Existence Sentence Examples
Their common gravestone is in existence at the present day, bearing date July 11, 1759.
It wasn't normal for them to acknowledge her existence, let alone address her.
The Watcher winked out of existence.
The existence of the Senegal appears to have been known to the ancients.
He winked out of existence.Advertisement
That he's chosen you as his mate will basically ensure the continued existence of life as we know it.
The market is still held on Wednesdays, and in 1792 the Michaelmas fair and another on May-day were in existence.
The story of Nicodromus, while it proves the existence of a democratic party, suggests, at the same time, that it could count upon little support.; (2) Modern.
According to this writer, existence is nothing but a becoming, and matter is simply the momentary product of the process of becoming, while force is this process constantly revealing itself in these products.
The parent corm remains attached to the new one, and keeps its form and size till April in the third year of its existence, after which it decays.Advertisement
Craft gilds were already in existence, but these had no share in the government; for, though the Lubeck rule excluding craftsmen from the Rath did not obtain, they were excluded in practice.
One classification makes three divisions for the epoch, characterized respectively by the existence of the cavebear, the mammoth and reindeer; another, two, marked by the prevalence of the mammoth and reindeer respectively.
His work consisted largely in organizing the Christian societies which he found in existence on his arrival, and in planting the faith in regions such as the extreme west of Connaught which had not yet come under the sway of the gospel.
It is found that, in such cases as this, where it seems necessary to imagine the existence of complex ions, the transport number changes rapidly as the concentration of the original solution is changed.
The results go to show that, where the existence of complex ions is not indicated by varying transport numbers, the observed velocities agree with those calculated on Kohlrausch's theory.Advertisement
These phenomena are explained by the existence of a reverse electromotive force at the surface of the platinum plates.
The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
Of the coast defences the principal are Toulon, Antibes, Rochefort, Lorient, Brest, Olron, La Rochelle, BelleIsle, Cherbourg,St-Malo, Havre, Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk A number of the older fortresses, dating for the most part from Louis XIV.s time, are still in existence, but are no longer of military importance.
The existence of the soul in the body was its punishment for sins in a previous condition; and the doom of its sins in the body was its descent into other bodies, and the postponement of its deliverance " (Salmond's Christian Doctrine of Immortality, p. 109).Advertisement
Recollection (anamnesis) alone would prove pre-existence, but not existence after death.
The most extraordinary feature is unquestionably the former existence of the gigantic Dinornithes or moas and, another family of Ratitae, the weird-looking kiwis or Apteryges, which are totally unlike any other existing birds.
God, the soul of the universe, must be conceived as having an existence analogous to men.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
The great sessions for the county were during their whole existence from 1542 to 1830 held at Cardiff, but the assizes (which replaced them) have since then been held at Swansea and Cardiff alternately, as also are the quarter sessions for Glamorgan.Advertisement
It enjoyed a brief existence as a staple town from 1327 to 1332.
Under the laws of the state the legal existence and legal personality of a woman are not affected by marriage, and the property rights of a husband and wife are nearly equal.
This is but natural; for, though the progress of knowledge has not disproved the existence of devils, it has greatly limited the supposed range of their activities.
In some species it is possible that they have scarcely more than one day's existence, but others are far longer lived, though the extreme limit is probably rarely more than a week.
Throughout this dual existence Mr. Dodgson pertinaciously refused to acquiesce in being publicly identified with "Lewis Carroll."
Thus, at the age of three-and-thirty, this naturally indolent and self-indulgent woman, with little knowledge and no experience of affairs, suddenly found herself at the head of a great empire at one of the most critical periods of its existence.
Everything is air at different degrees of density, and under the influence of heat, which expands, and of cold, which contracts its volume, it gives rise to the several phases of existence.
The authorship of Dionysius was doubted by many of the early middleage commentators and grammarians, and in modern times its origin has been attributed to the oecumenical college founded by Constantine the Great, which continued in existence till 730.
Locke had treated ideas as testifying, to the existence of matter.
Assuredly Butler did not mean to give him his right of speaking about moral evil and good when he waived the " high priori method of vindicating their real existence.
There are at present in existence four copies of Magna Carta, sealed with the great seal of King John, and several unsealed copies.
The coasts of the Andamans are deeply indented, giving existence to a number of safe harbours and tidal creeks, which are often surrounded by mangrove swamps.
In this way the medusa sinks from an independent per sonality to an organ of the polyp-colony, becoming a so-called medusoid gonophore, or bearer of the reproductive organs, and losing gradually all organs necessary for an independent existence, namely those of sense, locomotion and nutrition.
For the most part, polyp and medusa have been regarded as modifications of a common type, a view supported by the existence, among Scyphomedusae (q.v.), of sessile polyp-like medusae (Lucernaria, &c.).
The order of ideas observable in children suggests the reflection that man began to discuss the "whence " of existence before the "whither."
Out of this " principal thing " or " original nature " all material and spiritual existence issues, and into it will return.
Lucretius thus recognizes the whole range of existence to which the doctrine of evolution may be applied.
At the same time all forms, including the higher intelligible ones, are said to have their existence only in matter.
This serves Duns Scotus as the most universal basis of existence, all angels having material bodies.
The elementary parts of existence are the minima, or monads, which are at once material and mental.
Gassendi distinctly argues against the existence of a world-soul or a principle of life in nature.
In his doctrine of human development he does indeed recognize an early stage of existence in which our species was dominated by sensuous enjoyment and instinct.
In the earlier writings of Schelling, containing the philosophy of identity, existence is represented as a becoming, or process of evolution.
Nature to Hegel is the idea in the form of hetereity; and finding itself here it has to remove this exteriority in a progressive evolution towards an existence for itself in life and mind.
Thus he ascribes eternity of existence to species under the form of the " Platonic ideas."
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
The observation of the existence of an analogy between the series of gradations presented by the species which compose any great group of animals or plants, and the series of embryonic conditions of the highest members of that group.
