Only his profile existed in her quest.
No awkwardness existed today.
Life existed at a scale smaller than the eye could see.
Or maybe that kind of excitement existed only in newfound relationships.
Something about the way she smiled up at him, as though no one else existed... and the way she watched him when she thought he wasn't aware she was looking.
This office existed in the German kingdom of Otto the Great, and about this time it appears to have become an appanage of the archbishopric of Mainz.
She had no idea that such an elaborate system existed for the lower class.
She had no idea that such an elaborate system existed for the lower class.
Not even a path had existed here when she lived in the area five years ago.
He had awakened a desire in her that she never knew existed – never thought about before now.
He was one of those medical prodigies that mentally existed on a level too removed for most people to follow.
In Achaea, this central hall was called the Lefton (town-hall), and a similar building is known to have existed at Elis.
Never would she have guessed such a lavish home existed in these rustic mountains.
Without one, she had existed in a state of sentience without feeling, a world of permanent grey.
Both school and almshouse had existed before, and this was merely an additional endowment.
I never knew she existed until a day ago, and I'm only now learning how awful of a person she was.
I never knew she existed until a day ago, and I'm only now learning how awful of a person she was.
The possibility hadn't existed before the trip to the underworld.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.
The most intricate and stringent rules existed as to marriage within and without the totemic inter-marrying classes.
in 1553 The electors consisted of an indefinite number of freemen, about 50 in all, indirectly nominated by the mayor and corporation, which existed by prescription.
in 1553 The electors consisted of an indefinite number of freemen, about 50 in all, indirectly nominated by the mayor and corporation, which existed by prescription.
It has existed in France since the 17th century.
That dreadful question, "What for?" which had formerly destroyed all his mental edifices, no longer existed for him.
I'll better his total before I die and they'll not know I ever existed... unless someone sees me in their crystal ball.
His pointed teeth rested on his lower lip, his dark eyes displaying the intelligence of a being that existed from the time-before-time.
I didn't even know you existed back then.
Assume I never knew this underworld existed before a little over a week ago.
It was early September, and he felt no more beautiful place existed than New England in the fall.
I know it was selfish, but I felt emotions I never believed existed and I didn't want them to end… Things started to snowball from there.
Perhaps when it came to Elisabeth, there existed a higher standard.
Similar customs seem to have existed among the Italian races.
Amongst the Romans, private hospitality, which had existed from the earliest times, was more accurately and legally defined than amongst the Greeks.
"Glovers" of Horsham are mentioned in a patent roll of 1485, and a brewery existed here in the time of Queen Anne.
Cartwright and Edmund Snape were ministers there; and from 1576 to 1625 a completely appointed Presbyterian Church existed, under the rule of synods, and authorized by the governor.
The name is generally applied not only to the order of Ku Klux Klan, but to other similar societies that existed at the same time, such as the Knights of the White Camelia, a larger order than the Klan; the White Brotherhood; the White League; Pale Faces; Constitutional Union Guards; Black Cavalry; White Rose; The '76 Association; and hundreds of smaller societies that sprang up in the South after the Civil War.
The common law as it existed before his time was wholly inadequate to cope with the new cases and customs which arose with the increasing development of commerce.
Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.
No remains, and of course no living species, of these tortoises are known to exist or have existed on the mainland.
Attitude of Jesus.--So far, therefore, as the Sabbath existed for any end outside itself it was an institution to help every Jew to learn the law, and from this point of view it is.
No remains, and of course no living species, of these tortoises are known to exist or have existed on the mainland.
As recently as the early twentieth century, relatively few careers existed in which young men of drive and ambition could distinguish themselves and leave a mark on the world.
The very question that had formerly tormented him, the thing he had continually sought to find--the aim of life--no longer existed for him now.
He was the remaining pillar of the foundation of the reality that existed before her trip to the beach.
Pierre smiled, Natasha began to laugh, but Nicholas knitted his brows still more and began proving to Pierre that there was no prospect of any great change and that all the danger he spoke of existed only in his imagination.
Like two bull Elk, they were each so focused on pushing the other back that they had forgotten anyone else existed.
At least he hadn't lied about the house... if it was actually his, and if the mother and daughter existed.
Nothing existed around her during that time but numbness.
The summer you two came up here, I had a major crush on my handsome California cousin but you were seven years older than me and didn't know I existed.
Betsy was frustrated; anxious to learn if the town of Alder's Bridge existed.
Think how much worse you'd feel if the town you visualized really existed.
I didn't mean to but she's a great person and she makes me have feelings I didn't know existed.
No, he was quick to say, it didn't come from any "psychic foolishness" which he didn't believe existed.
We've denied, honestly, we have no information or knowledge whatsoever and frankly, we weren't sure such a person existed.
How would he even know Julie existed?
She had chosen him partly for his ability to assume control while keeping everyone's best interest in mind... and partly because he aroused a passion she never knew existed.
Carmen didn't even know it existed.
He never thought twice about searching the rooms for something he didn't know existed.
How long have you existed?
Like his sisters and advisors, he was losing faith that his nishani existed.
No other option existed.
She elicited emotions he never felt capable of, never thought existed.
How would Nota get Mrs. Glass's number or even know Cleary even existed?
Even Josh had said something to indicate a relationship between the two of them existed.
Love and desire – was there actually a difference between the two when the first existed?
He was headed down his own path, that of the Grey God, a creature that never existed before him.
I've heard about the Grey God that existed long ago.
The Grey God existed for a very short time, and he was supposed to balance out the two worlds.
Why do you think the Grey God existed and then was killed?
We didn't know another existed.
That was when Carmen saw a side of him she didn't know existed.
Reverting to jeans and T-shirt for working was an obvious change, but the change inside gave her a peace she had forgotten existed.
Jenn texted him earlier to let him know his condo no longer existed.
These were lands over which, in distinction front the other feudal lands, rights of pasture, cutting of wood, &c. &c., existed.
The staff officers bore similar titles, relics of the time when the order existed only for amusement: Genii, Hydras, Furies, Goblins, Night Hawks, Magi, Monks and Turks.
Four points are clear: (i) the Australians represent a distinct race; (2) they have no kinsfolk among the neighbouring races; (3) they have occupied the continent for a very long period; (4) it would seem that the Tasmanians must represent a still earlier occupation of Australia, perhaps before the Bass Strait existed.
Large stretches of marsh occur on each side of this river, as well as here and there among the hills where inland lakes formerly existed, as, for instance, near Bandung.
The pulpit (mimbar) bears an inscription showing that the building existed in 1018.
In Roman times a small town called Icosium existed on what is now the marine quarter of the city.
Roman cemeteries existed near the rues Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun.
Of the forty-four churches, all in the circular Abyssinian style, which are said to have formerly existed in Gondar or its immediate neighbourhood, Major Powell-Cotton found only one intact in woo.
But the city, as a superficial inspection of the site shows, must have existed as a settlement long before Omri, as potsherds of earlier date lie scattered on the surface.
The telephone system is considerably developed; in 1904, 92 urban and 66 inter - urban systems existed.
Coast roads of minor importance as means of through communication also existed on both sides of the toe of the boot.
The mass of the people remained unrepresented in the government; and even if the consuls existed in the days of Heribert, they were but humble legal officers, transacting business for their constituents in the courts of the bishop and his viscount.
Brigand- age had always existed in the Neapolitan kingdom, largely me rand- owing to the poverty of the people; but the evil was now Wa:
Still, one would not dispute whether God existed; but what he was - that was the hard question.
Sorau is said to have existed in 840, and to have belonged to the abbey of Fulda till the 12th century.
The university, founded in 1473, existed until 17 9 7.
Thus he does not account for the fact that organic beings - which have always existed as preformations (in the case of animals as animaux spermatiques) - come to be developed under given conditions.
Nothing really new is produced in the living world, but the germs which develop have existed since the beginning of things; and nothing really dies, but, when what we call death takes place, the living thing shrinks back into its germ state.3 et celle des especes.
In regard to " clerks," there was (1) all the criminal jurisdiction which existed over laymen, and (2) criminal jurisdiction in regard to professional misconduct.
(1) If it represents a type of syncretism as definite as that known to have existed in the developed gnostic systems of the 2nd century, it is inconceivable that Paul should have passed it by as easily as he did.
The chemists and druggists, recognizing that no institution for the systematic education and examination of chemists and druggists existed in England, and that no proof could be given that each individual possessed the necessary qualifications, decided that this objection must be met, and that pharmacy must be placed upon a more scientific footing.
The church of the Holy Trinity occupies the site of a Saxon monastery, which existed before 691, when the bishop of Worcester received it in exchange from Ethelred, king of Mercia.
