I shut down my experiment at six o'clock.
Quinn's experiment is very important to him.
If chemical compounds can be proved by experiment to obey these laws, then the atomic theory acquires a high degree of probability; if they are contradicted by experiment then the atomic theory must be abandoned, or very much modified.
We updated him on our experiment but his mind was elsewhere.
I shut off all my equipment at six o'clock when my experiment expires.
You will be glad to hear that my experiment is working out finely.
This book, her first mature experiment in writing, settles the question of her ability to write.
For once, she hoped Ully's oddball experiment didn.t let her down.
Was she really a one night stand and science experiment he enjoyed toying with, like she told Damian?
Briicke also brought forward an experiment of great importance, in which he showed that gum mastic, precipitated from an alcoholic solution poured into a large quantity of water, scatters light of a blue tint.
Let's do a thought experiment about this.
I can't shut down the experiment until six PM tomorrow night.
In a series of repetitions of the experiment, by different observers, the following numbers were obtained for the ratio of the copper in the two chlorides: 1.98, 1.97, 2.03, 2.003, the mean value being 1.996.
But neither temperament nor training allowed her to make her pupil the object of any experiment or observation which did not help in the child's development.
The experiment was interesting, but of course came to little.
Having learned from experiment and argument that a stone falls downwards, a man indubitably believes this and always expects the law that he has learned to be fulfilled.
A similar experiment had been tried in France not without success.
I thought, however, that the advantage she would derive would not repay her for the time and labour that such an experiment would cost.
How could youths better learn to live than by at once trying the experiment of living?
In water and in ethylene experiment shows that 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 6 parts of carbon, respectively, are in union with one part of hydrogen; also, if the diagrams are correct, these numbers must be in the ratio of the atomic weights of oxygen and carbon.
The experiment is, in fact, much improved by passing the primary light through a coloured glass.
The temperature of the water at the commencement of the experiment was 60° Fahr., and after two horses had turned the lathe for 22 hours the water boiled.
Thomsen by direct experiment found that the heat-capacity of a dilute aqueous solution diverged in general less than i per cent.
I had the previous winter made a small quantity of lime by burning the shells of the Unio fluviatilis, which our river affords, for the sake of the experiment; so that I knew where my materials came from.
They agree very well with experiment, and require us to suppose that the vibrations are perpendicular to the plane of polarization.
Martha, a come-lately convert to our experiment, offered to fix Howie a hot chocolate in hopes it would induce a snooze.
Similarly, if we know by experiment the composition of water and of ammonia, we can predict the probable composition of the oxides of nitrogen.
I learned this, at least, by my experiment: that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours.
This method will allow us to treat the entire world as a controlled experiment in retrospect.
Following on this he made an interesting experiment, using Morse's method, to connect the Isle of Wight telegraphically with the mainland, by conduction across the Solent in two places, during a temporary failure of the submarine cable in 1882 in that channel.
At La Carlota the Spanish government established a station for the study of the culture of sugar-cane; by the American government this has been converted into a general agricultural experiment station, known as "Government Farm."
By experiment, by studying other children, Miss Sullivan came upon the practical way of teaching language by the natural method.
In 1831 Wheatstone by his " magic lyre" experiment showed that, when the sounding-boards of two musical instruments are connected together by a rod of pine wood, a tune played on one will be faithfully reproduced by the other.
It must be conceded as no small merit in Lydgate that, in an age of experiment he should have succeeded so often in hitting the right word.
The hyposulphite experiment here again affords an excellent illustration.
On the shores of the Gulf St Vincent, again, from 1835 to 1837, South Australia was created by another joint-stock company, as an experiment in the Wakefield scheme of colonization.
In the next experiment the air was compressed as before, and then allowed to escape through a long lead tube immersed in the water of a calorimeter, and finally collected in a bell jar.
It was found possible to exchange speech when the conditions were exceptionally favourable; but in spite of the partial success of the experiment, a public service between the two capitals is not at present practicable.
Though he concealed the fact under a show of irritation and contempt, he was evidently in despair that the sole remaining chance of verifying his theory by a huge experiment and proving its soundness to the whole world was slipping away from him.
When Robert Fulton became a man, he did not forget his experiment with the old fishing boat.
We are the subjects of an experiment which is not a little interesting to me.
Here is life, an experiment to a great extent untried by me; but it does not avail me that they have tried it.
Possessing an immense range of knowledge, he has filled up lacunae in nearly every part of physics, by experiment, by calculation, and by clear accurate thought.
The present was my next experiment of this kind, which I purpose to describe more at length, for convenience putting the experience of two years into one.
As with other duplex systems it is possible to obtain several approximately correct adjustments with the bridge and its accessories, but only one gives a true balance, and careful experiment is required to make sure that this is obtained.
The weakness of the government in dealing with the strike riots caused a feeling of profound dissatisfaction, and the so-called experiment of liberty, conducted with the object of conciliating the extreme parties, proved a dismal failure.
A slip on which was printed, in raised letters, the word BOX was placed on the object, and the same experiment was tried with a great many articles, but she did not immediately comprehend that the label-name represented the thing.
He now resolved to try the experiment of applying photography to the determination of stellar parallax.
On repeating the experiment when the two vessels were placed in different calorimeters, it was found that heat was absorbed by the vessel containing the compressed air, while an equal quantity of heat was produced in the calorimeter containing the exhausted vessel.
In the experiment imagined by Lord Rayleigh a porous diaphragm takes the place of the partition and trap-doors imagined by Clerk Maxwell, and the molecules sort themselves automatically on account of the difference in their average velocities for the two gases.
The average value of the product of these percentages, namely o 65 Xo 09 =0.06 say, may be used to investigate generally the working of a locomotive; the actual value could only be determined by experiment in any particular case.
It is the seat of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and of Hobart College (nonsectarian), which was first planned in 1812, was founded in 1822 (the majority of its incorporators being members of the Protestant Episcopal church) as successor to Geneva Academy, received a full charter as Geneva College in 1825, and was renamed Hobart Free College in 1852 and Hobart College in 1860, in honour of Bishop John Henry Hobart.
In this experiment a great noise was produced, corresponding to a loss of energy, and Joule endeavoured to determine the amount of energy necessary to produce an equal amount of sound from the string of a violoncello and to apply a corresponding correction.
There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason to fear that on other grounds the present era may be known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the monodic period at the beginning of the 17th century, in which no one had ears for anything but experiments in harmonic colour.
The relationships existing between these enzymes are still the subjects of experiment, and we cannot regard them as exhaustively examined.
But experiment shows that in this condition much of the violin part sounds incomplete; and the truth appears to be that Haydn is thinking, like any modern composer, of the opposition of two solid bodies of tone - the pianoforte and the stringed instruments.
An agricultural experiment station and a normal school are conducted in connexion with the university.
An experiment made on the railway staff at Bovino, a highly malarious district on the Adriatic, gave a striking result.
In a more extended experiment on 657 railway-men 402 escaped.
The department of agriculture has an experiment station, established by the state in 1896, in which important experiments in cotton breeding have been carried on.
He did not, however, infer that since the heat could not have been supplied by the ice, for ice absorbs heat in melting, this experiment afforded conclusive proof against the substantial nature of heat.
To test this two vessels similar to that used in the last experiment were placed in the same calorimeter and connected by a tube with a stop-cock.
Following on this first experiment, the East India Company, in 1841, proposed to maintain a permanent flotilla on the Tigris and Euphrates, and set two vessels, the " Nitocris " and the " Nimrod," under the command of Captain Campbell of the Indian navy, to attempt the ascent of the latter river.
He made various reforms which were badly wanted in army administration, but on the whole the experiment of a civilian War Lord was not a complete success, and in April 1909 Senator Casana retired and was succeeded by General Spingardi, an appointment which received general approval.
