This has no offline corollary and is economically empowering to so many people. 5. eBay and reallocating existing goods. eBay is actually a little like direct trade.
What I describe above is using a new technology to solve an existing problem.
The grids with issues popped up as a layer over the hologram of the existing battles.
It is the oldest existing European settlement on the South American continent, having been founded by Diego Castellon in 1523 under the name of Nueva Toledo.
There is no existing MS. of Propertius older than the 12th century.
are already mentioned as existing in the account of the mission sent by Nicholas I.
I had a good, frank talk with Mrs. Keller, and explained to her how difficult it was going to be to do anything with Helen under the existing circumstances.
My friends think it very strange that they should hesitate so long, especially when I have not asked them to simplify my work in the least, but only to modify it so as to meet the existing circumstances.
But my guess is that we will be able to do this and even make existing "good" genes perform better.
Stay on the existing trails and roadways, be courteous to other users and remove all trash and equipment.
And experience tells us that power is not merely a word but an actually existing phenomenon.
Aguilar "of the Frontier" was so named in the middle ages from its position on the border of the Moorish territories, which were defended by the castle of Anzur, now a ruin; but the spacious squares and modern houses of the existing town retain few vestiges of Moorish dominion.
Painful relations between father and son, quite apart from the personal antipathies already existing, were therefore inevitable.
It proposes to set forth the genesis of the existing universe from principles which can be plainly Lh understood, and according to the acknowledged laws of the transmission of movement.
Existing marsupials may be divided into three main divisions or sub-orders, of which the first, or Polyprotodontia, is common to America and Australasia; the second, or Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American; while the third, or Diprotodonts, is as solely Australasian inclusive of a few in the eastern Austro-Malayan islands.
The chief success of the government lay in the field of foreign politics, where it prudently avoided entanglement in the ambitious schemes of Hellenistic monarchs, but gained great prestige by energetic interference against aggressors who threatened the existing balance of power or the security of the seas.
The science of jurisprudence regards the state and power as the ancients regarded fire--namely, as something existing absolutely.
In 1551 the tsar submitted to a synod of prelates a hundred questions as to the best mode of remedying existing evils, for which reason the decrees of this synod are generally called stoglav or centuria.
But demands for more lines were constantly arising, and the existing companies, in view of their financial position, were disinclined to undertake their construction.
Social conditions in western Virginia were entirely unlike those existing in the eastern portion of the state.
From this fundamental difference between the view held by history and that held by jurisprudence, it follows that jurisprudence can tell minutely how in its opinion power should be constituted and what power-- existing immutably outside time--is, but to history's questions about the meaning of the mutations of power in time it can answer nothing.
At that point, I was more powerful than she and the existing Original Beings.
Another MS. of the same century has a picture - crude, but spirited - which brings us into close touch with the existing game.
ELEPHANT, the designation of the two existing representatives of the Proboscidea, a sub-order of ungulate mammals, and also extended to include their more immediate extinct relatives.
Equity here is defined to mean "any body of rules existing by the side of the original civil law, founded on distinct principles, and claiming incidentally to supersede the civil law in virtue of a superior sanctity inherent in those principles."
Embittered by his treatment in 1892, he openly preached the advisability of an armed rising to overthrow the existing administration.
The existing system of taxation also presses heavily upon the provinces, as may be seen from the fact that the national, provincial and municipal exactions together amount to £7 per head of population, while the total value of the exports in 1898 was only L6 in round numbers.
The site of the church of St Peter has long been occupied by a parish church (there was one in the 12th century, if not earlier), but the existing building dates only from 1870.
" Scarcely any supposition," 2 he says, " can be made from which the same result, though possibly with greater difficulty, might not be deduced by the same laws of nature; for since, in virtue of these laws, matter successively assumes all the forms of which it is capable, if we consider these forms in order, we shall at one point or other reach the existing form of the world, so that no error need here be feared from a false supposition."
Still, the close relationship of the existing Liberian pigmy hippopotamus to the fossil Mediterranean species is significant, in relation to the foregoing observations on the elephant.
Several railway lines have been projected, but there is no great probability of their construction under existing political conditions.
The system consisting of the earth and the pound therefore possesses an amount of energy which depends on the relative positions of its two parts, on account of the latent physical connexion existing between them.
This is the oldest industrial corporation in Sweden, and perhaps the oldest still existing in the world; it is known to have been established before 1347.
The powers and rights of existing colonies to remain intact, except as regards such powers as it may be necessary to hand over to the Federal government.
So even if no new goods were created tomorrow, we could still vastly increase the wealth of the world by allocating existing goods differently.
He had newly assumed his position after thousands of years without the Gatekeeper existing, since Xander killed the last Grey God.
His words are wisdom to those legislators who contemplate no essential reform in the existing government; but for thinkers, and those who legislate for all time, he never once glances at the subject.
I sort of like the mortal world existing.
The only known spring existing at present within the limits of the city is the "fountain of the Virgin," on the western side of the Kidron valley, but there may have been others which are now concealed by the accumulations of rubbish.
The exact line of this third wall is not known with certainty, but it probably followed approximately the same line as the existing north wall of Jerusalem.
These formed a single building, which was still intact goo years ago, and was used as the mosque of the then existing city of Istakhr.
Other evidence allows us to link together the Kenites, Calebites and Danites in a tradition of some movement into Palestine, evidently quite distinct from the great invasion of Israelite tribes which predominates in the existing records.
The foundations also of the moles that separate the harbours are of Hellenic work, though the existing moles were erected by the Knights of St John.
Two existing fishes may be mentioned as ranking in interest with the Myrmecobius (ant-eater) in the eyes of the naturalist.
The total gold production of the country is from £14,500,000 to £16,000,000, and as not more than three-quarters of a million are required to strengthen existing local stocks, the balance is usually available for export, and the average export of the precious metal during the ten years, 1896-1905, was £12,500,000 per annum.
Following his interpretation of the instructions he had received, de Lesseps began negotiations with the existing government at Rome, according to which Pius IX.
Farther east the sea was interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong.
In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.
The homestead of a householder or head of a family to the value of $500 is, so long as it continues to be used as the homestead, exempt from levy or attachment other than upon causes existing at the time it was acquired and for taxes.
Oak was thus applied at a very early date; the shrine of Edward the Confessor, still existing in the abbey at Westminster, sound after the lapse of Boo years, is of dark-coloured oak-wood.
Cromwell was essentially a conservative reformer; in his attempts to purge the court of chancery of its most flagrant abuses, and to settle the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, he showed himself anxious to retain as much of the existing system as could be left untouched without doing positive evil.
He had been designed by his parents for the military profession, but the new light which now broke in upon him determined him to devote his entire energies to the abolition of the existing feudal system and to the establishment of a constitutional government.
The existing London Mint was erected on Tower Hill in 1810.
Taking a detached view of Turkish civilization, even of the faith of Islam itself, for the two are inseparable - the Committee saw much wanting, much existing that was cumbersome and useless, much that provided a fatal handicap to the progress of the Ottoman State.
Felipa watched the children while Carmen showed the men where she wanted the fence and explained how she wanted the gate in the existing fence.
It is the oldest existing.
This flora, isolated by arid country from the rest of the continent, has evidently derived its plant life from an outside source, probably from lands no longer existing.
The direct connecting link between God and man is the "genius," a higher spiritual individuality existing in man by the side of his lower, earthly individuality.
The Pindaris were put down, Amir Khan submitting and signing a treaty which constituted him the first ruler of the existing state of Tonk.
The Hari-Rud marks the only important break existing in the continuity of the great central water-parting of Asia.
Under the then existing telegraphic tariff the charge in Great Britain was a shilling for a twenty-word message over a distance not exceeding ioo miles; is.
The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.