Without going so far as to assert that Orpheus is a hypostasis of Dionysus, there is no doubt that a close connexion existed between them from very early times.
It does not appear, however, that a regularly organized or numerous Orphic sect ever existed, nor that Orphism ever became popular; it was too abstract, too full of symbolism.
And one essentially similar but adapted to slightly cooler conditions existed as far north as the latitude of Greenland.
In the new world no southern barriers existed and it is more difficult to draw the line between contiguous sub-regions.
The oak in turn has been almost superseded in Denmark by the beech, which, if we may trust Julius Caesar, had not reached Britain in his time, though it existed there in the pre-glacial period, but is not native in either Scotland or Ireland.
It is certain that they originally existed under warmer conditions of climate than now obtain, and that progressive refrigeration.
The result was a more accurate map of China than existed, at that time, of any country in Europe.
The key to the distribution of recent groups lies in that of the extinct forms. Not only have many absolutely new families been discovered, but many kinds of modern birds are now known to have existed also in countries which they are now extinct.
French, as a separate tongue from Latin, already existed as a literary speech, and no people had done more than the Normans to spread it as a literary speech, in both prose and verse.
Yet nobility, in some shape or another, has existed in most places and times of the world's history, while the British peerage is an institution purely local, and one which has actually hindered the existence of a nobility in the sense which the word bears in most other countries.
This definition seems to take in all the kinds of nobility which have existed in different times and places.
Where they existed, as in Switzerland, they have been overthrown.
Even the modified form of absolute monarchy which has existed in some Western countries, while it preserves, perhaps even strengthens, the social position of a nobility, destroys its political power.
And even in a democratic commonwealth the sentiment of nobility may exist, though all legal privilege has been abolished or has never existed.
The office was revived by Napoleon I., was abolished in 1830, and again created by Napoleon III.; it existed till 1870.
These had existed for a long time side by side, without knowing anything of each other, but when they perceived each other, the Light had only looked and then turned away; but the Darkness, seized with desire for the Light, had made itself master, not indeed of the Light itself, but only of its reflection (species, color).
Politically the Maoris have always been democratic. No approach to a monarchy ever existed.
While they had no written language, a considerable oral literature of songs, legends and traditions existed.
Ritual flagellation existed among the Jews, and, according to Buxtorf (Synagoga judaica, Basel, 1603), was one of the ceremonies of the day of the Great Pardon.
Manufacturing industry in the modern sense can hardly be said to have existed in Russia ' See Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, in English (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1901).
The middle classes, which were making other countries rich and powerful, existed only in an embryonic condition.
The Metropolitan and Metropolitan District railways followed the art of railway building as it existed at the time they were laid out.
Three main forms of human sacrifice existed in this area: (I) the scapegoat; (2) the messenger; and (3) the expiation, but combinations were not infrequent.
Between Roberval and Descartes there existed a feeling of ill - will, owing to the jealousy aroused in the mind of the former by the criticism which Descartes offered to some of the methods employed by him and by Pierre de Fermat; and this led him to criticize and oppose the analytical methods which Descartes introduced into geometry about this time.
That in early pre-Mosaic times parallel cults existed among the various Hebrew tribes is by no means improbable.
How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.
That larger conceptions prevailed in some of the loftier minds of Israel, and may be held to have existed even as far back as the age of Moses, is a fact which the Yahwistic cosmogony in Gen.
Levites, existed, to whom a higher professional prestige belonged.
Such drainage as had at one time existed was allowed to get choked up, giving rise to typhoid fever of a virulent type.
3), cotton grass, a statue of Jupiter carved out of cypress is stated by Pliny to have existed 600 years without showing signs of decay.
21 f.) has left us a description of the town as it existed in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the agora, the Acropolis, the island of Cranae (Marathonisi) where Paris celebrated his nuptials with Helen, the Migonium or precinct of Aphrodite Migonitis (occupied by the modern town of Marathonisi or Gythium), and the hill Larysium (Koumaro) rising above it.
The famous pineto or pinewood of Ravenna, which already existed in Odoacer's time, and has been sung by poets since Dante, lies some 5 m.
Having regard to the military importance of Arretium during the Punic wars, it is difficult to believe that no direct road existed to this point before 187 B.C.
The site was known, and some scanty ruins still existed, in the time of Eusebius and Jerome (Onomast., s.v.
Portions of the abbey buildings, including the Lady chapel of the church, now converted into a dwelling-house, are incoporated in those of Sherborne grammar school, founded (although a school existed previously) by Edward VI.
The Reformation made no break in the continuity of the school, which had probably existed in the abbey since the 11th century.
But many of the laws were quite unsuitable for the circumstances of his age, and the belief that a body of intricate and even contradictory legislation was imposed suddenly upon a people newly emerged from bondage in Egypt raises insurmountable objections, and underestimates the fact that legal usage existed in the earliest stages of society, and therefore in pre-Mosaic times.
The priests existed to offer sacrifices, and by the Law no sacrifice could be offered except at the Temple of Jerusalem.
Harwich (Herewica, Herewyck) cannot be shown to have been inhabited very early, although in the 18th century remains of a camp, possibly Roman, existed there.
In 1893, however, Arthur Evans observed some signs on scripMinot,an seal-stones from Crete which led him to believe that a hieroglyphic system of writing had existed in Minoan times.
It thus appears that a highly developed system of writing existed in Minoan Crete some two thousand years earlier than the first introduction under Phoenician influence of Greek letters.
There is evidence that the use in Crete of both linear and pictorial signs existed in the Early Minoan period, contemporary with the first Egyptian dynasties.
There was a Roman camp near Lymington (Lentune, Lementon), and Roman relics have been found, but there is no evidence that a town existed here until after the Conquest.
Between the islands of the Malay archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea, and the neighbouring Asiatic continent, no definite relations appear ever to have existed, and no distinctly marked boundary for Asia has been established by the old geographers in this quarter.
At the least there is no doubt that the genital funnels are developed precisely where the nephridial funnels formerly existed.
This scheme got noised abroad, and was ruined by a decree of the Assembly of the 7th of November 1789, that no member of the Assembly could become a minister; this decree destroyed any chance of that necessary harmony between the ministry and the majority of the representatives of the nation which existed in England, and so at once overthrew Mirabeau's hopes.
The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.
The rapid and amazing success of the Mahratta confederation rendered it the largest Hindu power that ever existed in India.
Though this society, the earliest probably in the United Kingdom, soon counted upwards of 300 members, it existed little more than 20 years.
Firdousi's own education eminently qualified him for the gigantic task which he subsequently undertook, for he was profoundly versed in the Arabic language arid 1'itefature and had also studied deeply the Pahlavi or Old Persian, and was conversant with the ancient historical records which existed in that tongue.
The entire poem (which only existed in MS. up to the beginning of the 19th century) was published (1831-1868) with a French translation in a magnificent folio edition, at the expense of the French government, by the learned and indefatigable Julius von Mohl.
This fact led Cuvier erroneously to the belief that a duct existed leading from the gonad to this papilla.
As in other Gastropoda Anisopleura, this shell-sac may abnormally develop a plug of chitinous matter, but normally it flattens out and disappears, whilst the cap-like rudiment of the permanent shell is shed out from the dome-like surface of the visceral hump, in the centre of which the shell-sac existed for a brief period.
What makes Origen's answer so instructive is that it shows how close an affinity existed between Celsus and himself in their fundamental philosophical and theological presuppositions.
Either as a soldier or a merchant, he found his way to Jerusalem, where a hospice had for some time existed for the convenience of those who wished to visit the holy places.
The early castle, which existed before 1086, was important during the civil wars of Stephen's reign; in 1142 Robert, earl of Gloucester, on his departure for France, committed it to his son's charge.
the bionomic nature of metamorphosis, and to what extent it existed in primitive insects.
Endopterygota - of insects of the present epoch are descended from the predominant - if not the sole - group that existed in the Palaeozoic epoch, viz.
For in the post-embryonic development of the ancestors of the Endopterygota we may imagine two or three instars with wing-rudiments to have existed, the last represented by the sub-imago of the may-flies.
This latter order, which is not certainly known to have existed before Tertiary times, has become the most highly specialized of all insects in the structure of the pupa.
Geoffroy here maintained that the five centres of ossification existed in the duck just as in the fowl, and that the real difference of the process lay in the period at which they made their appearance, a circumstance which, though virtually proved by the preparations Cuvier had used, had been by him overlooked or misinterpreted.
Considering the extent of their materials, which was limited to the bodies of such animals as they could obtain from dealers and the several menageries that then existed in or near London, the progress made in what has since proved to be the right direction is very wonderful.
Henceforward it was to be the serious study of the workings of nature in producing the beings we see around us from beings more or less unlike them, that had existed in bygone ages and had been the parents of a varied and varying offspring - our fellow-creatures of to-day.
conflict always existed.