The observation of the existence of structures, in a rudimentary and apparently useless condition, in one species of a group, which are fully developed and have definite functions in other species of the same group.
In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.
It is not true, for example, that a fish is a reptile arrested in its development, or that a reptile was ever a fish; but it is true that the reptile embryo, at one stage of its development, is an organism which, if it had an independent existence, must be classified among fishes; and all the organs of the reptile pass, in the course of their development, through conditions which are closely analogous to those which are permanent in some fishes.
These may be called heterogeneous homoplasies, but it is necessary to recognize the existence of homogeneous homoplasies, here called multiradial apocentricities.
The full implications of the group of ideas require, and are likely to receive, much attention in the immediate future of biological investigation, but it is enough at present to point out that until the more obvious lines of inquiry have been opened out much more fully, we cannot be in a position to guess at the existence of a residuum, for which such a metaphysical conception as bathmism would serve even as a convenient disguise for ignorance.
There were several early indications of the existence of the great Australian continent, and the Dutch endeavoured to obtain further knowledge concerning the country and its extent; but only its northern and western coasts had been visited before the time of Governor van Diemen.
The older nobility is independent of the possession of land; it is independent of office about the sovereign; it is hard to say what were the powers and privileges attached to it; but of its existence there is no doubt.
Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of existence.
Antisthenes adopted this principle in its most literal sense, and proceeded to explain "knowledge" in the narrowest terms of practical action and decision, excluding from the conception everything except the problem of individual will realizing itself in the sphere of ordinary existence.
There is a species of Polypterus, and it is probable that the Protopterus or lung fish is also found there, though its existence has not as yet been established by a specimen.
At the very height of their power, however, they were almost crushed out of existence.
There is evidence of the existence of a once dominant fair race, of which the still surviving Sienetjo, a people of a yellow or fair complexion, are regarded as descendants.
In conformity with this principle he denied that the existence of God was capable of being proved, or that the nature of God was capable of being comprehended.
Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
The Russian emperors, having established themselves as heads of the Church and the Holy Synod as a state department, were not likely willingly to tolerate their existence.
Here new principalities were founded and new agglomerations of principalities came into existence, some of them having a grand prince who no longer professed allegiance to Kiev.
Though severely tried by disappointments and defeats he never lost hope, and when he died in 1584 he was preparing to renew the struggle and endeavouring to form for that purpose an alliance with England; his great idea, however, was not to be realized till more than a century later, and meanwhile the tsardom of Muscovy had to pass through a severe internal crisis in which its existence was seriously endangered.
The tsar, though he came to know of their existence, refrained from taking repressive measures against them, and when he died suddenly at Taganrog on the 1st of December 1825, two of them made an attempt to realize their political aspirations.
Roads had been constructed in advance of settlement, and land-seekers had been transported to these frontier sections only to become dependent upon the railways for their very existence.
This demand has in many instances led to ill-considered legislation, has frequently ignored the prerogatives and even the existence of the state commissions, and has brought about the passage by state legislatures of maximum freight and passenger rate laws, with rates so low in many cases that they have been set aside by the courts as unconstitutional.
Homogenesis means simply that such organism comes into existence directly from a parent organism of the same race, and hence of the same species, sub-species, genus and so forth.
Robertson Smith, on the other hand, a new era was reached, in which the recently recognized existence of Totemism was made the basis of an attempt to give a 1 Scipione de Ricci, bishop of Pistoia from 1780 to 1791, on the ex-Jesuits requesting him to consecrate a bell dedicated to this object, issued a pastoral letter (3rd June 1784) in which he pointed out that the spirit of true religion was "far removed from fetichism," and warned his flock against "cardiolatry."
In like manner (2) the officiant prepared himself for his task; but in his case the natural sanctity of the priest relieved him of the necessity of undergoing all that the common man had to pass through; in fact, this was one of the causes which brought him into existence, the other being the need of a.
The origin of Udine is uncertain; though it lay on the line of the Via Iulia Augusta, there is no proof of its existence in Roman times.
This work for the first time made possible the existence of the modern school of scientific historians of medieval Germany.
The existence of " high places " is presupposed in those two ancient codes and is also presumed in the narratives of the documents E and J which contain them.
In philosophy he began with a strong predilection for the physical side of psychology, and at an early age he came to the conclusion that all existence is sensation, and, after a lapse into noiimenalism under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, finally adopted a universal physical phenomenalism.
Herodotus, who declines to commit himself as to the existence of Zalmoxis, expresses the opinion that in any case he must have lived long before the time of Pythagoras.
His argument for the Being of God is based on the hypothesis that thought - not individual but universal - is the reality of all things, the existence of this Infinite Thought being demonstrated by the limitations of finite thought.
The cypress of Somma, in Lombardy, is believed to have been in existence in the time of Julius Caesar; it is about 121 ft.
In 1859 the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode in Western Nevada led to the building of Virginia City, a prosperous community on the side of a mountain where human beings under ordinary conditions would not have lived, and eventually brought a new state into existence.
The village of Tonopah sprang into existence as soon as the rush of newcomers to this region began, and in 1903 it contained 4000 inhabitants.
The terms, arranged through the intervention of John, archbishop of Ravenna, were not observed by 1 The great pinewood to the east of the city, which is still one of the great glories of Ravenna, must therefore have been in existence already in the 5th century.
On the 6th of December he protested with three other peers against the measure sent up from the Commons enforcing the disarming of all convicted recusants and taking bail from them to keep the peace; he was the only peer to dissent from the motion declaring the existence of an Irish plot; and though believing in the guilt and voting for the death of Lord Stafford, he interceded, according to his own account, 3 with the king for him as well as for Langhorne and Plunket.
Laplace supposed the existence of a primeval nebula which extended so far out as to fill all the space at present occupied by the planets.
The existence of the parasite is maintained by a vicious interchange between its alternate hosts, mosquitoes and man,.
If the cycle be broken at any point the parasite must die out, assuming that it has no other origin or mode of existence.