Thus, in the case of one station and one moving railway carriage, there is a circuit consisting partly of the earth, partly of the ordinary telegraph wires at the side of the track, and partly of the circuits of the telephone receiver at one place and the secondary of the induction coil at the other, two air gaps existing in this circuit.
The existing seven were first published in a careful but largely mistaken transcript by Buonarotti in 1724, as an appendix to Dempster's De Etruria Regali.
The mandamenti or administrative divisions no longer correspond to the judicial divisions (mandamenti giudiziarii) which in November 1891 were reduced from 1806 to 1535 by a law which provided that judicial reform should not modify existing administrative and electoral divisions.
Similarly, the number of goats, which are reared only in hilly regions, is decreasing, especially on account of the existing forest laws, as they are the chief enemies of young plantations.
Between 1881 and 1905 the bequests to existing institutions and sums left for the endowment of new institutions amounted to about 16,604,600.
The law considers as charitable institutions (opere pie) all poorhouses, almshouses and institutes which partly or wholly give help to able-bodied or infirm paupers, or seek to improve their moral and economic condition; and also the Congregazioni di caritd (municipal charity boards existing in every commune, and composed of ~embers elected by the municipal council), which administer funds destined for the poor in general.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
In 1869, however, a third additional tenth was added to the previously existing additional two-tenths, and, unlike the tenths of the land tax, they have not been abolished.
There was no feeling of nationality, but the people were prosperous, enjoyed profound peace and were placidly content with the existing order of things.
In order to diminish the gold premium, which under Giolitti had risen to 16%, forced currency was given to the existing notes of the banks of Italy, Naples and Sicily, while special state notes were issued to meet immediate currency needs.
For this unfortunate combination Signor Sonnino himself was not altogether to blame; having lost many of his most faithful followers, who, weary of waiting for office, had gone over to the enemy, he had been forced to seek support among men who had professed hostility to the existing order of things and thus to secure at least the neutrality of the Extreme Left and make the public realize that the reddest of Socialists, Radicals and Republicans may be tamed and rendered harmless by the offer of cabinet appointments.
It is, then, to one or other of those three collections of sacred texts and the respective class of priests, that the existing Brahmanas attach themselves.
From the archaic style in which these mythological tales are usually composed, as well as from the fact that not a few of them are found in Brahmanas of different schools and Vedas, though often with considerable variations, it seems pretty evident that the groundwork of them must go back to times preceding the composition or final redaction of the existing Brahmanas.
Again: " Existence cannot be separated from the essence of God "; compare Spinoza's ethics, definition i; " By causa sui I understand that the essence of which involves existence, or that 'which by its own nature can only be conceived as existing."
It is no more than characteristic of Kant's whole speculative philosophy that he should' think the Ontological argument the one which comes nearest to st,-cess (yet the Ontological argument is held to prove - or rather to point out - not that God must exist, but that we think of him as necessary if we think of him as existing at all).
It should be mentioned that, although the charter was evidently not sealed until the 19th, the four existing copies of it are dated the 15th, the day on which John accepted the articles.
Another notice occurs in the story of Nicolo Conti (c. 1440), who explains the name to mean "Island of Gold," and speaks of a lake with peculiar virtues as existing in it.
It can only be said that their organization, so far as the state of their preservation permits it to be ascertained, offers closer analogies with the Hydrozoa, especially the Calyptoblastea, than with any other existing group of the animal kingdom.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
Taking into account existing animals and plants alone, it became obvious that they fell into groups which were more or less sharply separated from one another; and, moreover, that even See the " Historical Sketch " prefixed to the last edition of the Origin of Species.
Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.
But in the prodigious number of supporting discoveries that have been made no single negative factor has appeared, and the evolution from their predecessors of the forms of life existing now or at any other period must be taken as proved.
It is necessary to notice, however, that although the general course of the stream of life is certain, there is not the same certainty as to the actual individual pedigrees of the existing forms. In the attempts to place existing creatures in approximately phylogenetic order, a striking change, due to a more logical consideration of the process of evolution, has become established and is already resolving many of the earlier difficulties and banishing from the more recent tables the numerous hypothetical intermediate forms so familiar in the older phylogenetic trees.
Such a comparison is necessarily illogical, as the existing apes are separated from the common ancestor by at least as large a number of generations as separate it from any of the forms of existing man.
The method is simply the logical result of the fact that every existing form of life stands at the summit of a long branch of the whole tree of life.
Naturally very many other factors have to be considered, but this alone is a sufficient reason to restrain attempts to place existing forms in linear phylogenetic series.
There has been a renewed activity in the study of existing forms from the point of view of obtaining evidence as to the nature and origin of species.
In its simplest form, this phrase implies such an obvious fact as that whatever be the future development of, say, existing cockroaches, it will be on lines determined by the present structure of these creatures.
The first building to which the name was given was that built in Rome in 27 B.C. by Agrippa; it was burned later and the existing building was erected in the reign of Hadrian; since A.D.
The existing ecclesiastical jurisdiction in England is therefore now confined to the following points.
Tumour) that Buddhaghosa translated the commentaries, then existing only in Sinhalese, into Pali.
1880), the Christians were particularly dangerous, inasmuch as they taught a unity which transcended that of the Roman Empire, and must, therefore, have been regarded as antagonistic to the existing political and social organism.
that the local authority, before granting a licence, " shall take into consideration whether, in the neighbourhood, the reasonable requirements of the public are satisfied with regard to the purchase of poisonous substances, and also any objections they may receive from the chief officer of police, or from any existing vendors of the substances to which the application relates."
The museum contains one of the best existing collections of Maori art.
None of the existing Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) has a unicellular body.
We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.
In most of the existing Pteridophytes, in the Monocotyledons and in annual plants among the Dicotyledons, there is n further growth of much structural importance in the ~ d ~
The whole story of the different sugars existing in the planttheir relations and their several functionsrequires renewed investigation.
It may be, however, that there is no special mechanism, but that this power is a particular differentiation of a physiological kind, existing in all vegetable protoplasm, or in that of certain cells.
The relationship thus existing he showed to be mutually beneficial, each at one time or another supplying the necessities of the other.
The relationships existing between these enzymes are still the subjects of experiment, and we cannot regard them as exhaustively examined.
According to Lecointe, the young wall consists partly of cellulose and partly of a substance which is not cellulose, the latter existing in the form of slight depressions, which mark the position of the future pores.
Similarly bud-scales can be caused to develop into foliage-leaves, if the buds to which they belong are caused to grow out in the year of, their formation by the removal of the existing foliage-leaves.
The study of existing Algae, that is of plants that have continued to live in water, shows that under these conditions no high degree of organization has been reached, though some of them have attained gigantic dimensions.
Thus all existing hygrophytes (excepting the Algae) are considered to have been derived from land-plants which have adapted themselves to a watery habitat.
We arrive thus at the essential aim of geographical botany, which, as stated by Schimper, is an inquiry into the causes of differences existing among the various floras.
To quote further: Existing floras exhibit only one moment in the history of the earths vegetation.
In attempting to account for the distribution of existing vegetation we must take into account palaeontological evidence.
The Cenomanian rocks of Bohemia have yielded remains of a sub-tropical flora which has been compared with that existing at present in Australia.
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
There were oaks, beeches (scarcely distinguishable from existing species), birches, planes and willows (one closely related to the living Salix candida), laurels, represented by Sassafras and Cinnamomum, magnolias and tulip trees (Liriodendron), myrtles, Liquidambar, Diospyros and ivy.
The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.
Torreya, now confined to North America and Japan, still lingered,- as did Ocotea, now profusely developed in the tropics, but in north temperate regions only existing in the Canaries: the evergreen oaks, so characteristic of the Miocene, were reduced to the existing Quercus hex.
