His mother says there was a lot of experimental stuff done on him while he was out of it.
Could it have something to do with Quinn's experimental stuff?
After the investigations of Hess and Andrews, a great deal of excellent experimental work was performed by P. A.
The experimental surgeries I performed the first six months were not geared towards curing you at all.
Experimental farms are attached to the colleges.
He graduated, at West Point in 1853, served for two years in the artillery, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point in 1855-1860, and while on leave (1860-1861) was professor of physics at Washington university, St Louis.
Dalton lived in a period marked by great advances in experimental chemistry.
The earliest examples used in that country, apart from a small experimental model constructed by Peter Cooper, came from England.
An experimental printer constructed about the middle of 1908 by the British Post Office, operated successfully at the rate of 210 words (1260 letters) per minute.
The great losses arising from spoilt hay crops served to stimulate experimental inquiry into the method of preserving green fodder known as ensilage, with the result that the system eventually became successfully incorporated in the ordinary routine of agricultural practice.
From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.
While he fancied himself at least an experimental, if not good cook, in his present state of mind he found himself reverting to bachelor days of quick-is-best.
Explanations had indeed been put forward by men as eminent as Berzelius and Liebig, but they lacked experimental foundation.
The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
In regard to this question, history stands to the other sciences as experimental science stands to abstract science.
If experimental plants are grown in ster1lized soil, these swellings do not appear, and the plant can then use no atmospheric nitrogen.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
He was summoned from his seclusion in 1871 to become the first holder of the newly founded professorship of Experimental Physics in Cambridge; and it was under his direction that the plans of the Cavendish Laboratory were prepared.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
From 1879 to 1884 he was Cavendish professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge, in succession to Clerk Maxwell; and in 1887 he accepted the post of professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, which he resigned in 1905.
The results of more than half a century of sustained experimental inquiry were communicated to the world by Lawes and his collaborator, Sir J.
Additional significance to the value of the above experiments on wheat and barley is afforded by the fact that the same series, with but slight modifications, has also been carried out since 1876 at the Woburn (Bedfordshire) experimental farm of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, the soil here being of light sandy character, and thus very different from the heavy soil of Rothamsted.
One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.
Holden developed the use of liquid fuel on the Great Eastern railway to a point beyond the experimental stage, and used it instead of coal with the engines running the heavy express traffic of the line, its continued use depending merely upon the relative market price of coal and oil.
In 1848, however, a peculiar form of it, believed to be based on abundant experimental evidence, arose in America and spread there with great rapidity, and thence over the civilized world.
3 In other words, the evidence is rarely strictly experimental, and this not only gives facilities for fraud, but makes it necessary to allow a large margin for accidents, mistakes and mal-observation.
He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period.
His English works are an Inquiry into Speculative and Experimental Science (London, 1856); Introduction to Speculative Logic and Philosophy (St Louis, 1875), and a translation of Bretschneider's History of Religion and of the Christian Church.
Hess (18 4 o) were the first who systematically investigated thermochemical effects in solution, and arrived at conclusions from their experimental data which still possess validity.
Titchener, Experimental Psychology (New York, 1905); G.
Experimental psychology may in course of time have an important bearing on economics, but the older science cannot be said to be of much significance except in its historical aspects.
But he also produced original work in mathematical and experimental physics.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703), English experimental philosopher, was born on the 18th of July 1635 at Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, where his father, John Hooke, was minister of the parish.
In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
The experimental proof, however, was still lacking, and though several experimenters had come very near its discovery, Hertz was the first who actually succeeded in supplying it, in 1887.
Hare, Experimental Investigations of the Spirit Manifestations (New York, 1856); Allan Kardec, Livre des esprits (1st ed., 1853); Mrs De Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863), with preface by Professor De Morgan; Alfred Russel Wallace, Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1876); W.
The yields in the experimental wheat-field at Rothamsted - where there is no change either of land or of treatment - indicate this.
The Dominion government maintains an experimental farm of 670 acres at Brandon.
His experimental investigations are carried out with plain and usually home-made apparatus, the accessories being crude and rough, but the essentials thoughtfully designed so as to compass in the simplest and most perfect manner the special end in view.
by Moor; Darwin and Acton, Practical Physiology of Plants; Davenport, C.B., Experimental Morphology, vols.
Experimental inquiry has done much to enlighten the farmer as to the requirements of plant-life, and to enable him to see how best to meet these requirements in the case of field crops.
Dr. Howe was an experimental scientist and had in him the spirit of New England transcendentalism with its large faith and large charities.
James Bowman Lindsay of Dundee, between 1845 and 1854, reinvented and even patented Morse's method, and practically put the plan into operation for experimental purposes across the river Tay.
There has, however, been performed upon halophytes very little physiologically experimental work which commands general acceptance.
GUSTAV THEODOR FECHNER (1801-1887), German experimental psychologist, was born on the 19th of April 1801 at Gross-Sarchen, near Muskau, in Lower Lusatia, where his father was pastor.
There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.
If you are feeling experimental, you can even try miso soup and marinated seaweed salad.
The small discrepancies found are so easily accounted for by attributing them to experimental errors that, until recently, every chemist would have regarded the law as sufficiently verified.
Bacon, accordingly, withdrew from the scholastic routine and devoted himself to languages and experimental research.
Here he continued his labours in experimental science and also in the composition of complete treatises.
(pp. 445-477) treats of experimental science, domina omnium scientiarum.
Experimental science, which in the Opus Tertium (p. 46) is distinguished from the speculative sciences and the operative arts in a way that forcibly reminds us of Francis Bacon, is said to have three great prerogatives over all other sciences: - (1) It verifies their conclusions by direct experiment; (2) It discovers truths which they could never reach; (3) It investigates the secrets of nature, and opens to us a knowledge of past and future.
After that, apparently, logic was to be treated; then, possibly, mathematics and physics; then speculative alchemy and experimental science.
Experimental work has been carried on, and in 1904 Uganda exported about 43 bales of cotton, and British East Africa about 177 bales.
He was thus able to throw himself into the spirit of modern experimental science.
After his retirement Colomb devoted himself rather to the history of naval warfare, and to the large principles disclosed by its intelligent study, than to experimental inquiries having an immediate practical aim.
Descriptive chemistry was now assuming considerable proportions; the experimental inquiries suggested by Boyle were being assiduously developed; and a wealth of observa tions was being accumulated, for the explanation of which the resources of the dominant theory were sorely taxed.
Lavoisier appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis Proust during 1801 to 1809, who vigorously combated the doctrine of Claude Louis Berthollet (Essai de statique chimique, 1803), viz.
The solution came abOut by arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and experimental observations.
The necessity for experimental demonstration and practical instruction, in addition to academic lectures, appears to have been urged by the French chemists L.
Rouelle, while in England Humphry Davy expounded the same idea in the experimental demonstrations which gave his lectures their brilliant charm.
the existence of only one acetic acid, methyl chloride, and other monosubstitution derivatives - until the experimental proof by L.
The preceding considerations render it comparatively easy to follow the reasoning on which the experimental verification of the EgaJva- above statements is based.
Experimental conditions were thoroughly worked out; the necessity of working with hot or cold solutions was clearly emphasized; and the employment of small quantities of substances instead of the large amounts recommended by Klaproth was shown by him to give more consistent results.
For an experimental comparison of the accuracy of the Dumas, Will-Varrentrapp and Kjeldahl processes see L.
The critical volume of oxygen can be deduced from the data of the above table, and is found to be 29, whereas the experimental value is 25.
These values hold fairly well when compared with the experimental values determined from other compounds, and also with the molecular volumes of the elements themselves.
Specific Heat and Composition.-The nature and experimental determination of specific heats are discussed in the article Calorimetry; here will be discussed the relations existing between the heat capacities of elements and compounds.
These relations may be readily tested, for the ratio C p /C„ is capable of easy experimental determination.
Laplace is due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirmation was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observations on gases and vapours.
They were discovered before 1870 by searchers after petroleum, but their exploitation remained in the experimental stage until about 1900.
