regard is had to the existence of anterior rights or duties.
It also becomes clear that only where such mental life really appears need we assign an independent existence, but that the purposes of everyday life as well as those of science are equally served if we deprive the material things outside of us of an independence, and assign to them merely a connected existence through the universal substance by the action of which alone they can appear to us.
Their common gravestone is in existence at the present day, bearing date July 11, 1759.
Capable of loving him the way he'd craved for the entirety of their existence together.
The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.
It wasn't normal for them to acknowledge her existence, let alone address her.
They understood giving any credibility to a hint of the existence of a psychic tipster adversely affected their ultimate chance for a conviction.
That he's chosen you as his mate will basically ensure the continued existence of life as we know it.
What makes this sand foliage remarkable is its springing into existence thus suddenly.
The existence of the Senegal appears to have been known to the ancients.
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
Inscriptions show that the national language asserted its existence even after Ateste came into the hands of the Romans.
Cade was her boss, and thinking such things was not only disrespectful of him, but job threatening as well - especially if he suspected the existence of such thoughts.
Except, for the first time in his existence, Xander wasn't able to read the mind of the only person who knew why.
The Original Immortal had known nearly everything about Xander at one time, one of the only in existence who ever did.
The Watcher winked out of existence, and Darian looked up.
Awed by the power she had over him, she began to understand the extent of his solitary existence for the millennia of his life.
The general consensus is that the world came into existence through a Big Bang.
Finally she one day demanded a name for the power, the existence of which she had already conceived in her own mind.
Not to speak of the fact that no description of the collective activity of men can do without the conception of power, the existence of power is proved both by history and by observing contemporary events.
He was described as chasing the British squadron all round the lake, but his encounters did not go beyond artillery duels at long range, and he allowed his enemy to continue in existence long after he might have been destroyed.
For now, he couldn't fathom an existence in a home filled with a family when he'd lost his other half.
The African elephant is a very different animal from its Asiatic cousin, both as regards structure and habits; and were it not for the existence of intermediate extinct species, might well be regarded as the representative of a distinct genus.
My existence relies on you giving me blood.
This people must cease to hold slaves, and to make war on Mexico, though it cost them their existence as a people.
This much is certain, she cannot have any sense that other people may not have, and the existence of a special sense is not evident to her or to any one who knows her.
Everyone else is half-kidding about the existence of such a person but this guy knows he's for real.
The true method of science which he possessed forced him to condemn as useless the entire form which Schelling's and Hegel's expositions had adopted, especially the dialectic method of the latter, whilst his love of art and beauty, and his appreciation of moral purposes, revealed to him the existence of a transphenomenal world of values into which no exact science could penetrate.
In the country one sees only Nature's fair works, and one's soul is not saddened by the cruel struggle for mere existence that goes on in the crowded city.
After a moment, he winked out of existence in a purple flash.
But Napoleon came and swept him aside, unconscious of his existence, as he might brush a chip from his path, and his Bald Hills and his whole life fell to pieces.
There was only one Tracker in existence that was able to pinpoint the whereabouts of a Watcher or Other, the two sets of immortals always at each others' throats.
I was never still a moment; my life was as full of motion as those little insects that crowd a whole existence into one brief day.
As Graetz says: "To Jeremiah and Mar Samuel Judaism owes the possibility of existence in a foreign country."
His account of the notion of external existence, as derived, not from pure sensation, but from the experience of action on the one hand and resistance on the other, may be compared with the account of Bain and later psychologists.
But we did not begin the story until August; the first few weeks of my stay at the seashore were so full of discoveries and excitement that I forgot the very existence of books.
But as I see it, physical labor is as essential to him, as much a condition of his existence, as mental activity is to you or me.
Our restaurant has been in existence for six years now, and has a devoted base of customers.
If it were a man whose existence thou didst doubt I could bring him to thee, could take him by the hand and show him to thee.
Trying to convict her, he told her she had worn him out, had caused his quarrel with his son, had harbored nasty suspicions of him, making it the object of her life to poison his existence, and he drove her from his study telling her that if she did not go away it was all the same to him.
I'd lived so clement an existence that the sum total of my exposure to mayhem came from the soft cushioned sofa fronting a wide screen television.
The state of the count's affairs became quite obvious a month after his death, surprising everyone by the immense total of small debts the existence of which no one had suspected.
That assumption would destroy the possibility of the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever.
If in a thousand years even one man in a million could act freely, that is, as he chose, it is evident that one single free act of that man's in violation of the laws governing human action would destroy the possibility of the existence of any laws for the whole of humanity.
We have already mentioned the final conception in which Lotze's speculation culminates, that of a personal Deity, Himself the essence of all that merits existence for its own sake, who in the creation and government of a world has voluntarily chosen certain laws and forms through which His ends are to be realized.
The victories of the French at Jena and Auerstadt destroy the independent existence of Prussia.
He declared that he did not wish to remember her existence and warned her not to dare to let him see her.
They had not as many visitors as before, but the old habits of life without which the count and countess could not conceive of existence remained unchanged.
The existence of such mixed matters gives rise to inevitable conflicts of jurisdiction, which may lead, and sometimes have led, to civil war.
Such a view of existence has been common throughout the history of thought, and especially among physical scientists.
From the standpoint from which the science of history now regards its subject on the path it now follows, seeking the causes of events in man's freewill, a scientific enunciation of those laws is impossible, for however man's free will may be restricted, as soon as we recognize it as a force not subject to law, the existence of law becomes impossible.
Military science, seeing in history innumerable instances of the fact that the size of any army does not coincide with its strength and that small detachments defeat larger ones, obscurely admits the existence of this unknown factor and tries to discover it--now in a geometric formation, now in the equipment employed, now, and most usually, in the genius of the commanders.
Perhaps on that spring morning when Adam and Eve were driven out of Eden Walden Pond was already in existence, and even then breaking up in a gentle spring rain accompanied with mist and a southerly wind, and covered with myriads of ducks and geese, which had not heard of the fall, when still such pure lakes sufficed them.
She does not, it would seem, prove the existence of spirit without matter, or of innate ideas, or of immortality, or anything else that any other human being does not prove.
Jonny whirled, starting towards Ashley, when the teen girl winked out of existence in a flash of purple light.
A final argument is the existence in some cases of a village of circular stone buildings of similar construction to the nuraghi, but only 15 to 25 ft.
And, if to satisfy these we were forced to maintain the existence of a world of moral standards, it was, thirdly, necessary to form some opinion as to the relation of these moral standards of value to the forms and facts of phenomenal existence.
Vice and disease, which cast such a sombre moral hue over the world, seemed to have hardly any existence for him.
A voice said to him--Why do you stay here and live this mean moiling life, when a glorious existence is possible for you?
The Watcher winked out of existence.
This usage, coupled with the existence of a distinct term in Gaelic for the wild species, leaves little doubt that the word "cat" properly denotes only the domesticated species.
The theological professors took the alarm at passages in the Meditations; an attempt to prove the existence of God savoured, as they thought, of atheism and heresy.
But even this mens, or mind, is but a point - we have found no guarantee as yet for its continuous existence.
He sees insoluble contradictions in every mode of conceiving God as real, yet he advocates religious belief, though the object of that belief have but an abstract or imaginary existence.
In 1886, soon after its establishment, a fire swept the whole town out of existence.
In 1848 and 1849, however, when many clubs had come into existence in the west and south of Scotland (the Willowbank, dating from 1816, is the oldest club in Glasgow), meetings were held in Glasgow for the purpose of promoting a national association.