At the close of the Pliocene the European flora was apparently little different from that now existing, though some warmer types such as the waterchestnut (Trapa natans) had a more northern extension.
The evidence which has thus been briefly summarized, points unmistakably to the conclusion that existing vegetation originated in the northern hemisphere and under climatic conditions corresponding to what would now be termed sub-tropical.
And Reid has shown that during the glacial period the existing flora was replaced by an arctic one represented by such plants as Salix polaris, S.
At the same time the then existing alpine floras descended to lower levels, though we may agree with Ball that they did not necessarily become extinct at higher ones as long as any land-surface remained uncovered by ice.
He traces the original home of the bulk of existing alpine plants to northern Asia.
In Lower Eocene times its flora appears to have been distinctly related to the existing one.
Such a summary of the salient facts in the, geographical distributio~ of plants sufficiently indicates the tangled fabric of the earths existing floral covering.
The first of the existing geographical societies was that of Paris, founded in 1825 under the title Of La Societe de Geographie.
Existing classifications, however, do not take account of any difference in kind between mountain and hills, although it is common in the German language to speak of Hiigelland, Mittelgebirge and Hochgebirge with a definite significance.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
The economy and success of most lines of communication depend on following as far as possible existing natural lines and utilizing existing natural sources of power.'
Our artificially-established classifications collapse whilst we gain further insight into the mutual affinities of the existing groups.
The existing genera include Anas, Aquila, Bubo, Columba, Cypselus, Lanius, Picus, Phalacrocorax, Sula, &c. Very interesting is the fact that Serpentarius, Psittacus and Trogon are amongst this list of birds, which are now restricted to the tropics.
In Colorado and New Mexico Marsh has detected bones of Meleagris, Puffinus, Sula and Uria, all existing genera; but the first is especially suggestive, since it is one of the most characteristic forms of the New World.
C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
All the existing Ratitae (with the exception of the ostriches of Africa and South America, belonging to the genera Struthio and Rhea, and comprising at most but five species) are found in Austrogaea and nowhere else.
The most extraordinary feature is unquestionably the former existence of the gigantic Dinornithes or moas and, another family of Ratitae, the weird-looking kiwis or Apteryges, which are totally unlike any other existing birds.
A collective polyphyletic or heterogeneous group, originally cosmopolitan; with certainty existing since the Miocene.
RUMINANTIA, a term employed by Cuvier to include all the existing artiodactyle ruminating ungulate mammals now classed under the groups Pecora, Tylopoda and Tragulina.
As the existing halakhoth were collected and edited in the Mishnah, so the much larger agadic material was gathered together and arranged in the Midrashim.
The earliest existing codification of the prayerbook is the Siddur (order) drawn up by Amram Gaon of Sura about 850.
1034), was a voluminous writer on law, translated the Pentateuch into Arabic, commented on much of the Bible, and composed an Arabic introduction to the Talmud, of which the existing Hebrew introduction (by Samuel the Nagid) is perhaps a translation.
The one claimed an existing kingdom, and obtained full possession of it in a comparatively short time; the other formed for himself a dominion bit by bit, which rose to the rank of a kingdom I Roger de Hauteville, the conqueror of Sicily, was a brother of the first four dukes or counts of Apulia, and was invested with the countship of Sicily by the pope before starting on his adventure.
And the circumstances of his conquest were such that the true Normans among his following could not possibly lose themselves among the existing inhabitants of the island, while everything tended to make them lose themselves among their fellow-adventurers of other races, among whom, by the time the conquest was ended, they could hardly have been even a dominant element.
The Normans in England did not die out; they were merged in the existing nation.
The Norman settler in Wales, therefore, did not to any perceptible extent become a Welshman; the existing relations of England and Wales were such that he in the end became an Englishman, but he seems not unnaturally to have been somewhat slower in so doing in Wales than he was in England.
The series of revolutions already spoken of first made descent from former councillors a necessary qualification for election to the council; then election was abolished, and the council consisted of all descendants of its existing members who had reached the age of twenty-five.
In the modern states of western Europe the existing nobility seems to have for the most part had its origin in personal service to the prince.
But in no part of Europe can the existing nobility trace itself to this immemorial nobility of primitive days; the nobility of medieval and modern days springs from the later nobility of office.
And when we know that the Chrysomelidae and Buprestidae also lived in Triassic, and the Carabidae, Elateridae, Cerambycidae and Scarabaeidae, in Liassic times, we cannot doubt that the great majority of our existing families had already been differentiated at the beginning of the Mesozoic epoch.
Coming to the Tertiary we find the Oligocene beds of Aix, of east Prussia (amber) and of Colorado, and the Miocene of Bavaria, especially rich in remains of beetles, most of which can be referred to existing genera.
This was entirely independent of the ordinary police, but was associated with the previously existing corps of gendarmes (Korpus Zhandarmov), whose chief was placed at its head.
In Little Russia, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes.
Unfortunately for the peace of the world his habitual policy of maintaining the existing state of things was frequently obscured and disturbed by his desire to maintain and increase his own and his country's prestige, influence and territory.
died, and was succeeded by his son, Nicholas II., who, partly from similarity of character and partly from veneration for his father's memory, continued the existing lines of policy in home and foreign affairs.
When Nicholas an influential deputation from the province of Tver, which had long enjoyed a reputation for liberalism, ventured to hint in a loyal address that the time had come for changes in the existing autocratic regime, they received a reply which showed that the emperor had no intention of making any such changes.
of railway were sanctioned by parliament, including the beginnings of most of the existing trunk-lines, and in 1840 the actual mileage reached 1331 m.
After the reconstruction period of the 1893 panic, however, the tendency for a number of years was to spend larger sums in bettering existing railways rather than in new extensions.
The Elkins Act of 1903 was incorporated in the statute, and an imprisonment penalty was added to the existing fine.
A.) Financial Organization The methods of financing railway enterprises, both new projects and existing lines, have been influenced very largely by the attitude of the state and of municipal authorities.
Each of these changes has tended to improve the existing status, to legitimize railway enterprise, and to safeguard capital or investment.
Spiller, and " A Practical Method for the Improvement of Existing Railway Curves," by W.
Occasionally on a double-track railway one platform placed between the tracks serves both of them; this " island " arrangement, as it is termed, has the advantage that more tracks can be readily added without disturbance of existing buildings, but when it is adopted the exit from the trains is at the opposite side to that which is usual, and accidents have happened through passengers alighting at the usual side without noticing the absence of a platform.
gauge and the dimensions of the existing tunnels, arches, and other permanent works.
According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.
north beyond the existing walls.
During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were constructed.
Apollinare in Classe, erected at the same time outside the walls of Classis, and now standing by itself in the lonely marshes, is the largest basilica existing at Ravenna.
During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.
'PHYSIOLOGUS, the title usually given to a collection of some fifty Christian allegories much read in the middle ages, and still existing in several forms and in about a dozen Eastern and Western languages.
In view of the severe monetary crisis of 1893 he was entrusted by Crispi with the portfolio of finance (December 1893), and in spite of determined opposition dealt energetically and successfully with the deficit of more than £6,000,000 then existing in the exchequer.
Little light on the relationship and evolution of the various :families of Diptera is afforded by fossil forms, since as a rule the latter are readily referable to existing families.
In amber, as proved by the deposits on the shores of the Baltic, the proverbial "fly" is more numerous than any other creatures, and with very few exceptions representatives of all the existing families have been found.
The famous Tertiary beds :at Florissant, Colorado, have yielded a considerable number, or remarkably well-preserved Tipulidae (in which family are included the most primitive of existing Diptera), as also species belonging to other families, such as Mycetophilidae and even, Oestridae.
was residing at Orvieto; and it was to commemorate this miracle that the existing cathedral was built.
