to Great Britain 29,942 pipes and to the rest of the world 5 6 77 pipes.
Perhaps the best known of Italian wines in the United Kingdom is that produced in the neighbourhood of Marsala in the island of Sicily, which bears the name of the town from which it is exported.
The brewing industry is also important, the beer of Erlangen being famous throughout Germany and large quantities being exported.
Its pottery, which resembled the Corinthian ware, was exported with the latter as far as Etruria.
Melons are to some extent exported, and peaches also; the musk-melons of the Arkansas valley (Rocky Ford Canteloups) being in demand all over the United States.
The textile industries are making rapid progress, and their produce, notwithstanding the high duties, is exported to Russia.
The fibre is cultivated in the Russian provinces of Archangel, Courland, Esthonia, Kostroma, Livonia, Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, Tver, Vyatka, Vitebsk, Vologda and Yaroslav or Jaroslav, while the bulk of the material is exported through the Baltic ports.
Riga and St Petersburg (including Cronstadt) are the principal ports, but flax is also exported from Revel, Windau, Pernau, Libau, Narva and Konigsberg.
Sometimes it is exported from Archangel, but this port is frost-bound for a great period of the year; moreover, most of the districts are nearer to the Baltic.
Both dew-retted and water-retted flax are exported from St Petersburg, the dew-retted or Slanitz flax being marked 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Crown, also Zebrack No.
Some idea of the extent of the Russian flax trade may be gathered from the fact that 233,000 tons were exported in 1905.
Gypsum is exported unburnt from the Carpas, and as plaster of Paris from Limasol and Larnaca.
it exported timber and imported silver; it included a town Sikra, traded with Byblus in North Syria, and was exposed to piratical raids of Lykki (?Lycians).
Coal, copper, timber, iron, and especially wool, were exported from the Principality, and by the Statute Staple of 1353 Carmarthen was declared the sole staple for the whole Welsh wool trade, every bale of wool having first to be sealed or " cocketed " at this important town, which during the 14th century may almost be accounted as the English capital of the Principality, so greatly was it favoured by the Plantagenet monarchs.
Bradford is still the great spinning and manufacturing centre for alpacas, large quantities of yarns and cloths being exported annually to the continent and to the United States, although the quantities naturally vary in accordance with the fashions in vogue, the typical "alpaca-fabric" being a very characteristic "dress-fabric."
The bottled mineral waters are very extensively exported.
A considerable number are tamed and exported from Assam every year.
of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for Cot consumption for various years during the period1890-1910were as follows: During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1, 0 55, 8 55,3 60; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (1890), 181,266,176; (1907), 4 2 3, 0 5 2, 44 8; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (1890), 2 3 8, 74 6, 7 0 4; (1909), 75,621,168;75,621,168; Brazil (1899), 5,4 6 4,59 2; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6, 1 75,344; (1909), 2 4,4 1 3,§4 8.8.
The value of the cotton manufactures exported sank from L80,164,155 in 1872 to L67,641,268 in 1876; woollen fabrics from £38,493, The tables on p. 604 show the value of unregistered imports of golc_ _ nd silver bullion and specie from British possessions and from foreign countries into the United Kingdom, specifying the most important countries individually..
Vegetable tallow is also exported in large quantities from this part of Hu-peh.
Among the special articles exported may be mentioned railway-sleepers, pitprops, and wood-pulp.
of fresh fish (principally herring) were exported, but in subsequent years the fisheries were much less prolific; in 1900 only 80,000 cwt.
were exported, and in 1903 less than 150,000 cwt.
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