Its effect was to remove from Athens for a period of ten years any person who threatened the harmony and tranquillity of the body politic. A similar device existed at various times in Argos, Miletus, Syracuse and Megara, but in these cities it appears to have been introduced under Athenian influence.
Gladbach existed before the time of Charlemagne, and a Benedictine monastery was founded near it in 793.
A pier existed before 1500, but by the reign of Henry VIII.
As the chief seat of the worship of Ptah, the artisan god (Hephaestus), Memphis must have existed from a very remote time.
The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.
Rivalry had already existed between Stilicho and Rufinus, the praetorian praefect of the East, who had exercised considerable influence over the emperor and who now was invested with the guardianship of Arcadius.
It is interesting to find that a rude pipe-line formerly existed in this field for conveying the crude oil from the wells to the river; this was made of bamboos, but it is said that the loss by leakage was so great as to lead to its immediate abandonment on completion.
If there was thus only a customary and unwritten law (and William of Tyre definitely speaks of a jus consuetudinarium under Baldwin III., quo regnum regebatur), then the "Letters of the Sepulchre" are a myth - or rather, if they ever existed, they existed not as a code of written law, but, perhaps, as a register of fiefs, like the Sicilian Defetarii.
To the crusading king of I The manorial system in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was a continuation of the village system as it had existed under the Arabs.
Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland.
It has been suggested that their separation did not take place until after the continent which once existed in the north Pacific had become submerged, and that the Malays wandered northward, while the Polynesian race spread itself over the islands of the southern archipelago.
While the Essenes were confined to Palestine or its near neighbourhood, the Therapeutae, we are told, existed in many parts of the world, but especially in Egypt.
The idea of transmutation, in the country of its origin, had a philosophical basis, and was linked up with the Greek theories of matter there current; thus, by supplying a central philosophical principle, it to some extent unified and focussed chemical effort, which previously, so far as it existed at all, had been expended on acquiring empirical acquaintance with a mass of disconnected technical processes.
There is strong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are contrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between native Canaanite cult and Israelite worship are so striking that only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of Moses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh worship existed from his day.
There is an obvious difficulty in assuming that Xlyvat, in the sense of " marshes," existed in this confined area, but stagnant pools may still be seen here in winter.
D6rpfeld's identification of the Dionysium, Ev Xt pvats cannot be regarded as proved; his view that another Pythium and another Olympieum existed in this neighbourhood is still less probable; but the inconclusiveness of these theories does not necessarily invalidate his identification of the Enneacrunus, with regard to the position of which the language of Thucydides is far from clear.
Selmeczbanya is an old town whose mines existed in the 8th century.
The general state of the island when the Japanese assumed possession was that the plain of Giran on the eastern coast and the hill-districts were inhabited by semibarbarous folk, the western plains by Chinese of a degraded type, and that between the two there existed a traditional and continuous feud, leading to mutual displays of merciless and murderous violence.
Until the German occupation nothing but an insignificant village existed at Dar-es-Salaam.
But after a time, as the power of the emperors increased and their jurisdiction extended till the senate existed only in form and name, this distinction virtually ceased.
The bishop's second failure to obtain this dignity was due, doubtless, to his irregular and unclerical manner of life, a fact which also accounts, in part at least, for the hostility which existed between his victorious rival, Archbishop Peckham, and himself.
Considerable uncertainty existed as to the atomic weights of these metals, the values obtained by Berzelius being doubtful.
The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay Lussac and Davy.
At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds.
The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades.
By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.
The bodies (or so much of them as ever existed, as only the fore parts remained) were hammered and wrought, like the bodies of the Egyptian figures.
As treasurer of the navy in 1758 he introduced and carried a bill which established a less unfair system of paying the wages of the seamen than had existed before.
EASTERN BULGARIA, formerly a powerful kingdom which existed from the 5th to the 15th century on the middle Volga, in the present territory of the provinces of Samara, Simbirsk, Saratov and N.
It is related that, during the performance of one of his plays, the scaffolding of the wooden stage gave way, in consequence of which the Athenians built a theatre of stone; but recent excavations make it doubtful whether a stone theatre existed in Athens at so early a date.
There is not now the sharp distinction which formerly existed between Friends and other non-sacerdotal evangelical bodies; these have, in theory at least, largely accepted the spiritual message of Quakerism.
Quakerism was preached in Scotland; very soon after its rise in England; but in the north and south of Scotland there existed, independently of and before this, preaching, groups of persons who were dissatisfied with the national form of worship and who met together in silence fordevotion.
One account says that it was caused by a broken bridge which delayed the Conqueror's advance to the north, but this is known to have been at Ferrybridge, three miles away; a second says that the new name was derived from a Norman town called Pontfrete, which, however, never existed; and a third that it was caused by the breaking of a bridge in 1153 on the arrival of the archbishop of York, St William,.
The worst form of such praedial slavery existed in Sicily, whither Mommsen supposes that its peculiarly harsh features had been brought by the Carthaginians.
These obligations existed also in the case of freedmen of the state, of cities, temples and corporations.
Accordingly during 1858 a committee was created in nearly every province in which serfdom existed.
The doctrine of Zoroaster and the Zoroastrian Church may be summarized somewhat as follows: At the beginning of things there existed the two spirits who represented good and evil (Yasna, 30, 3).
This first Sephirah, this spiritual substance which existed in the En Soph from all eternity, contained nine other intelligences or Sephiroth.
Numerous ruins, an amphitheatre, still recognizable, a theatre, a temple of Augustus, &c., existed in the 16th century, and have been since used for building material.
The depths of the Black Sea are lifeless, higher organic life not being known to exist below loo fathoms. Fossiliferous remains of Dreissena, Cardium and other molluscs have, however, been dredged up, which help to show that conditions formerly existed in the Black Sea similar to those that exist at the present day in the Caspian Sea.
Personal liberty, liberty of conscience, speech, assembly, petition, association, press, liberty of movement and security of home, were without real guarantee even within the extremely small limits in which they nominally existed.
Among the larger private establishments there existed in the same year seven breweries, one brandy distillery, two jam, two soap and candle factories, two building and furniture works, a factory for spinning thread, one iron and steel works, one paper and one ammonia and soda factory, and one mineral-oil refinery.
The revenues produced by the customs duties for the five years1905-1906to1909-1910are as follows: Finance Preliminary Sketch.-From the outset of their history the Osmanli Turks adapted to their own needs most of the political, economic and administrative institutions which existed before them.
The ceded revenues administered directly by the public debt council have shown remarkable expansion, and may be fairly looked upon as exemplifying what would occur in the general revenues of the empire when good and honest administration and regular payment of officials finally took the place of the carelessness, corruption and irregularity which existed up to the change of regime.
Shortly before, a revolutionary attack by an Armenian band on the Ottoman bank r at Constantinople brought about a general massacre of Armenians in the capital (where a widespread revolutionary organization undoubtedly existed), in which at least 3000 victims fell, and the persecution of Armenians became the order of the day.
On an account roll of Framlingham Castle of 1324 there is an entry of "rent received from the borough," also of "rent from those living outside the borough," and in all probability burghal rights had existed at a much earlier date, when the town had grown into some importance under the shelter of the castle.
This last-named place existed in Roman times.
The Welsh form of the name, Caerdydd (pronounced Caerdeeth, with the accent on the second syllable) suggests that the name means "the fort of (Aulus ?) Didius," rather than Caer Daf ("the fortress on the Taff"), which is nowhere found (except in Leland), though Caer Dyv once existed as a variant.
In the 10th century Buddhism, which had existed for centuries in Cambodia, began to become powerful and to rival Brahmanism, the official religion.
There is evidence that, towards the close of the mediaeval period, great storms and tidal inundations occurred on the shores of the North Sea and Baltic, and in the course of these floods, culminating in 1297, the Zuider Zee was formed from a lake that existed in its neighbourhood, by the breaking down of dykes.
These divisions are, however, unsatisfactory, as the fauna relied on as characteristic must have existed synchronously.
Bury has shown that both Tirechan and Muirchu drew from written material which existed in part at any rate in Irish.
In 1895 C. Tanret showed that glucose existed in more than.
In May the Democratic convention, the first held by that party, had nominated him for vice-president on the Jackson ticket, notwithstanding the strong opposition to him which existed in many states.
A market on Saturday existed at least as early as 1255, and in 1608 is described as well stocked with provisions.
Salmon are known to have existed at Maidenhead so recently as 1812, but they disappeared soon after that date.
Chinon (CaIno) existed before the Roman occupation of Gaul, and was from early times an important fortress.
