I'm still waiting for his last expense account.
He paid particular attention to the March expense accounts and itineraries.
Fast food chains optimize for two of them: taste and price, at the expense of nutrition.
I know it's a major expense, so I made arrangements today.
According to Byrne's expense account he was in Scranton for two days just before he shacked up at the Whitney Motel!
Instead of conforming to abstract principles of public law and hereditary succession, they strove to enlarge their territories at the expense of their rivals, and to leave them at their death to their sons rather than to their brothers, nephews and more distant relations.
Still, he had gone to the trouble and expense of getting the phone.
The tyrants general policy was to favor the multitude at the expense of his own caste.
Even when the visit to the Horde did not end so tragically, it involved a great deal of anxiety and expense, for the Mongol dignitaries had to be conciliated very liberally, and it was commonly believed that the judges were more influenced by the amount of the bribes than by the force of the arguments.
Other businesses in the food industry—say those pricey health foods you see at fancy grocery stores—optimize for taste and nutrition at the expense of price.
A trained midwife was engaged for Bogucharovo at his expense, and a priest was paid to teach reading and writing to the children of the peasants and household serfs.
Maskelyne and John Pond, to defray the expense of which a large sum of money was allotted by the Treasury.
both of which have been constructed at great expense to overcome natural disadvantages.
The speech he gave in September 1962, announcing that goal, spent a good amount of time justifying the expense and explaining the urgency.
The growth of such a cell will be found to depend mainly upon five conditions: (I) There must be a supply of nutritive or plastic materials, at the expense of which the increase of its living substance can take place, and which supply the needed potential energy.
Berg explained so clearly why he wanted to collect at his house a small but select company, and why this would give him pleasure, and why though he grudged spending money on cards or anything harmful, he was prepared to run into some expense for the sake of good society--that Pierre could not refuse, and promised to come.
The growth or increase of the protoplasm at the expense of the nutritive matter for a time keeps pace with the increased size of the cell, but by and by it becomes vacuolated as more and more water is attracted into the interior.
The ovum of Hydromedusae is usually one of a large number of odgonia, and grows at the expense of its sister-cells.
The great westward projection of the coast of Africa, and the islands to the north-west of that continent, were the principal scene of the work of the mariners sent out at his expense; but his object was to push onward and reach India from the Atlantic. The progress of discovery received a check on his death, but only for a time.
When workmen from any province come, for instance, to St Petersburg to engage in the textile industries, or to work as carpenters, masons, &c., they immediately unite in groups of ten to fifty persons, settle in a house together, keep a common table and pay each his part of the expense to the elected elder of the artel.
"He's having a little fun at my expense," said Ermolov softly, nudging with his knee Raevski who was at his side.
Want to see his expense account?
Algiers is the chief coaling station in the Mediterranean, having become so largely at the expense of Gibraltar.
The proprietors of Queen's Hall, London, did much for it when they undertook the alteration, at great expense, of their large concert organ, which had only just been erected.
The emperor retained the supreme courts of appeal within the cities, and his claim for sustenance at their expense when he came into Italy.
Foreigners were frequently granted the right of public hospitality by the senate down to the end of the republic. The public hospes had a right to entertainment at the public expense, admission to sacrifices and games, the right of buying and selling on his own account, and of bringing an action at law without the intervention of a Roman patron.
The longer Howie spoke on the phone, the more I felt guilty that we were manipulating him into a parlor game at the expense of his privacy.
Article 12 provided for the transmission free of cost in Italy of all papal telegrams and correspondence both with bishops and foreign governments, and sanctioned the establishment, at the expense of the Italian state, of a papal telegraph office served b~ papal officials in communication with the Italian postal and telegraph system.
Get Jeff's expense reports, will you?
The earth is always, except for some special reason, used as a return, because it offers little resistance and saves the expense and the risk of failure of the return wire.
The Great Council of Venice was anything but a primitive institution; it was the artificial institution of a late age, which grew at the expense of earlier institutions, of the prince on the one side and of the people on the other.
The best modern edition of the works of Aquinas is that prepared at the expense of Leo XIII.
There is no proof that any direct emolument was ever attached to the office, while the expense and trouble entailed by it must often have been very great.
From this time suitors in this court were not put to the expense and inconvenience of following the king from place to place.
Governments (and thieves, for that matter) reallocate wealth—but they do it by increasing the wealth of one party at the expense of another party.
At the expense of sounding immodest, I must say I am one of those who can attain this state.
difficulty and expense, or which are even totally barren and waterless, entirely dependent on supplies from distant sources.
In order to see whether the heat came out of the chips he compared the capacity for heat of the chips abraded by the boring bar with that of an equal quantity of the metal cut from the block by a fine saw, and obtained the same result in the two cases, from which he concluded that "the heat produced could not possibly have been furnished at the expense of the latent heat of the metallic chips."
And because some little snot-nose has a vivid imagination, or thinks it's fun to tell whoppers, I'm supposed to go traipsing off in some god-forsaken mine on the taxpayer's expense on a treasure hunt?
In the preface he states the position that "whenever, then, two gases are allowed to mix without the performance of work, there is dissipation of energy, and an opportunity of doing work at the expense of low temperature heat has been for ever lost."
Of the rest of the sum assigned to the ministry of finance (593/4 millions in all) 81/2 millions went in the expense of collection of revenue.
Count Ilya Rostov had resigned the position of Marshal of the Nobility because it involved him in too much expense, but still his affairs did not improve.
The common people, whom he had always favoured at the expense of the boyars, thereupon implored him to come back on his own terms. He consented to do so, but entrenched himself within a peculiar institution, the oprichina or "separate estate."
The following year an additional cable was laid from Bacton, in Norfolk, to Borkum, in Germany, at the joint expense of the British and German governments.
To the pope was made over 16,000 per annum as a contribution to the expense of maintaining in Rome representatives of foreign orders; the Sacred College, however, rejected this endowment, and summoned all the suppressed confraternities to reconstitute themselves under the ordinary Italian law of association.
According to Byrne's expense file, his prior trip to Norfolk had been in late January and, earlier, in October of last year.
As governor, Seward favoured a continuance of works of internal improvement at public expense, although this policy had already plunged the state into financial embarrassment.
The expense reports and the personnel file from World Wide were neatly stacked on the table, but not in the same position Dean had left them the night before and his tape recorder hadn't been re-wound.
He'd fight the expense account battle at the end of the month.
According to his expense accounts, he only went to Scranton twice that we know of—both visits only a day or two.
In 1896 the powers of the minister were extended at the expense of those of the under-secretary, who remained only at the head of the corps of gendarmes; but by a law of the 24th of September 1904 this was again reversed, and the under-secretary was again placed at the head of all the police with the title of undersecretary for the administration of the police.
Having thus freed themselves from Tatar control, the Moscow princes continued to carry out energetically their traditional policy of extending and consolidating their dominions at the expense of their less powerful relations.
The expense of cultivation exceeded the returns obtained by its sale.
The expense of enlisting io,000 Swiss was to be borne equally by pope and emperor.
He died in November 1321, and was buried in Lichfield cathedral, which was improved and enriched at his expense.
at his own expense, appeared in 1781 and made an impression on his contemporaries hardly less deep than Goethe's GOtz von Berlichingen, eight years before.
Their initial expense and the high cost of working preclude their general use, and they are consequently reserved to a great extent for specially heavy constructional work and ornamental finishing joinery.
Some modern writers have supposed Pytheas to have been sent out, at public expense, in command of an expedition organized by the republic of Massilia; but there is no ancient authority for this, and Polybius, who had unquestionably seen the original work, expressly states that he had undertaken the voyage in a private capacity and with limited means.
From 1877 onward Kruger's external policy was consistently anti-British, and on every side - in Bechuanaland, in Rhodesia, in Zululand - he attempted to enlarge the frontiers of the Transvaal at the expense of Great Britain.
Giustiniani printed 2000 copies at his own expense, including fifty in vellum for presentation to the sovereigns of Europe and Asia; but the sale of the work did not encourage him to proceed with the New Testament, which he had also prepared for the press.
The ecclesiastical preferment was merely intended to provide a salary not at Henry's expense; for Fox never saw either Exeter or the diocese of Bath and Wells to which he was translated in 1492.
In many polygamous countries the practical obstacle of expense prevents men from taking advantage of their privileges.
The sulphuric acid, of which 6 or 7 parts are used to one of impure liquid hydrochloric acid, is always reserved for usein the same process, by driving off the excess of water in a lead pan, fired from the top, so that the principal expense of the process is that of the fuel required for the last operation.