There were to be no half-measures now; the city was wiped out of existence with the exception of its temples and the house which had been Pindar's.
Probably he believed in the existence of other gods, though he does not express himself clearly on this point; in any case he held that the worship of other deities was destructive to Israel.
The ritual books of our Pentateuch were not then in existence, and the sacrificial cult might be treated with contempt as not authoritative.
As the deed was not destroyed, but is in existence now, it is to be presumed that the terms of it were, riot fulfilled; but the fact that such a contract should have been drawn up by Napier himself affords a singular illustration of the state of society and the kind of events in the midst of which logarithms had their birth.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
From 1625 to 1638 the history of Irish Presbyterians is one of bare existence.
The market is still held on Wednesdays, and in 1792 the Michaelmas fair and another on May-day were in existence.
As the work of the societies succeeded, they gradually passed out of existence.
Cellular imprisonment was, however, partially adopted for persons awaiting trial., Central prisons, in which prisoners lived and worked in association, had been in existence from the commencement of the i9th century.
Of the coast defences the principal are Toulon, Antibes, Rochefort, Lorient, Brest, Olron, La Rochelle, BelleIsle, Cherbourg,St-Malo, Havre, Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk A number of the older fortresses, dating for the most part from Louis XIV.s time, are still in existence, but are no longer of military importance.
The story of Nicodromus, while it proves the existence of a democratic party, suggests, at the same time, that it could count upon little support.; (2) Modern.
The existence of the soul in the body was its punishment for sins in a previous condition; and the doom of its sins in the body was its descent into other bodies, and the postponement of its deliverance " (Salmond's Christian Doctrine of Immortality, p. 109).
Recollection (anamnesis) alone would prove pre-existence, but not existence after death.
If the human soul is a force in the narrower sense, a substance, and not a combination of substances, then, as in the nature of things there is no transition from existence to non-existence, we cannot naturally conceive the end of its existence, any more than we can anticipate a gradual annihilation of its existence."
Holiness, " the perfect accordance of the will with the moral law," demands an endless progress; and " this endless progress is only possible on the supposition of an endless duration of the existence and personality of the same rational being (which is called the immortality of the soul)."
Eu (Augusta) was in existence under the Romans.
Previous to the existence of the strait, and across its site, there poured into Australia a wealth of Papuan forms. Along the Pacific slope of the Queensland Cordillera these found in soil and climate a congenial home.
Other authorities suggest that it is going much too far to deny the existence of religion altogether, and instance as proof of the divinity of the supra-normal anthropomorphic beings of the Baiame class, the fact that the Yuin and cognate tribes dance around the image of Daramulun (their equivalent of Baiame) and the medicine men " invocate his name."
It was estimated that when first visited by Europeans the native 1 The existence of " Group Marriage " is a much-controverted point.
Other consignments of intending settlers in " New Australia " followed; but though the settlement is still in existence it has completely failed to realize the impracticable ideals of its original members.
York Road recalls the existence of a palace of the archbishops of York, occasionally occupied by them between the reigns of Edward IV.
For the natural realist stands upon the common-sense position that minds and material objects have equally effective existence; while the idealist explains matter by mind and denies that mind can be explained by matter.
The first hint to reach Europe concerning the existence of habitable lands to the eastward of the Ganges is to be found in the writings of Pomponius Mela
It is divided into three books, the first containing his proofs of the divine existence, and the remaining two the theological and philosophical arguments for immortality based on that postulate.
The existence of double salts, and the observations of L.
No fact contains in itself the ground of any other; the existence of the facts is due to God, their sequence and coexistence are also due to him.
Neumayr finds evidence of the existence of a continent between Africa and South America, which protruded into the central North Atlantic, in Jurassic times.
From the conception of a universal order in the universe he reasons to a Supreme Being, who has created it and who has conferred upon every man in harmony with it the aim of his existence, leading to his highest good.
While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
The parasitic and free-living Nematodes are connected by transitional forms which are free at one stage of their existence and parasitic at another; they may be divided into two classes those that are parasitic in the larval state but free when adult, and those that are free in the larval state but parasitic when adult.
Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.
The judges might be satisfied of its existence and terms by the evidence of the witnesses to it, and then issue an order that whenever found it should be given up. Contracts annulled were ordered to be broken.
of submarine cable had been laid, while ten years later it was computed that 162,000 nautical miles of cable were in existence, representing a capital of £40,000,000, 75 per cent.
There are still many magneto exchanges in existence, but when new exchanges are erected only the very smallest are equipped for magneto working, that system having succumbed to the common battery one in the case of all equipments of moderate and large dimensions.
Statistics collected in 1893-1894 and 1896 revealed the existence of 1831 libraries, either private (but open to the public) or completely public. The public libraries have been enormously increased since 1870 by the incorporation of the treasures of suppressed monastic institutions.
The former existence of so many separate sovereignties and fountains of honor gave nse to a great many hereditary titles of nobility.
The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact, that until modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no independence, no organized existence as a nation.
They fought for bare existence, for primacy in commerce, for the command of seaports, for the keys of mountain passes, for rivers, roads and all the avenues of wealth and plenty.
The communes, no less than the popes, felt that they must prepare themselves for contest to the death with a power which threatened their existence.
Five times king and emperor as he was, Frederick, placed under the ban of the church, led henceforth a doomed existence.
Italy had entered on a new phase of her existence, and the great poets De monarchia represented a dream of the past which could not be realized.
Kalnky desired that both the terms of the treaty and the fact of its conclusion should remain secret, but Bismarck and Mancini hastened to hint at its existence, the former in the Reichstag on the 12th of June 1882, and the latter in the Italian semi-official press.
A revival of Irredentism in connection with the execution of an Austrian deserter named Oberdank, who after escaping into Italy endeavoured to return to Austria with explosive bombs in his possession, and the cordial references to France made by Depretis at Stradella (8th October 1882), prevented the French government from suspecting the existence of the alliance, or from ceasing to strive after a Franco-Italian understanding.
The management of finance was scarcely satisfactory, for though Giolitti, who had succeeded Magliani and Perazzi at the treasury, suppressed the formers illusory pension fund, he lacked the fibre necessary to deal with the enormous deficit of nearly 10,000,000 in 1888-1889, the existence of which both i Perazzi and he had recognized.
Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.
The parent corm remains attached to the new one, and keeps its form and size till April in the third year of its existence, after which it decays.
The Jews have always been, however, an intensely literary people, and the books ultimately accepted as canonical were only a selection from the literature in existence at the beginning of the Christian era.
Patriotic efforts are made to encourage the use of Hebrew both for writing and speaking, but the continued existence of it as a literary language depends on the direction in which the future history of the Jews will develop.
The Ahoms had a considerable literature, much of which is still in existence.
There is no evidence of the existence of Minehead (Mannheve, Manehafd, Mynneheved) in Roman or Saxon times.
It is possible that Minehead had a corporate existence during the 15th century, as certain documents executed by the portreeve and burgesses at that date are preserved, but no record of the grant of a charter has been found.
5) existence in Sheol is represented as the negation of real life.
Simon, its reputed author, and exalts him above Moses; (2) it mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points, which did not obtain till 570; (3) the compiler borrows two verses from the celebrated hymn called " The Royal Diadem," written by Ibn Gabirol, who was born about 1021; (4) it mentions the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the Holy City by the Saracens; (5) it speaks of the comet which appeared at Rome, 15th July 1264, under the pontificate of Urban IV.; (6) by a slip the Zohar assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before5060-5066A.M., i.e.1300-1306A.D., (7) the doctrine of the En Soph and the Sephiroth was not known before the 13th century; and (8) the very existence of the Zohar itself was not known prior 1 See, e.g., G.
