The case of a long iron bar has been experimentally studied with great care by C. G.
The existence of this pressure has been demonstrated experimentally by W.
measured experimentally by two methods.
Seguin was unable to verify this experimentally, but in 1857 G.
The concentration is known, and the conductivity can be measured experimentally; thus the average velocity with which the ions move past each other under the existent electromotive force can be estimated.
This simple type of life-history has been experimentally proved by Leuckart to be characteristic of Trichocephalus affinis, Oxyuris ambigua and other species.
799.) He advocated and put in practice experimentally Lode.
They can also be effected experimentally.
The effect can also be demonstrated experimentally: thus it has been observed that a xerophyte grown in moist air will lose its characteristic adaptive features, and may even assume those of a hygrophyte.
Steel sleepers were used experimentally on the London & 'Forth-Western, but were abandoned owing to the shortness of their life.
The first dining car in England was run experimentally by the Great Northern railway between London and Leeds in 1879, and now such vehicles form a common feature on express trains, being available for all classes of passengers without extra charge beyond the amount payable for food.
It is found experimentally that the Lorenz and Lorentz function holds fairly well, and better than the Gladstone and Dale formula.
The quinonoid structure of many coloured compounds has been proved experimentally, as, for example, by Hewitt for the benzene-azo-phenols, and Hantzsch for triaminotriphenyl methane and acridine derivatives; but, at the same time, many substances cannot be so explained.
The mean values of the relative coagulative powers of sulphates of mono-, di-, and tri-valent metals have been shown experimentally to be approximately in the ratios 1 :35:1023.
For cells in which the electromotive force varies with temperature, the full equation given by Gibbs and Helmholtz has also been confirmed experimentally.
Nernst, to whom this theory is due, determined the electromotive force of this cell experimentally, and found the value 0.055 volt.
The Castilloa tree has been experimentally planted in Ceylon, the West Indies and other countries (Plate II.
Hence it is not very easy to determine experimentally the law of magnetic force between poles.
The distribution of magnetism and the position of the poles in magnets of other shapes, such as cylindrical or rectangular bars, cannot be specified by any general statement, though approximate determinations may be obtained experimentally in individual cases.'
It can be shown 3 that in a uniform field an elongated piece of any non-crystalline material is in stable equilibrium only when its length is parallel to the lines of force; for diamagnetic substances, however, the directing couple is exceedingly small, and it would hardly be possible to obtain a uniform field of sufficient strength to show the effect experimentally.
The following table shows the greatest " lifting powers " experimentally reached at the dates mentioned: 5.
According to the best determinations the value of elm does not exceed 1.8X Io', and T is of the order of Io 15 second, the period of luminous vibrations; hence OM/M must always be less than 109 H, and therefore the strongest fields yet reached experimentally, which fall considerably short of Io %, could not change the magnetic moment M by as much as a ten-thousandth part.
The resolving power of a telescope with circular or rectangular aperture is easily investigated experimentally.
Math., 1879, 2, p. 33 o), both theoretically and experimentally.
Loeb found experimentally that increase of metabolic products in muscle greatly raised its osmotic pressure, and so it would absorb water from a relatively concentrated sodium chloride solution.
Welch produced oedema of the lungs experimentally by increasing the pressure in the pulmonary vessels by ligature of the aorta and its branches, but this raised the blood pressure only about one-tenth of an atmosphere, while in some of Loeb's experiments the osmotic pressure, due to retained metabolic products, was equal to over thirty atmospheres.
It is used to determine the density of a body experimentally; for if W is the weight of a body weighed in a balance in air (strictly in vacuo), and if W' is the weight required to balance when the body is suspended in water, then the upward thrust of the liquid (I) (2) "F r an Minim ' 'i n or weight of liquid displaced is W-W, so that the specific gravity (S.G.), defined as the ratio of the weight of a body to the weight of an equal volume of water, is W/(W-W').
Both statistically and experimentally we find that a damp soil favours its life and development, while prolonged submersion and drought kill it.
It is not yet experimentally proved that variation as the inverse square is absolutely true at all distances.
pp. 137 and 347) determined in 1773 experimentally that the capacity of a sphere was 1.541 times that of a disk of the same radius, a truly remarkable result for that date.
It is now generally accepted that this number, experimentally determined by Moseley for a number of elements, defines the physical and chemical properties of the particular element.
The answer to this was found experimentally by Arthur Schuster, who suspended the whole instrument in delicate equilibrium, and observed the effect of introducing the radiation.
Poynting has separated the two effects experimentally on the principle that the radiometer pressure acts along the normal, while the radiation pressure acts along the ray which may be directed obliquely.
the change in volume of the experimental globe due to shrinkage under diminished pressure; this may be experimentally determined and amounts to between o 04 and o 16% of the volume of the globe.