If the chlorine is made to act on cream of lime, care being taken that the temperature does not rise above 35° and that the chlorine is not in excess, a solution is obtained containing a mixture of calcium chloride and hypochlorite which is a very convenient agent for bleachers, but which does not bear the expense of carriage over long distances.
These mechanical furnaces do the work of from four to ten ordinary furnaces according to their size, with comparatively very little expense for labour, but they must be very carefully managed and the black-ash from them is more difficult to lixiviate than that from hand-wrought furnaces, because it is less porous.
These floral products which form the food of bees and of their larvae, are in most cases collected and stored by the industrious insects; but some genera of bees act as inquilines or "cuckoo-parasites," laying their eggs in the nests of other bees, so that their larvae may feed at the expense of the rightful owners of the nest.
The labour and expense of passing this great work through the press devolved upon Halley, who also wrote the prefixed hexameters ending with the well-known line Nec fas est propius mortali attingere divos.
The silver-on-glass mirror has the enormous advantage that it can be resilvered with little trouble, at small expense, and without danger of changing the figure.
His vanity, however, as has been admirably remarked, is essentially that of " the peacock, not of the gander," and is redeemed by his willingness to raise a laugh at his own expense (Strachan-Davidson, p. 192).
In 18 3 a select committee of the House of Commons went into the whole subject of secondary punishment and reported that, as the difficulties in the way of an effective classification of prisoners were insurmountable, they were strongly in favour of the confinement of prisoners in separate cells, recommending that the whole of the prisons should be altered accordingly and the expense borne by the public exchequer.
He saw, however, great difficulties in making this the universal rule, chief among which was the enormous expense of providing suitable prisons.
The gain in this was great, seeing that no more than 6 to 8% were actually sent to gaol after the commission of a second offence, and that there was therefore a very distinct saving in expense of maintenance of prisoners incarcerated.
In the United States the policy varies between the two extremes of making prisoners self-supporting and of leaving them in idleness so that the whole weight of expense falls upon the state.
But Othman had not the strong personality of his predecessor, and, although he practically adhered to the policy of Omar, he was accused of favouring the members of his own family - the caliph belonged himself to the house of Omayya - at the expense of the Hashimites andthe Ansar.
With the mountain-traversed region he had been exploring acquired by the United States, Fremont was eager for a railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in October 1848 he set out at his own and Senator Benton's expense to find passes for such a railway along a line westward from the headwaters of the Rio Grande.
method, it is at the expense of the latter.'
With emphasis upon God as creator and ruler, and upon man as made in God's image, endowed with an unending existence, and subject to eternal torture if not redeemed, the concept of personality has been exalted at the expense of that of nature, and the future has been magnified at the expense of the present.
The exploitation of the mines suffers in many cases from the difficulties and expense of transport, the high duties payable in Dutch Borneo to the native princes, the competition among the rival companies, and often the limited quantities of the minerals found in the mines.
The decline of the Mogul empire gave free play to the turbulent spirit of the Jats and Gujars, many of whose chieftains succeeded in carving out petty principalities for themselves at the expense of their neighbours.
The subscriptions having come in but sparsely, Liszt took the matter in hand, and the monument was completed at his expense, and unveiled at a musical festival conducted by Spohr and himself in 1845.
Virginia remained in the hands of the reactionary party and was governed by men whose primary purpose was to "make their fortunes" at the expense of the colonials.
The powers and duties of the vestry were defined, the position of the parish priest was fixed and his salary was regularly provided for at the public expense, and pedagogues were brought over from Scotland.
Terminating as it usually does with the feeding and feeing of a greater or less number of Brahmans and the feasting of members of the performers' own caste, the Sraddha, especially its first performance, is often a matter of very considerable expense; and more than ordinary benefit to the deceased is supposed to accrue from it when it takes place at a spot of recognized sanctity, such as one of the great places of pilgrimage like Prayaga (Allahabad, where the three sacred rivers, Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati, meet), Mathura, and especially Gaya and Kasi (Benares).
In the case of ships generally: In the case of all ships, the expense of straightening bent ironwork, including labour of taking out and replacing it, shall be allowed in full.
The practice of English average adjusters has indeed modified this strict view by treating the expense of unloading as G.A.; but it may well be doubted whether that practice can be legally supported.
It may be noted that the rules do not afford equal protection to a shipper in the comparatively infrequent case of his being put to expense by the delay at a port of refuge.
The true conclusion seems to be that either the whole operation should be treated as one for the common safety, and the whole expense be contributed to by all the interests saved, or else the several parts of the operation should be kept distinct, debiting the cost of each to the interests thereby saved.
Suppose this last to be rescued and taken to a place of safety at small expense in comparison with its value.
But the bullion will not contribute; it will merely bear the expense of its own rescue (Royal Mail S.
and Richelieu was to exalt France at the expense of Vienna and Madrid.
The style is wearisome and prolix, attaining to precision at the expense of circumlocution, and setting forth the smallest particulars with the same distinctness as the main features of the narrative.
The whole country is fairly provided with railways, largely at the expense of Sindhia.
Education, relief of distress, regulation of labour and trade, are duties now in great part performed by public agencies, and their increasing prominence involves augmented expense.
Not only has there to be a strict control over the total national expense; supervision has to be carried into each department of the state.
In order to meet the cost of the early wars a special contribution from property (tributum ex censu) was levied at times of emergency, though it was in some cases regarded as an advance to be repaid when the occasion of expense was over.
" Vexation," as Adam Smith remarks, " though not strictly speaking expense, is certainly equivalent to the expense at which every man would be willing to redeem himself from it "; and the Roman system was extraordinarily vexatious.
The capital and certain provincial towns were favoured at the expense of the provinces and the country districts.
He then returned to Bordeaux, and in the beginning of 1604 he was nominated one of the students of divinity who were maintained at the expense of the church, and who for the period of four years were at liberty to prosecute their studies in any Protestant seminary.
Besides all that has been mentioned, he found time to do something for the better administration of justice (the codification of ordinances, the diminishing of the number of judges, the reduction of the expense and length of trials for the establishment of a superior system of police) and even for the improvement of the breed of horses and the increase of cattle.
In 1519, at the king's expense, he went to Padua, the Athens of Europe, according to Erasmus; and there, where Colet and Cuthbert Tunstall had also been educated, the "nobleman of England" as he was called, came into contact with the choicest minds of the later Italian Renaissance, and formed the friendships that influenced his life.
The material for lining, and the frequent replacement thereof, constitute the principal expense of the method.
Saltash was sufficiently considerable as a port in the 16th century to furnish a frigate at the town's expense against the Armada.
1728) was not completed, owing to wars and the general distress, until 1754; while a restoration carried out in 1901 included many ornamental details devised by the architect, and executed at the expense of King Oscar II.
A house in the place de l'hopital, now used by the military, was once the home of the Inquisition; it was built at the expense of Spain in 1772.
But the widow insisted on boarding her lodger, and Spinoza presently found the expense too great for his slender purse.
The immorality of indemnifying Sweden at the expense of a weaker friendly power was obvious; and, while Finland was now definitively sacrificed, Norway had still to be won.
Pierre Lorillard of New York contributed to defray the expense of this expedition, and Charnay named a great ruined city near the Guatemalan boundary line Ville Lorillard in his honour.
The tuition is gratuitous, and the pupils are clothed and partly fed at government expense.
Macedonian expansion, at the expense of Thrace and Illyria, and the subjection of the Balkan Peninsula.
When the French invaded Austria in 1797, he raised a regiment of 1000 men at his own expense.
Several Chinese memoirs of this kind appear to have perished; and especially to be regretted is a great collection of the works of travellers to India, religious and secular, in sixty books, with forty more of maps and illustrations, published at the expense of the emperor Kao-Tsung of the T'ang dynasty, A.D.
He attempted to restore some order in the treasury and administration of finance, with a view to obtain ways and means to cover the expense of the three civil wars, Carlist, cantonal and Cuban.
Throughout his reign he strengthened the central government at the expense of the aristocracy and the Church, by a stern enforcement of law and order.
Almeida and Albuquerque had hoped to meet the expense of administration mainly out of the fees extorted for safe-conducts at sea and trading-licences, with the tribute wrung from native states and the revenue from Crown lands in India.
Supposing this could be established, the question would still remain whether the same result could not be obtained at far less expense by dispensing with the hatching operations and distributing the eggs directly after fertilization.