The figurative nature of the language respecting the future makes it difficult to determine precisely the thought of the book on this point; but it seems to contemplate continued existence hereafter for both righteous and wicked, and rewards and punishments allotted on the basis of moral character.
The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.
They had an existence of six months, and were finally received back by the state at about the seventieth part of their face-value in coin.
There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere, mainly responsible for their existence.
3 All the contradictions can be avoided, and yet the use of classes and relations can be preserved as required by mathematics, and indeed by common sense, by a theory which denies to a class - or relation - existence or being in any sense in which the entities composing it - or related by it - exist.
Under the general heading "Algebra and Theory of Numbers" occur the subheadings "Elements of Algebra," with the topics rational polynomials, permutations, &c., partitions, probabilities; "Linear Substitutions," with the topics determinants, &c., linear substitutions, general theory of quantics; "Theory of Algebraic Equations," with the topics existence of roots, separation of and approximation to, theory of Galois, &c. "Theory of Numbers," with the topics congruences, quadratic residues, prime numbers, particular irrational and transcendental numbers.
The school did not produce an extensive literature, but it played an important part in resisting an exaggerated Augustinianism by reasserting the freedom of the will and the continued existence of the divine image in human nature after the fall.
This lake was marked on English and other maps until its existence was disproved by A.
Of his reign little is known except that he celebrated the secular games with great pomp in 248, when Rome was supposed to have reached the thousandth year of her existence.
The conquered peoples fell into an inferior caste, made to work for, and to pay for the subsistence of, their conquerors, as under the Arab domination; the principal taxes exacted from them were the kharaj, a tax of indeterminate amount upon realty, based on the value of lands owned by unbelievers - (in contradistinction to the tithe [ashar] which was a tax of fixed amount upon lands owned by believers) - and levied in payment of the privilege of gaining means of existence in a Mussulman country, and the jiziye, a compulsory payment, or poll-tax, to which believers were not subjected, in lieu of military service.
The regie did badly during the first four years of its existence, owing principally to two causes: (1) its ineffectual power to deal with contraband to which the system described above leaves the door wide open; (2) the admission of other than Turkish tobaccos into Egypt, which deprived it at once of about fTioo,000 per annum.
Even when peace was nominally in existence, war in its most horrible forms was actually being waged.
To the refusal of the sultan's representatives to concede any of her demands, Austria replied by revealing the existence of an alliance with Russia, which she threatened to make actively offensive if her terms were refused.
The old or Persian school flourished from the foundation of the empire down to about 1830, and still continues to drag on a feeble existence, though it is now out of fashion and cultivated by none of the leading men of letters.
Actually the French at this moment were suffering the most terrible distress - up to the Danube they had still found sufficient food for existence, but south of it, in the track of the Austrians, they found nothing.
To disavow the acts and desires of the army and of the secret societies for defence with which all north Germany was honeycombed would be to imperil the very existence of the monarchy, whilst an attack on the wreck of the Grand Army meant the certainty of a terrible retribution from the new armies now rapidly forming on the Rhine.
The publication was taken as a reminder of her existence, and the police of the empire sent her back to Coppet.
During the existence of the Temple there was a double celebration of the Passover, a series of stipulated sacrifices being offered during the seven days in the Temple, details of which are given in Num.
According to the usual tradition, which there seems no sufficient reason to reject, the Escorial owes its existence to a vow made by Philip II.
A few Devonian forms have also been recorded from the Parry Archipelago, and Nathorst has shown the existence of Old Red Sandstone facies of Devonian in Traill Island, Geographical Society Island, Ymer Island and Gauss Peninsula.
The great sessions for the county were during their whole existence from 1542 to 1830 held at Cardiff, but the assizes (which replaced them) have since then been held at Swansea and Cardiff alternately, as also are the quarter sessions for Glamorgan.
Under the laws of the state the legal existence and legal personality of a woman are not affected by marriage, and the property rights of a husband and wife are nearly equal.
This is but natural; for, though the progress of knowledge has not disproved the existence of devils, it has greatly limited the supposed range of their activities.
In some species it is possible that they have scarcely more than one day's existence, but others are far longer lived, though the extreme limit is probably rarely more than a week.
Throughout this dual existence Mr. Dodgson pertinaciously refused to acquiesce in being publicly identified with "Lewis Carroll."
Craft gilds were already in existence, but these had no share in the government; for, though the Lubeck rule excluding craftsmen from the Rath did not obtain, they were excluded in practice.
One classification makes three divisions for the epoch, characterized respectively by the existence of the cavebear, the mammoth and reindeer; another, two, marked by the prevalence of the mammoth and reindeer respectively.
His work consisted largely in organizing the Christian societies which he found in existence on his arrival, and in planting the faith in regions such as the extreme west of Connaught which had not yet come under the sway of the gospel.
It is found that, in such cases as this, where it seems necessary to imagine the existence of complex ions, the transport number changes rapidly as the concentration of the original solution is changed.
The results go to show that, where the existence of complex ions is not indicated by varying transport numbers, the observed velocities agree with those calculated on Kohlrausch's theory.
The Original Being was impossible to track with his senses and seemed to fade in and out of existence.
"My dear Darian," the Watcher said in a softer tone, "I cannot take the pain of the memories you will experience in the morning when you remember the whole of your existence.
Darkyn claimed there was, but she saw no silver lining to her existence.
I have studied human nature for the entirety of my existence.
Had past-Deidre lost them and condemned a billion souls to this existence?
He'd spend the rest of his existence in Hell before he'd let her go without a fight.
Evelyn was right: she was too emotional for such an existence.
The people credited the PMF with saving them from the elite's Civil War while the elites tried hard to stamp out the PMF's existence.
I've known you longer than any creature still in existence.
The feeling of the angel's soft, cold hand in his own reminded Rhyn of the first thing he'd touched in Hell that hadn't been stone. Gabriel had brought him a book with a worn, leather-like cover, and he'd lost himself dwelling on the sensation of buttery leather under his fingertips after the hazy nightmare that had been his existence in Hell.
No one can predict Death. No one even sees her, unless they die-dead." "It must be a lonely existence for her," she said, puzzled as to why he'd speak more highly of Darkyn than he had of Death.
The only Guardians in existence are now in the mortal realm, and you are now the White God.
"You can't leave—" The Watcher blinked out of existence.
He felt the uncanny sensation that she understood his tormented existence.
He winked out of existence.
The existence of earth currents (q.
The buildings for which it is famous all belong to the first two centuries of its existence.
Both temples belong to the best period of the Doric style and are among the finest in existence.
This treaty, however, was kept from public knowledge, and Ashley helped Charles to hoodwink parliament by signing a similar treaty on the 2nd of February 1672, which was laid before them as the only one in existence.
In general, Aquinas maintained in different senses the real existence of universals ante rem, in re and post rem.
By this time, too, several of the other provinces had come into existence.
Its existence was well-nigh forgotten by the people of Australia until the occurrence of its biennial meetings, and even then but slight interest was taken in its proceedings.
been estimated that the whole mass of living substance in existence at one time would cover the surface of the earth to a depth of one-fifth of an inch. ?
The existence of a good natural harbour is often sufficient to give origin to a town and to fix one end of a line of land communication.