A monastery existed here in the 8th century, of which St Aldhelm was abbot at the time of his being made bishop of Sherborne in A.D.
The geological sequence of events appears to have been the following: - After the deposition of the Eocene (or Oligocene) limestone - which reposes upon a floor of basalts and trachytes - basalts and basic tuffs were ejected, over which, during a period of very slow depression, orbitoidal limestones of Miocene age - which seem to make up the great mass of the island - were deposited; then elapsed a long period of rest, during which the atoll condition existed and the guano deposit was formed; from then down to the present time there has succeeded a series of sea-level subsidences, resulting in the formation of the terraces and the accummulation of the detritus now seen on the first inland cliff, the old submarine slope of the island.
The reptiles (tortoises) are also nearly allied to the Mascarenes and Madagascar species which once existed.
Once established in Rio de Janeiro, the government of the regent was directed to the creation of an administrative machinery for the dominions that remained to him as it existed in Portugal.
Virtually, this was a republican government like that of the United States, for no difference existed in the mode of election of the regent from that of a president.
renounced the alliance which had long existed between the Capets and the house of Rollo.
Cardinal Granvella, who was a native of the city, became archbishop in 1584, and founded a university which existed until the French Revolution.
There already existed a short line from the Point at Durban to the Umgeni, and on the 1st of January 1876 Sir Henry Bulwer, who had succeeded Wolseley as governor, turned the first sod of a new state-owned railway which was completed as far as Maritzburg in 1880.
In this way, however, though the distinctions drawn may still be comparatively vague, there existed in the schools a Peripatetic tradition to set over against the Neoplatonic influence of John the Scot, and amongst the earliest remains of Scholastic thought we find this tradition asserting itself somewhat vigorously.
But, since those universals, so far as they are called genera and species, cannot be perceived by any one in their purity without the admixture of imagination, Plato maintained that they existed and could be beheld beyond the things of sense, to wit, in the divine mind.
Moritz Cantor has suggested that at one time there existed two schools, one in sympathy with the Greeks, the other with the Hindus; and that, although the writings of the latter were first studied, they were rapidly discarded for the more perspicuous Grecian methods, so that, among the later Arabian writers, the Indian methods were practically forgotten and their mathematics became essentially Greek in character.
A fantastic and elaborate doctrine of symbolism existed which comprised all nature; witchcraft, alchemy and medicine were its practical expressions.
No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.
A church in her honour existed in Rome from about the 4th century, and was rebuilt with much splendour by Pope Paschal I.
From 1738 to 1776 Marylebone Gardens (which had existed under other names from the close of the 17th century) became one of the most favoured evening resorts in London.
A friend has written to the author that for we ought perhaps to read already existed in their place in our Psalter, or that Ps.
even existed in its present form.
Such a district we may find in southern Galilee, " the land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali," apparently the only portion of Palestine north of Samaria where the worshippers of Jehovah existed in any considerable numbers.
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
They also ascertained that a trade between the Kaffirs and the Portuguese at Delagoa Bay already existed.
In 1856 a series of public meetings, summoned by Pretorius, was held at different districts in the Transvaal for the purpose of discussing and deciding whether the time had not arrived for substituting a strong central government in place of the petty district governments which had hitherto existed.
In reviewing an incident so important in the history of the Transvaal as the appointment of the Potchefstroom assembly it is of interest to note the gist of the complaint among the Boers which led to this revolution in the government of the country as it had previously existed.
Education, as need hardly be said, was in the 'sixties at a very low ebb, and nothing approaching the standard of a high school existed.
At the various churches such elementary schools as existed were to be found, but they did not profess to teach more than a smattering of the three " R's " and the principles of Christianity.
Add to this condition of things the fact that the Zulus were threatening the Transvaal on its southern border, and the picture of utter collapse which existed in the state is complete.
A public debt of £215,000 existed, and government contractors were left unpaid.
That many of them refused payment in the circumstances which existed was natural.
The plan of campaign which found favour with the Boers, when they determined to put their differences with Great Britain to the test by the ordeal of the sword, was to attack all the principal British towns adjacent to their own borders; at the same time to despatch a field army of the necessary dimensions to invade and reduce Natal, where the largest British garrison existed.
There could be only one reply, and on Wednesday, the 11th of October 1899, at five o'clock p.m., a state of war existed between the British government and the two Boer republics.
In either case, the addition of molecules to those which already existed takes place, not at the surface of the living mass, but by interposition between the existing molecules of the latter.
14 suggests that "schools" or companies "of the prophets" existed in the southern kingdom).
It is now known to have existed in Aramaic as far back as the 5th century B.C., appearing on Jewish papyri which were lately discovered by the German mission to Elephantine.'
An identical rite existed among the 12th century Cathars, and in the Celtic church of Gildas every presbyter was a Peter.
A fortress, called Sheppey Castle, is said to have existed from an early period for guarding the passage of the Swale river.
In the hills to the west of Syracuse many Sicel villages must have existed; cemeteries of the second and third period have been found at Pantalica 15 m.
The two systems appear to have existed side by side, but to have been distinct, and if they were ever united it must have been before the times of which we have any record.
Diagnosis, or recognition of the disease, must have been necessarily imperfect, when no scientific nosology or system of disease existed, and the knowledge of anatomy was quite inadequate to allow of a precise determination of the seat of disease; but symptoms were no doubt observed and interpreted skilfully.
Though the glory of Salerno had departed, the school actually existed till it was finally dissolved by an edict of the emperor Napoleon I.
At the same time, through the rise of the universities, medical learning was much more widely diffused, and the first definite forward movement was seen in the school of Montpellier, where a medical faculty existed early in the 12th century, afterwards united with faculties of law and philosophy.
The name and church existed in the time of Richard I., when the priory of Burscough was founded.
Ever after his exit from the Bastille in April 1718 he was known as Arouet de Voltaire, or simply Voltaire, though legally he never abandoned his patronymic. The origin of the famous name has been much debated, and attempts have been made to show that it actually existed in the Daumart pedigree or in some territorial designation.
As regards the generation of electric energy, by pointing out defects of design in the dynamo as it existed about 1878, and showing.
p. 885), suppose that the portion of the coast road from Vada Volaterrana to Genua at least must have existed before the construction of the Via Postumia in 148 B.C. Indeed Polybius (iii.
Apart from the City an interesting ecclesiastical survival is the name Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, recalling the place of sanctuary which long survived the monastery under the protection of which it originally existed.
A market for horses and cattle existed here at least as early as the time of Henry II.
Outside the City itself a system of local government can hardly be said to have existed.
What became of the cathedral which we may suppose to have existed in London during the later Roman period we cannot tell, but we may guess that it was destroyed by the heathen Saxons.
The Mitre in Fleet Street, so intimately associated with Dr Johnson, also existed at this time.
Saarbrucken owes its name to a bridge which existed in Roman times.
It is true that many conditions existed in Egypt favourable to the development of the craft.
The Wei dynasty, to which Tsaou-tsaou belonged, reigned in northern China, and at this day a considerable manufacture of glass is carried on at Po-shan-hien in Shantung, which it would seem has existed for a long period.
His tomb was situated by the side of the Roman road, where rose the priory of St-Denis-de-l'Estree, which existed until the, 8th century.
Leobschiitz existed in the 10th century, and from 1524 to 1623 was the capital of the principality of Jagerndorf.
In the sense that they already existed and came ready-made to the prince's hand, it is legitimate to speak of these customs as a popular law, a Volksrecht; but it was the prince who gave them force of law, emended them, and rejected such of the ancient usages as appeared to him antiquated.
It existed as a town as early as the 11th century, and in 1259 it was sold by the abbot of Fulda to the bishop of Minden, afterwards passing under the protection of the dukes of Brunswick.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
The honour paid to her in Delphi and Delos might be explained as part of the cult of her son Apollo; but temples to her existed in Argos; in Mantineia and in Xanthus in Lycia; her sacred grove was on the coast of Crete.
They had both long existed in the private, not public, relations of the Romans, and they had up to this time shown no tendency to grow.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
They drew from it their titles and ranks and many of their regulative ideas, though these were formed into more definite and regular systems than ever existed in feudalism proper.
It is certainly not impossible that a Christian Saxon, sufficiently educated to read Latin easily, may have chosen to follow the calling of a stop or minstrel instead of entering the priesthood or the cloister; and if such a person existed, it would be natural that he should be selected by the emperor to execute his design.
In the south of Arabia, where an advanced civilization existed for centuries before the Christian era, the ruins of castles and city-walls are still in existence, and have been mentioned, though not examined carefully, by several travellers.
The connexion of Saba with the north, where the Nabataeans had existed from about zoo B.C., was now broken.