He was at heavy expense throughout his stay, and even greater than his financial loss was his loss of authority and control in the church and in Harvard College because of his absence.
Whenever the trade of southern Bolivia becomes important enough to warrant the expense of opening a navigable channel in the Pilcomayo, direct river communication with Buenos Aires and Montevideo will be possible.
The system of French foreign consulships, for instance, all but died out after the crushing of the independent life of the south and the incorporation of Provence and Languedoc under the French crown; while, with the establishment of Venetian supremacy in the Levant, the baylo developed into a diplomatic agent of the first class at the expense of the consuls of rival states.
A canal, which ultimately proved too small for use, was constructed at Nenasitets in 1780 at private expense; blastings were carried out in 1798 and 17 99 at various parts; in 1805 a canal was formed at Kaindatski, and the channel straightened at Sursk; by 1807 a new canal was completed at Nenasitets; in 1833 a passage was cleared through the Staro-kaindatski porog; and in the period 1843 to 1853 numerous ameliorations were effected.
As regards matters of state the reign of Vladislav is marked by a decrease of the royal prerogative, while the power of the nobility attained an unprecedented height, at the expense, not only of the royal power, but also of the rights of the townsmen and peasants.
But even here Polybius charges him with favouring Rome at the expense of Carthage, and with the undue exaltation of the great head of his house, Q.
The most remarkable statement of this point of view is that of Friedrich Nietzsche, who went so far as to denounce all forms of self-denial as cowardice: - let every one who is strong seek to make himself dominant at the expense of the weak.
When the pressure on one side of the diaphragm thus becomes greater than that on the other, work may be done at the expense of heat in pushing the diaphragm, and the operation carried on with continual gain of work until the gases are uniformly diffused.
The cost of the cable before laying depends on the dimensions of its core, the gutta-percha, which still forms the only trustworthy insulator known, constituting the principal item of the expense; for an Atlantic cable of the most approved construction the cost may be taken at f250 to £300 per nautical mile.
Dean could not tell from the writing if it compared to the signature Jeffrey Byrne left on the many expense forms Dean had reviewed—it was only a scrawl.
Herod's nominees were not the men to extend the prestige of the high-priesthood at the expense of these rabbis: even in Jerusalem the synagogue became of more importance than the Temple.
In 1736 he set about the erection of a new theatre, "at vast expense," in Carrubber's Close, Edinburgh; but the opposition was too strong, and the new house was closed in 1737.
Whether they expanded at the expense of weak aboriginal tribes or were conquered by more robust invaders, Chinese civilization prevailed and assimilated alike the conquered and the conquerors.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
From the 6th century onwards their empire, then known as Median, began to expand at the expense of the surrounding states.
26), which were glad to have on their frontiers a protector so valiant as David, even at the expense of the blackmail which he levied in return.
But the prestige he secured by 1521 was delusive; its decline was as rapid as its growth, and the expense of the policy involved taxation which seriously weakened the loyalty of the people.
While his patroness lived in a convent of her own in Jerusalem, Rufinus, at her expense, gathered together a number of monks in a monastery on the Mount of Olives, devoting himself at the same time to the study of Greek theology.
But these conquests, with others made at the expense of Persia, were restored to the latter power after Peter's death, a dozen years later.
Another reform was the substitution for the corvee of a tax in money levied on the whole province, the construction of roads being handed over to contractors, by which means Turgot was able to leave his province with a good system of roads, while distributing more justly the expense of their construction.
The archdeacon had thus become, on the one hand, the oculus episcopi, but on the other hand, armed as he was with powers of imposing penance and, in case of stubborn disobedience, of excommunicating offenders, his power tended more and more to grow at the bishop's expense.
south-west of the city of Manitowoc, is St Nazianz, an unorganized village near which in 1854 a colony or community of German Roman Catholics was established under the leadership of Father Ambrose Oswald, the primary object being to enable poor people by combination and cooperation to supply themselves with the comforts of life at minimum expense and have as much time as possible left for religious thought and worship. The title of the colony's land was vested in Father Oswald after the panic of 1857 until his death in 1874, when he devised the lands to "the colony founded by me."
Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, the second of the dynasty (998-1030), continued to make himself still more independent of the caliphate than his predecessors, and, though a warrior and a fanatical Moslem, extended a generous patronage to Persian literature and learning, and even developed it at the expense of the Arabic institutions.
The entire poem (which only existed in MS. up to the beginning of the 19th century) was published (1831-1868) with a French translation in a magnificent folio edition, at the expense of the French government, by the learned and indefatigable Julius von Mohl.
The size and number of the volumes, however, and their great expense, made them difficult of access, and Frau von Mohl published the French translation (1876-1878) with her illustrious husband's critical notes and introduction in a more convenient and cheaper form.
Here we may notice that the perpetuation of the republic by means of the armed forces tended to exalt the army at the expense of the civil authorities.
Their other conquests at the expense of these allies of France were restored to them, including the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch.
By retaining nearly all the continental conquests of France, and by recovering every one of those which the British had made at her expense beyond the seas, he achieved a feat which was far beyond the powers even of Louis XIV.
Exactions at the expense of Hanover and Naples helped to lighten the burdens of French finance; Napoleon's sale of Louisiana to the United States early in 1803 for 60,000,000 francs brought further relief to the French treasury; and by pressing hard on his ally, Spain, he compelled her to exchange the armed help which he had a right to claim, for an annual subsidy of 2,880,000.
Napoleon's powers as First Consul for Life were so wide as to render much extension both superfluous and impossible; but we may note here that the senate now gained a further accession of authority at the expense of the two legislative bodies; and practically legislation rested with the emperor, who sent his decrees to the senate to be registered as senatus consulta.
That state, where Bernadotte had latterly been chosen as crown prince, decided to throw off the yoke of the Continental System and join England and Russia, gaining from the latter power the promise of Norway at the expense of Denmark.
All Souls' church was built in 1859 from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott, of whose work it is a good example, at the expense of Mr Edward Akroyd.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.
It has been found impossible to afforest them on account of the roughness of the sea-air, and the wash from their bluffs into the harbour has involved large expense in the erection of sea-walls.
The expense of this re-creation probably duplicated, at least, the loss from the conflagration.
Where there is an unqualified covenant to repair, and the premises during the tenancy are burnt down, or destroyed by some other inevitable calamity, the tenant is bound to rebuild and restore them at his own expense, even although the landlord has taken out a policy on his own account and been paid by the insurance company in respect of it.
Among those in the Peters's list which are wholly or substantially true are the following: "The judges shall determine controversies without a jury"; "Married persons must live together or be imprisoned"; "A wife shall be good evidence against her husband"; "No minister shall keep school"; "The selectmen, on finding children ignorant, may take them away from their parents and put them into better hands, at the expense of their parents."
There can be no question that a deep soil is better for the cottonplant; but the expense of obtaining it, the risk of injuring the soil through leaching, and the danger of bringing poor soil to the surface, have led many planters to oppose this plan.
At the time of his father's assassination in 1584 he was being educated at the university of Leiden, at the expense of the states of Holland and Zeeland.
He made more than one attempt to be reconciled with Alphonso, but, his overtures being rejected, he turned his arms against the enemies of the Beni Houd, extending their dominions at the expense of the Christian states VI.
Among the notable public buildings are the old parish church built at the expense of Charles II.
They naturally favoured the city at the expense of the rural districts, so that in 1832 the latter proclaimed their independence, and in 1833 were organized into the half canton of Basel Landschaft, the city forming that of Basel Stadt.
Fighting or bribing the Barbary pirates was a mere question of expense.
2 The coffer is of fine hard sandstone of superior quality, and has been hollowed out, at the cost of vast labour and expense, from a solid block of rock.
The town was laid out at great expense in straight, broad streets, intersecting each other at right angles, by the architect Hippodamus of Miletus in the time of Pericles.
Moreover, all this prosperity was obtained at the expense of the confederates, whom Athens exploited in a somewhat selfish and illiberal manner.
Its territory is said to have stretched from the Tyne northwards, ultimately reaching the Forth, while its western frontier was gradually extended at the expense of the Welsh.
in 1254, misled him into wild schemes which never took effect but caused immense expense.
After careful study of playground systems a bond issue of $800,000 was voted (1919) to initiate a constructive development of parks and playgrounds at public expense.
Numerous scholarships have been established at government expense in Porto Rican schools and in colleges or universities of the United States.
In 1650 he fitted out at his own expense a squadron with which he blockaded the mouth of the Gironde, and compelled the city to surrender.