Similarly, the continuity of space apparently rests upon sheer assumption unsupported by any a priori or experimental grounds.
In "applied mathematics" the "deductions" are given in the shape of the experimental evidence of natural science, and the hypotheses from which the "deductions" can be deduced are sought.
The first exact quantitative study of electrolytic phenomena was made about 1830 by Michael Faraday (Experimental Researches, 1833).
Results have been obtained for solutions of sugar, where the experimental, number is 1 858, and for potassium chloride, which gives a depression of 3.720.
It must be remembered that, the so utions not being of quite the same strength, these numbers are not strictly comparable, and that the experimental difficulties involved in the chemical measurements are considerable.
units or 1.112 volts - a close agreement with the experimental result of about 1.08 volts.
- Michael Faraday, Experimental Researches in Electricity (London, 1844 and 1855); W.
Munroe Hopkins, Experimental Electrochemistry (London, 1905); Liiphe, Grundziige der Elektrochemie (Berlin, 1896).
Sometimes the metal is deposited in a pulverulent form, at others as a firm tenacious film, the nature of the deposit being dependent upon the particular metal, the concentration of the solution, the difference of potential between the electrodes, and other experimental conditions.
His lucid style and the perfection of his experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at his house with a small circle of young students.
The nature of this element is a problem which has been provisionally, but not conclusively, solved by many psychologists; the method is necessarily experimental, and all experiments on feeling are peculiarly difficult.
Titchener, Experimental Psychology (1905); art.
The present article is a digest, mainly from an experimental standpoint, of the leading facts and principles of magnetic science.
The second includes definitions of technical terms in common use, together with so much of the elementary theory as is necessary for understanding the experimental work described in subsequent portions of the article; a number of formulae and results are given for purposes of reference, but the mathematical reasoning by which they are obtained is not generally detailed, authorities being cited whenever the demonstrations are not likely to be found in ordinary textbooks.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1847, as the result of a mathematical investigation undertaken to explain Faraday's experimental observations.
The strongest magnetic fields employed for experimental purposes are obtained by the use of electromagnets.
But for much important experimental work it is better adapted than any other, and is indeed sometimes the only method possible.'
Then if a known change of induction SB a inside the standard coil is found to cause a throw of d scale-divisions, any change of induction SB through the experimental coil will be numerically equal to the corresponding throw D multiplied by snRBa/SNrd.
- The most generally convenient arrangement for producing such magnetic fields as are required for experimental purposes is undoubtedly a coil of wire through which an electric current can be caused to flow.
Mag., 1900, 49, 329) the intensity of the highest field reached in the interior of a coil was 2200 units; this is probably the strongest field produced by a coil which has hitherto been employed in experimental work.
Thus the magnetization which the sample of Swedish iron received in a field of 1490 was not increased (beyond the limits of experimental error) when the intensity of the field was multiplied more than thirteen-fold, though the induction was nearly doubled.
In the case of iron and nickel it was found that, when correction was made for mechanical stress due to magnetization, magnetic change of thermo-electric force was, within the limits of experimental error, proportional to magnetic change of length.
Terada in a research remarkable for its completeness and the ingenuity of the experimental methods employed.
The difficulties attending the experimental investigation of the forces acting between magnetic poles have already been referred to, and indeed a rigorously exact determination of the mutual action could only be made under conditions which are in practice unattainable.
Ampere's experimental and theoretical investigation of the mutual action of electric currents, and of the equivalence of a closed circuit to a polar magnet, the latter suggesting his celebrated hypothesis that molecular currents were the cause of magnetism.
Since the experimental confirmation of Maxwell's views by H.
Ewing's Experimental Researches of 1885; throughout the whole of his work special attention was directed to that curious lagging action to which the author applied the now familiar term " hysteresis."
Faraday, Experimental Researches in Electricity, 3 vols.
In 1850 he returned to GÃ¶ttingen and began to prepare his doctor's dissertation, busying himself meanwhile with "Naturphilosophic" and experimental physics.
The time between his promotion to the doctorate and his habilitation as Privatdozent was occupied by researches undertaken for his Habilitationsschrift, by "Naturphilosophie," and by experimental work.
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
The government maintains experimental farms and forestry plantations and a veterinary department to cope with lung sickness, rinderpest, East Coast fever and such like diseases.
No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.
The suggestion requires further experimental testing, for which the case of the parthenogenetic production of a portion of the offspring, in such insects as the bee, offers a valuable opportunity for research.
It is held 1 that the Darwinian doctrine of selection of fortuitous congenital variations is sufficient to account for all cases, that the Lamarckian hypothesis of transmission cf acquired characters is not supported by experimental evidence, and that the latter should therefore be dismissed.
The owner of the land, a Boer named Prinsloo, refused to allow experimental spade work, but after the conclusion of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 sold his property for £55,000 to T.
Experimental confirmation of Airy's theoretical results was afforded in 1842 by William Hallows Miller (Camb.
Experimental pathology has benefited by the use of antiseptic surgery in operations upon animals, and by the adoption of exact methods of recording.
The pathology of aphasia, as worked out by a combination of the experimental, the pathological and the anatomical lines of inquiry is a favourable example of what has been accomplished.
Many of the hypotheses of the past put forward - to explain cancer must be discarded, in view of the facts brought to light by the comparative and experimental research of recent times.
In recent years the successful experimental transplantation of new growths, occurring sporadically in white mice and rats, into animals of the same species, has thrown a fresh light on all the features of malignant growths.
When hardened in spirit, however, the greater part of this experimental amyloid in the fowl vanishes, and the reactions are not forthcoming.
201; Davidsohn, " Experimental Amyloid," Arch.
371; Frank, Die Krankheiten der Pflanzen (Breslau, 1895); Galeotti, " Experimental Production of Irregular Karyokinetic Processes," Beitr.
195, also " Experimental Amyloid," Arch.
172; Lubarsch, " Experimental Amyloid," Arch.
Hft.); Nowak, " Experimental Researches on Amyloidosis," Arch.
His restlessness leads us at times to a comparison with Skelton, not in respect of any parallelism of idea or literary craftsmanship, but in his experimental zeal in turning the diction and tuning the rhythms of the chaotic English which only Chaucer's genius had reduced to order.
The degradation of medicine between Galen and Harvey, if in part it consisted in the blind following of the authority of the former physician, was primarily due to other causes; and its new development was not due to the discovery of the experimental method alone: social and political causes also are concerned in the advance even of the exact sciences.
In no department is the experimental method more continually justified than in that of the natural history of disease, which at first sight would seem to have a certain independence of it and a somewhat exclusive value of its own.
Thus it was, partly because the habit of acceptance of authority, waning but far from extirpated, dictated to the clinical observer what he should see; partly because the eye of the clinical observer lacked that special training which the habit and influence of experimental verification alone can give, that physicians, even acute and practised physicians, failed to see many and many a symptomatic series which went through its evolutions conspicuously enough, and needed for its appreciation no unknown aids or methods of research, nor any further advances of pathology.
We see now that the practice of the experimental method endows with a new vision both the experimenter himself and, through his influence, those who are associated with him in medical science, even if these be not themselves actually engaged in experiment; a new discipline is imposed upon old faculties, as is seen as well in other sciences as in those on which medicine more directly depends.
It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.
These new conceptions of the multiplicity in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity of morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-boldness in speculation and reconstruction, had not the experimental method been at hand with clues and tests for the several series.
Yet on the whole, even from the beginning, the revolt was useful in that it shook the position of the "learned physician," who took a literary, fastidious and meditative rather than an experimental interest in his profession, and, as in great part a descendant of the humanists, was never in full sympathy with experimental science.
Waller (1816-1870), who tracked the line of nervous strands by experimental sections, and showed that when particular strands are cut off from their nutritive centres the consequent degeneration follows the line of the separated strands.
By these means also, in the hands of Hughlings-Jackson, and more conclusively by experimental research initiated by G.
The results of these experimental researches by many inquirers into the constitution of the brain have transformed our conceptions of cerebral physiology, and thrown a flood of light on the diseases of the brain.
The Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, was founded in 1799, maintains a library and laboratories and promotes research in connexion with the experimental sciences.
In 1824 the Royal Astronomical Society of London appointed a committee on the subject, the experimental' work being carried out by Faraday.
In Egypt, however, no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudimentary condition, and the vases which have been classified as " primitive " bear witness to an elaboration of technique far in advance of the experimental period.
Julius Weisbach (1806-1871) also made many experimental investigations on the discharge of fluids.
Harlacher (1842-1890) contained valuable measurements of this kind, together with a comparison of the experimental results with the formulae of flow that had been proposed up to the date of its publication, and important data were yielded by the gaugings of the Mississippi made for the United States government by A.
In the more general case of the convective equilibrium of a spherical atmosphere surrounding the earth, of radius a, (1-1?-=(n+ I) Po --a 2 dr, (12) gravity varying inversely as the square of the distance r from the centre; so that, k = po/po, denoting the height of the homogeneous atmosphere at the surface, 0 is given by (n+I)k(I -9/6 0) =a(I -a/r), (13) or if c denotes the distance where 0=o, 0 _a (14) 0 r c -a' When the compressibility of water is taken into account in a deep ocean, an experimental law must be employed, such as p - po=k(P - Po), or P/po=I+(p-p0)/A, A=kpo, (15) so that A is the pressure due to a head k of the liquid at density under atmospheric pressure po; and it is the gauge pressure required on this law to double the density.
In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.
The application of pure cultures of bacteria for improving the fertility of the land is still in an experimental stage.
Apart from Liebig's labours for the improvement of chemical teaching, the influence of his experimental researches and of his contributions to chemical thought was felt in every branch of the science.
Excepting such experimental arrangements as that of C. M.
The fact that energy is being used at so high a rate as Too H.P. on so small a charge of material sufficiently indicates that the furnace is only used for experimental work, or for the fusion of metals which, like tungsten or chromium, can only be melted at temperatures attainable by electrical means.
He also arranged an experimental tubefurnace by passing a carbon tube horizontally beneath the arc ' Cf.
Siemens's account of the use of this furnace for experimental purposes in British Association Report for 1882.
Towards the end of his life he was occupied with experimental inquiries into the laws of the conduction of heat in bars, and his last piece of work was to show that the thermal conductivity of iron diminishes with increase of temperature.
Here lies a great merit of Hermas's book, his insight into experimental religion and the secret of failure in Christians about him, to many of whom Christianity had come by birth rather than personal conviction.
This mental attitude, combined with a certain lack of initiative and the weakness of his health, probably prevented him from doing full justice to his splendid powers of experimental research.
The second volume (1733) on Haemostaticks, containing experiments on the "force of the blood" in various animals, its rate of flow, the capacity of the different vessels, &c., entitles him to be regarded as one of the originators of experimental physiology.
An orchard for experimental cultivation has met with considerable success.
The Royal Institute for experimental therapeutics (Konigl.Institut fiir experimentelle Therapie), moved to Frankfort in 1899, attracts numerous foreign students, and is especially concerned with the study of bacteriology and serums.
He suggested the use of experimental tanks for testing the powers of ship models, invented an ear-trumpet for the deaf, improved the common house-stove of his native land, cured smoky chimneys, took a lively interest in machine-guns and even sketched a flying machine.
He entered holy orders and ultimately attained the rank of abbe; but his tastes all lay in the direction of experimental research, especially on the subject of electricity.
In 1734 he was admitted a member of the London Royal Society, four years later he entered the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and in 1753 he was appointed to the newly-instituted chair of experimental physics in the College de Navarre.
The student will find it to be a great advantage to read through Faraday's three volumes entitled Experimental Researches on Electricity, as soon as he has mastered some modern elementary book giving in compact form a general account of electrical phenomena.
In the case of imperfect gases, all the available experimental evidence shows that the specific volume tends towards its ideal value, V =Re/p, in the limit, when the pressure is indefinitely reduced and the molecules are widely separated so as to eliminate the effects of their mutual actions.
An irreversible process which permits a more complete experimental investigation is the steady flow of a fluid in a tube already referred to in section to.
Within the Church there was a departure from the great experimental truths of the Gospel, their place being taken by the preaching of nature and morality on a theistic basis.
On his final return to Basel in 1682, he devoted himself to physical and mathematical investigations, and opened a public seminary for experimental physics.
There, in addition to the learned lectures by which he endeavoured to revive mathematical science in the university, he gave a public course of experimental physics.
In consequence of the state of his health, however, he returned to Basel in 1733, where he was appointed professor of anatomy and botany, and afterwards of experimental and speculative philosophy.
The early lessons which he had received from his father were continued by his uncle Daniel, and such was his progress that at the age of twenty-one he was called to undertake the duties of the chair of experimental physics, which his uncle's advanced years rendered him unable to discharge.
In expressing the absolute or relative density of any substance, it is necessary to specify the conditions for which the relation holds: in the case of gases, the temperature and pressure of the experimental gas (and of the standard, in the case of relative density); and in the case of solids and liquids, the temperature.
The density gives very important information as to the molecular weight, since by the law of Avogadro it is seen that the relative density is the ratio of the molecular weights of the experimental and standard gases.
The temperature of the experimental substance may or may not be the temperature of the standard.
the change in volume of the experimental globe due to shrinkage under diminished pressure; this may be experimentally determined and amounts to between o 04 and o 16% of the volume of the globe.
The rubber stopper is removed and the experimental substance introduced, and the stopper quickly replaced to the same extent as before.
If W be the weight of the experimental solid in air, w the weight of the sinker in water, and W, the weight of the solid plus sinker in water, then the relative density is given by W/(W+w - Wi).
To use the column, the experimental fragment is introduced, when it takes up a definite position.
Travers, The Experimental Study of Gases (1901); and vapour density determinations in Lassar-Cohn's Arbeitsmethoden fur organisch-chemische Laboratorien (1901), and Manual of Organic Chemistry (1896), and in H.
Proceeding to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1699, he obtained a fellowship in 1705, and in the following year was appointed Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy in the university of Cambridge.
Fox, of the Central Laboratory of the International Council at Christiania, has investigated the relation of the atmospheric gases to sea-water by very exact experimental methods and arrived at the following expressions for the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen by sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
This opinion is deduced from our experience of the behaviour of bodies of sensible size, but we have no experimental evidence that two atoms may not sometimes coincide.
For instance, if oxygen and hydrogen combine to form water, we have no experimental evidence that the molecule of oxygen is not in the very same place with the two molecules of hydrogen.
In this way the science of hydrostatics may be built upon an experimental basis, without any consideration of the constitution of a fluid as to whether it is molecular or continuous.
THE Molecular Structure Of Matter An enormous mass of experimental evidence now shows quite conclusively that matter cannot be regarded as having a continuous structure, but that it is ultimately composed of discrete parts.
This and the difficulty of obtaining accurate experimental results fully account for the differences inter se in the values of the quantities calculated.
We are led to this conception by a number of experimental results, some of which will be mentioned later.
Scott, R.E., thus described how he was led to think of the sight: " I had read in the Daily News an account of some experimental firing carried out by H.M.S.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
In the lecture-room he laid great stress on the importance of experimental demonstrations, paying particular attention to their selection and arrangement, though, since he himself was a somewhat clumsy manipulator, their actual exhibition was generally entrusted to his assistants.
It is convenient to give this calculation before proceeding to describe the experimental determination of the velocity in air, in other gases and in water, since the calculation serves to some extent as a guide in conducting and interpreting the observations.
Experimental Determinations of the Velocity of Sound.
The chief experimental basis for supposing that a train of longitudinal waves with displacement curve of this kind arouses the sensation of a pure tone is that the more nearly a source is made to vibrate with a single simple harmonic motion, and therefore, presumably, the more nearly it sends out such a harmonic train, the more nearly does the note heard approximate to a single pure tone.
- FOr the history of experimental and theoretical acoustics see F.