(For the period under review, as it appears in the light of existing external evidence, see Palestine: History.) 9.
It was an age of literary activity which manifested itself, not in contemporary historical records - only a few of which have survived - but rather in the special treatment of previously existing sources.
It was not a new religion that took root; older tendencies were diverted into new paths, the existing material was shaped to new ends.
It was applied by the Moslems in Spain to the Christian communities existing among them, in Cordova, Seville, Toledo and other large cities, in the exercise of their own laws and religion.
For administrative purposes the departmental divisions existing under the Turkish government have been retained.
The constitution authorizes the formation of a militia (7roXerocvXaKr)) to be enrolled by conscription, but in existing circumstances the embodiment of this force seems unnecessary.
This circumstance deserves attention owing to the special connexion traditionally existing between the Minyans of Iolcus and those of Orchomenus, the point of all others on this side where the early Cretan influence seems most to have taken root.
Under the Pax Romana the Cretan cities again enjoyed a large measure of prosperity, illustrated by numerous edifices still existing at the time of the Venetian occupation.
14 a account of these is preserved in a MS. description of the island drawn up under the Venetians about 1538, and existing in the library of St Mark (published by Falkener, Museum of Classical Antiquities, ii.
The origin of the Cretan laws was of course attributed to Minos, but they had much in common with those of the other Dorian states, as well as with those of Lycurgus at Sparta, which were, indeed, according to one tradition, copied in great measure from those already existing in Crete.'
He has made a deep mark on the history, not only of Scotland, but of England; and the existing Presbyterian churches in Scotland are largely indebted to him for the forms of their dogmas and their ecclesiastical organization.
The identification of existing peoples with the various Scythic, Persian and Arab races who have passed from High Asia into the Indian borderland, has opened up a vast field of ethnographical inquiry which has hardly yet found adequate workers for its investigation.
This is the oldest of existing states, though its authentic history does not go back much beyond 1000 B.C. It is generally admitted that there was some connexion between the ancient civilizations of China and Babylonia, but its precise nature is still uncertain.
The existing church dates from 1736.
where this condition is usually not to be observed, there is embryological evidence that the existing state of affairs is derived from this.
The brain con sists not only of a group of six capsules corre sponding to the archi cerebrum of the Oligo chaeta, but of a further mass of cells surrounding S S and existing below the alimentary canal, which can be analysed into five or six more separate ganglia.
It exhibits an accurate knowledge of French constitutional history skilfully applied in an attempt to show that an existing actual grievance was not only philosophically unjust but constitutionally illegal.
The fact that they adopted the existing system of government and taxation, which are based upon Koranic law, would in itself be sufficient proof that this was not the case.
As the chief port of north-west Asia Minor, the place prospered greatly in Roman times, and the existing remains sufficiently attest its former importance.
There were at the same time powers existing in India to keep the Mahrattas in check, and some parts of India were excepted from their depredations.
1214) made it a royal burgh, but the oldest existing charter was granted by Robert II.
Turgot's only choice, however, was between "tinkering" at the existing system in detail and a complete revolution, and his attack on privilege, which might have been carried through by a popular minister and a strong king, was bound to form part of any effective scheme of reform.
This was an amending act and not a consolidating act; consequently it had to be read as if incorporated into the already existing acts.
Of these stations the greatest, and the oldest now existing, is that at Rothamsted, Harpenden, Herts, England, which was founded in 1843 by Sir John Bennet Lawes.
Further, as the country became more consolidated and the central government extended its authority over economic affairs, new regulations came into force, new organs of government appeared, which were sometimes in conflict, sometimes in harmony, with the existing system, and it becomes for a time far more difficult to obtain a clear view of the actual working of economic institutions.
The economist frankly assumes the reality of the existing world and takes men as they are, or as they have been if he is studying past times.
In all branches of economics, even in what is called the pure theory, there is an implied reference to certain historical or existing conditions of a more or less definite character; to the established order of an organized state or other community, at a stage of development which in its main features can be recognized.
Economic studies should be as relevant to existing needs as those of engineering and other applied sciences.
It thus became the work of economic science ruthlessly to analyse the existing situation, explain the issues involved in the commercial policy of different countries, and point out the alternative methods of dealing with present difficulties, with their probable results.
In the most primitive existing Gastropods the gonad opens into the right kidney (Patellidae, Trochidae, Fissurellidae).
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
He invented a religious system founded on the speculative mysticism of the Neoplatonists, and founded a sect, the members of which believed that the new creed would supersede all existing forms of belief.
The early chroniclers declare that St Aldhelm founded a church near Wareham about 701, and perhaps the priory, which is mentioned as existing in 876, when the Danes retired from Cambridge to a strong position in this fort.
In 1587 Elizabeth granted certain privileges to Wareham, but it was not incorporated until 1703, when the existing fairs for April 6 and August 23 were granted.
It is obvious that the final moral ideal is not realized in any body of civic institutions actually existing, but the same analysis which demonstrates this deficiency points out the direction which a true development will take.
- It is now considered that 2,000,000 is a moderate estimate of the species of insects actually existing.
The greater part by far of the insects existing in the world is still quite unknown to science.
Many of the species are in process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes tha.t are taking place in the natural conditions of the world by the extension of human population and of cultivation, and by the destruction of forests; hence it is probable that a considerable proportion of the species at present existing will disappear from the face of the earth before we have discovered or preserved any specimens of them.
Geological History The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders, and in many cases to recent families.
It is probable that many of these Carboniferous insects might be referred to the Isoptera, while others would fall into the existing orders to which they are allied, with some modification of our present diagnoses.
With the dawn of the Mesozoic epoch we reach Hexapods that can be unhesitatingly referred to existing orders.
In the Jurassic rocks are found Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as Hemiptera, referable to existing families, some representatives of which had already appeared in.
In Tertiary times the higher Diptera, besides Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, referable to existing families, become fairly abundant.
Brauer, that the Thysanura represent more nearly than any other existing insects the ancestors of the class, has been accepted by the great majority of students.
None of the groups of existing Endopterygota have been traced with certainty farther back than the Mesozoic epoch, and all the numerous Palaeozoic insect-fossils seem to belong to forms that possessed only imperfect metamorphosis.
Of existing insects 90% belong to the Endopterygota.
The first hypothesis is not negatived by direct evidence, for we do not actually know the ontogeny of any of the Palaeozoic insects; it is, however, rendered highly improbable by the modern views as to the nature and origin of wings in insects, and by the fact that the Endopterygota include none of the lower existing forms of insects.
the Apterygogenea of Brauer and others, though we prefer the shorter term Apterygota) - is rendered improbable from the fact that existing Apterygota are related to Exopterygota, not to Endopterygota, and by the knowledge that has been gained as to the morphology and development of wings, which suggest that - if we may so phrase it - were an apterygotous insect gradually to develop wings, it would be on the exopterygotous system.
There are, in fact, existing forms of Exopterygota that are usually wingless, and that nevertheless appear in certain seasons or localities with wings.
If it should be objected that the wings so developed would be rudimentary, and that there would be nothing to encourage their development into perfect functional organs, we may remind the reader that we have already pointed out that imperfect wings of Exopterygota do, even at the present time under certain conditions, become perfect organs; and we may also add that there are, even among existing Endopterygota, species in which the wings are usually vestiges and yet sometimes become perfectly developed.
These ancient Exopterygota were synthetic in type, and included insects that may, with probability, be regarded as ancestral to most of the existing orders.
In 1720 Valentini published, at Frankfort-on-the-Main, his Amphitheatrum Zootomicum, in which again most of the existing accounts of the anatomy of birds were reprinted.
It was quickly seen - even by those who held Archaeopteryx to be a reptile - that it was a form intermediate between existing birds and existing reptiles; while those who were convinced by Sir R.