In addition to the acquisitions made in the north at the expense of Garha-Mandla, the Moguls, after the annexation of Berar, established governors at Paunar in Wardha and Kherla in Betul.
The great excavation of the Osireion at Abydos, begun for the Society (then the Egypt Exploration Fund) by Prof. Edouard Naville, 4 ' but suspended owing to the war, it has not been possible to resume at present, owing to the commitments of the Amarna site and the heavy expense of such work as that at the Osireion, which cannot vet be contemplated.
But it was not long before his unbridled passion for endowing his relatives at the expense of the church and of his neighbours became manifest.
Thoulet was published in 1904 at the expense of Prince Albert of Monaco.
This is why, besides the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, the celebration of divine service, the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, are found also decrees aimed at some of the "rights" by which the popes had extended their power, and helped out their finances at the expense of the local churches.
It was continued after his death by Manuel Risco and others, and further additions have been made at the expense of the Spanish government.
The latter, however, were to be maintained at the expense of the proprietors up to their eighteenth year, and during that time to be kept, as apprentices, to such work as was suitable for their age.
Opulus, guelder rose, in the cultivated forms of which the corolla has become enlarged at the expense of the essential organs and the flowers are neuter.
Morse's petition for a patent was soon followed by a petition to Congress for an appropriation to defray the expense of subjecting the telegraph to actual experiment over a length sufficient to establish its feasibility and demonstrate its value.
The Spanish rulers made efforts to govern wisely and liberally, showing great complaisance, particularly in heeding the profit of the colony, even at the expense of Spanish colonial commercial regulations.
The attainment of independence freed the island from this debt, and from enormous contemplated additions to cover the expense incurred by Spain during the last insurrection.
These laws strictly defined the powers of the president; more clearly separated the executive departments, so as to lessen friction and jealousies; reformed the courts; reformed administrative routine; and increased the strength of the provinces at the expense of the municipalities.
It may be liquefied, its critical temperature being -93, 5°, and the liquid boils at -153.6° C. It is not a supporter of combustion, unless the sustance introduced is at a sufficiently high temperature to decompose the gas, when combustion will continue at the expense of the liberated oxygen.
It was further provided that Bulgaria should pay to Turkey an annual tribute, and should moreover (as well as the other Balkan states receiving accessions of territory at Turkey's expense) bear a portion of the Ottoman debt.
The sale of the fertilizer more than pays for the cost of reduction, and the only expense the city has is in collecting it.
This result revolted public opinion; the bishops acquired the habit (rendered easier by the personal expense involved in setting the law in motion) of vetoing, under the power given to them in the act, all prosecutions; and the act became a dead letter.
This last is kept up entirely at the expense of the Servian government.
His subjects at length grew weary of the heavy expense of maintaining a large military force on the Belgian frontier and in 1839 the king gave way.
Africa, can, however, only be enforced by special administrative machinery and at considerable expense, and this legislative action can only be regarded as temporary and preliminary to the establishment of plantations of rubber trees, which are not only easier to control, but the trees are less liable to injury from careless tapping.
per lb, to which has to be added the expense of transport.
Others are biennials producing a number of leaves on a very short stem in the first year, and in the second sending up a flowering shoot at the expense of the nourishment stored in the thick tap-root during the previous season.
copied at his own expense, amongst them the Codex Clarkianus of Plato (brought to England from the monastery of St John in Patmos), and the Dorvillian MS. of Euclid (now at Oxford).
In 1820 he secured the appointment of a committee to report on the expense of collecting the revenue.
His scholarship still moved in the old traditional lines, and he was also much exercised by religious scruples, the conflict of an independent mind with that submission to authority at the expense of reason encouraged by the Lutheranism in which he had been trained.
wh, Roots from k', which grows at expense of k.
Owing to the size of the country and the sparsely-populated state of a large part of the interior, the transportation of the mails is attended with much difficulty and expense.
did much to encourage these pursuits, and many promising young men received their education in Europe at his personal expense.
The expense of these expeditions was very heavy, and prevented President Moraes from carrying out many of the retrenchments he had planned.
Between these two wars William aggrandized his power at the expense of Anjou by annexing Mayenne.
This church crowns the Fontebranda hill above the famous fountain of that name immortalized by Dante, and in a steep lane below stands the house of St Catherine, now converted into a church and oratory, and maintained at the expense of the inhabitants of the Contrada dell' Oca.
The light and elegant tower (Torre del Mangla) soaring from one side of the palace was begun in 1338 and finished after 1348, and the chapel standing at its foot, raised at the expense of the Opera del Duomo as a public thank-offering after the plague of 1348, begun in 1352 and completed in 1376.
He maintained his power until his death at the age of sixty on 21st May 1512, and was interred with princely ceremonials at the public expense.
They showed indeed in their dealings both with the natives within their borders and with the Zulus beyond the Tugela a disposition to favour the natives at the expense of their white neighbours in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their action against Langalibalele was fully justified and the danger of a widespread native revolt real.
This ingenious operation widens the track at the expense of an unimportant fraction of its length.
Politically it increased the power of the nobility at the expense of the crown, every competing pretender naturally endeavouring to win adherents by distributing largesse in the shape of crown-lands.
series of eminent rulers, it successfully asserted itself alike against pagan reaction from within, and aggressive pressure from without, and, as it grew in strength and skill, expanded territorially at the expense of all its neighbours.
At that critical hour it was at his own expense that Hunyadi fortified Belgrade, now the sole obstacle between Hungary and destruction, with the sole assistance of the Franciscan friar Giovanni da Capistrano, equipped the fleet and the army which relieved the beleaguered fortress and overthrew Mahommed II.
It was with a small force of mercenaries, raised at his own expense, that the young king won his first Turkish victories, and expelled the Czechs from his northern and the Habsburgs from his western provinces.
Despite the enormous expense of maintaining the army, Matthias, after the first ten years of his reign, was never in want of money.
But attendance at the diet was regarded by the bulk of the poorer deputies as an intolerable burden, and they frequently agreed to grant the taxes for two or three years in advance, so as to be saved the expense 1 Some of these were of gigantic size, e.g.
" If this realm could be saved at the expense of three florins," exclaimed the papal envoy, Antonio Burgio, " there is not a man here willing to make the sacrifice."
Laplace's first separate work, Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (1784), was published at the expense of President Bochard de Saron.
Prussia's victory forced Austria to come to terms with the Magyars: and the bargain was sealed by the Ausgleich, or Dual System, at the expense of the lesser nationalities.
Yugoslavia's relations with Albania, though simplified by this decision, have been affected by the Albanian counterclaim to Pee, Djakovo and the plain of Kosovo, where since the middle of last century the Albanian element had grown steadily stronger at the expense of the Serbs.
His fame has been somewhat obscured by that of his great minister Absalon, whom their common chronicler Saxo constantly magnifies at the expense of his master.
At the beginning of the new season of growth, new flowerand leaf-bearing shoots are developed from the corm at the expense of the food-stuff stored within it.
Perhaps Gerbert's chief claim to the remembrance of posterity is to be found in the care and expense with which he gathered together MSS.
Columbus was one of the first cities in the United States to maintain, at public expense, a system of trade schools.
After Osiander's death in 1552 he favoured a preacher named John Funck, who, with an adventurer named Paul Scalich, exercised great influence over him and obtained considerable wealth at the public expense.
The marshes near the Danube and Theiss were cleared, roads and canals were built at great expense of labour, German artisans and other settlers were attracted to colonize the district, and agriculture and trade encouraged.
during the Bavarian rising in 976, extended its area at the expense of the Hungarians, and was succeeded in 994 by his son Henry I.
His wars in Sicily and Africa left him time to do something for the relief of the poorer citizens at the expense of the rich, as well as to erect new fortifications and public buildings; and under his strong government Syracuse seems to have been at least quiet and orderly.
An enormous accumulation of lunatics of all sorts and degrees seems to have paralysed public authorities, who, at vast expense in buildings, mass them more or less indiscriminately in barracks, and expect that their sundry and difficult disorders can be properly studied and treated by a medical superintendent charged with the whole domestic establishment, with a few young assistants under him.
The king justified his failure to summon the estates on the ground of the expense incurred by provincial deputies.
The County Council maintains a free ferry at Woolwich for passengers and vehicular traffic. The capital expenditure on this undertaking was £185,337 and the expense of maintenance in1907-1908£20,881.
In the case of the cheaper and more abundant minerals, such as coal and iron ore, and of large deposits of low-grade ores, the extent and character of the deposit can generally be determined by surface examinations at comparatively small expense.