Meanwhile Mithradates and the East were forgotten in the crisis of the Social or Italic War, which broke out in 91 and threatened Rome's very existence.
But it is doubtful whether the psalm, as distinguished from the Hebrew Psalter, can be said to have any independent existence.
His existence had never been proved; and in the district of Guardia no child was reported as missing.
Kitchen-middens of England, Ireland and Denmark reveal the existence of the capercally, Tetrao urogallus, and of the great auk or gare-fowl, Alca impennis; both species long since vanished from those countries.
The most extraordinary feature is unquestionably the former existence of the gigantic Dinornithes or moas and, another family of Ratitae, the weird-looking kiwis or Apteryges, which are totally unlike any other existing birds.
But this very development of Mosaism implies the existence of an original nucleus or substratum, although the recovery of its precise extent is very difficult.
It enjoyed a brief existence as a staple town from 1327 to 1332.
These phenomena are explained by the existence of a reverse electromotive force at the surface of the platinum plates.
Giolitti scarcely improved matters by creating Tanlongo a member of the senate, and by denying in parliament the existence of any mismanagement.
At a subsequent period the demand for instruction in the sacrificial science called into existence a still more practical set of manuals, the so-called Kalpa-sutras, or ceremonial rules, detailing, in succinct aphorisms, the approved course of sacrificial procedure, without reference to the supposed origin or import of the several rites.
Wolff's influence made the usage habitual, 4 though Schleiermacher and Ritschl, like the Socinians earlier, deny the existence of a natural theology..
MacTaggart (Studies in Hegelian Dialectic) contends that direct contradiction is confined to the elementary portions of Hegel's Logic: but he does not deny its existence there, though his interpretation, could one accept it, softens the paradox.
Theism is directly interested in this, since it affirms the necessity of God's existence.
Theism can take but little interest in this peculiar type of free will doctrine, or again in Epicurus's professed admission of the existence of gods - made of atoms: inhabiting the spaces between the worlds; Stoicism.
Anselm tells us that a most perfect being must exist, since the perfection which includes existence is manifestly greater than a perfection confined to an object of thought.
Again: " Existence cannot be separated from the essence of God "; compare Spinoza's ethics, definition i; " By causa sui I understand that the essence of which involves existence, or that 'which by its own nature can only be conceived as existing."
He admits two sources of knowledge - sensation and refiexion; and God is to him the Great First Cause, especially of our own existence (or of the existence of finite minds).
Locke had treated ideas as testifying, to the existence of matter.
Assuredly Butler did not mean to give him his right of speaking about moral evil and good when he waived the " high priori method of vindicating their real existence.
2 Materialism further brings with it an extreme or " hard " determinism; and, denying the soul's separate existence in any sense, it naturally denies immortality.
There are at present in existence four copies of Magna Carta, sealed with the great seal of King John, and several unsealed copies.
The coasts of the Andamans are deeply indented, giving existence to a number of safe harbours and tidal creeks, which are often surrounded by mangrove swamps.
In this way the medusa sinks from an independent per sonality to an organ of the polyp-colony, becoming a so-called medusoid gonophore, or bearer of the reproductive organs, and losing gradually all organs necessary for an independent existence, namely those of sense, locomotion and nutrition.
is to be separated, it becomes nipped off from the parent polyp and begins a free existence.
For the most part, polyp and medusa have been regarded as modifications of a common type, a view supported by the existence, among Scyphomedusae (q.v.), of sessile polyp-like medusae (Lucernaria, &c.).
The order of ideas observable in children suggests the reflection that man began to discuss the "whence " of existence before the "whither."
Out of this " principal thing " or " original nature " all material and spiritual existence issues, and into it will return.
Lucretius thus recognizes the whole range of existence to which the doctrine of evolution may be applied.
At the same time all forms, including the higher intelligible ones, are said to have their existence only in matter.
This serves Duns Scotus as the most universal basis of existence, all angels having material bodies.
The elementary parts of existence are the minima, or monads, which are at once material and mental.
Gassendi distinctly argues against the existence of a world-soul or a principle of life in nature.
In his doctrine of human development he does indeed recognize an early stage of existence in which our species was dominated by sensuous enjoyment and instinct.
In the earlier writings of Schelling, containing the philosophy of identity, existence is represented as a becoming, or process of evolution.
According to this writer, existence is nothing but a becoming, and matter is simply the momentary product of the process of becoming, while force is this process constantly revealing itself in these products.
Like Schelling, Hegel conceives the problem of existence as one of becoming.
Nature to Hegel is the idea in the form of hetereity; and finding itself here it has to remove this exteriority in a progressive evolution towards an existence for itself in life and mind.
Thus he ascribes eternity of existence to species under the form of the " Platonic ideas."
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
The observation of the existence of an analogy between the series of gradations presented by the species which compose any great group of animals or plants, and the series of embryonic conditions of the highest members of that group.
The observation of the existence of structures, in a rudimentary and apparently useless condition, in one species of a group, which are fully developed and have definite functions in other species of the same group.
In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.
It is not true, for example, that a fish is a reptile arrested in its development, or that a reptile was ever a fish; but it is true that the reptile embryo, at one stage of its development, is an organism which, if it had an independent existence, must be classified among fishes; and all the organs of the reptile pass, in the course of their development, through conditions which are closely analogous to those which are permanent in some fishes.
These may be called heterogeneous homoplasies, but it is necessary to recognize the existence of homogeneous homoplasies, here called multiradial apocentricities.
The full implications of the group of ideas require, and are likely to receive, much attention in the immediate future of biological investigation, but it is enough at present to point out that until the more obvious lines of inquiry have been opened out much more fully, we cannot be in a position to guess at the existence of a residuum, for which such a metaphysical conception as bathmism would serve even as a convenient disguise for ignorance.
35 is described under another Hebrew word, and refers to ladanum, a fragrant resin produced in Cyprus, and the use of this drug, as well as that of cinnamon and cassia, indicates even at that early period a knowledge of the products of Somaliland, Arabia and the East Indies and the existence of trade between the farther East and Egypt.
The gild, to which both sexes were admitted, was in existence early in the 13th century, and it was incorporated by a charter from Edward III.
It is possible, but very improbable, that Orpheus was an historical personage; even in ancient times his existence was denied.
the recognition within the last few years of the existence of an extinct group of plants lying on the borderland between.
The study of simple organisms, many of which consist of nothing but a little mass of protoplasm, exhibiting a very rudimentary degree of differentiation, so far as our methods enable us to determine any at all, shows that the duties of existence can be discharged in the absence of any cell-wall.
It does not at first appear to be the same with the bulkier plants, such as the ordinary green herbs, shrubs or trees, but a study of their earlier development indicates that they do not at the outset differ in any way from the simple undifferentiated forms. Each commences its existence as a simple naked protoplast, in the embroyo-sac or the archegonium, as the case may be.
This view requires the existence of certain anatomical arrangements to secure the isolation of the separate columns, and cannot be said to be fully established.
There is some evidence pointing to the existence of this power in the cells of the higher plants.
The existence of rhythm of this kind has been observed and studied with some completeness.
The inability to enter the cells may be due to the lack of chemotactic bodies, to incapacity to form cellulose-dissolving enzymes, to the existence in the hostcells of antagonistic bodies which neutralize or destroy the acids, enzymes or poisons formed by the hyphae, or even to the formation and excretion of bodies which poison the Fungus.