For many kinds of spring the change of form is practically proportional to the force, but the relation should always be determined experimentally.
The relation between the two should in all cases be found experimentally.
If p is the density corresponding to pressure p, we find that,}, formula (Ii) assumes the form P = 3PC2, where C is a velocity such that the gas would have its actual translational energy if each molecule moved with the same velocity C. By substituting experimentally determined pairs of values of p and p we can calculate C for different gases, and so obtain a knowledge of the magnitudes of the molecular velocities.
This equation is found experimentally to be capable of representing the relation between p, v, and T over large ranges of values.
Barnes, Practical Acoustics (1898), treats the subject experimentally.
It has been experimentally proved that this is more readily absorbed than any other oil - including other liver-oils.
Abandoning therefore all a priori theoretical assumption, Bashforth set to work to measure experimentally the velocity of shot and the resistance of the air by means of equidistant electric screens furnished with vertical threads or wire, and by a chronograph which measured the instants of time at which the screens were cut by a shot flying nearly horizontally.
Since p is determined experimentally and tabulated as a function of v, the velocity is taken as the argument of the ballistic table; and taking Av =10, the average value of p in the interval is used to determine AT.
To measure the pressure experimentally in the bore of a gun, the crusher-gauge is used as shown in fig.
It is found experimentally that m = 1.2 is a good average value to take for cordite; so now supposing the combustion of the charge of the 6-in.
Experimentally we should be confined to a strict investigation of absorption spectra, because in the electric discharge temperature has no definite meaning, and variations of pressure and density are not easily measured.
But the influence of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord is very marked and characteristic. The reflex functions of the cord are entirely abolished, and it has been experimentally shown that this is due to a direct influence upon the cells in the anterior cornua.
The true order of discovery, however, was as follows: (a) Sir Christo p her Wren made many experiments before the Royal Society, which were afterwards repeated in a corrected form by Sir Isaac Newton in the Principia, experimentally proving that bodies of ascertained comparative weights, when suspended and impelled against one another, forced one another back by impressing on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights and therefore masses; that is, by impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum.
(c) Wren and Huygens further proved that the law of equal action and reaction, already experimentally established by the former, is deducible from the conservation of the velocity of the common centre of gravity, which is the same as the common velocity of the bodies, that is, deducible from the fact that their common centre of gravity does not change its state of motion or rest by the actions of the bodies between themselves; and they further extended the law to bodies, qua elastic.
We should expect to find supersolubility curves lying below the solubility curves, and this result has been realized experimentally for the supersolubility curves of mixtures of salol (phenyl salicylate) and betol (/3-naphthol salicylate) represented by the dotted lines of fig.
The freezing point of a solution may be determined experimentally.
This constant can be measured experimentally, and for such a substance as sugar or water comes out about 0.3 at 20° C., the unit of time being the day.
This separation causes a difference of potential, which can be calculated and is found to agree with the values obtained experimentally.
In the Lawes Testimonial Laboratory there is a vast collection of samples of experimentally grown produce, annual products, ashes and soils.
This explanation depends upon what is now an experimentally demonstrated fact that insectivorous birds, and probably other animals, have no instinctive knowledge of what insects are edible and what inedible.
The combustibility of the diamond was predicted by Sir Isaac Newton on account of its high refractive power; it was first established experimentally by the Florentine Academicians in 1694.
The following are some of the special cases which have been utilized experimentally: 6.
Maxwell himself verified this prediction experimentally for viscosity over a wide range of pressure.
This can be experimentally shown - by the method of exclusion - to be caused by a paralysis of the terminals of the third cranial nerve in the sphincter pupillae of the iris.
Atwood's published works, exclusive of papers contributed to the Philosophical Transactions, for one of which he obtained the Copley medal, are as follows: - Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, 1784); Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies (Cambridge, 1784), which gives some interesting experiments, by means of which mechanical truths can be ocularly exhibited and demonstrated, and describes the machine, since called by Atwood's name, for verifying experimentally the laws of simple acceleration of motion; Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize which have been established in England from the 4th year of King John, 1202, to the 37th of his present Majesty (London, 1801), a work of some historical research; Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches (London, 1801), with supplement, pt.
It has now been firmly established, both experimentally and mathematically, that coronae are due to diffraction by the minute particles of moisture and dust suspended in the atmosphere, and the radii of the rings depend on the size of the diffracting particles.
The assumption n=s/R simplifies the adiabatic equation, but the value n=3.5 gives So =0.497 at zero pressure, which was the value found by Callendar experimentally at 108° C. and 1 atmosphere pressure.
For different parallel axes, the period of a small oscillation varies as ~i, or ~f (GO+OP); this is least, subject to the condition (4), when GO=GP=,c. The reciprocal relation between the centres of suspension and oscillation is the basis of Katers method of determining g experimentally.