A mine should always be opened by drift or entry if practicable, as thereby the expense of hoisting and pumping is avoided.
40 mineral, and by the possibility of supporting the roof long enough to permit the excavation of the mineral without unnecessary risk or expense.
This can be done in inclined deposits, it can often be done by the aid of mechanical appliances, though sometimes at an expense not warranted in the saving in the labour of loading.
This is the cheapest of the three caving systems, but is applicable only when the deposit lies between walls of very solid rock, as otherwise wall rock is liable to cave with and become mixed with ore, which adds greatly to the expense of handling.
This occasions much added expense in the maintenance and retimbering of the haulage roads on the upper floors.
The depth to which open working can be pushed depends upon the size and value of the mineral deposit and upon the expense of removing the over-burden.
In many mining regions long tunnels have been driven at great expense to secure natural drainage.
Siphons are sometimes used to carry the water over an undulating grade and thereby save the expense of a deep rock cutting.
In addition mining operations are subject to interruption and added expense from explosions, mine fires, flooding, and the caving-in of the workings.
His real offence was a witticism at the expense of Sejanus, who put up two of his creatures to accuse him in the senate.
at funerals) at their own expense.
Many weavers fled to Holland and England, the duke took up his residence in the strong castle of Vilvorde, and Brussels prospered at the expense of Louvain.
P. Darcy (1803-1858) and continued by H.Bazin, at the expense of the French government (Recherches hydrauliques, Paris, 1866).
Fareham returned two members to the parliament of 1306, but two years later it petitioned against representation on the ground of expense.
Assyria grew in power at the expense of Babylonia, and a time came when the Kassite king of Babylonia was glad to marry the daughter of Assur-yuballidh of Assyria, whose letters to Amenophis (Amon-hotep) IV.
The system of the catasto, which led to abuses, was abolished, and a progressive income-tax (decima scalata) was introduced with the object of lightening the burdens of the poor, who were as a rule Medicean, at the expense of the rich; but as it was frequently increased the whole community came to be oppressed by it in the end.
The strong resistance offered by these three guns seems to have led to the conclusion that towers of this description were specially formidable, and Martello towers were built in large numbers, and at heavy expense, along the shores of England, especially on the southern and eastern coasts, which in certain parts are lined with these towers at short intervals.
The claying system involved the expense of large curing houses and the employment of many hands, and forty days at least were required for completing the operation and making the sugar fit for the market, whereas with centrifugals sugar cooked to-day can go to market to-morrow, and the labour employed is reduced to a minimum.
Large doors at the side of the cistern are then opened, and as soon as the bags are cool enough they are removed at the expense of very exacting labour and considerable time, and fresh bags and sheaths are fixed in their places ready for filtering fresh liquor.
On the 28th of November he entered London in triumph, and on the 2nd of March 1641, reparation was voted by the Commons, at the expense of his persecutors.
Under the English rule the counts of Armagnac were turbulent and untrustworthy vassals; and the administration of the Black Prince, tending to favour the towns of Aquitaine at the expense of the nobles, drove them to the side of France.
Meanwhile, within the empire, ambitious valis were one by one attempting to carve out dominions for themselves at the expense of the central power.
The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.
Borchers, trace it to the presence of oxide, produced, for example, either by the use of a solution containing a trace of basic salt of zinc (to prevent which the bath should be kept just - almost imperceptibly - acid), or by the presence of a more electro-negative metal, which, being co-deposited, sets up local action at the expense of the zinc. Many processes have been patented, the ore being acted upon by acid, and the resulting solution treated, by either chemical or electrolytic means, for the successive removal of the other heavy metals.
The fundamental principle of the Frankish military system, that the man served at his own expense, was still unchanged.
The aids were paid on a few occasions, determined by custom, where the lord was put to unusual expense, as for his ransom when captured by the enemy, or for the knighting of his eldest son.
Some passed under the sway of Persia, others preserved their freedom at the expense of their neighbours.
- xiv., however, " there is nothing about the restoration of the temple, or about Joshua and Zerubbabel; but we read of the evil rulers, foreign and native alike, who maltreat their subjects, and enrich themselves at their expense.'
He then proceeded to build a fortress there and gradually compelled the surrounding tribes to pay him tribute, extending his conquests in all directions (883-903) at the expense of the Khazars, who hitherto had held all southern Russia to tribute.
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
On the contrary, so great was his respect for both that, when there was a question of selling the Medici library to pay that family's debts, he saved the collection at the expense of the convent purse.
Its proprietor, Maruyama Ryuhei, spared no expense to obtain news from all qerarters of tli world, and for the first time the Japanese public learned what stores of information may be found in the columns of a really enterprising journal.
The chief distinguishing feature is that the glyptic character is preserved at the expense of surface finish.
The production was very limited, and good pieces soon ceased to be procurable except at long intervals and heavy expense.
Of the above three headings, it was decided that all national roads should be maintained at the national expense, the regulations for their up-keep being entrusted to the care of the prefectures along the line of route, and the cost incurred being paid from the Imperial treasury.
Village roads, being for the convenience of local districts alone, are maintained at the expense of such districts under the general supervision of the corresponding prefecture.
The care and expense lavished upon these highly ornate structures would have been deemed extravagant even in medieval Europe.
ways operation was impossible in such circumstances, and constant complaints were heard about delays in transit and undue expense.
Changing sides in 1805 he fought for Napoleon, with the result that by the peace of Pressburg in that year he obtained the Breisgau and other territories at the expense of the Habsburgs.
The Baden contingent continued to assist France, and by the peace of Vienna in 1809 the grandduke was rewarded with accessions of territory at the expense of the kingdom of Wurttemberg.
It was he who after Austerlitz aggrandized the margravate at the expense of Austria; transformed it into a sovereign principality and raised it to a grand-duchy.
The exemption from the jurisdiction of the sheriff was recognized in England by the Sheriffs Act 1887, which provides that the sheriff of a county shall appoint a deputy at the expense of the lord of the liberty, such deputy to reside in or near the liberty.
His system for the disinfection of sewage and similar matter by the electrolysis of chlorides, or of sea-water, has been tried, but for the most part abandoned on the score of expense.
Gaster at the expense of the Rumanian government.
The earliest critical serial, the Diario de los literatos (1737-1742), kept up at the expense of Philip V., did not long survive court favour.
Nevertheless, Olgierd not only succeeded in holding his own, but acquired influence and territory at the expense of both Muscovy and the Tatars, and extended the borders of Lithuania to the shores of the Black Sea.
In spite of the precautions taken by the allies to prevent the domination of Athens at their expense, the policy of the league was almost throughout directed rather in the interests of Athens.
General John Stanwix built Fort Stanwix here at an expense of 60,000, and the first permanent settlement dates from about this time.
Meanwhile Baldwin repelled in successive years the attacks of the Egyptians (1102, 1103, 1105), and in the latter years of his reign (1115-1118) he even pushed southward at the expense of Egypt, penetrating as far as the Red Sea, and planting an outpost at Monreal.
The publication of the Allgemeine and General-Reformation der ganzen weiten Welt (Cassel, 1614), and the Fama Fraternitatis (Cassel, 1615) by the theologian Johann Valentin Andrea (1586-1654), caused immense excitement throughout Europe, and they not only led to many re-issues, but were followed by numerous pamphlets, favourable and otherwise, whose authors generally knew little, if anything, of the real aims of the original author, and doubtless in not a few cases amused themselves at the expense of the public. It is probable that the first work was circulated in MS. about 1610, for it is said that a reply was written in 1612 (according to Herder), but if so, there was no mention of the cult before that decade.
In modern times two factors have accelerated this process, viz.: (I) the building of railways, which have developed commerce to a very great degree and favoured the large towns at the expense of the small; and (2) the invention of machinery, which has greatly increased the possibility of division of labour and manufactures on a large scale.
I, 4), the modern Citta di Castello, he set up a temple at his own expense and adorned it with statues of Nerva and Trajan (x.
12 seq.) live at the expense of their flocks, polluting the " love-feasts," corrupting the true disciples.
The fees in these institutions are almost nominal, the middle-classes are thus educated at the expense of the masses.
The co-operation of naval and military authorities was obtained for the construction, at imperial expense, of the breakwater designed to save Malta from being abandoned by long and deep draft modern vessels.
Another feature of the time was the strenuous effort made by Edward to establish his numerous family without too great expense.