The experiment was so far successful that, with incredible difficulty, the two vessels did actually reach Meskene, but the result of the expedition was to show that practically the river could not be used as a high-road of commerce, the continuous rapids and falls during the low season, caused mainly by the artificial obstructions of the irrigating dams, being insurmountable by ordinary steam power, and the aid of hundreds of hands being thus required to drag the vessels up the stream at those points by main force.
It became the fashion during these four forty-four years of peace to encourage the industrial years population and to experiment alize in economical re pea~.
What do you think about our little experiment?
In 1768 he had published Institutiones metallurgicae, intended to give a scientific form to chemistry by digesting facts established by experiment into a connected series of propositions.
An experiment in government by decree had been made in May - October 1894; it was repeated in September 1905, when the king consented to prorogue the cortes until January 1906 in order to postpone discussion of the terms upon which the tobacco monopoly was to be allocated.
According to (52) 1.31 = At T 12T Y T 23, (53) a relation not verified by experiment.
The process described by Quincke is somewhat elaborate; but there is little difficulty in repeating the experiment if the mistake be avoided of using a free surface already contaminated, as almost inevitably happens when the mercury is poured from an ordinary bottle.
A simple modification of the experiment suffices, however, to clear up the difficulty.
In a striking form of the experiment, the water is contained, to the depth of perhaps one inch, in a large flat dish, and the operative part of the surface is limited by a flexible hoop of thin sheet brass lying in the dish and rising above the water-level.
When the circumstances of the experiment are such that the reservoir is influenced by the shocks due to the impact of the jet, the disintegration usually establishes itself with complete regularity, and is attended by a musical note (Savart).
In one experiment the jet issued horizontally from an orifice of about half a centimetre in diameter, and almost immediately assumed a rippled outline.
In the case of the fountain the experiment may be made by leading tap-water through a Woulfe's bottle in which a little milk has been placed.
Thus, in an experiment of F.
[The above theory may be well illustrated by a lecture experiment.
In order to carry out the experiment the jet is caused to issue from an elliptical orifice in a thin plate, about 2 mm.
Divination of this sort, therefore, may be due to observation and experiment of a rude sort, rather than to the unchecked play of fancy which resulted in heteroscopic divination.
This statement can be readily verified by experiment both with natural and artificial wings.
That the weight of the body plays an important part in the production of flight may be proved by a very simple experiment.
That the wings invariably strike forwards during the down and up strokes in aerial flight is proved alike by observation and experiment.
This is a very striking experiment.
This is a matter of experiment.
It is not possible to determine with exactitude the precise function discharged by each part of the wing, but experiment tends to show that the tip of the wing elevates, the posterior margin propels, and the root sustains.
His interesting experiment is described at length, and the apparatus figured in Nicolson's Journal, 1800, p. 172.
In this form the experiment is one of remarkable beauty.
In 1307 the first attempt was made to combine the councils of K6lln and Berlin, but the experiment was abandoned four years later, and the two towns continued their separate existence till 1432, when the establishment of a common council for both led to disturbances of which the outcome was that Frederick II.
After the short and cruel reign of Cleph, the successor of Alboin, the Lombards (as we may begin for convenience sake to call them) tried for ten years the experiment of a national confederacy of their dukes (as, after the Latin writers, their chiefs are styled), without any king.
In 1822 he showed that when a mass of platinum black, supplied with alcohol by a wick is enclosed in a jar to which the air has limited access, acetic acid and water are produced; this experiment formed the basis of the Schiitzenbach Quick Vinegar Process.
This work, which embodied the results of many years' research, was distinguished by its strict adherence to the scientific method of investigation by experiment, and by the originality of its matter, containing, as it does, an account of the author's experiments on magnets and magnetical bodies and on electrical attractions, and also his great conception that the earth is nothing but a large magnet, and that it is this which explains, not only the direction of the magnetic needle north and south, but also the variation and dipping or inclination of the needle.
Until the abandonment of this experiment in 1847, Ripley was its leader, cheerfully taking upon himself all kinds of tasks, teaching mathematics and philosophy in the school, milking cows and attending to other bucolic duties, and after June 1845 editing the weekly Harbinger, an organ of "association," which he continued to edit in New York from 1847 until it was discontinued in 1849.
Finding that the bad quality of the steel then available for his products seriously hampered him, he began to experiment in steel-manufacture, first at Doncaster, and subsequently at Handsworth, near Sheffield, whither he removed in 1740 to secure cheaper fuel for his furnaces.
These contain an account of the well-known experiment in which he sought to establish the immateriality of heat by showing its generation through the friction of two pieces of ice in an exhausted vessel, and further attempt to prove that light is "matter of a peculiar kind," and that oxygen gas, being a compound of this matter with a simple substance, would more properly be termed phosoxygen.
A year after this paper, which gained him from the French Institute the medal offered by Napoleon for the best experiment made each year on galvanism, he described in his second Bakerian lecture the electrolytic preparation of potassium and sodium, effected in October 1807 by the aid of his battery.
In addition to the regular public schools, the state maintains a normal and a model school at Trenton, a normal school at Montclair (opened 1908), the Farnum Preparatory School at Beverly, a Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youth at Bordentown, and an agricultural college and experiment station, maintained in connexion with Rutgers College, at New Brunswick.
By the advice of Temple, Charles now tried the experiment of forming a new privy council in which the chief members of the opposition were included, and Shaftesbury was made president, with a salary of £4000, being also a member of the committee for foreign affairs.
It is evident that we have in this law a definite prediction that can be tested by experiment.
circare, to go round in a circle, to explore), the act of searching into a matter closely and carefully, inquiry directed to the discovery of truth, and in particular the trained scientific investigation of the principles and facts of any subject, based on original and first-hand study of authorities or experiment.
It was only then, too, that a reform was started in secondary education, with the object of revising the so-called " classical " system favoured in the lyceums since the 'seventies, the complete failure of which has been demonstrated after nearly thirty years of experiment.
It means taxation according to ability - that ability being determined by actual experiment.
To effect this result required many years of discussion and experiment.
The conclusions derived from the microscopical laboratory were confirmed by actual experiment.
The following equations give the result of direct experiment :- C +20 = CO 2+943 oo cal.
The following table gives the heats of neutralization of the commoner strong monobasic acids with soda: - Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydriodic acid Nitric acid Chloric acid Bromic acid Within the error of experiment these numbers are identical.
An agricultural experiment station established in 1887 under the Hatch Act, is at Agricultural College; and there are branch experiment stations at McNeill, Pearl River county (1906), near Holly Springs, and at Stoneville, near Greenville.
North Carolina is one of the few states to experiment with the inheritance tax, but the last law dealing with that subject was repealed in 1899.
Here again experiment was successful.
It was, however, one thing to experiment on dogs, and quite another to do so on human beings.
Instead of replacing the former imposts, however, Desmarets simply added his dixieme to them; the experiment was naturally disastrous, and the idea was abandoned.
His method was empirical, and the laws which he established were generally the result of repeated experiment.
He cannot afford to ignore the results that have been gradually accumulated - the truths that have been slowly established - at the agricultural experiment stations in various parts of the world.
It is related that a visitor from the United States, talking to Sir John Lawes, said, " Americans have learnt more from this field than from any other agricultural experiment in the world."
Another field experiment of singular interest is that relating to the mixed herbage of permanent meadow, for which seven acres of old grass land were set apart in Rothamsted Park in 1856.
His general formula for getting at the number of units in any sensation is S = C log R, where s stands for the sensation, R for the stimulus numerically estimated, and c for a constant that must be separately determined by experiment in each particular order of sensibility.