This subject brings the domain of pathology, however, into touch with that of variation, and we are profoundly ignorant as to the complex of external conditions which would decide in any given case how far a variation in form would be prejudicial or otherwise to the continued existence of a species.
These layers arc secreted by the protoplasm by the direct apposition of substances on those already in existence; and they may go on increasing in thickness, both by apposition and by the intussusception of particles probably carried in through the protoplasmic fibres, which penetrate the cell-wall as long as the cell lives.
Boveri in fact has put forward the view that the chromosomes are elementary units which maintain an organic continuity and independent existence in the cell.
Rosenberg (1909) adduces evidence fox the existence of chromosomes or prochromosomes in resting nuclei in a large number of plants, but most observers consider that the chromosomes during the resting stage become completely resolved into a nuclear network in which no trace of the original chromosomes can be seen.
In the southern hemisphere the Palaeozoic flora appears ultimately to have been profoundly modified by a lowering of temperature and the existence of glacial conditions over a wide area.
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
The resemblances consist, in fact, not so much in the existence of one general facies running through the regions, as is the case with the northern flora, but in the presence of peculiar types, such ai those belonging to the families Restiaceae, Proteaceae, Ericaceae Mutisiaceac and Rutaceae.
Continued existence implies perpetual adaptation to new conditions, and, as the adjustment becomes more refined, the corresponding structural organization becomes more elaborate.
There were several early indications of the existence of the great Australian continent, and the Dutch endeavoured to obtain further knowledge concerning the country and its extent; but only its northern and western coasts had been visited before the time of Governor van Diemen.
The existence of lakes in hollows of the land depends upon the balance between precipitation and evaporation.
The Hegelian identity of being and thought is also abandoned and the truth of realism acknowledged, an attempt being made to exhibit idealism and realism as respectively incomplete but mutually complementary systems. Ulrici's later works, while expressing the same views, are 1 :trgely occupied in proving the existence of God and the soul from the basis of scientific conceptions, and in opposition to the materialistic current of thought then popular in Germany.
Yet nobility, in some shape or another, has existed in most places and times of the world's history, while the British peerage is an institution purely local, and one which has actually hindered the existence of a nobility in the sense which the word bears in most other countries.
To not a few it would seem a contradiction to speak of nobility or aristocracy in a republic. Yet, though many republics have eschewed nobility, there is nothing in a republican, or even in a democratic, form of government inconsistent with the existence of nobility; and it is only in a republic that aristocracy, in the strict sense of the word, can exist.
Aristocracy implies the existence of nobility; but nobility does not imply aristocracy; it may exist under any form of government.
The older nobility is independent of the possession of land; it is independent of office about the sovereign; it is hard to say what were the powers and privileges attached to it; but of its existence there is no doubt.
Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of existence.
"Virtue," says Socrates, "is knowledge": in the ultimate harmony of morality with reason is to be found the only true existence of man.
Antisthenes adopted this principle in its most literal sense, and proceeded to explain "knowledge" in the narrowest terms of practical action and decision, excluding from the conception everything except the problem of individual will realizing itself in the sphere of ordinary existence.
There is a species of Polypterus, and it is probable that the Protopterus or lung fish is also found there, though its existence has not as yet been established by a specimen.
Thus Basilides assumed the existence of two principles, not derivable from each other: Light and Darkness.
It is remarkable too that Isidorus held the existence of two souls in man, a good and a bad (Clemens, Strom.
At the very height of their power, however, they were almost crushed out of existence.
There is evidence of the existence of a once dominant fair race, of which the still surviving Sienetjo, a people of a yellow or fair complexion, are regarded as descendants.
In conformity with this principle he denied that the existence of God was capable of being proved, or that the nature of God was capable of being comprehended.
Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
The Russian emperors, having established themselves as heads of the Church and the Holy Synod as a state department, were not likely willingly to tolerate their existence.
Here new principalities were founded and new agglomerations of principalities came into existence, some of them having a grand prince who no longer professed allegiance to Kiev.
Though severely tried by disappointments and defeats he never lost hope, and when he died in 1584 he was preparing to renew the struggle and endeavouring to form for that purpose an alliance with England; his great idea, however, was not to be realized till more than a century later, and meanwhile the tsardom of Muscovy had to pass through a severe internal crisis in which its existence was seriously endangered.
The tsar, though he came to know of their existence, refrained from taking repressive measures against them, and when he died suddenly at Taganrog on the 1st of December 1825, two of them made an attempt to realize their political aspirations.
It was not without secret satisfaction, therefore, that Prince Gorchakov watched the repeated defeats of the Austrian army in the Italian campaign of 1859, and he felt inclined to respond to the advances made to him by Napoleon III.; but the germs of a Russo-French alliance, which had come into existence immediately after the Crimean War, ripened very slowly, and they were completely destroyed in 1863 when the French emperor wounded Russian sensibilities deeply by giving moral and diplomatic support to the Polish insurrection.
In France the Revolution had been the work of the middle classes; in Russia an indigenous middle class has, comparatively speaking, no existence, the peasants forming the overwhelming majority of the population.'
For days the whole mechanism of civilized existence in Russia was at a standstill, all intercourse 4 Sazonov's sentence of twenty years' hard labour was commuted by Nicholas II.
The common law has been somewhat unfavourable to the enforcement of such agreements, and statutes in the United States, both local and national, have attempted to prohibit them; but the public advantage from their existence has been so great as to render their legal disabilities inoperative.
Roads had been constructed in advance of settlement, and land-seekers had been transported to these frontier sections only to become dependent upon the railways for their very existence.
Such bodies, established to appraise land for railway purposes, to apportion receipts and expenditures of interstate traffic, and in a general way to supervise railway transportation, had been in existence in New England before 1860, one of the earliest being that of Rhode Island in 1839.
This demand has in many instances led to ill-considered legislation, has frequently ignored the prerogatives and even the existence of the state commissions, and has brought about the passage by state legislatures of maximum freight and passenger rate laws, with rates so low in many cases that they have been set aside by the courts as unconstitutional.
Similarly in Great Britain there is a tendency towards combination by mutual agreement among the companies while they still preserve their independent existence.
R.) Intra-Urban Railways The great concentration of population in cities during the 19th century brought into existence a class of railways to which the name of intra-urban may be applied.
No biological generalization rests on a wider series of observations, or has been subjected to a more critical scrutiny than that every living organism has come into existence from a living portion or portions of a pre-existing organism.
It is within common observation that parent and offspring are alike: that the new organism resembles that from which it has come into existence: in fine, biogenesis is homogenesis.
Homogenesis means simply that such organism comes into existence directly from a parent organism of the same race, and hence of the same species, sub-species, genus and so forth.
Robertson Smith, on the other hand, a new era was reached, in which the recently recognized existence of Totemism was made the basis of an attempt to give a 1 Scipione de Ricci, bishop of Pistoia from 1780 to 1791, on the ex-Jesuits requesting him to consecrate a bell dedicated to this object, issued a pastoral letter (3rd June 1784) in which he pointed out that the spirit of true religion was "far removed from fetichism," and warned his flock against "cardiolatry."
In like manner (2) the officiant prepared himself for his task; but in his case the natural sanctity of the priest relieved him of the necessity of undergoing all that the common man had to pass through; in fact, this was one of the causes which brought him into existence, the other being the need of a.
The origin of Udine is uncertain; though it lay on the line of the Via Iulia Augusta, there is no proof of its existence in Roman times.
This work for the first time made possible the existence of the modern school of scientific historians of medieval Germany.