Similarly, Spa Road points to the existence of a popular spring and pleasure grounds, maintained for some years at the close of the 18th century.
Imported vases of the second half of the 5th century B.C. prove the existence of trade with Greece at that period; and the town was famous in Aristotle's day for a special breed of fowls.
Between 40,000 and 50,000 species of Diptera are at present known, but these are only a fraction of those actually in existence.
They believed in the existence of two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse, even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and the eating of flesh meat, and many other things.
The existence of reactions which are reversible on slight alteration of conditions at once invalidates the principle, for if the action proceeding in one direction evolves heat, it must absorb heat when proceeding in the reverse direction.
When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
The most magnificent part of the exterior and indeed the finest polychrome monument in existence is the west façade, built of richlysculptured marble from the designs of Lorenzo Maitani of Siena, and divided into three gables with intervening pinnacles, closely resembling the front of Siena cathedral, of which it is a reproduction, with some improvements.
The feeling of national unity between north and south would require historical treatment, the existence of rival monarchies would demand an explanation.
However, Baasha at length seized Ramah about five miles north of Jerusalem, and the very existence of Judah was threatened.
The prophets taught that the national existence of the people was bound up with religious and social conditions; they were in a sense the politicians of the age, and to regard them simply as foretellers of the future is to limit their sphere unduly.
In 1841 an independent reform congregation was founded, and the Spanish and Portuguese Jews have always maintained their separate existence with a IIaham as the ecclesiastical head.
Owing to the existence of a strong Mussulman minority among its inhabitants, the warlike character of the natives, and the mountainous configuration of the country, which enabled a portion of the Christian population to maintain itself in a state of partial independence, the island has constantly been the scene of prolonged and sanguinary struggles in which the numerical superiority of the Christians was counterbalanced by the aid rendered to the Moslems by the Ottoman troops.
The recent excavations by the British School on the site of the Dictaean temple at Palaikastro bear out this conclusion, and an archaic marble head of Apollo found at Eleutherna shows that classical tradition was not at fault in recording the existence of a very early school of Greek sculpture in the island, illustrated by the names of Dipoenos and Scyllis.
The archaeological evidence outside Crete points to the actual existence of Minoan plantations as far afield on one side as Sicily and on the other as the coast of Canaan.
Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
His Journals (3 vols., New York, 1852), apart from their importance as a history of his life work, constitute a valuable commentary on the social and industrial history of the United States during the first forty years of their existence.
They are a despite done to the principle of individual or separate existence.
By Plotinus, on the contrary, the One is explicitly exalted above the vows and the " ideas "; it transcends existence altogether (i rbcava rijs ouaias), and is not.
But in our present state of existence the moments of this ecstatic union must be few and short; " I myself," says Plotinus simply,.
This is the Word or Son of God, in whom all things exist, so far as they have substantial existence.
All existence is a theophany, and as God is the beginning of all things, so also is He the end.
The existence of numerous ancient cisterns shows that in Roman as in modern times rain-water was largely used for lack of springs.
One of these, the Morro Velho mine, belonging to an English company, is not only the deepest gold-mine in existence (over 2000 ft.), but it has been worked since 1725, and since 1835 by its present owners.
Wallace, who first indicated its existence.
A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
The nation hardly came into existence till China and India had passed their prime, and remained secluded and free from the continual struggle against barbarian invaders, which drained the energies of its neighbours.
According to him Barras determined to save the dauphin in order to please Josephine Beauharnais, the future empress, having conceived the idea of using the dauphin's existence as a means of dominating the comte de Provence in the event of a restoration.
But this unduly narrows the scope of Scottish philosophy, which does not exhaust itself, as is sometimes supposed, in uncritically reasserting the independent existence of matter and its immediate presence to mind.
The unit of knowledge is not an isolated impression but a judgment; and in such a judgment is contained, even initially, the reference both to a permanent subject and to a permanent world of thought, and, implied in these, such judgments, for example, as those of existence, substance, cause and effect.
It has been asserted (and denied) that the cellular rod which is known as the "Heart-body" (Herzkorper), and is to be found in the dorsal vessel of many Oligochaeta and Polychaeta, is formed of cells which are continuous with the chloragogen cells, thus implying the existence of apertures of communication with the coelom.
On the other hand, in most Oligochaeta the first segment has in the adult no nephridium, and in the case of Octochaetus the existence of a "head kidney" antedating the subsequently developed nephridia of the first and other segments has neither been seen nor proved to be absent.
Here we must distinguish between the Lancelot proper and the LancelotGuenevere versions; so far as the latter are concerned, we cannot get behind the version of Chretien, - nowhere, prior to the composition of the Chevalier de la Charrette is there any evidence of the existence of such a story.
Here in 1743 Christopher Sauer, one of the sect's first pastors, and a printer by trade, printed the first Bible (a few copies of which are still in existence) published in a European language in America.
The workings of this Will are irrational primarily, but, as in its evolution it becomes more rationalized and understands the whole meaning of the Weltschmerz, it ultimately reaches the point at which the desire for existence is gone.
It was founded by plundering expeditions, and its subsequent existence was tainted by the baseness of this predatory origin.
The French Revolution finally deprived the Order of all its estates, and for a while of its existence.
Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.
As a teacher of legislation he inquires Of all institutions whether their utility justifies their existence.
The time had come for deliberate reconstruction, for inquiring whether the existence of many admitted evils was, as it was said to be, unavoidable; for proving that the needs of society may be classified and provided for by contrivances which shall not clash --?
So early as the 4th century it is mentioned as an established office, and it is probable that it was in existence in the 3rd.
This he finds in the sense we have of our own existence and of what we feel within ourselves.
But Buffier does not claim for these truths of "common sense" the absolute certainty which characterizes the knowledge we have of our own existence or the logical deductions we make from our thoughts; they possess merely the highest probability, and the man who rejects them is to be considered a fool, though he is not guilty of a contradiction.