Hommel, maintaining that their kingdom existed prior to that of Saba, probably from about 1500 B.C. or earlier until the Sabaeans came from their home in the north and conquered them in the 9th century.
pp. 109 seq., Giessen, 1902), that none of the inscriptions are earlier than about 800 B.C. and that the Minaean kingdom existed side by side with the Sabaean.
It is enough here to mention that such existed, and that it was not indigenous.
On the whole, the historical evidence indicates that in Spain, when it first became known to the Greeks and Romans there existed many separate and variously civilized tribes connected by at least apparent identity of race, and by similarity (but not identity) of language, and sufficiently distinguished by their general characteristics from Phoenicians, Romans and Celts.
who contended that there existed once a single great Iberian people, speaking a distinct language of their own; that an essentially " Iberian " population was to be found in Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, in southern France, and even in the British Isles; and that the Basques of the present day were remnants of this race, which had elsewhere been expelled or absorbed.
Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.
The episcopal see is first mentioned in 452, but probably existed a century earlier.
The agreement between Chile and Bolivia, by which the disputed provinces were to be handed over to the latter country if Chilean possession was recognized, was also a stumbling-block, a strong feeling existed among Peruvians against this proceeding.
That St Catherine actually existed there is, indeed, no evidence to disprove; and it is possible that some of the elements in her legend are due to confusion with the story of Hypatia, the neo-platonic philosopher of Alexandria, who was done to death by a Christian mob.
Such nymphaea existed at Corinth, Antioch and Constantinople; the remains of some twenty have been found at Rome and of many in Africa.
It is remarkable on account of the colony of insane persons which has existed there for many centuries.
and is said to have existed since the 13th century.
The worship of these heroes is in reality an ancestor worship, which existed in pre-Homeric times, and was preserved in local cults.
385; but the name of the village which then existed (Praef.
Of the sixty-four mosques which existed at the period of the French conquest, several have disappeared.
Gladstone found that purchase existed only by royal sanction, and advised the queen to issue a royal warrant cancelling, on and after the 1st of November following, all regulations authorizing the purchase of commissions.
Barton appears in Domesday, when the ferry over the Humber existed.
At the base is a thermal spring, where baths have existed since the 7th century.
Iwleanwhile an inquirer is confronted by the strange fact that of three neighboring countries between which frequent communication existed, one (China) never deviated from an ideographic script; another (Korea) invented an alphabet, and the third (Japan) devised a syllabary.
720 speaks of historiographers having been appointed to collect local records for the first time in 403, from which it is to be inferred that such officials had already existed at the court.
The latters magnum opus, Kojikiden (Exposition of the Record of Ancient Matters), declared by Chamberlain to be perhaps the most admirable work of which Japanese erudition can boast, consists of 44 large volumes, devoted to elucidating the Kojiki and resuscitating the ShintO cult as it existed in the earliest days.
~ Europe, can scarcely be said to have existed at a any time in Japan.
Pottery was certainly manufactured from an early date, and there is evi dence that kilns existed in some fifteen provinces in the 10th century.
In the eyes of a Chinese connoisseur, no blue-and-white porcelain worthy of consideration exists, or ever has existed, except the kai-pien-yao, with its imponderable pdle, its wax-like surface, and its rich, glowing blue, entirely free from superficiality or garishness and broken into a thousand tints by the microscopic crackle of the glaze.
Communications.From the conditions actually existing in the 8th century after the Christian era the first compilers of Japanese history inferred the conditions which might Roads and have existed in the 7th century before that era.
Members of the group have existed in both east and west hemispheres since the beginning of the Miocene period; but in America they all became extinct before the end of the Pliocene period, and in the Old World their distribution has become greatly restricted.
The logic of Ramus enjoyed a great celebrity for a time, and there existed a school of Ramists boasting numerous adherents in France, Germany and Holland.
Hocker, and existed down to 1790.
The Repertorium der gesammten deutschen Literatur, established by Gersdorf in 1834, and known after 1843 as the Leipziger Repertorium der deutschen and ausleindischen Literatur, existed to 1860.
It was an attempt to provide a more accurate rendering of the Greek Bible than had hitherto existed in Syriac, and obtained recognition among the Monophysites until superseded by the still more literal renderings of the Old Testament by Paul of Tella and of the New Testament by Thomas of Harkel (both in 616-617), of which the latter at least was based on the work of Philoxenus.
Germersheim existed as a Roman stronghold under the name of Vicus Julius.
Many other populous and wealthy towns existed in this region at the time of the Arab conquest of Ferghana.
The germs of an indigenous literature had existed at an early period in Rome and in the country districts of Italy, and they have an importance as indicating natural wants in the Italian race, which were ultimately satisfied by regular literary forms. The art of writing was first employed in the service of the state and of religion for books of ritual, treaties with other states, the laws of the Twelve Tables and the like.
Although literature had not as yet become a trade or profession, an educated reading public already existed, and books and intellectual intercourse filled a large part of the leisure of men actively engaged in affairs.
Nor was he anxious to maintain the connexion between philosophy and medicine which had for long existed in a confused and confusing fashion.'
The lines which existed under the old Russian Empire were converted by the Germans during their occupation from Russian 5-ft.
The oracle at Delphi was asserted by tradition to have existed before the introduction of the Apolline worship and to have belonged to the goddess Earth (Ge or Gaia).
high, contain assembly and reading rooms. Of the schools the most notable is the Academy (rebuilt in 1880), which in 1764 superseded the grammar school of the burgh, which existed in the 13th century.
Recent discoveries have made it practically certain that there existed, prior to the extant romances, a collection of short episodic poems, devoted to the glorification of Arthur's famous nephew and his immediate kin (his brother Ghaeris, or Gareth, and his son Guinglain), the authorship of which was attributed to a Welshman, Bleheris; fragments of this collection have been preserved to us alike in the first continuation of Chretien de Troyes Perceval, due to Wauchier de Denain, and in our vernacular Gawain poems. Among these "Bleheris" poems was one dealing with Gawain's adventures at the Grail castle,where the Grail is represented as non-Christian, and present s features strongly reminiscent of the ancient Nature mysteries.
In Carthage there existed down to the year 400 a sect called Tertullianists; and in their survival we have a striking testimony to the influence of the great Carthaginian teacher.
There can be little doubt that the Targums existed for a long time in oral form.
Yet it is impossible to hold that the Targum of Onkelos was the only representative of Targum tradition that existed among the Jews down to the 7th century A.D., the period to which the internal evidence compels us to assign the Targum Jerushalmi as used by the Fragmentary Targum and the pseudo-Jonathan.
We must rather assume that a tolerably fixed Targum tradition existed in Palestine from quite early times.
He criticizes Harnack's theory that there existed in the East, that is, in Asia Minor, or in Asia Minor and Syria as far back as the beginning of the 2nd century, a Christological instruction (uiOmua) organically related to the second article of the Roman Creed, and formulas which taught that the " One God " was " Creator of heaven and earth," and referred to the holy prophetic spirit, and lasted on till they influenced the course of creed-development in the 4th century.
3836, saec. viii., which quoted clauses 27-34, 36-40), seemed to him to represent the component parts of the creed as they existed separately.
According to tradition, a nunnery to which the manor belonged existed here before the Conquest, and Earl Godwin, by bringing about its dissolution, obtained the manor.
The older one, which still existed in Roman times, was backed up against the temple hill, which was cut away to make room for it.
There is evidence to show that it existed in Britain before, during and after the glacial period.
It took the place of an institution which, under various names, had existed since 1797.
This failed for several reasons, the foremost being that the language was not Arabic but Phoenician, and because professors and teachers, whose personal ascendancy was based on the official prominence of Italian, did not realize that educational institutions existed for the rising generation rather than to provide salaries for alien teachers and men behind the times.
Those that have been mentioned seem to have been sanctuaries (some of them in part dwelling-places), but Halsaflieni was an enormous ossuary, of which others may have existed in other parts of the island; for the numerous rock-cut tombs which are everywhere to be seen belong to the Phoenician and Roman periods.
Although drinkable, the water of the lake seems at times at least to be very slightly brackish, and it was supposed by some that no outlet existed until, in 1874, Lieutenant Cameron showed that the surplus water was discharged towards the upper Congo by the Lukuga river, about the middle of the west coast.
The spade of the discoverer soon showed that all the fabled glories of the ancient Assyrian capital were founded on realities, and evidence was afforded of a state of civilization and culture such as few men supposed to have existed on the earth before the Golden Age of Greece.
It chanced that there existed on the polished surface of a cliff at Behistun in western Persia a tri-lingual inscription which, according to Diodorus, had been made by Queen Semiramis of Nineveh, but which, as is now known, was really the work of King Darius.