The standard treatise on the mathematical theory is Lord Rayleigh's Theory of Sound (2nd ed., 1894); this work also contains an account of experimental verifications.
The same author's Scientific Papers contains many experimental and mathematical contributions to the science.
Barton, A Text-Book on Sound (1908), aims to provide students with a text-book on sound, embracing both its experimental and theoretical aspects.
A government Department of Agriculture, created in 1904, affords help to the farmers in various ways, notably in combatting insect plagues, in experimental farms, and in improving the breed of horses, sheep and cattle.
The total Eaton Hodgkinson, who assisted in the experimental tests and in formulating the imperfect theory then available.
This was specially the case with the experimental doctrines of grace.
It has in fact been found, with the very great precision of which optical experiment is capable, that all terrestrial optical phenomenareflexion, refraction, polarization linear and circular, diffraction - are entirely unaffected by the direction of the earth's motion, while the same result has recently been extended to electrostatic forces; and this is our main experimental clue.
But our experimental data are not confined to free space.
The most fundamental experimental confirmation that the theory of the aether has received on the optical side in recent years has been the verification of Maxwell's proposition that radiation exerts mechanical force on a material system, on which it falls, which may be represented in all cases as the resultant of pressures operating along the rays, and of intensity equal at each point of free space to the density of radiant energy.
Schuster and others, but first fully developed with astonishing results including the experimental discovery of the free electron by J.
Titchener, Experimental Psychology (1905), ii.
But this theory is very far from being of practical value for most purposes of gunnery; so that a first requirement is an accurate experimental knowledge of the resistance of the air to the projectiles employed, at all velocities useful in artillery.
By means of a well-chosen value of n, determined by a few experiments, it is possible, pending further experiment, with the most recent design, to utilize Bashforth's experimental results carried out with old-fashioned projectiles fired from muzzle-loading guns.
Starting with the experimental values of p, for a standard projectile, fired under standard conditions in air of standard density, we proceed to the construction of the ballistic table.
In Sir Andrew Noble's researches a number of plugs were inserted in the side of the experimental gun, reaching to the bore and carrying crusher-gauges, and also chronographic appliances which registered the passage of the shot in the same manner as the electric screens in Bashforth's experiments; thence the velocity and energy of the shot was inferred, to serve as an independent control of the crusher-gauge records (figs.
Comparing this time with the experimental value of the time occupied by the cordite in burning, a start is made for a fresh estimate and a closer approximation.
The experimental determination of the time of burning under the influence of the varying pressure and density, and the size of the grain, is thus of great practical importance, as thereby it is possible to estimate close limits to the maximum pressure that will be reached in the bore of a gun, and to design the chamber so that the G.D.
In 1871 he began to turn his attention to experimental physics, his earlier researches bearing upon the polarization of light and his later work upon the electrical discharge in rarefied gases.
His spare time and great part of his nights were devoted to the experimental examination of the different bodies which he dealt with, and the study of the standard works on chemistry.
Scheele's power as an experimental investigator has seldom if ever been surpassed, and his accuracy is most remarkable when his primitive apparatus, his want of assistance, his place of residence, and the undeveloped state of chemical and physical science in his time, are all taken into account.
The manuscript was in the hands of the printers in 1775, and most of the experimental work for it was done before 1773.
A vacancy among the fellows is filled up by the provost and a select number of the fellows, after examination comprised in five principal courses, mathematics, experimental science, classics, mental and moral science and Hebrew.
The scholars on the foundation (or "of the House") are chosen from among the undergraduates, for merit in classics, mathematics or experimental science.
A paper which he communicated to the Royal Society on "Experimental Researches on the Strength of Pillars of Cast Iron and other Materials," in 1840 gained him a Royal medal in 1841, and he was also elected a fellow.
Spelter production began in the United States in 1858 in an experimental way, and regular production in 1860.
For experimental determinations of 7, dependent on the theory of probability, see Mess.
Experimental work has shown that swine fattened with a ration partly of skim-milk were lustier and of a more healthy appearance than swine fattened wholly on grains.
experimental farms and various effective organiza tons for assisting the live-stock, dairying and fruitgrowing industries, for testing the germination and purity of agricultural seeds, and for developing the export trade in agricultural and dairy produce.
Experimental farms were established in 1887 in different parts of the Dominion, and were so located as to render efficient help to the farmers in the more thickly settled districts, and at the same time to cover the varied climatic and other conditions which influence agriculture in Canada.
The central experimental farm is situated at Ottawa, near the boundary line between Quebec and Ontario, where it serves as an aid to agriculture in these two important provinces.
A second branch experimental farm is at Brandon in Manitoba, a third is at Indian Head in Saskatchewan and the fourth is at Agassiz in the coast climate of British Columbia.
Farmers are invited to visit these experimental farms, and a large correspondence is conducted with those interested in agriculture in all parts of the Dominion, who are encouraged to ask advice and information from the officers of the farms.
The agricultural college at Guelph and the experimental farms maintained by the federal government give excellent training and scientific assistance to farmers.
The results of these experiments will be found in a compendium issued from the Rothamsted Agricultural Experimental Station.
On the death of his uncle in 1823 Wheatstone and his brother succeeded to the business; but he never seems to have taken a very active part in it, and he virtually retired after six years, devoting himself to experimental research, at first chiefly with regard to sound.
By 1834 his originality and resource in experiment were fully recognized, and he was appointed professor of experimental philosophy at King's College, London, in that year.
Desaguliers himself constructed a hydrometer of the ordinary type for comparing the specific gravities of different kinds of water (Desaguliers's Experimental Philosophy, ii.
He compared the results of his theory with experimental determinations of the ranges of mortars and cannon, and gave practical maxims for the management of artillery.
In 1874 he was elected regular professor of philosophy at Zurich, and in the following year was called to the corresponding chair at Leipzig, where he founded an Institute for Experimental Psychology, the precursor of many similar institutes.
GUILLAUME AMONTONS (1663-1705), French experimental philosopher, the son of an advocate who had left his native province of Normandy and established himself at Paris, was born in that city on the 31st of August 1663.
The fosse has been planted, and part of it used as an experimental garden.
Bradley recognized the fact that the experimental determination of the aberration constant gave the ratio of the velocities of light and of the earth; hence, if the velocity of the earth be known, the velocity of light is determined.
Though the experimental and theoretical developments were not necessarily dependent on each other, and by far the larger proportion of the subject which we now term " Spectroscopy " could stand irrespective of Gustav Kirchhoff's thermodynamical investigations, there is no doubt that the latter was, historically speaking, the immediate cause of the feeling of confidence with which the new branch of science was received, for nothing impresses the scientific world more strongly than just that little touch of mystery which attaches to a mathematical investigation which can only be understood by the few, and is taken on trust by the many, provided that the author is a man who commands general confidence.
We might probably with advantage find some definition of what may be called " radiation temperature " based on the relation between radiation and absorption in Kirchhoff's sense, but further information based on experimental investigation is required.
He finds a remarkable agreement between the theoretical and experimental values, which it would be important to confirm with the more suitable instruments which are now at our disposal, as we might in this way get an estimate of the energy of translatory motion of the luminous molecules.
The experimental verification of the change of wave-length due to a source moving in the line of sight has been realized in the laboratory by A.
The subject, however, required further experimental investigation, which was supplied by Paschen.
Wiedemann and Schmidt' that the vapours of sodium and potassium are fluorescent, important as it was from an experimental point of view, caused no surprise.
It has various technical schools, an experimental fruit-farm, a military hospital, and a natural history museum.
When the later reaction to Kant arose against both Hegelianism and materialism, the nearly contemporary appearance of Fechner's Psychophysics began to attract experimental psychologists by its real as well as its apparent exactness, and both psychologists and metaphysicians by its novel way of putting the relations between the physical and the psychical in man and in the world.
In 1875 he was elected Jacksonian professor of natural experimental philosophy at Cambridge, becoming a fellow of Peterhouse, and in 1877 he succeeded Dr J.
The letters written to his friend Benjamin Abbott at this time give a lucid account of his aims in life, and of his methods of self-culture, when his mind was beginning to turn to the experimental study of nature.