Sensible of the loss which the nation had sustained by his death, the empress Catherine ordered him a funeral at the public expense.
Being a man of wealth, he printed at his own expense the numerous papers which he wrote on various branches of this science, and communicated them to scholars in almost every country of Europe.
He had derived a considerable revenue from the enemy's country, and he had moreover quartered his troops without expense.
Other dependent citizens are cared for in the institutions of other states at public expense.
The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
- The chief edition of the Latin works is that published at the public expense by F.
The pleasing style and novel matter enchanted the Spanish public, but the unmeasured laudation of Cortes at the expense of his lieutenants and companions brought about a violent reaction.
Some of these generators are constructed to make the gas only as fast as it is consumed at the burner, with the object of saving the expense and room which would be involved by a storage-holder.
There is a fine statue of the great jarl in the Riddarholm church at Stockholm, erected by Fogelberg at the expense of the Stockholm magistracy in 1884.
These were written by Thomas Hutchinson, Governor of Massachusetts, Andrew Oliver (1706-1774), his lieutenantgovernor, and others to William Whately, a member of Parliament, and private secretary to George Grenville, suggesting an increase of the power of the governor at the expense of the assembly, " an abridgement of what are called English liberties," and other measures more extreme than those undertaken by the government.
As a provincial governor, Lentulus appears to have looked after the interests of his subjects, and did not enrich himself at their expense.
for those who exalted the idea of the Catholic Church and the sacramental system at the expense both of the Establishment and of the exclusive authority of Scripture.
He engraved privately about 1785 at enormous expense Botanical Tables containing the Different Familys of British Plants, while The Tabular Distribution of British Plants (1787) is also attributed to him.
On the one hand were the English plantations, populated, cultivated, profitable, stretching along the east coast of North America; on the other were the Canadian settlements, poverty-stricken, empty, over-officialled, a cause of constant expense to the home government, and, at a vast distance, those of Louisiana, struggling and bankrupt.
His body was recovered with difficulty, and, having been embalmed, was buried with imposing ceremony at the public expense on the 7th of June.
At Athens the franchise, jealously guarded at this period, was not to be attained without great expense and difficulty.
In the same year he was elected parish priest of Glarus, in spite of the pope's nomination of Heinrich Goldli, an influential pluralist of Zurich, whom Zwingli found it necessary to buy off at an expense of more than a hundred gulden.
In later times the apologists of each sect reversed the process, and cleared that in which they were interested at the expense of others.
His sons extended their principality east and west; but the founder of the Chalukya greatness was his grandson Pulakesin II., who succeeded in 608 and proceeded to extend his rule at the expense of his neighbours.
per standard ounce troy, no deduction being made for wastage, seigniorage, the purchase of alloy metal, or the expense of manufacture.
During the 18th century, though the Independents increased at the expense of the Presbyterians, it is doubtful whether they kept pace with the increase of population, until the Evangelical Revival.
The prospect of revenge upon her enemies of the Second Balkan War - Serbia, Greece and Rumania - and of attaining her large territorial ambitions at their expense, proved sufficient, after prudent hesitation, to attract Bulgaria to the side of Germany.
He understood that political materialism, selfishness and corruption in federal administration afford the strongest possible argument for those who advocate strengthening the independent power of the separate states at the expense of nationalism.
For a year before the peace of Altranstadt in 1706, when Augustus gave up the crown of Poland, Saxony was occupied by a Swedish army, which had to be supported at an immense expense.
This law had in effect secured the misrepresentation of the mass of the people in the diet, the representation of the country population at the expense of that of the towns, of the interests of agriculture as opposed to those of industry.
- Arrangements for avoiding the delay and expense of litigation, and referring a dispute to friends or neutral persons, are a natural practice, of which traces may be found in any state of society; but it is from Roman Law that we derive arbitration as a system which has found its way into the practice of European nations in general, and has even evaded the dislike of the English common lawyers to the civil law.
The object of this enactment was to save the expense of making a submission a rule of court by treating it as having been so made, and it leaves the law in this position, that while the authority of an arbitrator, once appointed, is irrevocable, there is no power - any more than there was under the old law - to compel an unwilling party to proceed to a reference, except in cases specially provided for by sections 5 and 6 of the act of 1889.
Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.
But all these taxes and increases of taxation were quite inadequate to meet the enormous expense of conducting the war.
In 1820-23 he sent out at his own expense i Professors Amos Eaton (1776-1842) and Edward Hitchcock to make extensive surveys, results of which were published as An Agricultural and Geological Survey of the District adjoining the Erie Canal (Albany, 1824).
Disputes resulted, and on some points Peckham gave way, but his powers as papal legate complicated matters, and he did much to strengthen the court of Canterbury at the expense of the lower courts.
In 1869 an Irish lad, O'Connor, was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment and a whipping for presenting a pistol at the queen, with a petition, in St James's Park; but this time it was the queen herself who privately remitted the corporal punishment, and she even pushed clemency to the length of sending her aggressor to Australia at her own expense.
There was no repugnance to the idea on the queen's part, but Sir Robert Peel thought unfavourably of it as an "empirical" plan, and the question of expense was always mooted as a serious consideration.
Sir Henry Burdett quotes an order, dated 30th May 1578, directing the master and the prior of the Hotel Dieu "not to receive henceforth any novices without speaking of it to the company, because there are an excessive number of nuns and novices, who cause great expense to the said Hotel Dieu."
The sarcophagi are of immense size, and the burial must have entailed enormous expense.
Peter's enthusiastic worship of Frederick resulted in a peace (May 5) and then (June 19) in an offensive and defensive alliance between Russia and Prussia, whereby Peter restored to Prussia all the territory won from her by Russia during the last five years at such an enormous expense of men and money, and engaged to defend Frederick against all his enemies.
From 1028 onwards it was ruled by local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that of the bishops.
Five years after the death of Gedymin, Olgierd, the most capable of his seven sons, had been placed upon the throne of Lithuania by his devoted brother Kiejstut, and for the next two-and-thirty years (1345-1377) the two princes still further extended the sway of Lithuania, principally at the expense of Muscovy and the Tatars.
at their expense.
But though the treasury was thus temporarily replenished and the army increased, the gentry who had been so generous at the expense of their richer neighbours would hear of no additional burdens being laid on themselves, and the king only obtained what he wanted by sacrificing his principles to his necessities, and helping the szlachta to pull down the magnates.
John Albert's second diet (1496), after granting subsidies the burden of which fell entirely on the towns and peasantry, passed a series of statutes benefiting the nobility at the expense of the other classes.
(1 53 o - 1 54 8) the political influence of the szlachta grew rapidly at the expense of the executive, and the gentry in diet assembled succeeded in curtailing the functions of all the great officers of state.
Seriously disturbed at the prospect of Russian aggrandizement, the idea occurred, almost simultaneously, to the courts of Berlin and Vienna that the best mode of preserving the equilibrium of Europe was for all three powers to readjust their territories at the expense of Poland.
In spite of the general prosperity of the country due to peace, and the execution of public works mostly at the expense of Russia, the state of the agricultural class grew, if anything, worse.
In 1553 appeared at Brzesc the Protestant translation of the whole Bible made by a committee of learned men and divines, and published at the expense of Nicholas Radziwill, a very rich Polish magnate who had embraced the Protestant doctrines.
His first book - Saturn and his System - was published in the same year, at his own expense.
Here Churchyard enriched himself at the expense, it is to be feared, of the unhappy Irish; but in 1552 he was in England again, trying vainly to secure a fortune by marriage with a rich widow.
The church of St George was built in 1826, its tower forming a conspicuous landmark, and the Roman Catholic church of St Augustine was built from the designs and at the expense of A.
These perpetually occurring disasters entail a heavy expense on the government; and from the mere pecuniary point of view it would well repay them to call in the best foreign engineering skill available, an expedient, however, which has not commended itself to the Chinese authorities.
still extant that were copied at his expense are the Bodleian Euclid (888) and the Bodleian Plato (895).
The civil territory was considerably enlarged at the expense of the military.
In each city of the first, second and third class there must be, and of the fourth class there may be, maintained under control of a city Board of Education a system of public schools, in which all children between the ages of 6 and 20 residing in the city may be taught at public expense.
His earlier policy aimed at strengthening Holstein-Gottorp at the expense of Denmark.
The Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England (founded in 1649) bore the expense of printing both the New Testament and the Bible as a whole (Cambridge, Mass., 1663 - the earliest Bible printed in.America), which John Eliot, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, translated into "the language of the Massachusetts Indians," whom he evangelized.
