Executive Sentence Examples
The ministers are members of the executive council.
The executive called his employees into his office.
This measure focuses on all three branches of the government - executive, legislative, and judicial.
There was a struggle between the two branches of government, the Executive and Congress.
Damian hung up and looked at his executive officer and sparring partner.Advertisement
Joseph thinks he's a big corporate executive but he's really only half a step above a clerk.
The board made the executive decision to strip the firm of its accreditation.
The executive order was a way to clothe the president with additional powers.
The executive branch of the government is presided over by a president and two vice-presidents, who are elected by direct popular vote for a period of four years, and are not eligible for re-election for the next succeeding term.
The committee was comprised of a tenant representative, a PCHA Board Member and a member of the PCHA Executive Team.Advertisement
The executive department consists of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and attorney-general.
By a law of April 1906 the U.S. consular service was reorganized and graded, the office of consul-general being divided into seven classes, and that of consul into nine classes; and on June 27 an executive order was issued by President Roosevelt governing appointments and promotions.
The executive chef had humble beginnings, starting his culinary career as a dishwasher and then working his way up through the kitchen.
But the suppression of disorder did not relieve the tension between the congress and the executive.
The same year he supported the Triennial Bill, but opposed the new treason bill as weakening the hands of the executive.Advertisement
Quintana Roo was separated from the state of Yucatan in 1902 and received a territorial government under the immediate supervision of the national executive.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
He was chairman of the Republican national executive campaign committee in 1888, and was a member of the United States Senate in1887-1899and again in 1901-1904.
These violent oscillations not only weakened the fabric of the Republic, but brought about a situation in which Bonaparte easily paralysed both the executive and the legislative powers so ill co-ordinated by the constitution of the year 1795.
As a result of the dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial legislature, the constitution of 1802 conferred nearly all of the ordinary executive functions on the legislature.Advertisement
Of the two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in1892-1902was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards.
His administration was characterized by the final struggle with the Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history of the state.
From very early days executive officers known as " select-men," constables, clerks of markets, hog reeves, packers of meat and fish, &c., were chosen; and the select-men, particularly, gained power as the attendance of the freemen on meetings grew onerous.
Large sums were voted loosely, and expended by executive boards without any budgetary control.
The city charter was revised in 1854, and again reconstructed in important particulars by laws of 1885 separating the executive and legislative powers, and by subsequent acts.Advertisement
The constitution of 1820, subject to four subsequent modifications, is still the law of the land, the legislative power being vested in two chambers and the executive power being exercised by the three departments of the ministry of state.
Mr. Harding based his campaign chiefly upon criticism of the Wilson administration, denouncing especially the excessive power that, as he maintained, had been exercised by the executive as a result of war centralization; he demanded as speedy as possible a return to normal conditions, political and industrial.
Such adjustments might be made, in his opinion, by the executive on the advice of the Tariff Commission.
He disclaimed any desire to enlarge the powers and responsibilities of the executive, which, he declared, were already too large; and he aimed at close cooperation with Congress.
In each diocese there had arisen a judicature (judices pacis) to decide when the form had been broken; and an executive, or communitas pacis, had been formed to enforce the decisions of the judicature.
One of the first steps was to move the Book Room and the meeting place of the executive committee from Bemersley to London.
The governor is appointed by the president of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate for a term of four years, and associated with the governor is an executive council consisting of the secretary, treasurer, auditor, attorney-general, commissioner of the interior, commissioner of education, and five other members, all appointed in the same manner and for the same term as the governor.
The constitution requires that at least five of the eleven members of the Executive Council shall be native inhabitants of Porto Rico; in practice the six members who are also heads of the administrative departments have been Americans while the other five have been Porto Ricans.
The insular government, however, has created a seventh administrative department - that of health, charities and corrections - and requires that the head of this shall be chosen by the governor from among the five members of the Executive Council who are not heads of the other departments.
The Executive Council constitutes one branch of the legislative assembly; the House of Delegates the other.
Railway, street railway, telegraph and telephone franchises can be granted only by the Executive Council with the approval of the governor, and none can be operative until it has been approved by the President of the United States.