Until corroboration was found in the Egyptian inscriptions themselves, not only were Manetho's lists in doubt, but scepticism had been carried to the point of denying that Manetho himself had ever existed.
Paley, even went so far as to doubt whether a single written copy of the Iliad existed in Greece at the time of the Peloponnesian War.
But the excavations that have given us a knowledge of the Mycenaean Age have proved conclusively, not alone that civilization existed in Greece in an early day, but that this civilization was closely linked with the civilization of Egypt.
This monarch had retired from Thebes and established his court on the site now known as Tel el-Amarna, where he founded the city which existed only during the brief period of thirty years ending with the death of the monarch about 1370 B.C. The date of the documents found in the royal library is, therefore, fixed within very narrow limits.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
But two questions remain to be settled - (1) did her accusers at one time possess another version of this letter which if it existed was beyond doubt a forgery ?
In Ifli, the central portion, formerly existed the town of Sagilmasa, founded by Miknasa Berbers in 757 B.C. It was on the direct caravan route from the Niger to Tangier, and attained a considerable degree of prosperity.
Vieta, however, did not accept it, as there existed a solution by means of the rule and the compass only, which he published himself in his Apollonius Gallus (1600).
(X 8.) have existed since the Early U, ulna; R, radius; c, cuneiform; Eocene period.
The confidence which existed between Trajan and his army finds expression in some of the coins of his reign.
The foundations were confiscated by Pertinax, after they had existed less than a century.
It was certainly wise if the means existed which were necessary to carry it out and sustain it.
From what remains of Machiavelli's official letters, and from his tract upon the Modo the tenne it duca Valentino per ammazzar Vitellozzo Vitelli, we are able to appreciate the actual relations which existed between the two men, and the growth in Machiavelli's mind of a political ideal based upon his study of the duke's character.
The duties of his office obliged him to study the conditions of military service as they then existed in Italy.
Bad feeling had existed for some time between Charles and Carloman, and when Charles early in 769 was called upon to suppress a rising in Aquitaine, his brother refused to afford him any assistance.
Adrian, between whom and the Lombards other causes of quarrel existed, refused to assent to this demand, and when Desiderius invaded the papal territories he appealed to the Frankish king for help. Charles, who was at the moment engaged in his first Saxon campaign, expostulated with Desiderius; but when such mild measures proved useless he led his forces across the Alps in 773.
At the beginning of the 13th century there existed a tour des pairs which exercised judicial functions and dated possibly from the 11th century, but their prerogatives at the beginning of the 14th century appear to have been mainly ceremonial and decorative.
A priory of friars of the Holy Trinity was founded at Hounslow in 1296, and existed till the dissolution of the monasteries.
Constance owes its fame, not to the Roman station that existed here, but to the fact that it was a bishop's see from the 6th century (when it was transferred hither from Vindonissa, near Brugg, in the Aargau) till its suppression in 1821, after having been secularized in 1803 and having lost, in 1814-1815, its Swiss portions.
Thus it was that a great South Land appeared on the maps, the belief in the prodigious extension of which certainly received a severe shock by Abel Tasman's voyage of circumnavigation, but was only overthrown after Cook's great voyages had proved that any southern land which existed could not extend appreciably beyond the polar circle.
Like the Arabian logicians, and some of the scholastics, who held that ideas existed in a threefold form - ante res, in rebus and post res - he laid down the principle that the archetypal ideas existed metaphysically in the ultimate unity or intelligence, physically in the world of things, and logically in signs, symbols or notions.
Indeed, there still existed on the statute a provision that "Masters and Bachelors who did not follow Aristotle faithfully were liable to a fine of five shillings for every point of divergence, and for every fault committed against the logic of the Organon."
The only conqueror whose career suits in time and approximates in circumstances is the founder of Kara-Khitai, which existed as a great empire in Central Asia during the latter two-thirds of the 13th century.
Apparently no real tradition existed among the Eastern Christians of such a personage; the myth had taken shape from the clouds of rumour as they rolled westward from Asia.
(3) Is it established that a plot and conspiracy has existed tending to kindle civil war within the republic, by arming the citizens against one another ?
24), gives as the reason for the journey the fact that differences existed between Asia and Rome "with regard to certain things" and especially about the time of the Easter festival.
Scholars were not agreed whether any Greek original really existed; but all doubt on the point was removed by the discovery of a fragment in Greek amongst the papyri found by B.
His investigations had led him to see that a certain affinity or resemblance existed amongst many of the authorities for the Greek text - MSS., versions, and ecclesiastical writers; that if a peculiar reading, e.g., was found in one of these, it was generally found also in the other members of the same class; and this general relationship seemed to point ultimately to a common origin for all the authorities which presented such peculiarities.
All these meanings existed and exist, especially "bureau, tribunal," "book of poems" and "seat" 1; but the order of derivation may have been slightly different.
Mantineia is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships, but in early Greek times existed only as a cluster of villages inhabited by a purely agricultural community.
Attempts to estimate the width of the gulf separating the Church of England in Elizabeth's time from the corresponding institution as it existed in the early years of her father's reign are likely to be gravely affected by personal bias.
Public worship was permitted everywhere where it had existed in 1596-1597, in two places within each bailliage and senechaussee, and in the châteaux of the Protestant nobility, with slight restrictions in the case of lower nobility.
Massachusetts led, about 1850, in the founding of town and city libraries supported by public taxes, and by 1880 had established more of such institutions than existed in all other states combined.
The place existed in Roman times and is mentioned in the itinerary of Antoninus.
That any such people as the Wilten existed there is little evidence, but Wiltaburg (or variants of it) occurs in chronicles as late as the 12th century, and it is still preserved in the name Wildenburg, given to a Roman camp near the city.
As the result of their missionary enterprises the Benedictines penetrated into all these lands and established monasteries, so that by the 10th or 1 1th century Benedictine houses existed in great numbers throughout the whole of Latin Christendom except Ireland.
No iron tools existed in America before the invasion of the whites.
Stone-cutters' tools of metal are not known to have existed, and they were not needed.
No pottery existed in Athapascan boundaries.
The forming of bird skins, rabbit skins and feathers into robes, and all basketry technic, existed from Vancouver Island to Central America.
In northern Mexico net-work, rude lace-work in twine, are followed farther south, where finer material existed, by figured weaving of most intricate type and pattern; warps were crossed and wrapped, wefts were omitted and texture changed, so as to produce marvellous effects upon the surface.
Ethnol.) Bandelier declares that in Mexico existed neither state nor nation, nor political society of any kind, but tribes representing dialects, and autonomous in matters of government, and forming confederacies for the purposes of self-defence and conquest.
If it means the capture of men, and especially of women, and adoption into the tribe, this existed everywhere; but if subjection to a personal owner, who may compel service, sell or put to death the individual, slavery was far from universal.
(2) That there existed more than one self or soul or shade in any one of these personalities, and these shades had the power not only to go away, but to transform their bodily tenements at will; a bird, by raising its head, could become a man; the latter, by going on all fours, could become a deer.
The town is said to have existed so early as the 9th century.
The castle probably existed in pre-Saxon times.
We have no ground for thinking that the second part ever existed independently as a separate book.
The distinction between public and private Lares existed from early times.
But in a city ruled by a tyrant this outlet was wanting; no political life worthy of the name existed.
Formerly these beautiful antelopes existed in countless numbers on the plains of South Africa, and were in the habit of migrating in droves which completely filled entire valleys.
The town, which existed in the middle of the 13th century, was burnt down in 1864 during the assault by the Prussians upon the Diippler trenches.
If their character was approved they were taught during the winter months, when work was slack, for a space of three or four years; after that they were sent for two years to serve as menial assistants at a nunnery for women, which curiously enough existed in a recess of the valleys.
There are also traces of the division of the lands in the immediate vicinity of the town into squares by parallel paths (decumani and cardines) at regular intervals of 1111 - Roman feet, postulating as the basis of the division a square with a side of 10,000 Roman feet, divided into 81 smaller squares - an arrangement which could not have existed at Puteoli, and must have arisen elsewhere.
His chapel (which still existed in Leland's time) was a place of pilgrimage in the middle ages.
How far back in prehistoric times this system has been practised it is impossible to say, but in China it is said to have existed 3000 years before Christ,' and in Greek literature it is treated even in the most ancient writings as well-known belief.
In Mexico 11 mints formerly existed, but one only, in the city of Mexico, remained open in 1907.
Secondly, a medium now existed for drawing closer the bonds between English and American Congregationalists.
That was the supreme desire, but no effective means of enforcing it existed.
A church existed in the 13th century.
The Logos existed before creation and time; was with the very God and was God; and all things were made through Him.
A sign for uv also probably existed, but does not occur in the known inscriptions.