In nine more days of experimenting he had arrived at the results described in his first series of "Experimental Researches" read to the Royal Society on the 24th of November 1841.
Before we describe this result we may mention that in 1862 he made the relation between magnetism and light the subject of his very last experimental work.
During September he had four days of work, and in October six, and on the 6th of November he sent in to the Royal Society the nineteenth series of his "Experimental Researches," in which the whole conditions of the phenomena are fully specified.
They are so immediately connected in their nature and origin with my own experimental life, considered either as cause or consequence, that I have thought the close of this volume not an unfit place for their reproduction."
1827, 2nd 1830, 3rd 1842); Experimental Researches in Electricity, vols.
Richard Taylor and William Francis (1855); Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, Taylor and Francis (1859); Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle (edited by W.
OTTO VON GUERICKE (1602-1686), German experimental philosopher, was born at Magdeburg, in Prussian Saxony, on the 10th of November 1602.
In 1883 he was appointed lecturer in Trinity College, and in the following year Cavendish professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge, a position he occupied until his resignation in 1918.
He developed a great research laboratory of experimental physics, attracting numerous workers from many countries and colonies; advances were made in the investigation of the conduction of electricity through gases, in the determination of the charge and mass of the electron and in the development of analysis by means of positive rays.
When the equilibria become more complex difficulties of interpretation of the experimental results often arise.
In practice the time required to reach these various conditions of equilibrium would be too great for experimental demonstration, but the theoretical consideration of vapour pressures is of fundamental importance.
The reasoning given above is independent of the temperature, so that the variation with temperature of the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution must be the same as that of a gas, while Boyle's law must equally apply to both systems. Experimental evidence confirms these results, and extends them to the cases of non-volatile solutes - as is, indeed, to be expected, since volatility is merely a matter of degree.
When the solution ceases to be dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the word, that is, when the spheres of influence of the solute particles intersect each other, this reasoning ceases to apply, and the resulting modification of the gas laws as applied to solutions becomes a matter for further investigation, theoretical or experimental.
Such, a concordance between theory and experiment not only verifies the accuracy of thermodynamic reasoning as applied to dilute solutions, but gives perhaps one of the most convincing experimental verifications of the general validity of thermodynamic theory which we possess.
Dilute solutions of substances such as cane-sugar, as we have seen, give experimental values for the connected osmotic properties - pressure, freezing point and vapour pressure - in conformity with the theoretical values.
For most experimental purposes the small terms involving the factor (- p') may be neglected, and we have, approximately, PoV'=Rt log (ply).
Even this correction is not sufficient in solution of sugar, where the theoretical curve II lies below the experimental observations.
In the limit of dilution when n is very small compared with N this gives Raoult's experimental law that the relative lowering is n/N, which we deduced from the osmotic law, and conversely from which the osmotic law follows, while for more concentrated solutions agreement is obtained by assigning arbitrary values to a, which, as we have seen, is 5 in the case of cane-sugar.
Putting x =32, we get r: 32: 1024 to compare with the experimental numbers.
For experimental purposes it is usually obtained by distilling potassium or sodium nitrate with concentrated sulphuric acid.
These observations confirmed by experimental demonstration the hypothetical conclusions of Bell.
It is a vast mine of experimental observation on the symptoms of poisoning of all kinds, on the appearances which poisons leave in the dead body, on their physiological action, and on the means of detecting them.
Among albino rats, for instance, the author of this article has reason to believe, upon theoretical grounds resting on an experimental basis, that probably no less than thirteen types exist.
Saunders, "Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity," Reports to the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society, Report I..
xviii.; C. C. Hurst, "Experimental Studies on Heredity in Rabbits," Journ.
and in making excerpts from his predecessors, had none left for mature and independent thought, or for patient experimental.
The difference between the two phenomena is essential and evident; but without experimental information as to palatability it is impossible to know with certainty to which of the two a particular case of mimicry is to be assigned.
This being so, it is evident that if all the distasteful species in a given area are differently coloured, some individuals of all the species will be annually sacrificed to the experimental tasting of inexperienced foes before the numerous lessons have been learnt.
Finn came to the conclusion that young birds have no instinctive knowledge of the unpalatability of distasteful insects, but that experimental tasting soon teaches them to recognize and avoid species they have previously rejected with dislike, and that having once learnt the lesson they long remember it.
Professor Poulton long ago suggested, and supported the suggestion by experimental evidence on a lizard, that the larvae of two British species, C. elpenor and C. porcellus, are protected by the resemblance to the heads of snakes presented by the anterior extremities of their bodies which are ornamented with large eye-like spots.
In 1800 he became a secretary of the society, and in the following year he presented the important paper or series of papers, entitled "Experimental Essays on the constitution of mixed gases; on the force of steam or vapour of water and other liquids in different temperatures, both in Torricellian vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the expansion of gases by heat."
He started as an apothecary, but in 1742 he was appointed experimental demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris, where he was especially influential and popular as a teacher, numbering Lavoisier and J.
(2) The speculative rather than experimental and practical nature of the Hindu consciousness - historical proofs make no appeal to him.
According to the law of 1898, the state also maintains or subsidizes experimental or testing-stations.
In recognition of his brilliant experimental powers, and his numerous contributions to chemical science, he was awarded the Davy medal by the Royal Society in 1891.
In January 1739 appeared the first and second volumes of the Treatise of Human Nature, being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects, containing book i., Of the Understanding, and book ii., Of the Passions.
Hume had the greatest respect for the author of the Analogy, ranks him with Locke and Berkeley as an originator of the experimental method in moral science, and in his specially theological essays, such as that on Particular Providence and a Future State, has Butler's views specifically in mind.
Such confession, however, is only reached after a vigorous effort had been made to render some account of knowledge by the experimental method.
It is an experimental or observational science, founded on primary or immediate judgments (in his phraseology, perceptions), of relation between facts of intuition; its conclusions are hypothetical only in so far as they do not imply the existence at the moment of corresponding real experience; and its propositions have no exact truth.
The earlier work of " Young Belgium " in poetry was experimental in character, and was marked by extravagances of style and a general exuberance which provoked much hostile criticism.
Good wine is made in the fertile vineyards of the district, and there is a government experimental station for viticulture.
The diseases to which the application has been hitherto confined are papillomata, lupus vulgaris, epithelial tumours, syphilitic ulcers, pigmentary naevi, angiomata, and pruritus and chronic itching of the skin; but the use of radium in therapeutics is still experimental.
But later experimental researches have shown that the simple assumption of constant coefficients of conductivity and emissivity, on which the mathematical theory is based, is in many respects inadequate, and the special mathematical methods developed by J.
The main object of o C o c**.e= the present article is to describe more recent work, and to discuss experimental difficulties and methods of measurement.
- The experimental law of conduction, which forms the basis of the mathematical theory, was established in a qualitative manner by Fourier and the early experimentalists.
Although it is seldom explicitly stated as an experimental law, it should really be regarded in this light, and may be briefly worded as follows: "The rate of transmission of heat by conduction is proportional to the temperature gradient."
The emissivity really depends on every variety of condition, such as the size, shape and position of the surface, as well as on its nature; it varies with the rate of cooling, as well as with the temperature excess, and it is generally so difficult to calculate, or to treat in any simple manner, that it forms the greatest source of uncertainty in all experimental investigations in which it occurs.
From an experimental point of view the most ingenious and complete method was that of Lorenz (Wied.
Owing to the completeness of the recorded data, and the great experimental skill with which the research was conducted, the results are probably among the most valuable hitherto available.
The conductivity probably changes with temperature in the same way, being proportional to the product of the viscosity and the specific heat; but the experimental investigation presents difficulties on account of the necessity of eliminating the effects of radiation and convection, and the results of different observers often differ considerably from theory and from each other.
The results are consistent with theory within the limits of experimental error, but the experimental methods certainly appear to admit of improvement.
00136 at 19.5° C. The variations of these results illustrate the experimental difficulties.