On the other hand, the evidence for the existence of ancestor-worship in primitive Israel cannot be so easily disposed of as Kautzsch (ibid.
The existence of the purer and larger conception of Yahweh's character and power before the advent of Amos indicates that the transition from the past was not so sudden as Wellhausen's graphic portrayal in the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia (art.
The existence of " high places " is presupposed in those two ancient codes and is also presumed in the narratives of the documents E and J which contain them.
In philosophy he began with a strong predilection for the physical side of psychology, and at an early age he came to the conclusion that all existence is sensation, and, after a lapse into noiimenalism under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, finally adopted a universal physical phenomenalism.
Herodotus, who declines to commit himself as to the existence of Zalmoxis, expresses the opinion that in any case he must have lived long before the time of Pythagoras.
His argument for the Being of God is based on the hypothesis that thought - not individual but universal - is the reality of all things, the existence of this Infinite Thought being demonstrated by the limitations of finite thought.
The cypress of Somma, in Lombardy, is believed to have been in existence in the time of Julius Caesar; it is about 121 ft.
- To its mineral wealth Nevada owes its existence as a state; but for the richness of its veins of gold and silver ore it would be still little more than an arid waste.
In 1859 the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode in Western Nevada led to the building of Virginia City, a prosperous community on the side of a mountain where human beings under ordinary conditions would not have lived, and eventually brought a new state into existence.
The village of Tonopah sprang into existence as soon as the rush of newcomers to this region began, and in 1903 it contained 4000 inhabitants.
The terms, arranged through the intervention of John, archbishop of Ravenna, were not observed by 1 The great pinewood to the east of the city, which is still one of the great glories of Ravenna, must therefore have been in existence already in the 5th century.
On the 6th of December he protested with three other peers against the measure sent up from the Commons enforcing the disarming of all convicted recusants and taking bail from them to keep the peace; he was the only peer to dissent from the motion declaring the existence of an Irish plot; and though believing in the guilt and voting for the death of Lord Stafford, he interceded, according to his own account, 3 with the king for him as well as for Langhorne and Plunket.
Laplace supposed the existence of a primeval nebula which extended so far out as to fill all the space at present occupied by the planets.
They belong to the group of Protozoa, and, as already explained, have a double cycle of existence: (I) a sexual cycle in the body of the mosquito, (2) an asexual cycle in the blood of human beings.
The existence of the parasite is maintained by a vicious interchange between its alternate hosts, mosquitoes and man,.
If the cycle be broken at any point the parasite must die out, assuming that it has no other origin or mode of existence.
Similarly, Spa Road points to the existence of a popular spring and pleasure grounds, maintained for some years at the close of the 18th century.
Imported vases of the second half of the 5th century B.C. prove the existence of trade with Greece at that period; and the town was famous in Aristotle's day for a special breed of fowls.
Between 40,000 and 50,000 species of Diptera are at present known, but these are only a fraction of those actually in existence.
They believed in the existence of two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse, even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and the eating of flesh meat, and many other things.
The existence of reactions which are reversible on slight alteration of conditions at once invalidates the principle, for if the action proceeding in one direction evolves heat, it must absorb heat when proceeding in the reverse direction.
When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
The most magnificent part of the exterior and indeed the finest polychrome monument in existence is the west façade, built of richlysculptured marble from the designs of Lorenzo Maitani of Siena, and divided into three gables with intervening pinnacles, closely resembling the front of Siena cathedral, of which it is a reproduction, with some improvements.
The feeling of national unity between north and south would require historical treatment, the existence of rival monarchies would demand an explanation.
However, Baasha at length seized Ramah about five miles north of Jerusalem, and the very existence of Judah was threatened.
The prophets taught that the national existence of the people was bound up with religious and social conditions; they were in a sense the politicians of the age, and to regard them simply as foretellers of the future is to limit their sphere unduly.
In 1841 an independent reform congregation was founded, and the Spanish and Portuguese Jews have always maintained their separate existence with a IIaham as the ecclesiastical head.
2 This specimen had been given to Canning (a tribute, perhaps, to the statesman who boasted that he had "called a New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old") by Mr Schenley, a diplomatist, and was then thought to be unique in Europe; but, apart from those which had reached Spain, where they lay neglected and undescribed, James Wilson says (Illustr.
Owing to the existence of a strong Mussulman minority among its inhabitants, the warlike character of the natives, and the mountainous configuration of the country, which enabled a portion of the Christian population to maintain itself in a state of partial independence, the island has constantly been the scene of prolonged and sanguinary struggles in which the numerical superiority of the Christians was counterbalanced by the aid rendered to the Moslems by the Ottoman troops.
The recent excavations by the British School on the site of the Dictaean temple at Palaikastro bear out this conclusion, and an archaic marble head of Apollo found at Eleutherna shows that classical tradition was not at fault in recording the existence of a very early school of Greek sculpture in the island, illustrated by the names of Dipoenos and Scyllis.
The archaeological evidence outside Crete points to the actual existence of Minoan plantations as far afield on one side as Sicily and on the other as the coast of Canaan.
Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
His Journals (3 vols., New York, 1852), apart from their importance as a history of his life work, constitute a valuable commentary on the social and industrial history of the United States during the first forty years of their existence.
They are a despite done to the principle of individual or separate existence.
By Plotinus, on the contrary, the One is explicitly exalted above the vows and the " ideas "; it transcends existence altogether (i rbcava rijs ouaias), and is not.
But in our present state of existence the moments of this ecstatic union must be few and short; " I myself," says Plotinus simply,.
This is the Word or Son of God, in whom all things exist, so far as they have substantial existence.
All existence is a theophany, and as God is the beginning of all things, so also is He the end.
The existence of numerous ancient cisterns shows that in Roman as in modern times rain-water was largely used for lack of springs.
One of these, the Morro Velho mine, belonging to an English company, is not only the deepest gold-mine in existence (over 2000 ft.), but it has been worked since 1725, and since 1835 by its present owners.
Wallace, who first indicated its existence.
They possibly owe their existence to the volcanic agencies which are known to extend from Sumatra across this part of the Indian Ocean.
A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
The nation hardly came into existence till China and India had passed their prime, and remained secluded and free from the continual struggle against barbarian invaders, which drained the energies of its neighbours.
was living and that among the signatories of the treaty of April 13th were some who possessed proofs of his existence; and Eckard, one of the mainstays of the official account, left among his unpublished papers a statement that many members of "an assembly of our wise men" obstinately named Louis XVII.
According to him Barras determined to save the dauphin in order to please Josephine Beauharnais, the future empress, having conceived the idea of using the dauphin's existence as a means of dominating the comte de Provence in the event of a restoration.
But this unduly narrows the scope of Scottish philosophy, which does not exhaust itself, as is sometimes supposed, in uncritically reasserting the independent existence of matter and its immediate presence to mind.
The unit of knowledge is not an isolated impression but a judgment; and in such a judgment is contained, even initially, the reference both to a permanent subject and to a permanent world of thought, and, implied in these, such judgments, for example, as those of existence, substance, cause and effect.
It has been asserted (and denied) that the cellular rod which is known as the "Heart-body" (Herzkorper), and is to be found in the dorsal vessel of many Oligochaeta and Polychaeta, is formed of cells which are continuous with the chloragogen cells, thus implying the existence of apertures of communication with the coelom.
On the other hand, in most Oligochaeta the first segment has in the adult no nephridium, and in the case of Octochaetus the existence of a "head kidney" antedating the subsequently developed nephridia of the first and other segments has neither been seen nor proved to be absent.