The unlookedfor discovery in France of remains which he has referred to, forms now existing it is true, but existing only in countries far removed from Europe, forms such as Collocalia, Leptosomus, Psittacus, Serpentarius and Trogon, is perhaps even more suggestive than the finding that France was once inhabited by forms that are wholly extinct, of which in the older formations there is abundance.
The dates of the various parts of the existing ducal palace are indicated on the plan; the rebuilding was carried on in the following order, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V.
Those still existing are the Turkish and the German (F.
Among the existing campanili the oldest are San Geremia, dating from the 11th century, San Samuele from the 12th, San Barnaba and San Zaccaria from the 13th.
The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional.
See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions existing in the smaller cities.
W., near the existing village of Cajabamba.
Among the special collections are the George Ticknor library of Spanish and Portuguese books (6 393 vols.), very full sets of United States and British public documents, the Bowditch mathematical library (7090 vols.), the Galatea collection on the history of women (2193 vols.), the Barton library, including one of the finest existing collections of Shakespeariana (3309 vols., beside many in the general library), the A.
The Realists held that universals alone have substantial reality, existing ante res; the Nominalists that universals are mere names invented to express the qualities of particular things and existing post res; while the Conceptualists, mediating between the two extremes, held that universals are concepts which exist in our minds and express real similarities in things themselves.
Geologically, spiders date from the Carboniferous Period, Arthrolycosa and others from the coal beds of Europe and North America being closely allied to the existing genus Liphistius.
Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.
as to the use of the produce, the payment of rent, the quiet possession of the subjects demised, and as to the payment of rates and taxes) are similar to those existing under English law.
The lessee has no right to a refund when the cause of damage was existing and known at the date of the lease (Arts.
Carolina; but, through the selection of seed from early maturing individual plants, the cotton has been rendered much earlier, until now it is thoroughly adapted to the existing conditions.
In India, where conditions are much more diversified and it is more difficult to induce the native cultivator to adopt new methods, attention has also been directed during recent years to the improvement of the existing races.
They must watch demand, be able to form reasonable anticipations of its move ments, and at the same time know the existing stocks of cotton, the sales taking place from day to day, and the best forecasts of the coming supplies.
The President made it clear that he regarded the conference merely as a step in securing international understanding and good will; he advocated the convening of succeeding conferences as a possible means of securing an international association for the promotion of peace, and he approved the principle of substituting an understanding between the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan regarding Far-Eastern problems, for the existing Anglo-Japanese Treaty.
This, the longest of his works, added much to existing knowledge, especially as to the relations between England and the continent, but it lacked something of the freshness of his earlier books; he was over seventy when it was completed, and he was never quite at home in dealing with the parliamentary foundations of English public life.
BROTHERS OF COMMON LIFE, a religious community formerly existing in the Catholic Church.
At this period a young man named Moshesh (born about 1790), who was of the family of Monaheng and already noted as hunter and warrior, gathered round him the remnants of several broken clans, out of which he welded the existing Basuto nation.
had placed at Catania after their expulsion by the original inhabitants in 461 B.C., which absorbed or incorporated an already existing Sicel town named Inessa.
By legislative enactment whites and blacks living in adultery are to be punished by imprisonment or fine; divorces may be secured only after two years' residence in the state and on the ground of physical incapacity, adultery, extreme cruelty, habitual indulgence in violent temper, habitual drunkenness, desertion for one year, previous marriage still existing, or such relationship of the parties as is within the degrees for which marriage is prohibited by law.
But it is more probable that we have it in the form in which it grew up - a series of observations by the original author with interspersed editorial remarks; and it is better to preserve the existing form as giving a record of the process of growth.
The most complete existing work, an encyclopaedia of the subject in fact, is T.
Remains of primitive polygonal walls which undoubtedly surrounded the entire area have been found at various points a little within the circuit of the existing parapet.
In 1892 Dorpfeld began a series of excavations in the district between the Acropolis and the Pnyx with the object of determining the situation of the buildings described by Pausanias as existing in the neighbourhood of the Agora, and more especially the position of the Enneacrunus fountain.
81), which, he holds, was not a royal palace, but a place of worship, and traces of it may perhaps be recognized in the fragments of prehistoric masonry enclosed by the existing foundations.
The north and Phaleric walls were perhaps founded by Cimon, and were completed about 457 B.C. in the early administration of Pericles; the middle wall was built about 445 B.C. The lines of the north and middle walls have been ascertained from the remnants still existing in the 18th century and the scantier traces now visible.
classical Persians, after whose departure the existing north period: its wall was erected in the time of Themistocles; many fortifica- columns, metopes and other fragments from the tions and area.
An ornamental entrance near the Olympieum, the existing Arch of Hadrian, marked the boundary between the new and the old cities.
The Parthenon was transformed into a mosque; the existing minaret at its south-western corner was built after 1466.
The basis of the new system, which was almost entirely Field's work, was the abolition of the existing distinction in forms of procedure between suits in law and equity requiring separate actions, and their unification and simplification in a single action.
Under the name of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him, indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor in holding together the various elements of which the party was composed.
In the sequel he prepared a new evolutionary signal-book, which was adopted by the royal navy, and still remains in substance the foundation of the existing system of tactical evolutions at sea.
In 1904, as it was felt that the college was unable properly to carry on its work under existing conditions, it was proposed to amalgamate it with Hackney College, but the Board of Education refused to sanction any arrangement which would set aside the requirements of the deed of foundation, namely that the officers and students of Cheshunt College should subscribe the fifteen articles appended to the deed, and should take certain other obligations.
The First National Bank, with total resources of $155,953,137, was formed in 1919 by a consolidation of three existing banks.
In 1894 he was associated with Lord Rayleigh in the discovery of argon, announced at that year's meeting of the British Association in Oxford, and in the following year he found in certain rare minerals such as cleveite the gas helium which till that time had only been known on spectroscopic evidence as existing in the sun.
The court was surrounded with arcades, all of which constituted the prayer chamber, so that its plan is necessarily different to the normal type; the existing buildings date only from the first half of the 17th century, as the whole mosque was destroyed by a torrent in 1626.
This section is restricted to an account of the relations existing between physical properties and chemical composition.
particles which are incapable of existing alone, but may exist in combination.
Frankland had recognized the analogies existing between the chemical properties of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, noting that they act as trior penta-valent.
The few laboratories existing in the opening decades were ill-fitted, and the exorbitant fees constituted a serious bar to general instruction, for these institutions received little government support.
Specific Heat and Composition.-The nature and experimental determination of specific heats are discussed in the article Calorimetry; here will be discussed the relations existing between the heat capacities of elements and compounds.
Dulong to investigate relations (if any) existing between specific heats and the atomic weight.
Briihl, have investigated the relations existing between the refractive power and composition.
The universal misery gave point to the virulent attacks of Babeuf on the existing order, and at last gained him a hearing.
For a time the government, while keeping itself informed of his activities, left him alone; for it suited the Directory to let the socialist agitation continue, in order to frighten the people from joining in any royalist movement for the overthrow of the existing regime.
He ought not to be satisfied with compiling his map from existing maps, but should subject each explorer's account to an independent examination, when he will frequently find that either the explorer himself, or the draughtsman employed by him, has failed to introduce into his map the whole of the information available.
The existing Oriental varieties are in most cases characterized by silky hair.
The earliest schools which are still existing were formed at Bristol, for boys in 1810 and for girls in the following year.
His encyclical issued at Easter 1902, and described by himself as a kind of will, was mainly a reiteration of earlier condemnations of the Reformation, and of modern philosophical systems, which for their atheism and materialism he makes responsible for all existing moral and political disorders.
The object he and his associates had then in view was gradual abolition by establishing something like a system of serfdom for existing slaves, and passing at the same time a measure emancipating all their children born after a certain day.