Chladni's experiment of strewing a vibrating bell with flour, investigated the nature of sound and the function of the air in respiration and combustion, and originated the idea of using the pendulum as a measure of gravity.
Physical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom.
But experience is of two sorts, external and internal; the first is that usually called experiment, but it can give no complete knowledge even of corporeal things, much less of spiritual.
Experimental science, which in the Opus Tertium (p. 46) is distinguished from the speculative sciences and the operative arts in a way that forcibly reminds us of Francis Bacon, is said to have three great prerogatives over all other sciences: - (1) It verifies their conclusions by direct experiment; (2) It discovers truths which they could never reach; (3) It investigates the secrets of nature, and opens to us a knowledge of past and future.
Redi, had disproved by experiment the spontaneous generation of maggots from putrid flesh, and had shown that they can only develop from the eggs of flies.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below loo° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
Before 1905 the state provided for higher education by the Florida State College, at Tallahassee, formerly the West Florida Seminary (founded in 1857); the University of Florida, at Lake City, which was organized in 1903 by enlarging the work of the Florida Agricultural College (founded in 1884); the East Florida Seminary, at Gainesville (founded 1848 at Ocala); the normal school (for whites) at De Funiak Springs; and the South Florida Military Institute at Bartow; but in 1905 the legislature passed the Buckman bill abolishing all these state institutions for higher education and establishing in their place the university of the state of Florida and a state Agricultural Experiment Station, both now at Gainesville, and the Florida Female College at Tallahassee, which has the same standards for entrance and for graduation as the state university for men.
to 8 p.m., and Bourne and his friends determined to continue the experiment as a counterblast to the parish wakes of the time, which were little better than local saturnalia.
The Federal government has an agricultural experiment station at Mayaguez.
The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable transitions and developments in all branches of natural science,and the facts accumulated by preceding generations during their generally unordered researches were re placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction.
In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction.
be recovered by adding phlogiston, and experiment showed that this could generally be effected by the action of coal or carbon, which was therefore regarded as practically pure phlogiston; the other constituent being regarded as an acid.
The former experiment had been performed by Scheele and Priestley, who had named the gas " phlogisticated air "; Lavoisier subsequently named it oxygen, regarding it as the " acid producer " (OE, sour).
Still, till the last Berzelius remained faithful to his original theory; experiment, which he had hitherto held to be the only sure method of research, he discarded, and in its place he substituted pure speculation, which greatly injured the radical theory.
Experiment, however, showed that while the quotient on the left hand of this equation was fairly constant for a great number of substances, yet its value was not gR but 7 R; this means that the critical density is, as a general rule, 3.7 times the theoretical density.
By experiment it is found that the thermal effect of a double bond is much less than the effect of two single bonds, while a triple bond has a much smaller effect than three single bonds.
From supersaturated solutions the form unstable at the temperature of the experiment is, as a rule, separated, especially on the introduction of a crystal of the unstable form; and, in some cases, similar inoculation of the fused substance is attended by the same result.
The experiment of arming the native Egyptians on a large scale does not seem to have been made before the campaign of 217, when Ptolemy IV.
A regiment of the Indian army was recruited among them, but the experiment proved a failure, and the Moplah Rifles were disbanded in April 1907.
Morse's petition for a patent was soon followed by a petition to Congress for an appropriation to defray the expense of subjecting the telegraph to actual experiment over a length sufficient to establish its feasibility and demonstrate its value.
A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
Hundreds of varieties have been tested by the state and federal agricultural experiment stations.
A central agricultural experiment station (founded 1904) is maintained by the government at Santiago de las Vegas; but there is no agricultural college, nor any special school for the scientific teaching and improvement of sugar and tobacco farming or manufacture.
In Havana, also, there is a school of painting and sculpture, a school of arts and trades, and a national library, all of which are supported or subventioned by the national government, as are also a public library in Matanzas, and the Agricultural Experiment Station at Santiago de las Vegas.
Accordingly, every treatise on applied mathematics, properly so-called, is directed to the criticism of the "laws" from which the reasoning starts, or to a suggestion of results which experiment may hope to find.
Thus if it calculates the result of some experiment, it is not the experimentalist's well-attested results which are on their trial, but the basis of the calculation.
It was in 1845 he made the now famous experiment of Walden.
For such an experiment, though hampered by continual insurrections within Policy in and troubles without, Mahmud had done some- Turkey.
Though the experiment with this engine was successful, the design was abandoned by the pasha, and Belzoni resolved to continue his travels.
In October 1908, at a special election, the security franchise was invalidated, and this seemed to have the effect of dissolving the lease held by the Municipal Traction Co., and of ending the city's experiment in operating (indirectly) the street car lines.
At Amherst is also the MassachusettsAgricultural College (co-educational; 1867) and experiment station (1887).
The Act of 1872 provided for five or more colleges or departments: a college of science, literature and the arts, which offers (for the degree of Bachelor of Arts) a four-years course, is entirely elective (except that a certain number of " long courses " must be selected) after the first year, and in which the only restriction is upon the range of subjects from which the student's choice may be made; a college of agriculture (including military tactics), which is now a " department," including a college and a school of agriculture, a short course for farmers, a dairy school, the Crookston school of agriculture, a main experiment station at St Anthony Park, between Minneapolis and St Paul, and sub-stations 1 m.
The results give equations of the same logarithmic form as those obtained in a somewhat different manner in the theory of concentration cells described above, and have been verified by experiment.
In Africa it seems probable that the production of rubber from vines is likely to be entirely superseded in process of time, and replaced by the plantations of trees which are already being established in those districts in which careful experiment has determined the kind of rubber tree best adapted to the locality.
The success of the method cannot yet be judged, but the experiment is one which deserves very full trial.
Grenfell, M.P., with the object of reintroducing this fish into the river, and in April 1901 and on subsequent occasions a number of young salmon were placed at Teddington by way of experiment.
Two obvious methods of experiment have been tried.
Apart altogether from the facts that this investigation is still in its infancy and that the conditions of experiment are insufficiently understood, its ultimate success is rendered highly problematical by the essential fact that real scientific results can be achieved only by data recorded in connexion with a perfectly nortnal subject; a conscious or interested subject introduces variable factors which are probably incalculable.
This experiment suggested to Faraday the conception of ' r,?
This experiment proves that the condition of magnetization is not confined to those parts where polar phenomena are exhibited, but exists throughout the whole body of the magnet; it also suggests the idea of molecular magnetism, upon which the accepted theory of magnetization is based.
Demagnetization by Reversals.-In the course of an experiment it is often desired to eliminate the effects of previous magnetization, and, as far as possible, wipe out the magnetic history of a specimen.
The magnetic condition assumed by a piece of ferromagnetic metal in different circumstances is determinable by various modes of experiment which may be classed as magnetometric, ballistic, and traction methods.
The specimen upon which an experiment is to be made generally consists of a wire having a " dimensional ratio " of at least 300 or goo; its length should be rather less than that of the magnetizing coil, in order that the field Ho, to which it is subjected, may be approximately uniform from end to end.
10, shows the result of a typical experiment made upon a piece of soft iron (Ewing, Phil.
Let s be the area of a single turn of the standard coil, n the number of its turns, and r the resistance of the circuit of which the coil forms part; and let S, N and R be the corresponding constants for a coil which is to be used in an experiment.
The experiment may be made in two different ways: (I) the magnetizing current is increased by a series of sudden steps, each of which produces a ballistic throw, the value of B after any one throw being proportional to the sum of that and all the previous throws; the magnetizing FIG.
After pointing out that, since the magnetization of the metal is the quantity really concerned, W is more appropriately expressed in terms of I, the magnetic moment per unit of volume, than of B, he suggests an experiment to determine whether the mechanical work required to effect the complete magnetic reversal i Phil.