Its momen4 of inertia about G can be found experimentally by the method explained in 125, and then the value of the couple M can be computed.
First find the value of R, experimentally.
To find a point in its line of action, take a point Q on the rod such that KG X GQ = R2, R having been determined experimentally by the method of i25; join G with 0 and through Q draw a line parallel to BO to cut GO in Z.
Adopting the hypothesis of two fluids, Coulomb investigated experimentally and theoretically the distribution of electricity on the surface of bodies by means of his proof plane.
By a series of well-chosen experiments Ampere established the laws of this mutual action, and not only explained observed facts by a brilliant train of mathematical analysis, but predicted others subsequently experimentally realized.
In ten days of brilliant investigation, guided by clear insight from the very first into the meaning of the phenomena concerned, he established experimentally the fact that a current may be induced in a conducting circuit simply by the variation in a magnetic field, the lines of force of which are linked with that circuit.
Kirchhoff determined experimentally in a certain case the absolute value of the current induced by one circuit in another, and in the same year Erik Edland (1819-1888) made a series of careful experiments on the induction of electric currents which further established received theories.
In 1902 the success of deep tube electric railways in Great Britain was assured, and in 1904 main line railways began to abandon, at least experimentally, the steam locomotive and substitute for it the electric transmission of power.
Coulomb experimentally proved that the law of attraction and repulsion of simple electrified bodies was that the force between them varied inversely as the square of the distance and thus gave mathematical definiteness to the two-fluid hypothesis.
The general facts and laws of electrolysis were determined experimentally by Davy and Faraday and confirmed by the researches of J.
At points in the liquid very near its surface it is probable that x is greater than xo, and at points in the gas very near the surface of the liquid it is probable that x is less than x', but this has not as yet been ascertained experimentally.
Mannheim,' and have been produced experimentally Plateau 8 in the two different ways already described.
The limiting conditions of the stability of these figures have been studied both mathematically and experimentally.
In short, if we place aside the outstanding exception of tumour growth, we may say that practically all the important phenomena met with in disease may be experimentally produced by the injection of bacteria or of their toxins.
It has been experimentally shown that conditions such as fatigue, starvation, exposure to cold, &c., lower the general resisting powers and increase the susceptibility to bacterial infection.
He was also the first to demonstrate experimentally the difference of action between what he called a "quantity" magnet excited by a "quantity" battery of a single pair, and an "intensity" magnet with long fine wire coil excited by an "intensity" battery of many elements, having their resistances suitably proportioned.
On the other hand, if a gas be sufficiently cooled and compressed, it liquefies; this transition is treated theoretically in the article Condensation Of Gases, and experimentally in the article Liquid Gases.
These phenomena have been experimentally realized by R.
In these researches he skilfully took advantage of the well-known property of reciprocity between the centres of suspension and oscillation of an oscillating body, so as to determine experimentally the precise position of the centre of oscillation; the distance between these centres was then the length of the ideal simple pendulum having the same time of oscillation.
The vertical distance above the line ab of any point in the dotted line dc is proportional to the vertical component of the compressive stress on the line ale assumed to vary uniformly from face to face, and similarly the vertical distance of any point in the3-dot-and-dash line ae above the line ab is proportional to the vertical component of the stress determined experimentally.
- Showing Stresses at base of model dam determined experimentally.
As it is practically impossible to reproduce the symptoms of ergotism nowadays, whether experimentally in the lower animals, or when the drug is being administered to a human being for some therapeutic purpose, it is believed that the symptoms of ergotism were rendered possible only by the semi-starvation which must have ensued from the use of such rye-bread; for the grain disappears as the fungus develops.
It is slightly diuretic. Experimentally it has been shown to have a solvent action on uric acid, but its action in this direction in the body requires confirmation.
Jean Pierre Minckelers, professor of natural philosophy in the university of Louvain, and later of chemistry and physics at Maestricht, made experiments on distilling gas from coal with the view of obtaining a permanent gas sufficiently light for filling balloons, and in 1785 experimentally lighted his lecture room with gas so obtained as a demonstration to his students, but no commercial application was made of the fact.
Compulsory education has been carried on experimentally since 1893 in the Amreli division with apparent success, the compulsory age being 7 to 12 for boys and 7 to 10 for girls.
Its derivatives and its relation to benzene had been previously studied by the above and other experimenters, its relation to benzene being first proved experimentally by Cannizzaro and its constitution settled by Fittig and Tollens's synthesis from sodium and a mixture of methyl iodide and brombenzene.
Some of the more striking adaptive modifications in the gametophyte and sporophyte, and certain effects of altered external conditions which have been ascertained experimentally, may be briefly mentioned.
Labour might be brought from Yorubaland close by, and a Yoruba colony has been experimentally started.
It happens that the absolute magnitude of p" cannot be experimentally determined, but this is immaterial, as we are only concerned with differences.