The colony had no legal existence at the time, but was then incorporated as the "Roman Catholic Religious Society of St Nazianz," and as such sued successfully for the bequest.
He distinguished between knowledge of actual objects and the divine inspiration by which we cognize the being and existence of God.
Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
The chief town of a district of the same name, it owes its existence to the discovery of gold in the Kaap valley, and dates from 1886.
He professed the most open materialism, denied immortality in all forms and taught that the soul of man is homogeneous with the soul of animals and plants, material in origin and incapable of separate existence.
In 1800 the original Farmers' Magazine came into existence under the editorship of Robert Brown of Markle, the author of the well-known treatise on Rural Affairs.
The existence of the root nodules had long been recognized, but hitherto no adequate explanation had been afforded as to their function.
In 1900 the discovery early in the year of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease amongst cattle and sheep shipped from Argentina to the United Kingdom led to the issue of an order by which all British ports were closed against live animals from the country named.
It is compulsory on owners to notify the authorities as to the existence of scab amongst their sheep. By the Diseases of Animals Act (1903) powers to prescribe the dipping of sheep, irrespective of the presence or otherwise of sheep scab, were conferred upon the Board of Agriculture.
It would seem that in his fits of despondency one of the thoughts that marred his dreams of human improvement was the apparently inexorable character of economic laws, condemning thousands of labourers to a cramped and miserable existence, and thousands more to semistarvation.
There is in existence a vast store of accumulated knowledge, and few, if any, departments of economics have been left quite unilluminated by the researches of former generations.
Even in the rural districts, manorial records reveal the existence of a great variety of classes and groups of persons engaged in the performance of economic functions.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
It implies the existence of a well-trained class engaged in the work of collecting information, and much organization both by the state and private bodies.
So that cross-sections of the stream of economic thought will reveal the existence, at different times, in varying proportions and at different stages of development, of most of the modern " schools."
The present town of Milford Haven, originally a hamlet in the parish of Steynton, is of modern growth, and was first called into existence by the exertions of the Hon.
This poem, though rare and little known, is still in existence - the Royal Asiatic Society possessing a copy.
The existence of two renal organs in Patella, and their relation to the pericardium (a portion of the coelom), is important.
Many pieces still in existence are wrongly ascribed to him.; yet it is doubtful whether a single one of them was composed on purpose to deceive.
As a philosophical idealist, however, he transmutes the whole contents of the faith of the church into ideas which bear the mark of Neo-Platonism, and were accordingly recognized by the later Neo-Platonists as Hellenic. 4 In Origen, however, 1 There are, however, extensive fragments of the original in existence.
Drums beat the charge, Murat led the way through the corridors of the palace to the Orangerie, and levelled bayonets ended the existence of the Council.
As for the chambers, based avowedly on universal suffrage, their existence thenceforth was ornamental or sepulchral.
The logical outcome of this proceeding appeared on the 1st of August, when Napoleon declared that he no longer recognized the existence of the Holy Roman Empire.
The foundations and some of the architectural fragments of the temple were still in existence until 1777, when they were used to build the Passionist monastery by Cardinal York.
Independent local developments of art before the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. suggest the early existence of independent units in various parts, of which the strongest was the Cnossian.
His best known work was Die Betooverde Wereld (1691), or The World Bewitched (1695; one volume of an English translation from a French copy), in which he examined critically the phenomena generally ascribed to spiritual agency, and attacked the belief in sorcery and "possession" by the devil, whose very existence he questioned.
How is the existence of this ideal whole to be accounted for?
Only by the existence of some "principle which renders all relations possible and is itself determined by none of them"; an eternal self-consciousness which knows in whole what we know in part.
While, again, legitimately insisting upon personality as a fundamental constituent in any true theory of reality, the relation between human individualities and the divine Person is left vague and obscure; nor is it easy to see how the existence of several individualities - human or divine - in one cosmos is theoretically possible.
The "Life" calls into existence in the visible world a series of three great Helpers, Hibil, Shithil and Anosh (late Judaeo-Babylonian transformations of the well-known names of the book of Genesis), the guardians of souls.
Only two of the volumes are known to be in existence; one is a copy of John of Salisbury's works in the British Museum, and the other some theological treatises by Anselm and others in the Bodleian.
In Orthoptera, Heymons has demonstrated the existence of eleven pairs, the terminal pair becoming, however, soon united with the tenth.
There are other ganglia in addition to those of the ventral chain, and Janet supposes that the ganglia of the sympathetic system indicate the existence of three anterior head-segments; the remains of the segments themselves are, in accordance with this view, to be sought in the XIII.
It is generally considered that this is sufficient as an explanation of the existence of the pupa.
The difference between the nymph or false pupa and the true pupa is that in the latter a whole stage is devoted to the perfecting of the wings and body-wall after the wings have become external organs; the stage is one in which no food is or can be taken, however prolonged may be its existence.
From the Trias of Colorado, Scudder has described cockroaches intermediate between their Carboniferous precursors and their present-day descendants, while the existence of endopterygotous Hexapods is shown by the remains of Coleoptera of several families.
The only doubt arises from the existence of insect remains, referred to the order Coleoptera, in the Silesian Culm of Steinkunzendorf near Reichenbach.
More than this, he seems to be the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called a " type " - though such_a term does not occur in his work; and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera - all this being effected by the skilful use of names.
The existence of these two works explains the widely-spread taste for ornithology in England, which is to foreigners so puzzling, and the zeal - not always according to knowledge, but occasionally reaching to serious study - with which that taste is pursued.
With all this, perhaps on account of all this, L'Herminier's efforts did not 4 Considerable doubts were at that time entertained in Paris as to the existence of the Apteryx.
In the ostrich and its allies no trace of this median centre of ossification ever occurs; but with these exceptions its existence is invariable in all other birds.
God is incomprehensible, and the categories cannot be applied to determine his existence.
The pure form of existence, that by which God is God, must be distinguished from the three persons who are God by participation in this form.