An experiment by Ewing showed that by the operation of stretching an annealed iron wire beyond the limits of elasticity the permeability under a magnetizing force of about 3 units was reduced by as much as 75%.
The actual experiment to which it relates was carried only as the point marked X, corresponding to a magnetizing force of 65, and an induction of nearly 17,000.
The full line shows the result of an experiment in which the magnetizing force was carried up to 585,1 FIG.
Little or no change of length was observed until the strength of the field Ho reached about 50; then the rod began to contract, and after passing a minimum at Ho= 000, recovered its original length at Ho = 750; beyond this point there was extension, the amount of which was still increasing fast when the experiment was stopped at Ho= 1400.
merely has the effect of diminishing the maximum elongation and hastening the contraction; with the two greatest loads used in the experiment there was indeed no preliminary extension at all.'
Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.
In the same paper Nagaoka and Honda describe an important experiment on the effect of transverse stress.
The experiment was the reverse of one made by Kelvin with a gunbarrel subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure (Phil.
Now nickel contracts instead of lengthening when it is magnetized, and an experiment by Knott showed, as he expected, that caeteris paribus a nickel wire twists in a sense opposite to that in which iron twists.
The results of a typical experiment are given in the annexed table, which shows how greatly the hysteresis loss is diminished as the critical temperature is approached.
Soc., 1896, 60, 81) were the first to experiment on the permeability and hysteresis of iron at low temperatures down to that of liquid air (-186° C.).
Observations were also made of the changes of permeability which took place as the temperature of the sample slowly rose from - 186° to 15°, the magnetizing force being kept constant throughout an experiment.
The critical temperature (if there is one) was not reached in Faraday's experiment; possibly even the temperature of -250 C., which by the use of liquid hydrogen has now become accessible, might still be too high.
He considers that Hall's is the fundamental phenomenon, and that the Nernst effect is essentially identical with it, the primary electromotive force in the case of the latter being that of the Thomson effect in the unequally heated metal, while in the Hall experiment it is derived from an external source.
Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.
Owing to the difficulty of determining the magnetization I and the susceptibility K with accuracy, it has not yet been possible to submit this formula to a quantitative test, but it is said to afford an indication of the results given by actual experiment.
In one case the hysteresis loss per cubic centimetre per cycle was 16,100 ergs for B =1 5,900, and only 1200 ergs for B = 20,200, the highest induction obtained in the experiment; possibly it would have vanished before B had reached 21,000.2 These experiments prove that actual friction must be almost entirely absent, and, as Baily remarks, the agreement of the results with the previously suggested deduction affords a strong verification of Ewing's form of the molecular theory.
There are strong reasons for believing that magnetism is a phenomenon involving rotation, and as early as 1876 Rowland, carrying out an experiment which had been proposed by Maxwell, showed that a revolving electric charge produced the same magnetic effects as a current.
Careful experiment and observation, not the inner consciousness, are, he insists, the only foundations of true science.
" It is very easy for men of acute intellect, apart from experiment and practice, to slip and err."
The experiment of republican government had proved so discreditable, and had so wearied the country of cabals, that men hitherto known for their sympathy with democratic principles became more monarchical than the regent himself; and under this influence a movement to give the regency into the hands of the princess Donna Januaria, now in her 18th year, was set on foot.
Richard Chevenix (1774-1830), a chemist, having bought some of the substance, decided after experiment that it was not a simple body as claimed, but an alloy of mercury with platinum, and in 1803 presented a paper to the Royal Society setting forth this view.
Substitution takes place usually in the nucleus and only rarely in the side chain, and according to the conditions of the experiment and the nature of the compound acted upon, one or more nitro groups enter the molecule.
Several different products may be obtained by the reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds, the substances formed in any particular case depending on the conditions of experiment.
This short-lived experiment, which inspired the muse of Vodnik, the first Slovene poet of real mark, had its aftermath in the Illyrian movement of the forties, which centred in Zagreb, the Croatian capital.
The active search for knowledge by means of observation and experiment found its natural home in the universities.
In the 17th century the lovers of the new philosophy, the investigators of nature by means of observation and experiment, banded themselves into academies or societies for mutual support and intercourse.
Outside the scientific world an immense mass of observation and experiment had grown up in relation to this subject.
But, as applied to lower and more obscure forms of life, teleology presented alfnost insurmountable difficulties; and consequently, in place of exact experiment and demonstration, the most reckless though ingenious assumptions were made as to the utility of the parts and organs of lower animals.
Having obtained a first hybrid generation, he allowed the hybrids to self-fertilize, and recorded the result in a large number of instances (a thousand or more) as to the number of individuals in the first, second, third and fourth generations in which the character selected for experiment made its appearance.
The record of Brown-Sequard's original experiment is not satisfactory, and the subsequent attempts to obtain similar results have not been attended with success.
The very cases which are advanced as only to be explained on the Lamarckian assumption are found on examination and experiment to be better explained, or only to be explained, by the Darwinian principle.
(It is easy to see that the radius of the bright spot is of the same order of magnitude.) The experiment succeeds in a dark room of the length above mentioned, with a threepenny bit (supported by three threads) as obstacle, the origin of light being a small needle hole in a plate of tin, through which the sun's rays shine horizontally after reflection from an external mirror.
In experiment under ordinary circumstances it makes no difference whether the collecting lens is in front of or behind the diffracting aperture.
An interesting modification of the experiment may be made by using light of various wave-lengths.
Theory and experiment alike prove that a double line, of which the components are equally strong, is better resolved when, for example, one-sixth of the horizontal aperture is blocked off by a central screen; or the rays quite at the centre may be allowed to pass, while others a little farther removed are blocked off.
In illustration of this fact a simple experiment may be mentioned.
The experiment is easily made on a laboratory scale, with a small source of light, the rays from which, in their course towards a rather distant screen, are disturbed by the neighbourhood of a heated body.
Expressions suitable for discussion when v is large were obtained 1 In experiment a line of light is sometimes substituted for a point in order to increase the illumination.
Foiled by the valour of the citizens, they sailed away and harried the coast from Essex to Hampshire. !Ethelred now resorted to the old experiment and bought them off for £16,000 and a promise of supplies.
Milner, anxious above everything else to obtain sufficient revenue to carry on his work of reconstruction, gave his consent to the experiment.
Unfortunately the lesson which his contemporaries learnt was not the importance of experiment, but only the need of contriving ether" systems "less open to objection; and thus the influence of Haller led directly to the theoretical subtleties of William Cullen and John Brown, and only indirectly and later on to the general anatomy of M.
We see now that the practice of the experimental method endows with a new vision both the experimenter himself and, through his influence, those who are associated with him in medical science, even if these be not themselves actually engaged in experiment; a new discipline is imposed upon old faculties, as is seen as well in other sciences as in those on which medicine more directly depends.
hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.
The use of such explosives decreases to some extent the danger from dust explosions; but experiment shows that no efficient explosive is absolutely safe, if used in excessive quantity, or in an improper manner.
0 593, and by experiment.
Maxwell illustrates the difference between a soft solid and a hard liquid by a jelly and a block of pitch; also by the experiment of supporting a candle and a stick of sealingwax; after a considerable time the sealing-wax will be found bent and so is a fluid, but the candle remains straight as a solid.
An experiment was devised by Lord Kelvin for demonstrating this, in which the difference of steadiness was shown of a copper shell filled with liquid and spun gyroscopically, according as the shell was slightly oblate or prolate.
On this view, multiple scolices are, therefore, not buds, but an example of the unlocalized organization of the embryo such as occurs in other groups of animals, and is demonstrated by experiment.
It has been found by experiment that plants need for their nutritive process and their growth, certain chemical elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron.