Translations or revisions in scores of languages are still being carried on by companies of scholars and representative missionaries in different parts of the world, organized under the society's auspices and largely at its expense.
Next comes the distinction of the gross national revenue from the net - the first being the whole produce of the land and labour of a country, the second what remains after deducting the expense of maintaining the fixed capital of the country and that part of its circulating capital which consists of money.
He remarks in a just historical spirit that the performance of these functions requires very different degrees of expense in the different periods of society.
The expense of the institutions for religious instruction as well as for general education, he holds, may without injustice be defrayed out of the funds of the whole society, though he would apparently prefer that it should be met by the voluntary contributions of those who think they have occasion for such education or instruction.
This work was published by Vlacq at his own expense at Gouda in 1633, under the title Trigonometria Britannica.
Normal schools for the training of teachers are also maintained at public expense and are giving good results.
The MS. was bought at the expense of the duke of Loubat, who decided to present it, after the death of Dr Lehmann, to the Royal Library at Berlin.
Facsimiles of several of these interesting documents, with their translations, may be seen in Kingsborough; splendid reproductions of the beautiful Mexican and Mixteco-Zapotecan codices have also been published at the expense of the duke of Loubat and by the " Junta Colombina " (Mexico, 1892).
Within the state are also sixteen orphan asylums, and though these are private institutions, in all but one of them children are boarded at county or city expense.
But there was a reluctance to incur the expense of a contest with so powerful a neighbour as New York, and in 1764 that province procured from the king in council a royal order declaring the western boundary of New Hampshire to be the western bank of the Connecticut river.
He caused engravings to be made, at his own expense, of Bartoli's copies from ancient pictures and published Nouveaux sujets de peinture et de sculpture (1755) and Tableaux tires de l'Iliade, de l'Odysse, et de l'Eneide (1757).
91), and as praetor (70) he maintained, in opposition to Vespasian, that the management of the finances ought to be left to the discretion of the senate; he proposed that the capitol, which had been destroyed in the Neronian conflagration, should be restored at the public expense; he saluted Vespasian by his private name, and did not recognize him as emperor in his praetorian edicts.
Its length (inclusive of the flagellum) varies from 40-60 while its greatest width (including the undulating-membrane) is from 8-30, u; in the very wide individuals breadth is gained more or less at the expense of length.
The tablet over Schomberg's grave contains what Macaulay called a "furious libel," though it only states that the duke's relatives refused the expense of the tablet.
The magnetic observatory of Dublin was erected in the years 1837-1838 in the gardens attached to Trinity College, at the expense of the university.
Disappointed in England and the United States, he decided to make an attempt at his own expense.
With a retinue of about 700 persons, entertained in Italy at the pope's expense, he reached Ferrara early in March 1438.
Physicians seem to have been maintained in many towns at the public expense.
To enable it to bear the expense involved in all these undertakings, the local treasury was generally assisted by large benefactions, either in money or in works, from individual citizens; but direct taxation for municipal purposes was hardly ever resorted to.
In 1898 the state ordered the sale of the salt lands, because the revenues were less than the expense of keeping up the works; but state ownership was maintained until 1908, when the last of the lands were sold and the office of superintendent of salt lands, created in 1797, was abolished.
The object in both cases was to break down tariff barriers between the United States and Canada, even though that should be at the expense of discrimination against Great Britain.
Three contingents of troops were despatched to the seat of war and took an active part in the events which finally secured the triumph of the British arms. These forces were supplemented by a regiment of Canadian horse raised and equipped at the sole expense of Lord Strathcona, the high commissioner of the Dominion in London.
Since the advance of civilization and indis c riminate slaughter have deprived them of the bison, g p so long their natural means of subsistence, the northwest tribes have been maintained chiefly at the expense of the country.
Neither had civilization anything to fear from them, since they represented a strong neutral power, which made the intimate union of Persian and Arabian elements possible, almost at the expense of the national Turkish - literary monuments in that language being during the whole period of the Seljuk rule exceedingly rare.
He had fallen into disfavour because of his unwillingness to join in the intrigues of the princess Turkan Khatun, who wished to secure the succession to the throne for her infant son Mahmud at the expense of the elder sons of Malik Shah.
The legislature of Georgia remonstrated but expressed a willingness to cede the land to the United States, and in 1802 the cession was ratified, it being stipulated among other things that the United States should pay to the state $1,250,000, and should extinguish " at their own expense, for the use of Georgia, as soon as the same can be peaceably obtained on reasonable terms," the Indian title to all lands within the state of Georgia.
Peck (6 Cranch 87) that such a rescindment as that in the new state constitution was illegal, on the ground that a state cannot pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts; and at an expense of more than four millions of dollars the Federal government ultimately extinguished all claims to the lands.
His reign until his death on the 28th of February 1069 was mainly spent in extending his power at the expense of his smaller neighbours, and in conflicts with his chief rival the king of Granada.
He died in Bucharest, and was buried at his patron's expense.
In the work of improving the city, the national government assumed the expense of the commercial quays, the filling of the Sao Christovao bay, the opening of the Mangue canal and its embellishment, the opening of the Avenida Central, the extension of the sewage system and the addition of new sources to the water supply, while the city was responsible for the Avenida Beira-Mar, the opening of a new avenue from the Largo da Lapa westward to Rua Frei Caneca, the removal of the Morro do Senado, the widening of some streets crossing the Avenida Central and the opening and straightening of other streets.
The most fertile districts lie on the banks of the Elbe and near the North Sea, where, as in Holland, rich meadows are preserved from encroachment of the sea by broad dikes and deep ditches, kept in repair at great expense.
Many of the Hanoverians remained loyal to their sovereign; some of them serving in the Guelph Legion, which was maintained largely at his expense in France, where a paper, La Situation, was founded by Oskar Meding (1829-1903) and conducted in his interests.
Through a simple agreement, " conditions which make for peace and prosperity, and the absence of those which so often lead to disastrous war, have for nearly a century reigned over these great inland waters, whose commerce, conducted for the benefit of the states and nations of Europe and America, rivals that which passes through the Suez Canal or over the Mediterranean Sea, and with a result foreshadowed in these words of President Monroe in his communication to the Senate commending the proposed agreement: ` In order to avoid collision and save expense.'
Forts which had been erected at salient points on either side of the lakes and rivers dividing the United States from Canada, which but for this agreement would, in the natural course of events, have been enlarged, increasingly garrisoned, and provided with modern implements of destruction, at large expense, have remained substantially as when the agreement was made, or now constitute but interesting or picturesque ruins; and the great cost of constructing and maintaining, through a long series of years, naval armaments of ever-increasing power has been avoided."
He went to China as orderly officer to General Gaselee in 1901, and provided the expedition with a hospital ship at his own expense, while his Imperial Service Transport Corps proved a useful auxiliary to the British army in the Chitral and Tirah expeditions.
Large confiscations of the estates in the county were made in 1586, and on the termination of the wars of 1641; and in 1666 the restoration of his estates to the 4th Viscount Mayo involved another confiscation, at the expense of Cromwell's settlers.
He now found a new friend in the Swiss adventurer, Francois Lefort, a shrewd and jovial rascal, who not only initiated him into all the mysteries of profligacy (at the large house built at Peter's expense in the German settlement), but taught him his true business as a ruler.
Charles's "immersion in the Polish bog" (1702-1707), as Peter phrased it, enabled the tsar, not without considerable expense and trouble, to conquer Ingria and lay the foundations of St Petersburg.
A candidate therefore is not, as far as the law is concerned, liable to any expense whatever.
About 2000, mainly from the Gilbert Islands, were brought in at the expense of the government between 1878 and 1884; but they did not give satisfaction either as labourers or as citizens, and most of them have been returned to their homes.
Single olive trees of first quality yield sometimes as much as 2 gallons of oil, and this with little trouble or expense beyond the collecting and pressing of the fallen fruit.
The harbour is an open roadstead, very dangerous to shipping in northerly winds, and the discharge and loading of cargoes is effected by means of lighters at considerable risk and expense.
The relations of one pope became the enemies of the next; and each pontiff governed at the expense of his successors.
It is a popular disquisition on the heroes of the Trojan War in the form of a conversation between a Thracian vine-dresser on the shore of the Hellespont and a Phoenician merchant who derives his knowledge from the hero Protesilaus, Palamedes is exalted at the expense of Odysseus, and Homer's unfairness to him is attacked.