Here we must distinguish between the Lancelot proper and the LancelotGuenevere versions; so far as the latter are concerned, we cannot get behind the version of Chretien, - nowhere, prior to the composition of the Chevalier de la Charrette is there any evidence of the existence of such a story.
Here in 1743 Christopher Sauer, one of the sect's first pastors, and a printer by trade, printed the first Bible (a few copies of which are still in existence) published in a European language in America.
The workings of this Will are irrational primarily, but, as in its evolution it becomes more rationalized and understands the whole meaning of the Weltschmerz, it ultimately reaches the point at which the desire for existence is gone.
It was founded by plundering expeditions, and its subsequent existence was tainted by the baseness of this predatory origin.
The French Revolution finally deprived the Order of all its estates, and for a while of its existence.
Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.
As a teacher of legislation he inquires Of all institutions whether their utility justifies their existence.
The time had come for deliberate reconstruction, for inquiring whether the existence of many admitted evils was, as it was said to be, unavoidable; for proving that the needs of society may be classified and provided for by contrivances which shall not clash --?
So early as the 4th century it is mentioned as an established office, and it is probable that it was in existence in the 3rd.
This he finds in the sense we have of our own existence and of what we feel within ourselves.
But Buffier does not claim for these truths of "common sense" the absolute certainty which characterizes the knowledge we have of our own existence or the logical deductions we make from our thoughts; they possess merely the highest probability, and the man who rejects them is to be considered a fool, though he is not guilty of a contradiction.
The colony had no legal existence at the time, but was then incorporated as the "Roman Catholic Religious Society of St Nazianz," and as such sued successfully for the bequest.
He distinguished between knowledge of actual objects and the divine inspiration by which we cognize the being and existence of God.
Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
The chief town of a district of the same name, it owes its existence to the discovery of gold in the Kaap valley, and dates from 1886.
He professed the most open materialism, denied immortality in all forms and taught that the soul of man is homogeneous with the soul of animals and plants, material in origin and incapable of separate existence.
In 1800 the original Farmers' Magazine came into existence under the editorship of Robert Brown of Markle, the author of the well-known treatise on Rural Affairs.
The existence of the root nodules had long been recognized, but hitherto no adequate explanation had been afforded as to their function.
In 1900 the discovery early in the year of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease amongst cattle and sheep shipped from Argentina to the United Kingdom led to the issue of an order by which all British ports were closed against live animals from the country named.
It is compulsory on owners to notify the authorities as to the existence of scab amongst their sheep. By the Diseases of Animals Act (1903) powers to prescribe the dipping of sheep, irrespective of the presence or otherwise of sheep scab, were conferred upon the Board of Agriculture.
It would seem that in his fits of despondency one of the thoughts that marred his dreams of human improvement was the apparently inexorable character of economic laws, condemning thousands of labourers to a cramped and miserable existence, and thousands more to semistarvation.
There is in existence a vast store of accumulated knowledge, and few, if any, departments of economics have been left quite unilluminated by the researches of former generations.
Even in the rural districts, manorial records reveal the existence of a great variety of classes and groups of persons engaged in the performance of economic functions.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
It implies the existence of a well-trained class engaged in the work of collecting information, and much organization both by the state and private bodies.
So that cross-sections of the stream of economic thought will reveal the existence, at different times, in varying proportions and at different stages of development, of most of the modern " schools."
The present town of Milford Haven, originally a hamlet in the parish of Steynton, is of modern growth, and was first called into existence by the exertions of the Hon.
This poem, though rare and little known, is still in existence - the Royal Asiatic Society possessing a copy.
God, the soul of the universe, must be conceived as having an existence analogous to men.
The existence of two renal organs in Patella, and their relation to the pericardium (a portion of the coelom), is important.
Many pieces still in existence are wrongly ascribed to him.; yet it is doubtful whether a single one of them was composed on purpose to deceive.
As a philosophical idealist, however, he transmutes the whole contents of the faith of the church into ideas which bear the mark of Neo-Platonism, and were accordingly recognized by the later Neo-Platonists as Hellenic. 4 In Origen, however, 1 There are, however, extensive fragments of the original in existence.
Drums beat the charge, Murat led the way through the corridors of the palace to the Orangerie, and levelled bayonets ended the existence of the Council.
As for the chambers, based avowedly on universal suffrage, their existence thenceforth was ornamental or sepulchral.
The logical outcome of this proceeding appeared on the 1st of August, when Napoleon declared that he no longer recognized the existence of the Holy Roman Empire.
The foundations and some of the architectural fragments of the temple were still in existence until 1777, when they were used to build the Passionist monastery by Cardinal York.
AEGEAN CIVILIZATION, the general term for the prehistoric civilization, previously called "Mycenaean" because its existence was first brought to popular notice by Heinrich Schliemann's excavations at Mycenae in 1876.
Independent local developments of art before the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. suggest the early existence of independent units in various parts, of which the strongest was the Cnossian.
His best known work was Die Betooverde Wereld (1691), or The World Bewitched (1695; one volume of an English translation from a French copy), in which he examined critically the phenomena generally ascribed to spiritual agency, and attacked the belief in sorcery and "possession" by the devil, whose very existence he questioned.
1877), he married in 1837 and lived a rural existence at Bruckberg near Nuremberg,, supported by his wife's share in a small porcelain factory.
the view which regards God as having a separate existence over against man.
1912 he submitted that naval power to the Germans was a luxury; it was existence to the English, it was expansion to them.
How is the existence of this ideal whole to be accounted for?
Only by the existence of some "principle which renders all relations possible and is itself determined by none of them"; an eternal self-consciousness which knows in whole what we know in part.
While, again, legitimately insisting upon personality as a fundamental constituent in any true theory of reality, the relation between human individualities and the divine Person is left vague and obscure; nor is it easy to see how the existence of several individualities - human or divine - in one cosmos is theoretically possible.
2 The existence of the Mandaeans has been known since the middle 'of the 17th century, when the first Christian missionaries, Ignatius a Jesu and Angelus a Sancto, began to labour among them at Basra; further information was gathered at a somewhat later date by Pietro della Valle' and Jean de Thevenot 5 (1633-1667), and in the following century by Engelbrecht Kaempfer (1651-1716), Jean Chardin (1643-1713) and Carsten Niebuhr.
The "Life" calls into existence in the visible world a series of three great Helpers, Hibil, Shithil and Anosh (late Judaeo-Babylonian transformations of the well-known names of the book of Genesis), the guardians of souls.
Only two of the volumes are known to be in existence; one is a copy of John of Salisbury's works in the British Museum, and the other some theological treatises by Anselm and others in the Bodleian.
In Orthoptera, Heymons has demonstrated the existence of eleven pairs, the terminal pair becoming, however, soon united with the tenth.
There are other ganglia in addition to those of the ventral chain, and Janet supposes that the ganglia of the sympathetic system indicate the existence of three anterior head-segments; the remains of the segments themselves are, in accordance with this view, to be sought in the XIII.
(3) An individual in which the reproductive organs and powers are functionally absent becomes one in which these structures and powers are the only reason for existence, for the great majority of insects die after a brief period of reproduction.
It is generally considered that this is sufficient as an explanation of the existence of the pupa.
The difference between the nymph or false pupa and the true pupa is that in the latter a whole stage is devoted to the perfecting of the wings and body-wall after the wings have become external organs; the stage is one in which no food is or can be taken, however prolonged may be its existence.