It has been found by experiment that the nitrogen needed by practically all farm crops except leguminous ones is best supplied in the form of a nitrate; the rapid effect of nitrate of soda when used' as a top dressing to wheat or other plants is well known to farmers..
Very slight differences in climate appear to cause very great differences in the quality of the tobacco, and ordinary meteorological records are of little use in determining the suitability or not of a region for a particular kind of leaf; this essential point must be determined by experiment.
63, Office of Experiment Stations, U.S. Department of Agriculture, indicate the more important constituents and also the changes which take place during fermentation.
The most recent and exhaustive experiment was that of J.
After discussing the structure of the eye he gives an experiment in which the appearance of the reversed images of outside objects on a piece of paper held in front of a small hole in a darkened room, with their forms and colours, is quite clearly described and explained with a diagram, as an illustration of the phenomena of vision.
He describes an experiment made by a Benedictine monk and architect, Dom Papnutio or Panuce, of the same kind as Leonardo's but without the demonstration.
Savonarola, perceiving that a trap was being laid for him, discountenanced the "experiment" until his calmer judgment was at last overborne by the fanaticism of his followers.
It has departments of agriculture, engineering and science, a library of 15,000 volumes and an experiment station.
Experiment showed, however, that instead of only potash appearing at the negative electrode, hydrogen is also liberated; this is inexplicable by Berzelius's theory, but readily explained by the " hydrogen-acid " theory.
For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or interruption from his family - three precious years in which the first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, was elaborated.
And the metrical vehicle which he conceived as the only one adequate to his great theme was a rude experiment, which was ultimately developed into the stately Virgilian hexameter.
With the aid of this apparatus, the principal facts of electrostatics can be experimentally verified, as follows: Experiment I.
Experiment I V.
This experiment proves that when a charged body acts by induction on an insulated conductor it causes an electrical separation to take place; electricity of opposite sign is drawn to the side nearest the inducing body, and that of like sign is repelled to the remote side, and these quantities are equal in amount.
system this unit quantity is defined as follows: - If we consider a very small electrified spherical conductor, experiment shows that it exerts a repulsive force upon another similar and similarly electrified body.
He remarks that ” the law according to which the motive power of heat varies at different points of the thermometric scale is intimately connected with that of the variations of the specific heats of gases at different temperatures - a law which experiment has not yet made known to us with sufficient exactness."
Joule (1845) was the first to prove it approximately by direct experiment, but did not see his way to reconcile Carnot's principle, as stated by Clapeyron, with the mechanical theory.
(7) The value of the specific heat S at constant pressure can always be determined by experiment, and in practice is one of the most important thermodynamical properties of a substance.
It is found by experiment that the change of pv with pressure at moderate pressures is nearly proportional to the change of p, in other words that the coefficient d(pv)/dp is to a first approximation a function of the temperature only.
This test was applied by Joule in the well-known experiment in which he allowed a gas to expand from one vessel to another in a calorimeter without doing external work.
Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
It is easy to arrange the experiment so that U is small and nearly constant.
Putting d0/dp=A/0 2 in equation (15), and integrating on the assumption that the small variations of S could be neglected over the range of the experiment, they found a solution of the type, v/0 =f(p) - SA /30 3, in which f(p) is an arbitrary function of p. Assuming that the gas should approximate indefinitely to the ideal state pv = R0 at high temperatures, they put f(p)=Rip, which gives a characteristic equation of the form v= Re/p - SA /30 2 .
At higher densities it is probable that more complex aggregates would be formed, so that as the effect of the collisions became more important c would cease to be a function of the temperature only; experiment, indeed, shows this to be the case.
The first experiment he made with this new organism was brilliantly successful.
It is almost universally found, in cases of successful experiment, that the glass ball, for example, takes a milky or misty aspect, that it then grows black, reflections disappearing, and that then the pictures emerge.
It has not been found possible to determine, before experiment, whether any given man or woman will prove capable of the hallucinatory experiences.
In fact, some Oriental scenes and descriptions of incidents were corroborated by a letter from India which arrived just after the experiment; and the same thing happened when the events described were occurring in places less remote.
On one occasion a curious set of incidents were described, which happened to be vividly present to the mind of a sceptical stranger who chanced to be in the room during the experiment; events unknown to the inquirer in this instance.
Perhaps from five to ten minutes is a long enough time for the experiment.
He ought not, of course, to be told more than that he is to descry the inquirer's thoughts, and there ought never to be physical contact, as in holding hands, between the inquirer and the scryer during the experiment.
A regulation excluding Maltese from the navy (because of their speaking on board a language that their officers did not understand) provoked from Trinity College, Cambridge, the Strickland correspondence in The Times on the constitutional rights of the Maltese, and a leading article induced the Colonial Office to try an experiment known as the Strickland-Mizzi Constitution of 1887.
One of these problems, illustrated by experiment, deals with an ingenious mode of propelling vessels by the reaction of water ejected from the stern.
Experiment showed that the latter prediction was what happened.
The volume u may be determined by repeating the experiment when only air is in the cup. In this case v =o, and the equation becomes (u --al l) (h - k') =uh, whence u = al' (h - k l) /k'.
The chief errors to which the stereometer is liable are (I) variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure during the experiment, and (2) the presence of moisture which disturbs Boyle's law.
The method differed from Regnault's inasmuch as the flask was exhausted to an almost complete vacuum,a performance rendered possible by the high efficiency of the modern air-pump. The actual experiment necessitates the most elaborate precautions, for which reference must be made to Morley's original papers in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge (1895), or to M.
To complete the experiment, the graduated tube containing the expelled air is brought to a constant and determinate temperature and pressure, and this volume is the volume which the given weight of the substance would occupy if it were a gas under the same temperature and pressure.
Similarly in the case of the weighing in water, account must be taken of the buoyancy of the weights, and also, if absolute densities be required, of the density of water at the temperature of the experiment.
Lord Kelvin's experiment with a current of gas forced through a porous plug is also given.
But the experiment was not altogether successful, and Temple himself advised its abandonment in 1855.
The Agricultural Experiment Station, at Newark, publishes in its Annual Report a record of temperature and rainfall.
The state established a university at Iowa City in 1847, a State Agricultural College and Model Farm in 1858 (opened at Ames in 1869 as the Iowa State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts), an Agricultural Experiment Station in 1887, an Engineering Experiment Station in 1904, and a normal school at Cedar Falls in 1876.
In the following table are given the values of the diameters of the molecules of six substances with which it is easy to experiment in the gaseous state, these values being calculated in different ways from formulae supplied by the kinetic theory.
(21) The comparison of this formula with experiment provides a striking confirmation of the truth of the kinetic theory but at the same time discloses the most formidable difficulty which the theory has so far had to encounter.
The famous experiment with the kite, proving lightning an electrical phenomenon, was performed by Franklin in June 1752.
Census (alternating with Federal census), and reports and bulletins of the Board of Agriculture (1852) and the Agricultural College (1867), and Experiment Station (1883) at Amherst.
Armstrong resigned his position in 1863, and for seventeen years the government adhered to the older method of loading, in spite of the improvements which experiment and research at Elswick and elsewhere had during that period produced in the mechanism and performance of heavy guns.
After a visit to England, in 1842, he started with two English associates, Charles Lane and Henry C. Wright, at "Fruitlands," in the town of Harvard, Massachusetts, a communistic experiment at farm-living and nature-meditation as tending to develop the best powers of body and soul.
In vain Edward Gibbon Wakefield, organizer of colonizing associations, prayed and intrigued for permission to repeat in New Zealand the experiment tried by him in South Australia.
Up to January 1891 the Conservative forces which overthrew Sir George Grey in 1879 controlled the country in effect though not always in name, and for ten years progressive legislation was confined to a mild experiment in offering crown lands on perpetual lease, with a right of purchase (1882), a still milder instalment of local option (1881) and an inoffensive Factories Act (1886).