The whole site of Venice is dominated by the existence of one great main canal, the Grand Canal, which, winding through the town in the shape of the letter S, divides it into two equal parts.
It is one of the most magnificent specimens of goldsmiths' and jewellers' work in existence.
Other specimens still in existence are the municipal buildings, Palazzo Loredan and Palazzo Farsetti - if, indeed, these are not to be considered rather as Romanesque - and the splendid Ca' da Mosto, all on the Grand Canal.
It was from Byzantium that the Venetian people received the first recognition of their existence as a separate community.
Resentment was aroused by the establishment of branches of the Bank of the United States at Chillicothe and Cincinnati in 1817, and an attempt was made to tax them out of existence.
The incubus and succubus of the middle ages are sometimes regarded as spiritual beings; but they were held to give very real proof of their bodily existence.
The question of the real existence of incubi and succubi, whom the Romans identified with the fauns, was gravely discussed by the fathers of the church; and in 1484 Innocent III.
Government.-Beyond a recognition of its existence in 1630, when it was renamed, Boston can show no legal incorporation before 1822; although the uncertain boundaries between the powers of colony and township prompted repeated petitions to the legislature for incorporation, beginning as early as 1650.
The date of the Chronicler may be placed about 300 B.C., so Palmyra must have been in existence long before then.
The Unconscious is both Will and Reason and the absolute all-embracing ground of all existence.
This latter is absolute misery, and to cure it the Unconscious evokes its Reason and with its aid creates the best of all possible worlds, which contains the promise of its redemption from actual existence by the emancipation of the Reason from its subjugation to the Will in the conscious reason of the enlightened pessimist.
The town of Kuttenberg owes its origin to the silver mines, the existence of which can be traced back to the first part of the 13th century.
Their success in the struggle for existence, as already indicated, must be assigned in a great measure to the possession of silk glands and to their power of manipulating the silk for a variety of purposes.
Hence as a very general rule the coloration makes for concealment under natural conditions of existence, and the instincts which lead to concealment are very highly developed.
The way was paved for these changes by the existence in Ulster of a local custom having virtually the force of law, which had two main features - fixity of tenure, and free right of sale by the tenant of his interest.
But a verbal lease presents this disadvantage that, if it is unperformed and one of the parties denies its existence, it cannot be proved by witnesses.
Though the association brought about an extension and improvement of the Indian crop, in which result it was enormously assisted by the high prices consequent upon the American Civil War, it sank after a few years into obscurity, and soon passed out of existence altogether, while the effects of its work dwindled finally into insignificance.
When the existence of God is denied (atheism), or His nature is declared unknowable (agnosticism), or He is identified with nature itself (pantheism), or He is so distinguished from the world that His free action is excluded from the course of nature (deism), miracle is necessarily denied.
The existence of physical evil, and still more of moral evil, forbids the assumption without qualification that the real is the rational.
The existence of " a certain amount of positive evidence in favour of miracles " forbids the sweeping statement that miracles are " contrary to experience."
The Christian Church would never have come into existence without faith in the Risen Lord.
Cicero remarks on the existence among the Gauls of augurs or soothsayers, known by the name of Druids, with one of whom, Divitiacus, an Aeduan, he was acquainted.
This lady, now the wife of Eochaid Airem, high-king of Ireland, was in a former existence the beloved of the god Mider, who again seeks her love and carries her off.
Beaten in the war, the Genoese avenged themselves for their defeat by an alliance with the Palaeologi, which led to the loss of Constantinople by the Latins (1261), and to the collapse of the Latin empire after sixty years of infirm and precarious existence.
The most striking feature in the structure of Syria is the existence of long Graben, or narrow depressions formed by faulting.
The brandydrinking habit, which, when the imperial government assumed control of the administration in 1884, threatened the existence of the nation, has been very largely checked.
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.
In accordance with these more sedentary habits during the first phases of life, the characteristic pilidium larva, which is so eminently adapted for a pelagic existence, appears to have been reduced to a close-fitting exterior layer of cells, which is stripped off after the definite body-wall of the Nemertine has similarly originated out of four ingrowths from the primary epiblast.
The existence of a deputy judge of the fleet appointed by the admiralty has been recognized by the king's regulations, but no such officer had been appointed up to 1908.
One of the men to whom Primitive Methodism owes its existence was Hugh Bourne (1772-1852), a millwright of Stoke-upon-Trent.
But it is contended that the work was in existence at Naseby, 1 and testimony to Charles's authorship is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen Charles himself occupied with it at various times during his imprisonment.
It was able to resist Alaric in 410 and to preserve its existence during the general ruin.
Our sole authority for their existence is Philo in his treatise De Vita Contemplativa.
To the modern reader the importance of the Therapeutae, as of the Essenes, lies in the evidence they afford of the existence of the monastic system long before the Christian era.
It is curious that although we possess a certain number of works on alchemy written in Arabic, and also many Latin treatises that profess to be translated from Arabic, yet in no case is the existence known of both the Arabic and the Latin version.
The existence of any third wall was denied by Leake, according to whose theory the southern parallel wall would be identical with the Phaleric. The language of Thucydides, however, seems decisive with regard to the existence of three walls.
Several oxides of ruthenium have been described, the definite existence of some of which appears to be doubtful.
The only question before him now was whether he should join an order, or continue his wandering existence.
Sloth in Langland's poem couples him, as we have seen, with Randle, earl of Chester; and no one doubts this nobleman's existence because he had "rymes" made about him.
He probably meant to imply that qualities have no existence apart from the subject to which they belong.
Diogenes says that he left no writings, and the Eretrian school disappeared after a short and unobtrusive existence.
Krause held that all existence is one great unity, which he called Wesen (Essence).
In Chanda and Deogarh the Gond rajas were suffered by Raghoji Bhonsla and his successor to carry on a shadowy existence for a while, in order to give them an excuse for avoiding the claims of the peshwa as their overlord; though actually decisions in important matters were sought at Poona.
The existence of a fundamental principle, unalterable and indestructible, prevailing alike through physical and chemical changes, was generally accepted.