The most widely cited of these are studies of experimentally induced amnesia.
The most direct way to test this would be to induce anoxia experimentally and ask the subject what it feels like.
bedrock incision experimentally, in a fluvial type setting.
derived the equation experimentally but have given a feasibility argument for it.
The Committee considered options for disposal of animal excreta from experimentally infected cattle.
However there have been few studies which have actively attempted to calibrate bedrock incision experimentally, in a fluvial type setting.
Herbs that may be helpful An animal study showed that an extract of hawthorn significantly reduced the number of experimentally induced arrhythmias.
investigates experimentally how people learn to coordinate on esthetic concepts.
Estimates suggest moving ESs may be experimentally observed as approximately 10 fs pulses with velocity up to 1/10th that of light.
These principles could be confirmed experimentally for the MAP kinase pathway.
physicochemical parameters will be independently verified experimentally.
Unfortunately, holding open the tiny pinholes that are seen in real life would take ten times the experimentally measured yield stress.
self-induced transparency effects have been observed experimentally.
titres of the agent in experimentally infected guinea pig corneas.
God so experimentally in the believer gives the unction to prayer and faith and every activity to which the believer is called.
The expression for is clearly experimentally verifiable: it is the ideal gas law.
verifye results have now been verified experimentally but we should pause for a moment to think about certain problems which remain.
tritici, which lives encysted in ears of wheat), other species occasionally adopt the parasitic mode of existence, and become encysted in slugs, snails, &c.; (3) it has been experimentally proved that many normally parasitic genera are capable of leading a free existence;' (4) transitional forms exist which are free at one period of their life and parasitic at another.
Leuckart proved experimentally that these young forms become encysted in the muscles of mice, and the cycle is completed after the mouse is devoured by a cat.
This electrical energy, however, is equivalent to the heat which has disappeared, for it has been shown experimentally that if it is converted into heat and added to the heat actually evolved, the total quantity of heat obtained is exactly equal to that produced by the direct dissolution of the zinc in the absence of platinum.
Crude petroleum was experimentally distilled in the United States in 1833 by Prof. Silliman (d.
Experimentally (by extrapolation from the" law of the rectilinear diameter ") the critical volume is four times the volume at absolute zero (see Condensation Of Gases).
The pathology of intra-cardiac and vascular murmurs has also been inquired into experimentally, the general impression being that these abnormal sounds result, in most cases at least, from the production of a sonorous liquid vein.
Cushny has shown experimentally that slowing of the blood-flow through renal tissue causes less sodium chloride to appear in the urine while the excretion of urea and sulphates remains unaffected; apparently the chloride, being more permeable, is reabsorbed and so only appears to be excreted in less quantity.
The latter, determined experimentally, varies with different kinds of surfaces of mine workings, whether rough or smooth, timbered or unlined; it ranges from 0.000000001872 to 0.0000000217 lb per sq.
Faraday proved this experimentally (see Experimental Researches, series xi.
In the mechanical processes which we can experimentally modify at will, and which therefore we learn to apprehend with greatest fulness, whenever an effect on a body, B, is in causal connexion with a process instituted in another body, A, it is usually possible to discover a mechanical connexion between the two bodies which allows the influence of A to be traced all the way across the intervening region.
Michelson, who has compared the theoretical widening with that found experimentally by means of his interferometer, had to use a somewhat more complicated expression for the comparison, as his visibility curve does not directly give intensities for particular frequencies but an integral depending on a range of frequency?
This constant can be measured experimentally, and for such a substance as sugar or water comes out about 0.3 at 20Ã‚° C., the unit of time being the day.
The assumption n=s/R simplifies the adiabatic equation, but the value n=3.5 gives So =0.497 at zero pressure, which was the value found by Callendar experimentally at 108Ã‚° C. and 1 atmosphere pressure.
The knife-edges of weighing machines are the parts that wear out soonest, but very little is known about them experimentally, and the knife-edges made by different makers vary extremely in their angles.
Nevertheless, self-induced transparency effects have been observed experimentally.
Iatrogenic transmission of CJD accepted - high titres of the agent in experimentally infected guinea pig corneas.
The somewhat dramatic theoretical result quoted above might surprise many readers, therefore it was validated experimentally.
These results have now been verified experimentally but we should pause for a moment to think about certain problems which remain.
He stretched experimentally and bit back the yelp that tried to escape his mouth.
Other substances are also being used experimentally.
A new class of asthma medications called leukotriene inhibitors has shown some mixed results in clinical trials for asthma patients and has been used experimentally in cases of EG but without conclusive results.
When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of Peltier effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.
With the aid of this apparatus, the principal facts of electrostatics can be experimentally verified, as follows: Experiment I.
Coulomb proved experimentally that the electric force just outside a conductor at any point is proportional to the electric density at that point.
These results have been confirmed experimentally by K.
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