The experiment of applying responsible government on party lines to the two Canadian provinces at last seemed to have come to a deadlock.
Bach's sonatas; then the medium itself began to suggest wider horizons and new possibilities of treatment; his position at Eisenstadt enabled him to experiment without reserve; his genius, essentially symphonic in character, found its true outlet in the opportunities of pure musical structure.
The State College of Washington (1890) at Pullman, for instruction in agriculture, mechanical arts and natural sciences, includes an agricultural college, an experiment station and a school of science.
The experiment is usually performed, in a more striking manner, with a bell-jar and a number of small light wooden balls suspended by silk strings to a fixed frame above the jar, so as to be just in contact with the widest part of the glass.
Thus in the air-pump experiment, before exhaustion it travels through the glass of the receiver and the base plate.
io) represents the displacement curve of a train of waves, will represent the pressure excess and particle velocity, and from (II) we see that while the nodal conditions of b, with Co' and u=o, travel with velocity 1/(E/p), the crests exceed that velocity by 1(7 + i)u, and the hollows fall short of it by 1(7 + I)u, with the result that the fronts of the pressure waves become steeper and steeper, and the train b changes into something like c. If the steepness gets very great our investigation ceases to apply, and neither experiment nor theory has yet shown what happens.
In an experiment described by Rayleigh such a wheel provided with four armatures was used to determine the exact frequency of a driving fork known to have a frequency near 32.
He used two kinds of experiment, but it will be sufficient here to indicate the second.
This correction has also been found by David James Blaikley by direct experiment (Phil.
In the mercury experiment the sounding rod was sealed into the dust-tube, which was exhausted of air, and contained only some mercury and some quartz dust to give the heaps.
This experiment may be varied by holding the fork over a glass jar into which water is poured to such a depth that the air-column within reinforces the note of the fork when suitably placed, and then turning the fork round.
The paper failed in less than three weeks, the printers losing only $50 or $60 by the experiment.
172 (revised) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, office of Experiment Stations; the Reports of the United States Census; H.
At the same time in 794, as a fresh experiment in policy, every third man was transported; while the king was assisted in his work of conquest by the Abotrites who inhabited a district east of the Elbe.
Launhardt found that, for stresses always of the same kind, F = (t-u)/(t-fmax.) approximately agreed with experiment.
But the theory of such a combined structure could not be formulated at that time, and it was proved, partly by experiment, that a simple tubular girder of wrought iron was strong enough to carry the railway.
Assoc. Report, 1845), tho gh 781.5 was obtained by subsequent repetitions of the experiment.
A third experiment took the form of distributing over many backs a burden too heavy for one.
The question was repeatedly raised as to why the prime minister did not take advantage of this patriotic spirit to obtain a corresponding parliamentary demonstration; but it had surprised him, as it had many, and he shrank from the serious responsibility which would have resulted if the experiment had turned out badly; the aged Emperor's need of quiet, and the conviction that the Reichsrat, if summoned ad hoc, would, as for so long before, be of no active use, also played their part.
The leading state institutions are the state university (1882) at Vermilion, the agricultural college (1884) and the agricultural experiment station at Brookings, the state school of mines (1886) at Rapid City, and normal schools at Spearfish, Madison, Aberdeen and Springfield.
Educational facilities are also furnished by the state through university and school of mines at University, near Grand Forks, normal schools (opened in 1890) at Valley City and Mayville, an agricultural college and experiment station (1890) at Fargo, a normal and industrial school (opened in 1899) at Ellendale, a school for the deaf (1890) at Devils Lake, a scientific school (opened in 1903) at Wahpeton, and a school of forestry at Bottineau.
Early in the 19th century Andrew Knight showed by experiment that the vertical growth of stems and roots is due to the influence of gravitation, and made other observations on the relation between the position assumed by plant organs and external directive forces, and later Dutrochet, H.
Mayer entirely ignored the grand fundamental principle laid down by Sadi Carnot - that nothing can be concluded as to the relation between heat and work from an experiment in which the working substance is left at the end of an operation in a different physical state from that in which it was at the commencement.
Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish his theory, ` because he was not able from experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'
Before 1868 Maxwell conducted the experiment by sending light from the illuminated cross-wires of an observing telescope forward through the object-glass, and through a train of prisms, and then reflecting it back along the same path; any influence of convection would conspire in altering both refractions, but yet no displacement of the image depending on the earth's motion was detected.
The nature of the motion, if any, that is produced in the surrounding regions of the aether by the translation of matter through it can be investigated by optical experiment.
It has in fact been found, with the very great precision of which optical experiment is capable, that all terrestrial optical phenomenareflexion, refraction, polarization linear and circular, diffraction - are entirely unaffected by the direction of the earth's motion, while the same result has recently been extended to electrostatic forces; and this is our main experimental clue.
This statement constitutes the famous hypothesis of Fresnel, which thus ensures that all phenomena of ray-path and refraction, and all those depending on phase, shall be unaffected by uniform convection of the material medium, in accordance with the results of experiment.
But a classical experiment of A.
The experiment of J.
His responsibility for the disastrous experiment of the national workshops he himself denied in his Appel aux honnetes gens (Paris, 1849), written in London after his flight; but by the insurgent mob of the 15th of May and by the victorious Moderates alike he was regarded as responsible.
In 1772 he suggested to the Royal Society the famous Schehallion experiment for the determination of the earth's density and carried out his plan in 1774 (Phil.
In many cases pollen has no effect on the stigma of the same flower, the plants are selfsterile, in other cases external pollen is more effective (pre-potent) than pollen from the same flower; but in a very large number of cases experiment has shown that there is little or no difference between the effects of external pollen and that from the same flower.
Experiment showed that legitimate unions yield a larger quantity of seed than illegitimate.
As a first result of experiment it was found that the resistance of similar shot was proportional, at the same velocity, to the surface or cross section, or square of the diameter.
It is further assumed, as the result of experiment, that the resistance is proportional to the density of the air; so that if the standard density changes from unity to any other relative density denoted by then R= Td 2 p, and is called the coefficient of tenuity.
By means of a well-chosen value of n, determined by a few experiments, it is possible, pending further experiment, with the most recent design, to utilize Bashforth's experimental results carried out with old-fashioned projectiles fired from muzzle-loading guns.
These functions, T, S, D, 1, A, are shown numerically in the following extract from an abridged ballistic table, in which the velocity is taken as the argument and proceeds by an increment of 10 f/s; the column for p is the one determined by experiment, and the remaining columns follow by calculation in the manner explained above.
The thermochemical properties of the constituents of an explosive will assign an upper limit to the volume, temperature and pressure of the gas produced by the combustion; but much experiment is required in addition.
The Maryland Agricultural College, to which an experiment station has been added, was opened in 1859; it is at College Park in Prince George's county, and is largely under state management.
His bent for science showed itself while he was still a schoolboy, and indeed his removal from Eton to Harrow is said to have been occasioned by an accidental explosion which occurred whilst he was performing an experiment for his own amusement.
Thus, for instance, if an experiment were made with a Leclanche cell, and if the balancing-point were found to be at 1500 divisions on the scale, the electromotive force would be determined as I 50o volts.
The island was destined to become the scene of a curious social experiment.
He left nothing in doubt if experiment would decide it, and he evidently did not consider that he had fully investigated any compound until he could both unmake and remake it.
This parochial machinery enabled him to make a singularly successful experiment in dealing with the problem of poverty.
In an experiment similar to that here represented, Newton made a small hole in the screen and another small hole in a second screen placed behind the first.