" The ground for the charge was probably the lack of idolatry in all Christian worship. Spinoza, for whom God alone existed, was persecuted as an atheist.
The hopelessly vicious policemen hated him, but no man ever had a stronger personal hold upon the great body of the honest officers - a hold which existed long after he left the police department, and was frequently expressed by members of the force as he passed through the city streets.
Feudalism had a phraseology to express the varieties of fiefs which existed under it; modern international law has no generally-accepted terminology for the still greater variety of states which now exist.
According to the theory expounded in the Federalist, the individual states did not, after the formation of the constitution, remain completely sovereign: they were left in possession of certain attributes of sovereignty, while others were lodged in the Federal government; while there existed many states, there was but one sovereign.
Even if the origin was a compact or contract, after the "United States" were formed by a "constitutional act" there no longer existed a mere contractual relation: there existed a state to which all were subject, and which all must obey (von Stengel, Staatenbund and Bundesstaat; Jahrbuch fiir Gesetzgebung, 1898, p. 754; Cooley, Principles of Constitutional Law, pp. 21, 102).
39) put an end to the power to revoke the authority of a particular arbitrator after the reference to him had been made a rule of court; and - a liability which existed also under the act of 9 and io Will.
Side by side with the State administration certain Crown territory administrations also existed in the 17 Crown territories, carried on by selected honorary officials, having under them a staff of professional officials.
Side by side with these existed private schools.
17 recognized the Czechoslovaks as an allied nation; to which the Austrian Government replied with the declaration that no such state existed, but only individual traitors.
And in the other states of Europe there existed, more or less, a similar desire for peace and an equal dread of a fresh outbreak of revolutionary violence.
Remains of all the principal buildings erected by Herod existed down to the end of the 19th century; the ruins were much injured by a colony of Bosnians established here in 1884.
The queen opened her first parliament in person, and in a well-written speech, which she read with much feeling, adverted to her youth and to the necessity which existed for her being guided by enlightened advisers.
In his time orthodoxy at once generous and intelligent hardly existed in France.
The remaining four, Borowast Lest, Estre Lest, Limowast Lest and Wiwart Lest, existed at least as early as the 9th century, and were apparently named from their administrative centres, Burgwara (the burg being Canterbury), Eastre, Lymne and Wye, all of which were meeting places of the Kentish Council.
The five modern lathes (Aylesford, St Augustine, Scray, Sheppey and Sutton-at-Hone) all existed in the time of Edward I., with the additional lathe of Bedding, which was absorbed before the next reign in that of St Augustine.
Thread-making at Maidstone and silk-weaving at Canterbury existed in the 16th century, and before 1590 one of the first paper-mills in England was set up at Dartford.
This was the population of the separate borough of Stoke-upon-Trent (area, 1882 acres) which existed until 1910.
From the early 17th century, if not earlier, porcelain and earthenware manufactories existed at Stoke-upon-Trent, but they remained unnoticed until in 1686 Dr Plot wrote his survey of Stafford- ' shire.
It is true that state training schools for male nurses had previously existed in Prussia, the oldest having been founded at Magdeburg in 1799; but the employment of men in hospital wards is a feature of the German system which has not been copied by other advanced countries, and seems to be in process of abandonment in Germany.
Extensive irrigation works existed in Shwebo district, but they fell into disrepair in King Thibaw's time.
A perfect set of signs was copied in 1764 from a pagoda at Verdapettah near Cape Comorin, and one equally complete existed at the same period on the ceiling of a temple near Mindurah 9 The hieroglyphs representing the signs of the zodiac in astronomical works are found in manuscripts of about the 10th century, but in carvings not until the 15th or 16th.
It is quite certain that from the 3rd century onward there existed in the Eastern Church an order of women, known as deaconesses, who filled a position analogous to that of deacons.
Whether deaconesses, in the later sense of the term, existed before 250 is a disputed point.
On the whole the evidence does not seem sufficient to prove the contention that an order of deaconesses - in the ecclesiastical sense of the term - existed from the apostolic age.
This was especially the case at universities, where medical schools existed.
Gardens also early existed at Florence and Bologna.
That servitude existed in many forms all over the archipelago, but among the most curious must be reckoned the pandelingschap or "pledgedom," which originated in Borneo, and according to which a man had the power to make his debtors his serfs until their debts were paid.
In the charter of 1387 we hear only of the conseil general (composed of all male heads of families) which acted as the legislature, and elected annually the executive of 4 syndics; no, doubt this form of rule existed earlier than 1387.
The belief in the unity of the entire Church had existed from the beginning.
No means, however, existed of enforcing any remedy until the papal schism occurred in 1378.
Such ministers orpriests existed in all the great religions of ancient civilization.
The close inter-relation which existed in primitive society between magic, priesthood and kingship has been indicated by Frazer in his Early History of the Kingship. His remarks throw some light on the early character of priesthood as well as kingship. " When once a special class of sorcerers has been segregated from the community and entrusted by it with the discharge of duties on which the public safety and welfare are believed to depend, these men gradually rise to wealth and power till their leaders blossom out into sacred kings."
In point of fact some form of revelation or oracle appears to have existed in every great shrine of Canaan and Syria,' and the importance of this element in the cultus may be measured from the fact that at Hierapolis it was the charge of the chief priest, just as in the Levitical legislation.
That at least the greater offices were hereditary - as in the case of the sons of Zadok, who succeeded to the royal priesthood in Jerusalem after the fall of Abiathar - was almost a matter of course as society was then constituted, but there is not the slightest trace of an hereditary hierarchy officiating by divine right, such as existed after the exile.
As no such hierarchy existed in the West, it is plain that if the idea of Christian priesthood was influenced by living institutions as well as by the Old Testament that influence must be sought in the East (cf.
That any writings of Sanchuniathon ever existed it is impossible to say.
A duty was reimposed on sugar, chiefly as a means of securing needed revenue, but at a less rate than had existed before 1890.
The archetype of this section existed independently in Greek; for the second Latin and the Slavonic Versions presuppose an independent circulation of their Greek archetype in western and Slavonic countries.
established there the parlement of Provence which existed till 1789.
"The natives added that, in times long past, they received the tradition 'that very large birds had existed, but the scarcity of food, as well as the easy method of entrapping them, had caused their extermination."
Still more unequivocal was the sceptical nihilism expressed by Gorgias: - (I) nothing exists; (2) if anything existed, it would be unknowable; (3) if anything existed and were knowable, the knowledge of it could not be communicated.
This absolute scepticism, indeed, can hardly be regarded as more than empty words; the position which they would indicate is not one which has ever existed.
Worst of all, there existed no recognized authority in the land to curb and control its jarring centrifugal political elements.
Unlike the people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of Ancient Writers.
The island was colonized at an early date by Phoenicians, attracted probably by its gold mines; they founded a temple of Heracles, which still existed in the time of Herodotus.
As Anna Comnena, in describing the capture of the town (Tic 'Ioavvcva) by Bohemond in 1082, speaks of the walls as being dilapidated, it may be supposed that the place existed before the Ilth century.
The Bavarian clergy invited Bishop Loos of the Jansenist Church in Holland, which for more than 150 years had existed independent of the Papacy and had adopted the name of "Old Catholic," to hold confirmations in Bavaria.
A senatus-consulte of 1863 laid the basis for the change in the land system by providing (I) for the delimitation of the territory of each tribe, (2) for the repartition of the territory thus delimited among newly formed tribal divisions (douars or communes), and (3) for the recognition of private ownership by the issue of title deeds for such individual or family property (melk) as already existed.
These three beys existed till 1830.
Mehler, who proved that a simple relation existed between the function of zero order and the zonal harmonic of order n.
This has been due in part to the removal of conditions unfavourable to the critical study of the evidence that existed, in part to the discovery in recent times of fresh evidence.
And after the establishment of the monarchy, though the conditions for an accurate chronology now existed, errors by some means or other found their way into the figures; so that the dates, as we now have them, are in many cases at fault by as much as two to three decades of years.
With this purpose in view, he not only notes carefully the length of the reign of each king in both kingdoms, but also (as long as the northern kingdom existed) brings the history of the two kingdoms into relation with one another by equating the commencement of each reign in either kingdom with the year of the reign of the contemporary king in the other kingdom.
The reasons which converge upon the conclusion just expressed as to the origin and nature of the fundamental documents worked up in our present Synoptic Gospels are as follows: (i.) The literary analysis of the Synoptic Gospels brings out a number of sections common to Matthew and Luke which probably at one time existed as an independent document.
There are many indications early in the 2nd century of a tendency towards the recognition of a single Gospel; for instance, there are the local Gospels according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians; Marcion had but one Gospel, St Luke, the Valentinians preferred St John and so on; Tatian reduced the Four Gospels to one by means of a Harmony, and it is possible that something of the kind may have existed before he did this.