A large mass of material has been collected, but the relations are obscured by experimental errors.
The word " Induction," which occurs in only three or four passages throughout all his works (and these again minor ones), is never used by him with the faintest reminiscence of the import assigned to it by Bacon; and, as will be seen, he had nothing but scorn for experimental work in physics.
233-296), fulminated in 1661 against Boyle and other friends of Wallis who, as he fancied, under the influence of that malevolent spirit, were now in London, after the Restoration, forming themselves into a society (incorporated as the Royal Society in 1662) for experimental research, to the exclusion of himself personally, and in direct contravention of the method of physical inquiry enjoined in the De corpore.
resolved to institute an experimental establishment in Assam for cultivating and manufacturing tea, leaving the industry to be developed by private enterprise should its practicability be demonstrated.
MARIE ALFRED CORNU (1841-1902), French physicist, was born at Orleans on the 6th of March 1841, and after being educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Mines, became in 1867 professor of experimental physics in the former institution, where he remained throughout his life.
Shendi possesses small manufactories of leather, iron and cotton; extensive railway workshops and a government experimental farm.
Larger and thicker in the rabbit, when excited it gives rise in that animal to movements of the eyes and of the fore-limbs and neck; but it is only in much higher types, such as the dog, that the cortex yields, under experimental excitation, definitely localized foci, whence can be evoked movements of the fore-limb, hind-limb, neck, eyes, ears and face.
They are based on the experimental toxic, as distinguished from lethal dose.
Vernon have adduced experimental evidence as to the induction of variation by such causes as difference in the ages of the parents, in the maturity or freshness of the conjugating germ cells, and in the condition of nutrition for the embryos.
Their experimental work shows that many facts of inheritance correspond with the theory that the essential fabric of an organism is a mosaic of unit characters.
The decision as to whether it is the course of variation or the course of selection that has been different in different localities can be made only by the field naturalist and the experimental breeder.
With regard to adaptations, it is becoming more and more apparent, as experimental knowledge advances, that it is a fundamental property of every living organism in every stage of its existence to display adaptive response to its environment.
They were "the first practical application of results obtained by experimental determinations of pressure at different points along the bore, by Colonel Bomford's tests - that is by boring holes in the walls of the gun, through which the pressure acts upon other bodies, such as pistol balls, pistons, &c."
In 1785 he was nominated to the committee on agriculture, and as its secretary drew up reports and instructions on the cultivation of various crops, and promulgated schemes for the establishment of experimental agricultural stations, the distribution of agricultural implements and the adjustment of rights of pasturage.
The laboratory examination may be used in subjects like physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, botany, anatomy, physiology, to test powers of manipulation and knowledge of experimental methods.
Experimental boring on Qishm I.
During three years he was experimental assistant to Alfred Donne (1801-1878) in his course of lectures on microscopic anatomy.
He continued his studies in theology, devoting himself to the more "experimental" portions of Augustine, Bernard and Gerson.
His teaching was "experimental" from the beginning.
The means adopted are: (i.) the plantation of trees; (ii.) the making of irrigation canals and irrigating meadows; (iii.) exploring for, extracting and transporting loam, a process aided by the construction of short light railways; and (iv.), since 1889, the experimental cultivation of fenny districts.
The activity of the association takes the form partly of giving gratuitous advice, partly of experimental attempts, and partly of model works for imitation.
Hemming, who carried it out on an experimental scale in Whitechapel.
de Montlaur; a few years later the processes worked out at the Griesheim alkali works (near Frankfort) for the manufacture of caustic potash and chlorine established definitely the success of electrolysis in the field of potash, but even then none of the various processes working with sodium chloride had emerged from the experimental stage.
His original papers, down to 1877, were collected and published in that year as Experimental Researches in Pure, Applied and Physical Chemistry.
Then he entered the Ecole Polytechnique, and passed in 1832 to the Ecole des Mines, where he developed an aptitude for experimental chemistry.
They depend on the experimental fact that the quantity of heat required to produce a given change of state (e.g.
The third general method of calorimetry, that based on the transformation of some other kind of energy into the form of heat, rests on the general principle of the conservation of energy, and on the experimental fact that all other forms of energy are readily and completely convertible into the form of heat.
Hirn's method of measuring the work expended in terms of the torque and the number of revolutions, still possess value as experimental evidence.
4.197 4.188 4.181 4.1764.1 75 4.177 These Are Expressed In Terms Of The Hydrogen Scale, But The Difference From The Nitrogen Scale Is So Small As To Be Within The Limits Of Experimental Error In This Particular Case.
It Would Have Been Desirable, If Possible, To Have Tried The Effect Of A Larger Range Of Variation In The Experimental Conditions Of Load And Speed, With A View To Detect The Existence Of Constant Errors; But Owing To The Limitations Imposed By The Use Of A Steam Engine, And The Difficulty Of Securing Steady Conditions Of Running, This Proved To Be Impossible.
Thus The Direct Experimental Evidence Is Somewhat Meagre And Conflicting, But The Question Of The Relation Of The Specific Heats Of Gases Is One Of Great Interest In Connexion With The Kinetic Theory And The Constitution Of The Molecule.
In 1879 Maxwell Considered It One Of The Greatest Difficulties Which The Kinetic Theory Had Yet Encountered, That In Spite Of The Many Other Degrees Of Freedom Of Vibration Revealed By The Spectroscope, The Experimental Value Of The Ratio S/S Was 1.40 For So Many Gases, Instead Of Being Less Than 4/3.
This Gives A Series Of Ratios 5/3, 7/5, 9/7, Ii/9, &C., For I, 2, 3, 4, &C., Atoms In The Molecule, Values Which Fall Within The Limits Of Experimental Error In Many Cases.
The Experimental Evidence, However, Is Somewhat Conflicting, And Further Investigations Are Very Desirable On The Variation Of Specific Heat With Temperature.
He became professor of experimental physics, first at Palermo and then at Rome, and was appointed to a similar situation at Turin in 1748.
Mill aspired after a doctrine of method such as should satisfy the needs of the natural sciences, notably experimental physics and chemistry as understood in the first half of the 19th century and, mutatis mutandis, of the moral sciences naturalistically construed.
Equally, too, the deductive character, apparently in intention as well as in actual fact, of Mill's experimental methods fails to recall the point of theory that the process is essentially one from particular to particular.
It is of course possible to criticise even the experimental canons with some severity.
This agrees with the usual definition in the special case of a saturated vapour, if the liquid is heated under the final pressure p, as is generally the case in heat engines and in experimental measurements of H.
The experimental results of Grindley with regard to the mode of variation of Q have been independently confirmed by Callendar (Proc. R.S.
Callendar's experiments on the cooling effect for steam by the throttling calorimeter method gave n =3-33 and c =26.3 c.c. at 100° C. Grindley's experiments gave nearly the same average value of Q over his experimental range, but a rather larger value for n, namely, 3.8.
Later and more accurate experiments have confirmed the experimental value, and have shown that the limiting value of the specific heat should consequently be somewhat smaller than that given by Maxwell's hypothesis.
Regnault's formula for the total heat is here again seen to be inadmissible, as it would make the latent heat of steam vanish at about 870° C. instead of at 365° C. It should be observed, however, that the assumptions made in deducing the above formulae apply only for moderate pressures, and that the formulae cannot be employed up to the critical point owing to the uncertainty of the variation of the specific heats and the cooling effect Q at high pressures beyond the experimental range.
These formulae are important on account of the labour and ingenuity expended in devising the most suitable types, and also as a convenient means of recording the experimental data.
A similar method of calculation might be applied to deduce the thermodynamical properties of other vapours, but the required experimental data are in most cases very imperfect or even entirely wanting.
Hodges, Loimologia sive pestis nuperae apud populum londinensem narratio (London, 1672) 8vo - in English by Quincy (London, 1720), (the chief authority); Aommoypa41a or an Experimental Relation of the last Plague in the City of London, by William Boghurst, apothecary in St Giles's-in-the-Fields (London, 1666), - a MS. in British Museum (Sloane 349), containing important details; George Thomson, Aoimotomia, or the Pest Anatomized, 8vo (London, 1666); Sydenham, " Febris pestilentialis et pestis annorum 1665-1666," Opera, ed.