In the first place experiment has shown that biting-flies, other in all probability than the true, natural hosts, may at times transmit the parasites - as it were - accidentally, if, after feeding on an infected animal, they are allowed to bite a fresh one within a limited time.
Dry farming has been successfully carried on at an experiment farm, established in 1906, 12 m.
By 1834 his originality and resource in experiment were fully recognized, and he was appointed professor of experimental philosophy at King's College, London, in that year.
Information regarding the resources, climate, population and industries of Alabama may be found in the reports of the United States Census, and in the publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, the United States Geological Survey, the Bulletins of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (published at Auburn, from 1888), the Bulletins and Reports of the Alabama Geological Survey (published at Tuscaloosa and Montgomery), and in the following works: - B.
As a bulwark against the Spanish, the colony was successful, but as an economic experiment it was a failure.
Several of the largest and finest sugar estates in the world are situated in the vicinity, including the Soledad (with a botanical experiment station maintained by Harvard University), the Terry and others - most of them connected with the city by good driveways.
in 1808 and now a horticultural experiment station.
's7raapos, skilled in, from ii-apa, experiment), in philosophy, the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-given data.
An important experiment by C. Gunther 2 seems however to show that the radiation of metallic salts in a flame has an intensity equal to that belonging to it in virtue of its temperature.
Experiment (c) is, however, generally taken to mean that this closeness of packing cannot be the sole determining cause, for it is argued that if a closed vacuum tube can show both wide and narrow lines according to the mode of discharge, density alone cannot account for the change.
We have first the Doppler effect, which, according to Michelson's experiment, is the chief cause of the limit at very low pressures, but it is too small to account for the widening which is now under discussion.
We therefore should expect a band in place of the line, which is the case, but our calculation is not able to give the displacement of the most intense portion, which is what we require for comparison with experiment.
The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
A few bananas and (especially from Oahu) pineapples of fine quality are exported; since 1901 the canning of 3 The entomological department of the Hawaii Experiment Station undertakes " mosquito control," and in 1905-1906 imported top-minnows (Poeciliidae) to destroy mosquito larvae.
Tobacco of a high grade, especially for wrappers, has been grown at the Agricultural Experiment Station's farm at Hamakua, on the island of Hawaii, where the tobacco is practically " shade grown " under the afternoon fogs from Mauna Kea.
Cotton and silk culture have been experimented with on the islands; and the work of the Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station is of great value, in introducing new crops, in improving old, in studying soils and fertilizers and in entomological research.
Bingham, A Residence of Twenty-one Years in the Sandwich Islands (Hartford, 1848); Isabella Bird, Six Months in the Sandwich Islands (New York, 1881); Adolf Bastian, Zur Kenntnis Hawaiis (Berlin, 1883); the annual Reports of the governor of Hawaii, of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, of the Board of Commissioners on Agriculture and Forestry, and of the Hawaii Promotion Committee; and the Papers of the Hawaiian Historical Society.
The method of measuring the horizontal component which is almost exclusively used, both in fixed observatories and in the field, consists in observing the period of a freely suspended magnet, and then obtaining the angle through which an auxiliary suspended magnet is deflected by the magnet used in the first part of the experiment.
By the vibration experiment we obtain the value of the product of the magnetic moment (M) of the magnet into the horizontal component (H), while by the deflexion experiment we can deduce the value of the ratio of M to H, and hence the two combined give both M and H.
In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian.
When making the deflection experiment the magnetometer is arranged as shown in fig.
The magnet K used in the vibration experiment is supported on a carriage L which can slide along the graduated bar D.
During the experiment the mirror magnet is protected from draughts by two wooden doors which slide in grooves.
When conducting a deflexion experiment the de flecting magnet K is placed with its centre at 30 cm.
Mag., 1904 , 7, p. 113.) In the case of the vibration experiment correction terms have to be introduced to allow for the temperature of the magnet, for the inductive effect of the earth's field, which slightly increases the magnetic moment of the magnet, and for the torsion of the suspension fibre, as well as the rate of the chronometer.
deflexion experiment, then no correction on account of the effect of temperature in the magnetic moment would be necessary in either experiment.
In the deflexion experiment, in addition to the induction correction, and that for the effect of temperature on the magnetic moment, a correction has to be applied for the effect of temperature on the length of the bar which supports the deflexion magnet.
The first experiment which he has recorded was the construction of a voltaic pile with seven halfpence, seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt water.
Davy to the laboratory of the Royal Institution to make an experiment.
This was his first successful experiment.
On the 3rd of November a new horseshoe magnet came home, and Faraday immediately began to experiment on the action in the polarized ray through gases, but with no effect.
The following day he repeated an experiment which had given no result on the 6th of October.
at the imperial diet which assembled at Regensburg in 1654, by the experiment of the "Magdeburg hemispheres."
In 1609 and 1619 Kepler published his new laws of planetary motion, which were subsequently shown by Newton to agree with the results obtained by experiment for the motion of terrestrial bodies.
It is found that this gives a consistent result; that is to say, if by an experiment with two particles A and B we get the ratio of their masses, and by an experiment with B and a third particle C we get the ratio of the masses of B and C, and thus the ratio of the masses of A and C, we should get the same ratio by a direct experiment with A and C. For the numerical measure of mass that of some standard body is chosen as a unit, and the masses of other bodies are obtained by comparison with this.
Masses of terrestrial bodies are generally compared by weighing; this is found by experiment to give a correct result, but it is applicable only in the neighbourhood of the earth.
He repeated this experiment three times; but each time he found that they all returned to their former condition, the rich becoming still richer and the poor still poorer.
Equilibrium requires that the available energy and therefore the area of contact should be a minimum, as is demonstrated in Plateau's beautiful experiment, where a large drop of oil is placed in a liquid of equal density and a perfect sphere is formed.
Experiment has revealed the existence of systems in which these phenomena are displayed.
Such, a concordance between theory and experiment not only verifies the accuracy of thermodynamic reasoning as applied to dilute solutions, but gives perhaps one of the most convincing experimental verifications of the general validity of thermodynamic theory which we possess.
They merely show that, in the conditions of the particular experiments, the thermodynamic equilibrium value of the osmotic pressure cannot be reached - the thermodynamic or theoretical osmotic pressure (which must be independent of the nature of the membrane provided it is truly semi-permeable) is a different thing from the equilibrium pressure actually reached in a given experiment, which measures the balance of ingress and egress of solvent through an imperfect semi-permeable membrane.
At the limit of dilution, when the concentration of a solution approaches zero, we have seen that thermodynamical theory, verified by experiment, shows that the osmotic pressure has the same value as the gas pressure of the same number of molecules in the same space.
But for any theory of solution to be tenable, it must at least be consistent with the known thermodynamic relations, verified as those relations are by experiment.
The average of the coagulative powers of salts of univalent, divalent and trivalent metals have been found by experiment to be proportional to the numbers 1: 35: 1023.
Further experiment only brought out more clearly the diversity of the gases hitherto assumed to be identical.
I therefore made an experiment to determine whether the whole of a given portion of the phlogisticated air of the atmosphere could be reduced to nitrous acid, or whether there was not a part of a different nature to the rest which would refuse to undergo that change.
In one experiment, specially undertaken for the sake of measurement, the total air employed was 9250 c.c., and the oxygen consumed, manipulated with the aid of partially deaerated water, amounted to 10,820 c.c. The oxygen contained in the air would be 1942 c.c.; so that the quantities of atmospheric nitrogen and of total oxygen which enter into combination would be 7308 c.c. and 12,762 c.c. respectively.
Experiment has confirmed this anticipation.
For example, suppose it is resolved to use 2 parts of sand to i of cement, and suppose that experiment shows that in a pailful of stones two-fifths of the volume consists of voids, then 2 parts of sand (or sand with cement) will fill voids in 5 parts of stones, and the proportion of cement, sand, stones becomes 1:2:5.