He seems to have taken as the basis of his work the European version as it existed in his time, perhaps best represented by cod.
The editions of Mill (1707) and of Wetstein (1751) proved once for all that variations in the text, many of them serious, had existed from the earliest times.
Their juntas acted to some extent in common; and although no written federal pact is known to have existed, they employed, as the symbol of their unity, a seal with the word Iruracbat, " The Three One," engraved upon it.
Accordingly we lack the materials for determining the distinction which probably existed between the roeh, the hozeh and the kosem.
Johns (Interpreter, April 1 9 06, "The Prophets of Babylonia") thinks that longer discourses moral, and predictive, fully equal to those of the Hebrew prophets, existed in Babylonia as early as the 3rd millennium B.C. but were curtailed into the brief sentences of the omen tablets.
Until recently it was impossible to form any distinct idea of the Christian prophets in the post-apostolic age, not so much from want of materials as because what evidence existed was not sufficiently clear and connected.
After the beginning of the 3rd century there were still no doubt men under the control of the hierarchy who experienced the prophetic ecstasy, or clerics like Cyprian who professed to have received special directions from God; but prophets by vocation no longer existed and these sporadic utterances were in no sense placed on a level with the contents of the sacred Scriptures.
But we are now able to prove that it was an independent system -- (1) by its not ranging usually over 200 grains in Egypt before it passed to Greece; (2) by its earliest example, perhaps before the 224 unit existed, not being over 208; and (3) by there being no intermediate linking on of this to the Phoenician unit in the large number of Egyptian weights, nor in the Ptolemaic coinage, in which both standards are used.
The office of master of the horse existed down to the reign of Louis XVI.
At one time (according to Mustoxidi, Delle cose corciresi) the tradition prevailed that the traitor's house and country villa existed in the island, and that his descendants were to be found among the local Jews.
All these efforts at reconciliation show how clearly the problem of evil was realized in these Gnostic and half-Gnostic sects, and how deeply they meditated on the subject; it was not altogether without reason that in the ranks of its opponents Gnosticism was judged to have arisen out of the question, 7r60ev TO KaK6P; This dualism had not its origin in Hellenic soil, neither is it related to that dualism which to a certain extent existed also in late Greek religion.
1), we meet with the man who existed before the world, the prophet who goes through the world in various forms, and finally reveals himself in Christ.
And it was openly maintained that the Soter only existed for the Gnostic, the Saviour Jesus who appeared on earth only for the " Psychicus " (Irenaeus i.
Through its syncretic origin Gnosticism introduced for the first time into Christianity a whole mass of sacramental, mystical ideas, which had hitherto existed in it only in its earliest phases.
No proper statistical basis for estimating the quotas existed, and the device gave each state a plausible reason for attempting secession on occasion.
A good deal of discontent existed Juarez President...
Apart from these more or less complete versions of separate books of the Bible, there existed also numerous renderings of the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments, accounts of the Life, Passion and Resurrection of our Lord, translations of the ' H.
Stephanus' Greek-Latin New Testament (4th ed., 1551), whereas these divisions already existed in the Hebrew Old Testament.
There is no really trustworthy evidence as to her ever having existed, but tradition has.
Among educational institutions, the grammar school existed in the 16th century, and in 1663 received a charter of incorporation from Charles II.
The church of St Mary existed at a very early period, but the present building, chiefly of brick, was erected in 1535 by Robert Thorne, a merchant, and Sir George Monoux, lord mayor of London, and has undergone frequent alteration.
But hallucinatory figures, both in dreams and waking life, are not necessarily those of the living; from the reappearance of dead friends or enemies primitive man was inevitably led to the belief that there existed an incorporeal part of man which survived the dissolution of the body.
The Michaelmas Fair existed in 1 343, and an inquisition dated 1374 mentions two horse-fairs on Whit-Monday and at Michaelmas.
The identification of the site is placed beyond doubt by the discovery of inscriptions, with the name of the town, and of great masses of early Greek pottery, such as could not have existed anywhere else.
A large open atrium, which once existed at the west, is now completely destroyed, having been replaced by a Renaissance portico.
Towards the east are subjects from the New Testament, ' An earlier church appears to have existed at Monreale since the 6th century, but no traces of it now remain.
In Pliny's time there existed in many towns public schools controlled by the municipal authorities, concerning which Pliny remarks that they were a source of considerable disturbance in the town at the times when it was necessary to appoint teachers.
Remarkable concord seems generally to have existed in the municipia between the various classes of the population.
These Manichaean dissertations also became known in the Graeco-Roman Empire, and existed in collections.'
There also existed a Manichaean book of memorabilia, and of prayers, in Greek, as well as many others,' all of which were destroyed by the Christian bishops acting in conjunction with the authorities.
But in Turkestan, and as far as the Chinese frontier, there existed numerous Manichaean communities and even whole tribes that had adopted the name of Mani.
The marble and graphite, as well as some other indirect evidence of life less susceptible of brief statement, have been thought by many geologists sufficient to warrant the inference that life existed before the close of the era when the Archean rocks were formed.
Such glaciers existed in all the high mountains of the west, even down to New Mexico and Arizona.
The present state of evidence, however, seems to afford no warrant for the conclusion that man existed in the United States before the end of the glacial period.
Not a state of the Union as it existed in 1850 showed an increase, during the half-century following, in the ratio of white children under 16 to fooo white females over f6 years: the ratio declined for the whole country from 1600 to iioo; and it has fallen for the census area of 1790 from 1900 in that year to 1400 in 1850 and 1000 in 1900.
This was the demonstration of the fact that gold existed in large quantities along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada of California.
As the states are older than the Federal government, and as the latter was, indeed, in many respects modelled upon the scheme of government which already existed in the thirteen original states, it may be convenient to begin with the states and then to proceed to the national government, whose structure is more intricate and will require a fuller explanation.
Those which were retained have been to some extent diminished by the I4th and 15th amendments to the Constitution, and if the right to secede from the Union ever existed (a point much controverted), it was finally negatived by the Civil War of 186165.
Executive councils advising the governor, but not chosen by him, existed under the first constitutions of all the original thirteen states.
Certain legal remedies, intended to prevent the abuses of the system, undoubtedly existed.
Of Greece proper he saw but little; it is by no means certain that he even visited Athens, and though he describes Corinth as an eyewitness, it is clear that he was never at Delphi, and was not aware that the ruins of Mycenae still existed.
There is indeed a tradition that a written collection (diwan) existed in the family of an-Nu ` man, the last Lakhmid king, containing a number of poems by the Fuhul, or most eminent poets of the pagan time, and especially by those who had praised the princes of the house, and that this collection passed into the possession of the Omayyad caliphs of the house of Marwan; to this, if the tradition is to be believed, al-Mufaddal probably had access.
But modern commentators, possessed by the fallacy that Aristotle like a modern author must from the first have comtemplated a whole treatise in a regular order for definite publication, lose themselves in vain disputes as to whether to go by the traditional order of books indicated by their letters and known to have existed as early as the abstract (given in Stobaeus, Ed.
The town of Alaja was the creation of this sultan, as previously there existed on that site only the fortress of Candelor, at that epoch in the possession of an Armenian chief, who was expelled by Kaikobad, and shared the fate of the Armenian and Frankish knights who possessed the fortresses along the coast of the Mediterranean as far as Selefke (Seleucia).
Under the system of slave labour which existed before 1860, the average size of the plantations tended to increase, but since 1860 the reverse has been true, the average plantation in 1860 being 346 acres, and in 1900 92.7 acres.
What that influence was will be always debated, but both his carnets and the Briihl letters show that a real personal affection, amounting to passion on the queen's part, existed.
Though opposed to a monopoly of political power in the South by the great slaveholders, he deprecated anti-slavery agitation (even favouring denial of the right of petition on that subject) as threatening abolition or the dissolution of the Union, and went with his sectional leaders so far as to demand freedom of choice for the Territories, and protection for slavery where it existed - this even so late as 1860.
Wellington's intimate association for several years with the sovereigns and statesmen of the Grand Alliance, and his experience of the evils which the Alliance existed to hold in check, naturally led him to dislike Canning's aggressive attitude towards the autocratic powers, and to view with some apprehension his determination to break with the European concert.
and in all provinces where serfage existed emancipation committees were formed.
Comparisons were made, not with the past, but with an ideal state of things which never existed in Russia or elsewhere.
In the early development of architecture and sculpture Pistoia played a very important part; these arts, as they existed in Tuscany before the time of Niccola Pisano, can perhaps be better studied in Pistoia than anywhere else; nor is the city less rich in the later works produced by the school of sculptors founded by Niccola.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.