The government continued to hesitate and to press for mitigations of the existing system.
Though existing slaves were to remain slaves still, with the exception of those possessed by the government, who were liberated by the act, facilities for emancipation were given; and it was provided that all children born of female slaves after the day on which the law passed should be free.
Technically, the details of the action show that, while not markedly better in a mï¿½e than the war-seasoned French, the British infantry had in its volleys a power which no other troops then existing possessed, and it was these volleys that decided the day even more than the individual stubbornness of the men.
We have already spoken of the eucharistic celebrations of which the cubicula were the scene; and still existing baptisteries prove that the other sacrament was also administered there.
c. 39), were common among the early Christians, as over those existing among the heathen population of Rome.
- Bones of Right Fore-Foot of existing Perissodactyla.
Dorso-lumbar vertebrae never fewer than twentytwo, usually twenty-three in the existing species.
Finally, we have the family Rhinocerotidae, which includes the existing representatives of the group. In this family the dentition has undergone considerable reduction, and may be represented inclusive of all the variations, by the formula i a or a m a The first upper incisor, whenpresent, has an 430r2; PP antero-posteriorly elongated crown, but the second is small; when fully developed, the lower canine is a large forwardly directed tusk-like tooth with sharp cutting-edges, and biting against the first upper incisor.
As regards the dentition of the existing species, the cheek-series consists of the four premolars and three molars above and below, all in contact and closely resembling each other, except the first, which is much smaller than the rest and often deciduous; the others gradually increasing in size up to the penultimate.
It affords a point of departure for the interpretation of the genesis of existing instincts.
Here are tombs of several rulers and princes of Saxony, including those of Albert and Ernest, the founders of the two existing branches of the Saxon house.
Convinced that the existing state of affairs, if continued, would end in the loss of South Africa by Britain, Milner came to England in November 1898.
Every seignory now existing must have been created before the Statute of Quia Emptores (1290), which forbade the future creation of estates in fee-simple by subinfeudation.
Like the prophetical writings before Ezekiel, the Wisdom books, while they recognize the sacrificial ritual as an existing custom, attach little importance to it as an element of religious life (the fullest mention of it is in Ecclus.
Nor do the sages go beyond the old position in their ethical theory: they have no philosophical discussion of the basis of the moral life; their standard of good conduct is existing law and custom; their motive for right-doing is individual eudaemonistic, not the good of society, or loyalty to an ideal of righteousness for its own sake, but advantage for one's self.
Almost nothing is actually known of prehistoric Cuba; and a few skulls and implements are the only basis existing for conjecture.
It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.
This survey of the existing developments of pure mathematics confirms the conclusions arrived at from the previous survey of the theoretical principles of the subject.
existing at Nassau during the days of blockade-running exceed belief.
Of existing species the bear, wild-boar, badger, roe-deer and chamois may occasionally be seen in the remotest wilds of mountain and forest.
These were immediately to be taken in hand, and considerable sums are being voted for repairs of existing customs buildings and the construction of new buildings.
Proposals made by the council for the modification and improvement of the existing laws and regulations which concerned it were to receive an answer from the government within six months; this provision has remained a dead letter.
The unified bonds and coupons are exempt from all Turkish taxation existing or to come.
On the 22nd of June the Russian army, under Prince Gorchakov, crossed the Pruth, not - as was explained in a circular to the powers - for the purpose of attacking Turkey, but solely to obtain the material guarantees for the enjoyment of the privileges conferred upon her by the existing treaties.
He was the principal author of the law of separation, but, not content with preparing it, he wished to apply it as well, especially as the existing Rouvier ministry allowed disturbances to occur during the taking of inventories of church property, a clause of the law for which Briand was not responsible.
In the existing portraits of him those who never saw him are apt to discover a strangeness which seems to them sinister or even affected.
It would seem that, on the whole, nitrogen compounds in the ocean (whether existing in the organic or inorganic forms) remain constant in amount.
It seems likely that the coelomic pore-canals were originally excretory organs, but in the existing Enteropneusta the pore-canals (especially the collar canals) have, as we have seen, acquired new functions or become vestigial, and the function of excretion is now mainly accomplished by a structure peculiar to the Enteropneusta called the glomerulus, a vascular complex placed on either side of the anterior portion of the stomochord, projecting into the proboscis-coelom.
The progress of the "higher criticism," and the gradual surrender of attempts to square scientific facts with a literal interpretation of the Bible, are indicated in the shorter account given in the eighth edition, which concludes as follows: - "the insuperable difficulties connected with the belief that all the existing species of animals were provided for in the ark, are obviated by adopting the suggestion of Bishop Stillingfleet, approved by Matthew Poole, Pye Smith, le Clerc, Rossenmiiller and others, that the deluge did not extend beyond the region of the earth then inhabited, and that only the animals of that region were preserved in the ark."
Of the thirty-five churches existing in Hamburg (the old cathedral had to be taken down in 1805), the St Petrikirche, Nikolaikirche, St Katharinenkirche, St Jakobikirche and St Michaeliskirche are those that give their names to the five old city parishes.
The laws of the 13th of August and the 21st of December 1790 revoked all the existing appanages, except those of the Luxembourg Palace and the Palais Royal.
Having been re-established, or recognized as still existing, by the Restoration, it was formally confirmed by the law of the 15th of January 1825.
During the reign of her cousin Anne (1730-1740), Elizabeth effaced herself as much as possible; but under the regency of Anne Leopoldovna the course of events compelled the indolent but by no means incapable beauty to overthrow the existing government.
The existing town was laid out in 1849, and made a bishop's see in 1864.
to the extent of 4 to 6%, and rather less in the other species, is expelled only at a high temperature; it is therefore water of constitution, existing as basic hydrogen or as hydroxyl replacing fluorine.
About one-half the 120 existing species are found above the Ioo-fathoms line.
the Gasteropod Capulus, whilst most of the invertebrate classes were represented in the Ordovician by forms which do not differ from their existing representatives in any important respect.
In 1879 a royal commission reported on the law and existing practice as to the sale, exchange and resignation of benefices.
The invariant theory then existing was classified by them as appertaining to " finite continuous groups."
The right of the public to take fish has been frequently in dispute, but a committee of the House of Commons, which took much evidence on the question in the year 1884, came to the conclusion that "it is impossible to recognize anything like a general public right to take fish as now existing."
This assumes that every philosophical truth is already contained somewhere in the existing systems. If, however, as it would surely be rash to deny, there still remains philosophical truth undiscovered, but discoverable by human intelligence, it is evident that eclecticism is not the only philosophy.
Ann., 1899, 68, 325 and 1899, 69, 236), whose researches have filled up many previously existing gaps.
From the front of this region new segments are produced in the first instance, and are added during growth to the existing series.
At the same time we are not justified in supposing that the scorpions stand in any way as an intermediate grade between any of the existing Epectinata and the Delobranchia.
The bulk of these in due course underwent transformation either complete or partial, but there was always a residuum of incongruous and inconsistent elements existing side by side with the essential truths of Christianity.
If the stichometry of Nicephorus is right, the existing form of the book is merely fragmentary compared with its original compass.
1-25) has given strong grounds for regarding the Acts of John and Peter as derived from one and the same author, but there are like affinities existing between the Acts of Peter and those of Paul.
As to the third complaint, that the compilers of the Digest altered the extracts they collected, cutting out and inserting words and sentences at their own pleasure, this was a process absolutely necessary according to the instructions given them, which were to prepare a compilation representing the existing law, and to be used for the actual administration of justice in the tribunals.
On the attainder of the family after the Gowrie conspiracy in 1600, the land passed to Sir David Murray of the Tullibardine line, who became 1st viscount Stormont (1621) and was the ancestor of the earl of Mansfield, to whom the existing house belongs.