A similar explanation may apply to C. Correns's experiment, in which he crossed white Mirabilis jalapa with a yellow form, and always obtained redflowered offspring.
See Edward McCrady's History of South Carolina (New York, 1897-1901);1901); and, for an account of the Port Royal Experiment, Letters from Port Royal (Boston, 1906), edited by Elizabeth W.
The university received the Federal grants under the Morrill acts of 1862 and 1890, and in connexion with it the Vermont agricultural experiment station is maintained.
His first experiment with his newly organized army was successful.
The advantage to the fly of its deceptive resemblance to the bee is theoretically perfectly evident and practically can be demonstrated by experiment.
By observation and experiment it was discovered independently by Messrs Bates, Wallace and Bell that they are not attacked by birds nor by many other enemies that prey upon unprotected Lepidoptera.
(3) That birds may also be deceived by insects that mimic those they have found to be uneatable has been shown by the abovequoted experiment with the drone-fly and the honey-bees made by Professor Lloyd Morgan.
The results of this experiment with the baboon and of those with the birds are precisely what would be expected if the theory of mimicry is true.
He found that a South African drongo (Dicrurus (Buchanga) assimilis) was rejected after one or two attempts to eat it by a hungry mongoose (Herpestes galera) which had been starved for purposes of the experiment.
The extension of this idea to substances in general necessarily led him to the law of combination in multiple proportions, and the comparison with experiment brilliantly confirmed the truth of his deduction" (A New View, &c., pp. 50, 51).
Wdhler repeated the experiment at GÃ¶ttingen in 1827, employing potassium alone as the reducing agent, he obtained it in the metallic state for the first time.
St Claire Deville, accidentally and in ignorance of Wohler's later results, imitated the 1845 experiment.
The selection of suitable stocks is a matter still requiring much scientific experiment.
Blot, Traite de physique experiment ale.
The result of the constitutional experiment hardly justified the royal expectations; the parliament was hardly opened (February 5th, 1819) before the doctrinaire radicalism of some of its members, culminating in the demand that the army should swear allegiance to the constitution, so alarmed the king, that he appealed to Austria and Germany, undertaking to carry out any repressive measures they might recommend.
The experiment has been tried of rearing rare, wild, fur-bearing animals in captivity, and although climatic conditions and food have been precisely as in their natural environment, the fur has been poor in quality and bad in colour, totally unlike that taken from animals in the wild state.
Both formula and experiment proved that an increase of pressure of one atmosphere elevated the transition point for about o 04° The same laws apply to cases of more complicated nature, and one of them, which deserves to be pursued further, is the mutual transformation of cyanuric acid, C 3 H 3 N 3 O 3, cyanic acid, Chno, and cyamelide (Chno).; the first corresponding to prismatic sulphur, stable at higher temperatures, the last to rhombic, the equilibrium-symbol being: cyamelide 1 .?
" New Australia " is a pastoral and agricultural settlement, originally founded in 1893 by immigrants from Australia as an experiment in communism.
Neither of these methods could be applied in this experiment.
The method of Forbes (in which the conductivity is deduced from the steady distribution of temperature on the assumption that the rate of loss of heat at each point of the bar is the same as that observed in an auxiliary experiment in which a short bar of the same kind is set to cool under conditions which are supposed to be identical) is well known, but a consideration of its weak points is very instructive, and the results have been most remarkably misunderstood and misquoted.
The discrepancies are chiefly due to the error of the fundamental assumption that the rate of cooling is the same at the same temperature under the very different conditions existing in the two parts of the experiment.
They are also partly caused by the large uncertainties of the corrections, especially those of the mercury thermometers under the peculiar conditions of the experiment.
In this case the curve representing the distribution of temperature is a parabola, and the conductivity k is deduced from the mean rise of temperature (R-R°)/aR° by observing the increase of resistance R-R° of the bar, and the current C. It is also necessary to measure the cross-section g, the length 1, and the temperature-coefficient a for the range of the experiment.
The idea of the pressure of the air and the invention of the instrument for measuring it were both new when he made his famous experiment, showing that the height of the mercury column in a barometer decreases when it is carried upwards through the atmosphere.
This experiment was made by himself in a tower at Paris, and was carried out on a grand scale under his instructions by his brother-in-law Florin Perier on the Puy de Dome in Auvergne.
Baille about 1870 a repetition of Cavendish's experiment for determining the mean density of the earth, his original work was mainly concerned with.
The experiment was repeated year after year till 1867, when the barrage cracked right across from foundation to top. A massive coffer-dam was then erected, covering the eleven arches nearest the crack; but the work was never trusted again, nor the water-surface raised more than about 3 ft.
1873 he, indeed, resigned the office of minister-president to Roon; and in the same way Caprivi, during the years 1893-1894, held the chancellorship alone; but in neither case was the experiment successful, and Hohenlohe and Bulow adhered to the older plan.
If the experiment was successful the table would rotate with considerable rapidity, and would occasionally rise in the air, or perform other movements.
C. i treats of the finding of good water; c. 2 of rainwater and rivers - rivers in various countries; c. 3 of hot springs, mineral waters, with an account of the chief medicinal springs of the world; c. 4 of selection of water by observation and experiment; c. 5 of instruments for levelling used by aqueduct engineers; c. 6 of construction of aqueducts, pipes of lead, clay, &c., and other matter on the subject of water-supply.
Nevertheless the experiment succeeded.
As an experiment the police is now a voluntary service, except in Alexandria and Cairo, for which cities peasants are conscripted for the police under army conditions.
Experiment shows that in the manlike (anthropoid) apes the differentiation of the foci or "centres" of movement in the motor field of the cortex is even more minute.
The success of this first experiment encouraged the emperor to attempt the more difficult enterprise of simplifying and digesting the older law contained in the treatises of the jurists.
The experiment of Engelmann referred to deserves to be mentioned here, if only in illustration .of the use to which algae have been put in the study of physiological problems. Engelmann observed that certain bacteria were motile only in the presence of oxygen, and that they retained their motility in a microscopic preparation in the neighbourhood of an algal filament when they had come to rest elsewhere on account of the exhaustion of oxygen.
He found that these places corresponded closely with the region of the absorption band for the algae under experiment.
Meanwhile, in London, the earl of Lauderdale, once a fervent Covenanter, was secretary for Scotland, had the king's ear, and would have restored presbytery, at least by way of experiment.
In the second place, it has been urged, particularly by de Vries, that experiment and observation have shown that the possible range of fluctuating variation is strictly limited.
It is well known that some races and some organs in plants and animals are extremely variable, and that others are much less variable, and further, that whilst some of these differences may be due to intrinsic causes, others can be modified by experiment.
Dahlgren's guns were first mounted in a vessel named the "Experiment," which cruised under his command from 1857 till 1859.
Many distinguished compositions appeared in its pages, but it gradually languished, and was given up after a year's experiment.
Associated with the University are the State Laboratory of Natural History, the State Water Survey, the State Geological Survey, the State Entomologist's Office, and Agricultural and Engineering Experiment Stations.
The University publishes Bulletins of the Agricultural and Engineering Experiment Stations; Reports of the State Water Survey, of the State Natural History Survey, of the State Geological Survey, and of the State Entomologist's Office; University Studies; and The Journal of English and Germanic Philology.
The experiment was a failure; Bahrdt, never at ease under the strict discipline maintained by von Salis, resigned in 1777, and the school was closed.
The whole system of Telesio shows lacunae in argument, and ignorance of essential facts, but at the same time it is a forerunner of all subsequent empiricism, scientific and philosophical, and marks clearly the period of transition from authority and reason to experiment and individual responsibility.
C. Armstrong was carrying on an educational