He established the existence of molecules and atoms as we have defined above, and stated that the number of atoms in the molecule is generally 2, but may be 4, 8, &c. We cannot tell whether his choice of the powers of 2 is accident or design.
Schneider and others, have proved the existence of " colloidal silver "; similar forms of the metals gold, copper, and of the platinum metals have been described.
He established the existence of two new elements, samarium and gadolinium, since investigated more especially by Cleve, to whom most of our knowledge on this subject is due.
In addition to the rare elements mentioned above, there are a score or so more whose existence is doubtful.
He also postulated, with Regnault, the existence of " molecular or mechanical types " containing substances which, although having the same number of equivalents, are essentially different in characters.
True ring systems, which possess the characters of organic nuclei, do not come into existence in threeand four-membered rings, their first appearance being in penta-atomic rings.
The passing of the Food and Drug Acts (1875-1899) in England, and the existence of similar adulteration acts in other countries, have occasioned great progress in the analysis of foods, drugs, &c. For further information on this branch of analytical chemistry, see Adulteration.
Isomorphism may be defined as the existence of two or more different substances in the same crystal form and structure, polymorphism as the existence of the same substance in two or more crystal modifications, and morphotropy (after P. von Groth) as the change in crystal form due to alterations in the molecule of closely (chemically) related substances.
It must further be supposed that the name and the very existence of this genius were totally forgotten in Christian circles fifty years after he wrote.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
They were no doubt expelled or absorbed by the Hittites, but we have the proof of their existence and of the fallacy of the statement that the Semite never crossed the Taurus, in the cuneiform tablets written in their language which have been found near Kaisariyeh and are now being published by various scholars.
Equally interesting are the relation of the Syro-Hittite with the Minoan, and we seem to find in certain objects found in Egypt and Cyprus and dating probably from the 14th to the Toth centuries, proof of the existence of a mixed art of Syrian origin, probably in Cilicia (Alashiya) at that time.
Whether we should deduce from its common occurrence in Babylonia the existence of an Elamite population there in early times, later displaced by the Sumerians, we do not know.
While the existence of such a personage as Gilgamesh may be admitted, he belongs to an age that could only have preserved a dim recollection of his achievements and adventures through oral traditions.
The treaty with the Latins is mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus alone, who had not seen it himself; indeed, it is doubtful whether it was then in existence, and in any case, considering the changes which the language had undergone, it would have been unintelligible.
But there was no end to the Vatican tragedies, and in July the duke of Bisceglie, whose existence was no longer advantageous, was murdered by Cesare's orders; this left Lucrezia free to contract another marriage.
Only about onethird of the whole work, which extended from 1419 to 1474, is known to be in existence, but MSS.
Lauth and other Egyptologists, and have been referred to as the two most ancient maps in existence.
This is the oldest original of a map in existence, for it dates back to the 6th century.
In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.
The remains are principally of Norman date, and an unusual feature of the stronghold is the existence of various subterranean chambers in the rock.
The existence of these Christian elements in the text misled nearly every scholar for the past four hundred years into believing that the book itself was a Christian apocryph.
He censures his brother, Timocrates, who, though professedly Epicurean, maintained the existence of pleasures other than those of the body.
He still retained a small quantum of intuitive beliefs, and did not appear to see that the very existence of these could not be explained by his theory of mental action.
In modern slavery, on the other hand, where the occupations of both parties were industrial, the existence of a servile class only guaranteed for some of them the possibility of self-indulgent ease, whilst it imposed on others the necessity of indigent idleness.
Before that end could be accomplished, an essentially new social situation must come into existence.
This improved the condition of the slave by rendering his existence an object of greater value to his master.
Already at the end of the 7th century it does not appear that the distinction between them had any substantial existence.
Should the evil and the good be equally balanced, the soul passes into an intermediary stage of existence (the Hamestakans of the Pahlavi books) and its final lot is not decided until the last judgment.
He allows himself too easily to be ensnared by the craft of the evil powers who seek to ruin his future existence.
The existence, a few miles beyond the Nepalese frontier, of an inscribed pillar had been known for some years when, in 1895, the discovery of another inscribed pillar at Nigliva, near by, led to the belief that this other, hitherto neglected, one must also be an Asoka pillar, and very probably the one mentioned by Hsuan Tsang.
They believed that Cain derived his existence from the superior power, and Abel from the inferior power, and that in this respect he was the first of a line which included Esau, Korah, the Sodomites and Judas Iscariot.
The relics having been removed, the visits of pilgrims naturally ceased, and by degrees the very existence of those wonderful subterranean cemeteries was forgotten.
A hump on the forehead probably indicates the existence of a large frontal horn.
To profit by individual experience is thus the only criterion we possess of the existence of the conscious experience itself.
Worlds came into existence before the En Soph manifested himself in the human form of emanations, but they could not continue, and necessarily perished because the conditions of development which obtained with the sexual opposites of the Sephiroth did not exist.
The officers of the Church during the first few centuries of its existence were content to officiate in the dress of civil life, though their garments were expected to be scrupulously clean and of decent quality.
The existence of caoutchouc or rubber was first observed soon after the discovery of America.
A later result of this method of investigation was the discovery of a new member of the rare earths, monium or victorium, the spectrum of which is characterized by an isolated group of lines, only to be detected photographically, high up in the ultra-violet; the existence of this body was announced in his presidential address to the British Association at Bristol in 1898.
Through the foramen passes a peduncle, by which the animal is in many species attached to submarine objects during at least a portion of its existence.
Arithmetical groups, connected with the theory of quadratic forms and other branches of the theory of numbers, which are termed "discontinuous," and infinite groups connected with differential forms and equations, came into existence, and also particular linear and higher transformations connected with analysis and geometry.
Hesse showed independently that the general ternary cubic can be reduced, by linear transformation, to the form x3+y3+z3+ 6mxyz, a form which involves 9 independent constants, as should be the case; it must, however, be remarked that the counting of constants is not a sure guide to the existence of a conjectured canonical form.