From the Trias of Colorado, Scudder has described cockroaches intermediate between their Carboniferous precursors and their present-day descendants, while the existence of endopterygotous Hexapods is shown by the remains of Coleoptera of several families.
The only doubt arises from the existence of insect remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach.
More than this, he seems to be the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called a " type " - though such_a term does not occur in his work; and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera - all this being effected by the skilful use of names.
The existence of these two works explains the widely-spread taste for ornithology in England, which is to foreigners so puzzling, and the zeal - not always according to knowledge, but occasionally reaching to serious study - with which that taste is pursued.
he judged that the same would be the case with the cassowary and the emeu, which, with the two forms mentioned above, made up the whole of the " Oiseaux anomaux" whose existence was then generally acknowledged.
With all this, perhaps on account of all this, L'Herminier's efforts did not 4 Considerable doubts were at that time entertained in Paris as to the existence of the Apteryx.
In the ostrich and its allies no trace of this median centre of ossification ever occurs; but with these exceptions its existence is invariable in all other birds.
God is incomprehensible, and the categories cannot be applied to determine his existence.
The pure form of existence, that by which God is God, must be distinguished from the three persons who are God by participation in this form.
The whole site of Venice is dominated by the existence of one great main canal, the Grand Canal, which, winding through the town in the shape of the letter S, divides it into two equal parts.
It is one of the most magnificent specimens of goldsmiths' and jewellers' work in existence.
Other specimens still in existence are the municipal buildings, Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti - if, indeed, these are not to be considered rather as Romanesque - and the splendid Ca' da Mosto, all on the Grand Canal.
It was from Byzantium that the Venetian people received the first recognition of their existence as a separate community.
Resentment was aroused by the establishment of branches of the Bank of the United States at Chillicothe and Cincinnati in 1817, and an attempt was made to tax them out of existence.
The incubus and succubus of the middle ages are sometimes regarded as spiritual beings; but they were held to give very real proof of their bodily existence.
The question of the real existence of incubi and succubi, whom the Romans identified with the fauns, was gravely discussed by the fathers of the church; and in 1484 Innocent III.
(h) It has been shown above how the animistic creed postulates the existence of all kinds of local spirits, which are sometimes tied to their habitats, sometimes free to wander.
He considered the incarnation of Christ as the necessary manifestation to man of an eternal sonship in the divine nature, apart from which those filial qualities which God demands from man could have no sanction; by faith as used in Scripture he understood to be meant a certain moral or spiritual activity or energy which virtually implied salvation, because it implied the existence of a principle of spiritual life possessed of an immortal power.
It has one of the finest collections of casts in existence, a number of original pieces of Greek statuary, the second-best collection in the world of Aretine ware, the finest collection of Japanese pottery, and probably the largest and finest of Japanese paintings in existence.
Government.-Beyond a recognition of its existence in 1630, when it was renamed, Boston can show no legal incorporation before 1822; although the uncertain boundaries between the powers of colony and township prompted repeated petitions to the legislature for incorporation, beginning as early as 1650.
The date of the Chronicler may be placed about 300 B.C., so Palmyra must have been in existence long before then.
The Unconscious is both Will and Reason and the absolute all-embracing ground of all existence.
This latter is absolute misery, and to cure it the Unconscious evokes its Reason and with its aid creates the best of all possible worlds, which contains the promise of its redemption from actual existence by the emancipation of the Reason from its subjugation to the Will in the conscious reason of the enlightened pessimist.
The town of Kuttenberg owes its origin to the silver mines, the existence of which can be traced back to the first part of the 13th century.
Their success in the struggle for existence, as already indicated, must be assigned in a great measure to the possession of silk glands and to their power of manipulating the silk for a variety of purposes.
Hence as a very general rule the coloration makes for concealment under natural conditions of existence, and the instincts which lead to concealment are very highly developed.
" Attornment," or the agreement by a tenant to become tenant to a new landlord, is a term now often used to indicate an acknowledgment of the existence of the relationship of landlord and tenant.
The way was paved for these changes by the existence in Ulster of a local custom having virtually the force of law, which had two main features - fixity of tenure, and free right of sale by the tenant of his interest.
But a verbal lease presents this disadvantage that, if it is unperformed and one of the parties denies its existence, it cannot be proved by witnesses.
Though the association brought about an extension and improvement of the Indian crop, in which result it was enormously assisted by the high prices consequent upon the American Civil War, it sank after a few years into obscurity, and soon passed out of existence altogether, while the effects of its work dwindled finally into insignificance.
" In miracle no new powers, instituted or stimulated by God's creative action, are at work, but merely the general order of nature "; but " the manifold physical and spiritual powers in actual existence so blend together as to produce a startling result " (Dorner's System of Christian Doctrine, ii.
When the existence of God is denied (atheism), or His nature is declared unknowable (agnosticism), or He is identified with nature itself (pantheism), or He is so distinguished from the world that His free action is excluded from the course of nature (deism), miracle is necessarily denied.
The existence of physical evil, and still more of moral evil, forbids the assumption without qualification that the real is the rational.
The existence of " a certain amount of positive evidence in favour of miracles " forbids the sweeping statement that miracles are " contrary to experience."
The Christian Church would never have come into existence without faith in the Risen Lord.
Cicero remarks on the existence among the Gauls of augurs or soothsayers, known by the name of Druids, with one of whom, Divitiacus, an Aeduan, he was acquainted.
This lady, now the wife of Eochaid Airem, high-king of Ireland, was in a former existence the beloved of the god Mider, who again seeks her love and carries her off.
Beaten in the war, the Genoese avenged themselves for their defeat by an alliance with the Palaeologi, which led to the loss of Constantinople by the Latins (1261), and to the collapse of the Latin empire after sixty years of infirm and precarious existence.
The most striking feature in the structure of Syria is the existence of long Graben, or narrow depressions formed by faulting.
The brandydrinking habit, which, when the imperial government assumed control of the administration in 1884, threatened the existence of the nation, has been very largely checked.
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.
In accordance with these more sedentary habits during the first phases of life, the characteristic pilidium larva, which is so eminently adapted for a pelagic existence, appears to have been reduced to a close-fitting exterior layer of cells, which is stripped off after the definite body-wall of the Nemertine has similarly originated out of four ingrowths from the primary epiblast.
6) are such that when a current is passed through the whole of the coils in series, forces of attraction and repulsion are brought into existence which tend to force one movable coil upwards and the other movable coil downwards.
The existence of a deputy judge of the fleet appointed by the admiralty has been recognized by the king's regulations, but no such officer had been appointed up to 1908.
One of the men to whom Primitive Methodism owes its existence was Hugh Bourne (1772-1852), a millwright of Stoke-upon-Trent.
But it is contended that the work was in existence at Naseby, 1 and testimony to Charles's authorship is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen Charles himself occupied with it at various times during his imprisonment.
3: though a man have the great good fortune to live long and to have many children, yet, if he have not proper burial the blank darkness of an untimely birth is better than he: this latter is merely the negation of existence; the former, it appears to be held, is positive misfortune, the loss of a desirable place in Sheol, though elsewhere (ix.
7 point to social, not intellectual, conditions, and a slight change (pm for 'non) gives the sense" poor."death is practically the end-all; and so poor a thing is life that the dead are to be considered more fortunate than the living, and more to be envied than either class is he who never came into existence (iv.
18); he goes even beyond this in his conception of the blankness of existence in the underworld.
It was able to resist Alaric in 410 and to preserve its existence during the general ruin.