Hubert was accused, with some reason, of enriching himself at the expense of the crown, and of encouraging popular riots against the alien clerks for whom the papacy was providing at the expense of the English Church.
They are constructed of granite, and no expense has been spared in equipping them with hydraulic cranes, warehouses, &c.
The Gupta dynasty appears to have fostered a revival of Brahmanism at the expense of Buddhism, and to have given an impulse to art and literature.
Indeed, the trouble and expense of these moulds sometimes prohibit its use.
But concrete is hampered by the fact that the surface always has to be formed by means of wooden or other framing, and in the case of thin walls or floors this framing becomes a serious item, involving expense and delay.
But, generally speaking, in steel concrete the cost of the cement is but a small item of the whole expense, and it is worth while to be generous with it.
Macpherson never produced his originals, which he refused to publish on the ground of the expense.
But the union of Castile and Aragon in 1479 favoured other cities of Spain at the expense of Barcelona, whose commercial supremacy was transferred to the ports of western Spain by the discovery of America in 1492.
One lesson only, instead of many, has to be learnt; and once learnt at the expense of a few individuals of one or two species it will thereafter be applied indiscriminately to all.
per lb, the greater part of the expense being due to the constant failure of the retorts; in 1887 Castner's sodium cost less than is.
She enriched herself at the expense of the state, corrupted society, degraded the clergy, and in her later years was universall y detested for her mischievous meddling, inexhaustible greed, and.
He contributed to the expense of printing and publishing at Oxford the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in the Malay language, and at his death left 5400 for the propagation of the gospel in heathen lands.
In 1662 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to Charles II., it came into the possession of the English, and they defended it against Mulai Ismail in 1680, but in 1684 it was decided, on account of expense, to abandon the place to the Moors.
The employment of that light for forcing purposes would seem to be in part a question of expense.
After an attempted defence of the foreign policy which had aided the aggrandizement of Prussia at the expense of Austria, Thiers told him in the Chamber that there were "no more blunders left for him to make."
These two sea dikes were reconstructed by the state at great expense between the year 1860 and 1884, having consisted before that time of little more than a protected sand dike.
When it is remembered that the woodwork is infested by the pile worm (Teredo navalis), the ravages of which were discovered in 1731, the labour and expense incurred in the construction and maintenance of the sea dikes now existing may be imagined.
The role of the fungus appears to be to supply materials from the leaf-mould around, in forms which ordinary root-hairs are incapable of providing for the plant; in return the latter supports the fungus at slight expense from its abundant stores of reserve materials.
At Hourpes, in order to save the expense of this remelting, the molten cast iron as it comes from the blast-furnace is poured directly into the puddling furnace, in large charges of about 2200 lb, which are thus about four times as large as those of common puddling furnaces.
The expense of cutting castings accurately to shape, cutting on them screw threads and what not, called " machining " in trade parlance, is often a very large part of their total cost; and it increases rapidly with the hardness of the metal.
Finally the quantity of armour plate needed is so enormous that it justifies the expense of installing a great rolling mill.
a monopoly of the commune of Rome) consumed by each, Tomassetti bases an estimate of the population: this was about equal to that of our own times, but differently distributed, some of the smaller centres having disappeared at the expense of the towns.
Tietgen, at whose expense the work was resumed.
Antonio died in 1559, having been a source of trouble and expense to Paolo during the last four years of his life.
Philip had in the southern o f Netherlands attained his object, and Belgium was henceforth Catholic and Spanish, but at the expense of its progress and prosperity.
They spare neither pains nor money in acquiring specimens, even from distant lands, to which they often send out expert collectors at their own expense.
In the cheekteeth the sectorial or scissor-like cutting function is developed at the expense of the tubercular or grinding, there being only one rudimentary tooth of the latter form in the upper jaw, and none in FIG.
His collections of original materials were vast; beginning with his residence in England, he brought together at enormous pains and expense the authenticated copies of archives, family papers, and personal journals written by historic personages, which now constitute an invaluable treasure in the New York public library.
the central government has gained strength at the expense of the states, seldom by direct usurpation (except during the Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-76), but indirectly through use and custom, as the country and people developed and new conditions of government arose.
In the following January Sir Edwin Arnold, the editor of the Daily Telegraph, arranged with Smith that he should go to Nineveh at the expense of that journal, and carry out excavations with a view to finding the missing fragments of the Deluge story.
In 1874 Smith again left England for Nineveh, this time at the expense of the Museum, and continued his excavations at Kouyunjik.
To effect a remodelling when the ground is in stubble, let it be ploughed up, harrowed, and cleaned as in a summer fallow, the levelling-box employed when required, the stuff from the conductors and main drains spread abroad, and the beds ploughed into shape - all operations that can be performed at little expense.
The expense of forming canals, embankments and sluices for warping land is from Do to £20 an acre.
per second, and probably nowhere is irrigation carried on with less expense.
It is not enough that it should be pumped on to the land at the expense of the landowner.
The largest expense for water rights and for annual maintenance was incurred in southern California, where the character of the crops, such as citrus fruits, and the scarcity of the water make possible Arizona.
The legal expense for the maintenance of water rights was often large because of the interminable suits brought during the times of water scarcity.
There remained large rivers and opportunities for water storage which could be brought under irrigation at considerable expense.
Owing to the difficulty and expense of securing water from running streams by gravity systems, a great variety of methods were developed of pumping water by windmills, gasoline or hot-air engines, and steam.
He fancied that he should be able to draw his breath more easily in a southern climate, and would probably have set out for Rome and Naples but for his fear of the expense of the journey.
That expense, indeed, he had the means of defraying; for he had laid up about two thousand pounds, the fruit of labours which had made the fortune of several publishers.
Ample provision is made for scientific collections of all kinds in almost all places of any importance, either at the public expense or through private munificence.
Its construction was completed at enormous expense, and it was opened for ships by the emperor in June 1869 under the name of Wilhelmshaven.
They seem, however, to have recovered very soon, and at the end of the 1st century had apparently extended their power at the expense of the Cherusci.
The condition of parties was such that Bismarck could not hope to win a majority for his schemes, especially as he could not obtain the monopoly on tobacco on which he depended to cover the expense.
In 1576, when Milan was visited by the plague, he went about giving directions for accommodating the sick and burying the dead, avoiding no danger and sparing no expense.
Richard was sent to Oxford at the expense of Thomas de Neville, afterwards archdeacon of Durham.
He accepted the offer and set to work to prepare his English MS. for the translators, Richard Peers and Richard Reeve, both appointed by Dr Fell, dean of Christ Church, who undertook the expense of printing.
The efforts of Turkey to regain her ascendancy in eastern Europe at the expense of the Habsburgs had ended p p g in failure, and henceforward Turkish efforts were confined to resisting the steady development of Austria in the direction of Constantinople.
The Prussian victory at Mollwitz (April 10, 1741) brought into the field against Austria all the powers which were ambitious of expansion at her expense: France, Bavaria, Spain, Saxony and Sardinia.
Although, then, as the result of the war, Silesia was by the treaty of Dresden transferred from Austria to Prussia, while in Italy by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 cessions were made at the expense of the house of Habsburg to the Spanish Don Philip and to Sardinia, the Austrian monarchy as a whole had displayed a vitality that had astonished the world, and was in some respects stronger than at the beginning of the struggle, notably in the great improvement in the army and in the possession of generals schooled by the experience of active service.
He had, it is true, been unable to prevent the retention of the grand-duchy of Warsaw by Alexander of Russia; but with the aid of Great Britain and France (secret treaty of January 3, 1815) he had frustrated the efforts of Prussia to absorb the whole of Saxony, Bavaria was forced to disgorge the territories gained for her by Napoleon at Austria's expense, Illyria and Dalmatia were regained, and Lombardy was added to Venetia to constitute a kingdom under the Habsburg crown; while in the whole Italian peninsula French was replaced by Austrian influence.
The object of this apparently high-handed step was to avoid the expense and delay of summoning the supernumeraries again to the colours when the bills should have received parliamentary sanction; but it was not unnaturally resented by the Hungarian Chamber, which has ever possessed a lively sense of its prerogatives.
Meanwhile the growth of tyrannies in the Greek cities was beginning to group several towns together under a single master, and thus to increase the greatness of particular cities at the expense of their freedom.
She began with a revenue of 1000 talents (including 600 from er)p axoe), and had also, in spite of the heavy expense which the building schemes of Pericles had involved, a reserve of 6000 talents.
In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast.
Under the existing system the fluctuating requirements of the currency are met without the expense of alternately minting and melting down.