There are comparatively few (10) species of plants which are endemic as far as the flora has been investigated, and it is probable that most of them are also existing in the Comoros, where the flora is not well known..
The present article is concerned exclusively with arbitration in regard to such existing differences as are capable of precise statement and of prompt adjustment.
There are many short streams along this coast, fed by heavy rainfalls, but they have no geographic importance and no economic value under existing conditions.
£163,802,675 In addition to these, the government was still responsible for interest guarantees on fourteen railways, or sections of existing lines, with an aggregate capital of about £4,900,000 held in Europe and 12, 0 55,44 0 milreis held in Brazil, on which the national treasury paid in interest £191,324 and 1,398,493 milreis.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
This cathedral has been twice destroyed by fire, and the existing building, from the designs of Mr W.
gauge and was privately owned, but, when in 1876 the Natal government determined to build and own a railway system which should in time cover the country, the existing line was bought out and the gauge altered to 3 ft.
In the following year Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State.
The parts in the one case, the general name or common attributes in the other, are only, he seems to have argued, so many subjective points of view from which we choose to regard that which in its own essence is one and indivisible, existing in its own right apart from any connexion with other individuals.
The universal is not anything really existing; it is a terminus or predicable (whence the followers of Occam were at first called Terminists).
The columns and the architraves upon them are well preserved, but there is nothing above the frieze existing, and the cella wall has entirely disappeared.
He served in the Congress of the Confederation from 1783 to 1786 and was there conspicuous for his vigorous insistence upon the right of the United States to the navigation of the Mississippi River, and for his attempt, in 1785, to secure for the weak Congress the power to regulate commerce, in order to remove one of the great defects in the existing central government.
The only copy existing at the present time appears to have been transcribed at the beginning of the 16th century.
Under the present heading it is proposed only to discuss briefly the various types of episcopacy actually existing, and the different principles that they represent.
The earliest rate levied in England was that for poor relief, and of the great variety of rates now existing, the majority are based on the poor rate and levied with it, under the term of precept rates.
The Trialist solution (which would have united the Yugoslav provinces of Austria-Hungary in a third state enjoying equality with the two existing partners) rapidly lost popularity, even among the clerical parties, which had been attracted by the prospect of Catholic predominance in such a State.
The last phrase was treated in some quarters as a proof of confirmed Austrophilism: in reality it was a minimum concession to the existing order, without which its framers could not have continued their activity.
Under Magyar pressure Seidler explicitly condemned all schemes of federalism, and pledged the Government and even the crown itself not to adopt any reforms which did not leave untouched the existing provincial boundaries.
It was reserved for Charles Darwin, in the year 1859, to place the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, and by his discovery of a mechanical cause actually existing and demonstrable by which organic evolution doctrine must be brought about, entirely to change the attitude in regard to it of even the most rigid exponents of the scientific method.
Necessarily, according to the theory of natural selection, structures either are present because they are selected as useful or because they are still inherited from ancestors to whom they were useful, though no longer useful to the existing representatives of those ancestors.
Cuvier was familiar with the speculations of the " Natur-philosophen," and with the doctrine of transmutation and filiation by which they endeavoured to account for existing animal forms. The noble aim of F.
Pre-Darwinian zoologists had been aware of the class of facts thus interpreted by Fritz Muller, but the authoritative view on the subject had been that there is a parallelism between (a) the series of forms which occur in individual development, (b) the series of existing forms from lower to higher, and (c) the series of forms which succeed 'one another in the strata of the earth's crust, whilst an explanation of this parallelism was either not attempted, or was illusively offered in the shape of a doctrine of harmony of plan in creation.
The first post-Darwinian systematists naturally and without reflexion accepted of' the idea that existing simpler forms represent stages i n the gradual progress of development - are in fact survivors from past ages which have retained the exact grade of development which their ancestors had reached in past ages.
A result of the very greatest importance arising from the application of the generalizations of Darwinism to human development and to the actual phase of existing human population is that education has no direct effect upon the mental or physical features of the race or stock: it can only affect those of the individual.
The whole effect is the cos Ode: 7r, r+a, half of that of the first existing zone, and this is sensibly the same as if there were no obstruction.
Now it is evident that the aerial motion in front of the lamina is determined by what happens at the lamina without regard to the cause of the motion there existing.
The name Tyburn (q.v.) was notorious chiefly as applied to the gallows which stood near the existing junction of Edgware Road and Oxford Street (Marble Arch).
13 Ta Tou Aavtt means the Psalter, and the title of the apocryphal " Psalter of Solomon " implies that the previously existing Psalter was ascribed to David.
The existing constitution dates from 1910.
Meantime the existing (nominated) legislative council was dealing with another and a vital phase of the Asiatic question.
In either case, the addition of molecules to those which already existed takes place, not at the surface of the living mass, but by interposition between the existing molecules of the latter.
Of the large number of Apocryphal books existing in Syriac8 the majority have been translated from Greek, one or two (such as Bar Sira or Ecclesiasticus) from Hebrew, while some (like the Doctrine of Addai above referred to) are original Syriac documents.
One result of this and later persecutions of the same kind has been to enrich Syriac literature with a long series of Acts of Persian Martyrs, which, although in their existing form intermixed with much legendary matter, nevertheless throw valuable light on the history and geography of western Persia under Sasanian rule.
James had promised to defend the existing Church and government, but the people now became suspicious.
Its name is said to be derived from Saxon tene, a beacon or fire (probably from the number of watch-fires existing on this easily ravaged coast), and numerous remains of Saxon occupation have been found, as at Osengal near Ramsgate.
This is due to intense engorgement of the vessels brought about through these minute existing collateral channels and results in a peripheral congested zone round the infarct.
It is now known to have nothing in common with vegetable cellulose, but is regarded as one of the many albuminoid substances existing in the body under pathological conditions.
He worked enthusiastically at dissection, though, the liberty of the Alexandrian schools no longer existing, he could dissect only animals, not the human body.
The works of the Arabian medical writers who have now been mentioned form a very small fraction of the existing literature.
through existing works, some of which have only recently been discovered and published.
It seems probable that, in a period geologically not very remote, the " Albertine " system will consist of one great river, extending from the northern slopes of the Kivu range, where the Ruchuru has its rise, to the existing junction of the Victoria Nile with Albert Nyanza.
The blunders of the government were open to a united attack, andMr Chamberlain's tariff-reform movement in 1903 provided a new rallying point in defence of the existing fiscal system.
A few years later further work, with Albert Ladenburg, on the same element yielded silicochloroform and:led to a demonstration of the close analogy existing between the behaviour in combination of silicon and carbon.
He wrote and spoke vigorously against Welsh disestablishment (1893); and in the following year, under his guidance, the existing agencies for Church defence were consolidated.
Any one who proposed a new law or the alteration of one already existing was subjected to the same test, which continued in force till the 4th century and even later.
It stood just below the existing bridge, which was built of granite by John Rennie and his son Sir John Rennie, and completed in 1831.
St Giles, Cripplegate, was founded c. 1090, but the existing church is late Perpendicular.
The existing palace was finished by John Nash in 1835, but did not meet with approval, and was considerably altered before Queen Victoria occupied it in 1837.
Lombard Street similarly points to the residence of Lombard merchants, the name existing when Edward II.
The principal existing companies adopted them, and new companies were formed to work them exclusively.
Another scheme seriously suggested in 1904, to meet existing disabilities of communication between north and south by linking the northern and southern tramway services, involved the removal of the Charing Cross terminus of the South Eastern and Chatham railway to the south side of the river, and the construction of a new bridge in place of the railway bridge.