While agreeing with Albert and Thomas in maintaining the threefold existence of the universals, Duns Scotus attacked the Thomist doctrine of individuation.
As regards the existence (if we may so speak) of the universal in mente, Occam indicates his preference, on the ground of simplicity, for the view which identifies the concept with the actus intelligendi, rather than for that which treats ideas as distinct entities within the mind.
Even the existence and unity of God were to be accepted as articles of faith.
The state-maintained gymnasia are mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches have been in existence for three, or sometimes four, centuries.
Its ready response to the king's heavy demands for the purpose of the national defence points to the existence of a healthy and self-sacrificing public spirit, and the eagerness with which the youth of all classes now began to flock to the foreign universities is another satisfactory feature of the age.
These conditions the diet had no choice but to accept, and, in October 1687, the elective monarchy of Hungary, which had been in existence for nearly seven hundred years, ceased to exist.
Croats, Vlachs, Serbs and Slovaks resented Magyar domination - a domination which had been carefully secured under the revolutionary constitution by a very narrow franchise, and out of the general chaos each race hoped to create for itself a separate national existence.
During the earlier part of its existence the Hungarian academy devoted itself mainly to the scientific development of the language and philological research.
The knowledge of these laws, however, does not imply the existence of a conception of negative quantities.
A notable improvement on the ideas of Diophantus is to be found in the fact that the Hindus recognized the existence of two roots of a quadratic equation, but the negative roots were considered to be inadequate, since no interpretation could be found for them.
The deepest line of cleavage is naturally between the view that episcopacy is a divinely ordained institution essential to the effective existence of a church as a channel of grace, and the view that it is merely a convenient form of church order, evolved as the result of a variety of historical causes, and not necessary to the proper constitution of a church.
The classification of ships into six rates, and into rated and non-rated ships, continued during the existence of the old sailing fleets, with modifications in detail.
In point of international law, its existence may be said to date from Dec. I 1918, when the Prince-Regent Alexander of Serbia formally complied with the invitation of the Yugoslav National Council to assume the regency over the sister provinces also.
Meanwhile the newly constituted " Party of Right," resting upon a narrow Catholic clerical basis, aimed at the reunion of Dalmatia with CroatiaSlavonia in the so-called Triune Kingdom, within whose bounds it affected to deny the very existence of Serbs.
The humiliating secret treaty concluded between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in 1881 had specially pledged the latter to repress any nationalist agitation against the Dual Monarchy, even in respect of that Bosnia for which Serbia had risked her existence four years earlier.
The treason trial which opened at Zagreb in March 1909 pursued the parallel aims of intimidating the Serbs of Croatia, of splitting the new-found unity of Serb and Croat and of proving to the outside world the existence of a dangerous Pan-Serb movement organized from Belgrade inside the monarchy and amply justifying the countermove of annexation.
Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.
Thus comparative anatomy came into existence as a branch of inquiry apart from zoology, and it was only in the latter part of the 19th century that the limitation of the word " zoology " to a knowledge of animals which expressly excludes the consideration of their internal structure was rejected by the general consent of those concerned in the progress of science.
In consequence of this excess of births there is a struggle for existence and a survival of the fittest, and consequently an ever-present necessarily acting selection, which either maintains accurately the form of the species from generation to generation or leads to its modification in correspondence with changes in the surrounding circumstances which have relation to its fitness for success in the struggle for life.
Every variety of form and colour was urgently and absolutely called upon to produce its title to existence either as an active useful agent or as a survival.
The adherence to type, the favourite conception of the transcendental morphologist, was seen to be nothing more than the expression of one of the laws of thremmatology, the persistence of hereditary transmission of ancestral characters, even when they have ceased to be significant or valuable in the struggle for existence, whilst the so-called evidences of design which was supposed to modify the limitations of types assigned to Himself by the Creator were seen to be adaptations due to the selection and intensification by selective breeding of fortuitous congenital variations, which happened to prove more useful than the many thousand other variations which did not survive in the struggle for existence.
Thus not only did Darwin's theory give a new basis to the study of organic 'structure, but, whilst rendering the general theory of organic evolution equally acceptable and Effects of necessary, it explained the existence of low and simple forms of life as survivals of the earliest ancestry of theory more highly complex forms, and revealed the classifications of the systematist as unconscious attempts to construct the genealogical tree or pedigree of plants and animals.
He also made If we remember that by " blood " Aristotle understood " red blood," and that he did not know of the existence of colourless blood, his primary division is not a bad one.
Since on the average only two of the young survive in the struggle for existence to take the place of their two parents, there is a selection out of the ten million young, none of which are exactly alike, and the selection is determined in nature by the survival of the congenital variety which is fittest to the conditions of life.
If a character of much longer standing (certain properties of height, length, breadth, colour, &c.) had not become fixed and congenital after many thousands of successive generations of individuals had developed it in response to environment, but gave place to a new character when new moulding conditions operated on an individual (Lamarck's first law), why should we suppose that the new character is likely to become fixed and transmitted by mere heredity after a much shorter time of existence in response to environmental stimulus ?
An interesting exception to the general rule that full brightness requires the existence of the first zone occurs when the obstacle assumes the form of a small circular disk parallel to the plane of the incident waves.
Herodotus mentions the existence of this class, called Enarees, and says that they suffer from a sacred disease owing to the wrath of the goddess of Ascalon whose shrine they had plundered.
No one of these works is now known to be in existence; the only example we possess of Zarlino's compositions on a grand scale is a MS. mass for four voices, in the library of the Philharmonic Lyceum at Bologna.
Palo Alto was laid out in 1891, but had no real existence before 1893.
But against this explanation of the heading ry;p' 2 there is an almost insuperable objection; for, since both the first and second books contain psalms with this heading, it is clear that the " Chief Musician's - or Director's - Psalter " must have been in existence before either of these books; in which case, apart from the difficulty of the antiquity which we should be compelled to assign to this earliest Psalter, it is impossible to understand on what principle the first book of Psalms was formed.