We may take it as an experimental result, although the best evidence is indirect, that a particle falling freely under gravity experiences a constant acceleration which at the same place is the same for all bodies.
This indicates an experimental method of determining g with considerable accuracy, using the formula g 41r2l/T2.
This fact is very obvious, and has been known from a remote period; but the exact determination of the proportion of the work lost to the heat produced, and the experimental proof that that proportion is the same under all circumstances and with all materials, solid, liquid and gaseous, are comparativel recent achievements of J.
Thisconstant, now designated as Joules equivalent, is the principal experimental datum of the science of thermodynamics.
The elevation of temperature produced by the friction of a journal is sometimes used as an experimental test of the quality of unguents.
There are two high schools, one experimental station, twenty-two middle schools and forty-eight lower schools of agriculture, besides ten horticultural schools.
Starting with careful and accurate observations on facts concerning the mysterious properties of amber and the lodestone, Gilbert laid the foundations of modern electric and magnetic science on the true experimental and inductive basis.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was one of the great pioneers of electrical science, and made the evermemorable experimental identification of lightning and electric spark.
Coulomb has made his name for ever famous by his invention and application of his torsion balance to the experimental verification of the fundamental law of electric attraction, in which, however, he was anticipated by Cavendish, namely, that the force of attraction between two small electrified spherical bodies varies as the product of their charges and inversely as the square of the distance of their centres.
Volta followed up these observations with rare philosophic insight and experimental skill.
In it Oersted describes the action he considers is taking place around 2 Faraday discussed the chemical theory of the pile and arguments in support of it in the 8th and 16th series of his Experimental Researches on Electricity.
Respecting this achievement when developed in its experimental and mathematical completeness, Clerk Maxwell says that it was " perfect in form and unassailable in accuracy."
We must refer the reader for further information to his monumental work entitled Experimental Researches on Electricity, in three volumes, reprinted from the Phil.
See Experimental Researches on Electricity, vol.
Neumann in 1845 did for electromagnetic induction what Ampere did for electrodynamics, basing his researches upon the experimental laws of Lenz.
Helmholtz brought to bear upon the subject not only the most profound mathematical attainments, but immense experimental skill, and his work in connexion with this subject is classical.
Maxwell showed in this paper that the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic impulse through space could also be determined by certain experimental methods which consisted in measuring the same electric quantity, capacity, resistance or potential in two ways.
Experimental methods were devised for the further exact measurements of the electromagnetic velocity and numerous determinations of the dielectric constants of various solids, liquids and gases, and comparisons of these with the corresponding optical refractive indices were conducted.
This early work indicated that whilst there were a number of cases in which the square 1 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (2 vols.), by James Clerk Maxwell, sometime professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge.
In the 13th series of his Experimental Researches on Electricity he discussed the relation of a vacuum to electricity.
Drude, and experimental contributions from innumerable workers, such as F.
Hertz's great discovery was an experimental realization of a suggestion made by G.
Faraday devoted to a careful examination of the phenomena the XIII th series of his Experimental Researches, and among the older workers in this field must be particularly mentioned J.
The subject was pursued by Thomson and the Cambridge physicists with great mathematical and experimental ability, and finally the conclusion was reached that in a high vacuum tube the electric charge is carried by particles which have a mass only a fraction, as above mentioned, of that of the hydrogen atom, but which carry a charge equal to the unit electric charge of the hydrogen ion as found by electrochemical researches.
Faraday, Experimental Researches in Electricity (3 vols., London, 1839, 1844, 1855); A.
2 " First of all we must prepare a natural and experimental history, sufficient and good; and this is the foundation of all."
There is required in the process not merely a preliminary critical induction, but a subsequent experimental comparison, verification or proof, the canons of which can be laid down with precision.
2) he comes very near to the modern mode of experimental research.
Among such theories utilitarianism especially is the natural result of the application to the phenomenon of conduct of the Baconian experimental method.
Dr Thomas Sprat (1635-1713), bishop of Rochester and first historian of the society, says that Bacon of all others " had the true imagination of the whole extent " of the enterprise, and that in his works are to be found the best arguments for the experimental method of natural philosophy (Hist.
It can be shown, however, that Newton was not ignorant of Bacon's works, and Dr Fowler explains his silence with regard to them on three grounds: (1) that Bacon's reputation was so well established that any definite mention was unnecessary, (2) that it was not customary at the time to acknowledge indebtedness to contemporary and recent writers, and (3) that Newton's genius was so strongly mathematical (whereas Bacon's great weakness was in mathematics) that he had no special reason to refer to Bacon's experimental principles.
In a paper contributed to the International Flax Congress at Vienna in 1873 he entered into details regarding an experimental rettery he had formed, with the view of imitating by artificial means the best results obtained by the ordinary methods.
On the margin of the city lies the extensive experimental farm of the state college of agriculture.
There are schools of painting, sculpture and architecture under the direction of the Royal Academy of Arts; a conservatory of music under that of the Royal Academy of Music; and experimental gardens and laboratories under the Royal Society of Agriculture.
Fitzgerald was the first to attempt to measure the length of electric waves; Helmholtz put the problem into the hands of his favourite pupil, Heinrich Hertz, and the latter finally gave an experimental demonstration of electromagnetic waves, the "Hertzian waves," on which wireless telegraphy depends, and the velocity of which is the same as that of light.
Two children were born of this marriage, a son, Robert, who died in 1889, after showing in experimental physics indications of his father's genius, and a daughter, who married a son of Werner von Siemens.
It was never, however, the intention of government to carry on the trade, but to resign it to private adventure as soon as the experimental course could be fairly completed.
The Riksdag of 190o, in addition to grants for the fortifications at Boden, in the province of Norrbotten, on the Russian border, and other military objects, voted a considerable grant for an experimental mobilization, which fully exposed the defects and faults of the old system.
During this period he was not only most successful as a teacher, but produced much original work - especially in the experimental and mathematical treatment of electricity - which is still regarded as standard.
In natural philosophy Campanella, closely following Telesio, advocates the experimental method and lays down heat and cold as the fundamental principles by the strife of which all life is explained.
The experimental evidence which Dupre obtained bearing on the molecular structure of liquids must be very valuable, even if our present opinions on this subject should turn out to be erroneous.
The only cases, however, in which we have experimental values of this quantity are when the substance is either liquid and surrounded by similar liquid, or gaseous and surrounded by similar gas.
Experimental Laws of Surface-Tension.
By immunity is meant non-susceptibility to a given disease, or to experimental inoculation with a given bacterium or toxin.
animal may be readily susceptible to a disease on experimental inoculation, and yet rarely or never suffer from it naturally, because the necessary conditions of infection are not supplied in nature.
He obtained a B.Sc. from London University in 1875 with high honours and a D.Sc. in 1878, when he became professor of experimental physics in University College, Bristol.
It is in one of the finest agricultural sections and contains a government experimental farm, grain elevators, saw and grist mills.
His talent for experimental research was utilized in investigation into improvements of the army rifle, and he was largely responsible for starting the Hythe School of Musketry.
of Brooklyn, is a small unincorporated village, once famous for its whale-fisheries, and now best known for the presence here of the New York State Fish Hatchery, and of the Biological Laboratory of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and of the laboratory of the Department of Experimental Evolution of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
His "Recherches sur l'accroissement et la reproduction des vegetaux," published in the Memoires du museum d'histoire naturelle for 1821, procured him in that year the French Academy's prize for experimental physiology.
Struck with the great improvements then recently introduced into such apparatus by William Sturgeon of Woolwich, he had still further extended their efficiency, with considerable reduction of batterypower, by adopting in all the experimental circuits (where applicable) the principle of J.
In 1835 he combined the short circuit of his monster magnet (of 1834) with the small "intensity" magnet of an experimental telegraph wire, thereby establishing the fact that very powerful mechanical effects could be produced at a great distance by the agency of a very feeble magnet used as a circuit maker and breaker, or as a "trigger" - the precursor of later forms of relay and receiving magnets.