The mere control of existing traffic, local street improvements and provision of new means of communication between casual points, were felt to miss the root of the problem, and in 1903 a Royal Commission was appointed to consider the whole question of locomotion and transport in London, expert evidence being taken from engineers, representatives of the various railway and other companies, of the County Council, borough councils and police, and others.
Many widenings and other improvements of existing thoroughfares, and extensions of tramways were proposed, and detailed recommendations were made as regards urban and suburban railways, and the rehousing of the working population on the outskirts of London.
The capacity of existing sources, however, was deemed sufficient by a Royal Commission under Lord Balfour of Burleigh in 1893, and this opinion was endorsed by a further Commission under Lord Llandaff.
provided for the establishment of a Port Authority, the constitution of which is detailed below, which took over the entire control of the port, together with the docks and other property of the several existing companies.
Following the river down from the Tower these docks, with dates of original opening and existing extent, are - St Katherine's (1828; 102 acres), London (1805; 571 acres), West India, covering the northern part of the peninsula called the Isle of Dogs (1802; 1212 acres), East India, Blackwall (1806; 38 acres), Royal Victoria and Albert Docks (1876 and 1880 respectively), parallel with the river along Bugsby's and Woolwich Reaches, nearly 3 m.
The Port of London Authority, as constituted by the act of 1908, is a body corporate consisting of a chairman, vice-chairman, 17 members elected by payers of dues, wharfingers and owners of river craft, I member elected by wharfingers exclusively, and To members appointed by the following existing bodies - Admiralty (one); Board of Trade (two); London County Council (two from among its own members and two others); City Corporation (one from among its own members and one other); Trinity House (one).
It is curious that the only two existing copies of Agas's map 2 were published in the reign of James I., although apparently they had not been altered from the earlier editions of Elizabeth's reign which have been lost.
The Ottoman authorities were moreover known to have given much attention to the problem of mine-fields especially adapted to the peculiar conditions existing within the Dardanelles; and the development which had taken place in this particular form of defence was such as to render the task of a fleet which should try to force the passage a more difficult one than it would have been a few years earlier.
2 1915 for help to relieve the existing situation in Armenia, and an operation directed against the Dardanelles was judged to be the best means of complying with the request; but there were no large bodies of troops available that could be used for such a purpose.
Impressed by the unsatisfactory positions in which the Allied troops found themselves on the peninsula, by the impossibility of their making any progress at their existing strength, and by the risks that the army ran in remaining on such shores without any safe harbour to depend upon for base in stormy weather, Monro, after examining the situation on the spot in the closing days of Oct., declared unhesitatingly for a complete withdrawal.
The church of St Editha, originally founded in the 8th century, was rebuilt, after being burned by the Danes, by Edgar, who made it collegiate, but the existing Decorated building, was erected after a fire in 1345.
The Sikh religion did not reach this full development at once, nor was the first of the gurus even the first to feel dissatisfaction with the existing order of things.
The existing edifice was built on the site of an older church between 1425 and 1497.
INDRI, a Malagasy word believed to mean "there it goes," but now accepted as the designation of the largest of the existing Malagasy (and indeed of all) lemurs.
The only existing species, D.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
The book, even if written by one author, was based on a variety of already existing works.
Even the Greek cannot claim to be the original work, but only to be a recension of it; for, whereas Origen states that this apocalypse contained an account of the seven heavens, the existing Greek work describes only five, and the Slavonic only two.
Except for these inscriptions Axumite history is a blank until in the 6th century we find the Axumite king sending an expedition to wreck the Jewish state then existing in S.
Each gild numbered various classes of members, ranging from beginners, or Schiller (corresponding to trade-apprentices), and Schulfreunde (who were equivalent to Gesellen or journeymen), to Meister, a Meister being a poet who was not merely able to write new verses to existing melodies but had himself invented a new melody.
The other is the already existing institutions which began to be transformed to meet the new needs.
Finally the king found himself compelled to recognize existing facts, to lay upon the lord the duty of producing his men in the field and to allow him to appear as their commander.
These were by no means the only rights and duties which could be described as existing in feudalism, but they are the most characteristic, and on them, or some of them, as a foundation, the whole structure of feudal obligation was built, however detailed.
Somewhat curiously, but very naturally, Enoch the son of Cain is confused with the Enoch who was translated to heaven - an error which the author of the Old English Genesis avoids, though (according to the existing text) he confounds the names of Enoch and Enos.
Its aim is thus officially defined: "To aid an existing Church,.
As a consequence of the close commercial relations early existing between England and the Rhenish-Westphalian towns, the merchants of Cologne were the first to possess a gildhall in London and to form a "hansa" with the right of admitting other German merchants on payment of a fee.
The hieroglyphs and inscriptions in Meroitic belong mostly to the first six centuries A.D.; the existing Nubian MSS.
Petersburg unattended, but also great lack of faith in the existing order, since, having discovered that through an irregularity his pay depended on the Privy Purse, he caused it to be charged to the Treasury as the first act of his tenure of office.
Almost all the towns of Tunisia were originally Roman or romanized Berber settlements; consequently the remains of Roman buildings form a large part of the material of which their existing structures are composed.
In the government of the new territory the existing organization is as far as possible utilized.
A-se-itas, a scholastic Latin expression for the quality of existing by oneself.
With these exceptions, the existing Polyzoa are marine forms, occurring from between tide-marks to abyssal depths in the ocean.
Avicularia of this type occur in the common Flustra foliacea, in various species of Membranipora, and in particular in the Onychocellidae, a remarkable family common in the Cretaceous period and still existing.
The anatomical differences by which the platypus, and its only allies the echidnas, are separated from all other mammals, so as to form a distinct sub-class, are described in the article Monotremata, where also will be found the main distinctive characters of the two existing representatives of the group. It is there stated that the early stages of the development of the young are not yet fully known.
Smith, the former suggesting, however, that "the existing Book of Micah consists only of a collection of excerpts, in some cases fragmentary excerpts, from the entire series of the prophet's discourses" (L.
In the Metaphysical state, for volition is substituted abstract force residing in the object, yet existing independently of the object; the phenomena are viewed as if apart from the bodies manifesting them; and the properties of each substance have attributed to them an existence distinct from that substance.
Its novelty is the organization of existing elements.
The church was remodelled in 1139, to which period much of the existing structure belongs, including the richly sculptured west front and the open confessio or crypt, which occupies the eastern half of the church, raising the choir high above the nave.
With the exception of the crypt, which is older, the existing edifice was rebuilt in 1313.
The only other existing fresco by Pisanello is an Annunciation in S.
The existing remains of walls and gates date from the period between the 3rd of April and the 4th of December of the year 265.
The universal is, as Herbert Spencer remarked, a subjective idea, and the general forms, existing ante res, which play so prominent a part in Greek and medieval philosophy, do not in the least correspond to the homogeneous matter of the physical evolutionists.
The existing volcanoes belong to four separate arcs or chains.
The equatorial currents produce conditions differing from those existing at corresponding latitudes on the neighboring continent.
Communications.From the conditions actually existing in the 8th century after the Christian era the first compilers of Japanese history inferred the conditions which might Roads and have existed in the 7th century before that era.
At first he seems to have meant by the word only the belief that progress is real, and that the existing order of nature is the result of a gradual process and not of a "special creation."
They were built on a rectangular plan, with a large central square and straight thoroughfares running at right angles or parallel to one another, this uniformity of construction being well exemplified in the existing bastide of Monpazier (Dordogne) founded by the English in 1284.
The animal cell can absorb its carbohydrate and proteid food only in the form of carbohydrate and proteid; it is dependent, in fact, on the pre-existence of these organic substances, themselves the products of living matter, and in this respect the animal is essentially a parasite on existing animal and plant life.
An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm of which does not secrete a cellulose cell-wall, and which requires for its existence proteid material obtained from the living or dead bodies of existing plants or animals.