Since, then, the existence of separate books of psalms anterior to the present divisions of the Psalter is very doubtful, we must look for other evidences of date.
We have, unfortunately, no information as to the origin of synagogues, but their existence in pre-Maccabaean times may be inferred not only from the statement in Ps.
Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been relegated to the Karroo formation.
If at this stage of their existence the real ambition of the Transvaal Boers was to found a strong and compact republican state, their conduct in opposing a scheme of union with the Orange Free State was foolish to a degree.
It is true that laws prohibiting slavery were in existence, but the Boer who periodically took up arms against his own appointed government was not likely to be, nor was he, restrained by laws.
Gold digging had hitherto enjoyed in the Transvaal but a precarious existence.
In 1883 the discovery of Moodie's Reef near the Kaap Valley led to a considerable influx of diggers and prospectors from the colonies and Europe, and by 1884 the Sheba Mine had been opened up, and Barberton, with a population of 5000 inhabitants, sprung into existence.
The existence of the inter-colonial council hampered, however, the freedom of the Transvaal government, and steps were taken to determine it.
In the ordinary course of nature, all living matter proceeds from pre-existing living matter, a portion of the latter being detached and acquiring an independent existence.
The difference in technical methods and the historical evolution of teaching posts (for in all civilized countries the progress of biological knowledge has been very closely associated with the existence of institutions for the diffusion of knowledge and for professional education) have been the chief contributory causes to this practical confusion.
But practical necessity has given rise to the existence of many other divisions; see CYTOLOGY, for the structure of cells; EMBRYOLOGY, for the development of individual organisms; HEREDITY and REPRODUCTION, for the relations between parents and offspring.
Of this group of people, among whom may be named the Yao, Yao Yin, Lanten, Meo, Musur (or Muhso) and Kaw, perhaps the best known and most like the Lao are the Lu - both names meaning originally "man" - who have in many cases adopted a form of Buddhism (flavoured strongly by their natural respect for local spirits as well as tattooing) and other relatively civilized customs, and have forsaken their wandering life among the hills for a more settled village existence.
Apart from the collection of literature ascribed to him and Merswin there is no historical evidence of his existence.
We know but little of Isaiah's predecessors and models in the prophetic art (it were fanaticism to exclude the element of human preparation); but certainly even the acknowledged prophecies of Isaiah (and much more the disputed ones) could no more have come into existence suddenly and without warning than the masterpieces of Shakespeare.
The existence of a tradition in the last three centuries before Christ as to the authorship of any book is (to those acquainted with the habits of thought of that age) of but little critical moment; the Sopherim, i.e.
Apparently they were at first arranged in a series of anniversaries separate from that of the martyrs, as seems to be shown by the existence at Rome of the Depositio episcoporum side by side with the Depositio martyrum; the two lists seem to have been combined, as in the calendar of Carthage, which includes the dies nataliciorum martyrum et depositiones episcoporum.
No such difficulty occurs in regard to the weights and measures; it is generally agreed that a system was already in existence in the time of Pheidon, into which he introduced certain changes.
Here he unsuccessfully applied for a situation as communal secretary of Verolengo, and eked out a penurious existence by journalism.
The Brahma Samaj maintained a bare existence till 1841, when Babu Debendra Nath Tagore, a member of a famous and wealthy Calcutta family, devoted himself to it.
The I pomedon was written somewhere in the decade 1180-1190, and there is no evidence of the prose romance having then been in existence.
The name of the island, Ortygia (6prv, a quail), has, again, been held to point to the possible existence of an Aetolian settlement on the island before Archias came.
There is, on the other hand, no conclusive evidence for the previous existence of a ' Strabo goes on to say that Archias fell in with certain men who had come from the Sicilian Megara, and took them with him to share in his enterprise.
The process continues but is checked by the existence of the rock barrier which stretches across the Semliki.
In the fourth book he discusses the Epicurean doctrine of the images, which are cast from all bodies, and which act either on the senses or immediately on the mind, in dreams or waking visions, as affording the explanation of the belief in the continued existence of the spirits of the departed.
Little is known of him, and Timaeus even doubted his existence, but it is now generally agreed that this is an error.
The slighting references to it by the Christian fathers are no more an argument against its existence in the primitive church than the similar denunciations by the Jewish prophets of burnt-offerings and sacrifices are any proof that there were no such rites as the offering of incense, and of the blood of bulls and fat of rams, in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem.
From the east two main roads similarly converge upon the City, which they enter by Aldgate (the suffix in this and other names indicating the former existence of one of the City gates).
Other names pointing to the existence of pastimes now extinct are found elsewhere in London, as in Balls Pond Road, Islington, where in the 17th century was a proprietary pond for the sport of duck-hunting.
The northern, western and eastern outskirts and London south of the Thames are extensively served by trams. On the formation of the London County Council there were thirteen tramway companies in existence.
At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.
In 1870, however, a School Board had been created in addition, and this body carried out much good work during its thirty-four years of existence.
This market was in existence before 1411 when it came into the possession of the City.
This commission issued an interim report in 1888 (the final report did not appear until 1891), which disclosed the inefficiency of the board in certain respects, and also indicated the existence of corruption.
It brought into existence the twenty-eight Metropolitan boroughs enumerated at the outset of this article.
The arrangements of quarter-sessions, justices, coroners, sheriffs, &c., were thus brought into line with other counties, except in so far as the ordinary organization is modified by the existence of the central criminal court, the metropolitan police, police courts and magistrates, and a paid chairman of quarter-sessions.
As to the Temple of Diana, Sir Christopher Wren formed an opinion strongly adverse to the old tradition of its existence (Parentalia, p. 266).
In answer to this contention it may be said that, although the silence of the Chronicle is difficult to understand, it is almost impossible to believe that the very existence of the most important city in the country could suddenly cease and the inhabitants disappear without some special notice.