He started business as a clock, lock and tool maker at Doncaster, and attained a considerable local reputation for scientific knowledge and skilled workmanship. He also practised surgery in an experimental fashion, and was frequently consulted as an oculist.
These reasons are purely experimental, and in no way connected with Christianity, for he had long before given up all belief in revealed religion.
Details of his experimental work in magnetism and the problems of electricity and light are given in 17.3 8 9, 39 1 and 346, 6.859, 9.206, 21.936.
But his name is best known for the researches, experimental and mathematical, in radiation which led him, in company with R.
The investigation of caustics, being based on the assumption of the rectilinear propagation of light, and the validity of the experimental laws of reflection and refraction, is essentially of a geometrical nature, and as such it attracted the attention of the mathematicians of the 17th and succeeding centuries, more notably John Bernoulli, G.
He published numerous works on different branches of physics, including A Complete Treatise on Electricity (1777), Treatise on the Nature and Properties of Air and other permanently Elastic Fluids (1781), History and Practice of Aerostation (1785), Treatise on Magnetism (1787), Elements of Natural and Experimental Philosophy (1803), Theory and Practice of Medical Electricity (1780), and Medical Properties of Factitious Air (1798).
But it must be remembered that Leonardo was already full of projects in mechanics, hydraulics, architecture, and military and civil engineering, ardently feeling his way in the work of experimental.
Probably also his exclusive belief in experimental methods, and slight regard for mere authority whether in science or art made the intellectual atmosphere of the Medicean circle, with its passionate mixed cult of the classic past and of a Christianity mystically blended and reconciled with Platonism, uncongenial to him.
The tempera vehicle, perhaps including new experimental ingredients, did not long hold firmly to its plaster ground, nor that to the wall.
His many-sided and far-reaching studies in experimental science were mainly his own, conceived and carried out long in advance of his time, and in communion with only such more or less isolated spirits as were advancing along one or another of the same paths of knowledge.
A hundred years before Bacon, say those who can judge best, he showed a firmer grasp of the principles of experimental science than Bacon showed, fortified by a far wider range of actual experiment and observation.
Now that psychology, or the observational and experimental study of mind, may be said to have been definitively included among the positive sciences, there is not even the apparent ground which once existed for such an idea.
Since it has been taken up by specialists, psychology is being established on a broader basis of induction, and with the advantage, in some departments, of the employment of experimental methods of measurement.
For this aspect and further details, both descriptive and experimental, see J.
Upon his return he took up his residence in New York City, where (1868-1869) he was engaged in superintending the construction of an experimental floating battery.
The undulatory theory of light, first founded upon experimental demonstration by Thomas Young, was extended to a large class of optical phenomena, and permanently established by his brilliant discoveries and mathematical deductions.
The two inventors then cooperated, an experimental plant was run successfully, and the patents were taken over by the leading manufacturers.
The severe training through which he had passed had given him such an experimental knowledge of all the modes of religious melancholy as he could never have gathered from books; and his vigorous genius, animated by a fervent spirit of devotion, enabled him not only to exercise a great influence over the vulgar, but even to extort the half-contemptuous admiration of scholars.
Mansfield was laid out in 1808, and was named in honour of Lieut.-Colonel Jared Mansfield (1759-1830), United States surveyor of Ohio and the North-west Territory in 1803-1812, and professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point from 1812 to 1828.
It should be noted that these are not the results of a few years' working with an experimental plant, but of many years' work with large plant, now equal to a capacity of 120,000 tons of pyrites per annum.
He, however, resigned his ecclesiastical preferments in 1721, on his appointment to the Savilian professorship of astronomy at Oxford, while as reader on experimental philosophy (1729-1760) he delivered 79 courses of lectures in the Ashmolean museum.
The college includes the following departments: machine design and construction, experimental engineering, power engineering, and electrical engineering.
In the middle of 1708 Newton's consent was obtained, but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise, Roger Cotes, fellow of Trinity College, who had been recently appointed the first Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy.
e~tddingtons real work was the peace of Amiens (1802), In experimental peace, as the king called it, to see Lf the First Consul could be contented to restrain Liimself within the very wide limits by which his authority in Europe was still circumscribed.
The first experimental telegraph line was only erected in the year in which Queen Victoria came to the throne.
Connecting the experimental study of the physical and chemical properties is the immense theoretical edifice termed the kinetic theory of gases.
This subject, which is discussed in the article Molecule, has for its purpose (I) the derivation of a physical structure of a gas which will agree with the experimental observations of the diverse physical properties, and (2) a correlation of the physical properties and chemical composition.
Their united labours were unsuccessful, and Whewell did little more in the way of experimental science.
Their trial and conviction for manslaughter may be found in the daily periodicals of the date; but, strange to say, the experimental physiologists and nurses escaped scot-free.
In the way of education nearly everything has still to be done; but a technical school and an experimental agricultural station with a school have been opened at Tashkent.
Aepinus is best known by his researches, theoretical and experimental, in electricity and magnetism, and his principal work, Tentamen Theoriae Electricitatis et Magnetismi, published at St Petersburg in 1759, was the first systematic and successful attempt to apply mathematical reasoning to these subjects.
At the Restoration potent influences were drawing Oxford and England into experimental inquiries.
Now, as perception of these atoms and their relations is beyond us, we must be satisfied with inductive presumptions, for which " experimental verification " affords, after all, only conclusions that wider experience may prove to be inadequate.
(i) The sciences are descriptive or experimental.
This naturally suggested to a mind like Hume's, anxious to apply the experimental method to psychology, the problem of reducing these different elements of personal merit - or rather our approval of them - to some common principle.
Ethics should be regarded as a purely ` positive ' or ` experimental ' and not as a ` speculative ' science."
The seeming anomaly of classifying as a single branch of science all that we know in a field so wide, while subdividing our knowledge of things on our own planet into an indefinite number of separate sciences, finds its explanation in the impossibility of subjecting the matter of the heavens to that experimental scrutiny which yields such rich results when applied to matter which we can handle at will.
The proof supplied by him in 1802 that coupled stars mutually circulate threw open a boundless field of research; and he originated experimental inquiries into the construction of the heavens by systematically collecting and sifting stellar statistics.
He was originally a watchmaker, but retired from business about the age of thirty and devoted himself to experimental and observational science.
A law of 1908 requires that an agricultural school of secondary grade be established in each of the five supreme court judicial districts, and that an experimental farm be operated in connexion with each; and in 1909 the number of these districts was increased to six.
He certainly added little to the stock of human knowledge, but the clearness of his exposition and the manner in which he, like Bacon, urged the importance of experimental research, were of inestimable service to the cause of science.
The department has also endeavoured to encourage the fruit-growing industry in Ireland by the establishment of a horticultural school at Glasnevin, by efforts to secure uniformity in the packing and grading of fruit, by the establishment of experimental fruit-preserving factories, by the planting of orchards on a large scale in a few districts, and by pioneer lectures.
The department has devoted itself to (1) promoting in struction in experimental science, drawing, manual instruction and] domestic economy in day secondary schools, (2) supplying funds to country and urban authorities for the organization of schemes for technical instruction in non-agricultural subjects-these subjects embracing not only preparation for the highly organized industries but the teaching of such rural industries as basket-making, (3) the training of teachers by classes held at various centres, (4) the provision of central institutions, and (5) the awarding of scholarships.
He became professor of mathematics in the Jesuits' college at Cologne in 1817 and in the polytechnic school of Nuremberg in 1833, and in 1852 professor of experimental physics in the university of Munich, where he died on the 7th of July 1854.
Clerk Maxwell and George Chrystal that Ohm's law is true, within the limits of experimental error, even when the currents are so powerful as almost to fuse the conducting wire.
India: men were made after many efforts, in which the experimental beings did not harmonize with their environment, by Prajapati.
The divergence of these views has led to a large number of experimental investigations, instituted with the idea of deciding between them.