The governor and Executive Council have the exclusive right to grant all other franchises of a public or quasi-public nature and Congress reserves the right to annul or modify any such grant.
The judge of the United States district court and the chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate, and the judges of the district courts by the governor with the consent of the Executive Council.
Its political leaders in the House of Delegates are restive under the control exercised by the Executive Council, but an attempt to hold up necessary appropriations resulted in the passage in July 1909 of an act continuing the appropriations of the previous year, whenever for any cause the lower house fails to pass the necessary financial legislation.
The executive ministry of state is divided into the departments of the interior, justice and finance.
The " Preparative Meeting " usually consists of a single congregation; next in order comes the " Monthly Meeting," the executive body, usually embracing several Preparative Meetings called together, as its name indicates, monthly (in some cases less often); then the " Quarterly Meeting," embracing several Monthly Meetings; and lastly the " Yearly Meeting," embracing the whole of Great Britain (but not Ireland).
Among the latter was Lord Cloncurry, at one time on the executive of the United Irishmen, with whom Emmet dined the night before he left Paris, and to whom he spoke of his plans with intense enthusiasm and excitement.
The constitution of 1845 made the popular suffrage final in the choice of the governor, abolished property qualifications, and began to pare executive powers for the benefit of the General Assembly or the people.
The chief executive officers have four-year terms, neither the governor nor the treasurer being eligible for immediate re-election.
The board has no administrative or executive power, but makes annual inspections of all public charitable, correctional or reformatory institutions, all private institutions which receive aid from, or are used by municipal or parochial authorities, and all private asylums for the insane; and reports annually to the governor on the actual condition of the institutions.
These laws strictly defined the powers of the president; more clearly separated the executive departments, so as to lessen friction and jealousies; reformed the courts; reformed administrative routine; and increased the strength of the provinces at the expense of the municipalities.
Government, Trade, &c. - The colony of the Bahamas is under a British governor, who is assisted by an executive council of nine members, partly official, partly unofficial; and by a legislative council of nine members nominated by the crown.
In temporal matters the sultan is a constitutional monarch, advised by a cabinet formed of executive ministers who are the heads of the various departments of state, and who are responsible to the elected Turkish parliament.
All these officials unite in their own persons the judicial and executive functions, under the " Law of the Vilayets," which made its appearance in 1861, and purported, and was really intended by its framers, to confer on the provinces a large measure of self-government, in which both Mussulmans and non-Mussulmans should take part.
The superintendent appoints the teaching force, the director all other employes; appointments are subject to confirmation by the board, and all employes are subject to removal by the executive officials alone.
The governing body consisted of 180 members, chosen from certain influential families, and the executive was entrusted to a select committee of artynae (from apTUVEav, to manage).
At the same time as the Convention prolonged its powers it extended them considerably in order to meet the pressing dangers which menaced the Republic. Though a legislative assembly, it took over the executive power, entrusting it to its own members.
The executive department consists of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer and attorney-general, elected biennially in November of the even-numbered years, and an auditor elected at the same time every four years.
A durbar is the executive council of a native state.
Other prominent buildings are the United States court house and post office, the state supreme court house, the county court house, the state penitentiary, the state armoury and the executive mansion.
The government buildings are extensive and have a pleasing appearance; that of the executive, in a beautiful park, was formerly the royal palace and still contains many relics of royalty.
He was a member of the Massachusetts executive council from 1776 to 1780, and a delegate to the continental congress from 1776 to 1778.
As chairman of the judiciary committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure, and in May 1826 joined with Benton in presenting a report on executive patronage.
They are very tenacious of their independence, but accepted without opposition the establishment of a British protectorate, which, while putting a stop to inter-tribal warfare, slave-raiding and human sacrifices, and exercising control over the working of the laws, left to the people executive and fiscal autonomy.
The administration is in the hands of a council of chiefs which exercises legislative, executive and, to some extent, judicial functions.
Among the public buildings are the old imperial palace, a modern summer residence of the national executive and a municipal hall.
Many sanguinary broils now ensued, in the course of which Jugjevan was murdered, and the executive authority was much weakened by the usurpations of the Arabs and other chiefs.
His essential functions were judicial and executive, and in documents he is often described as the king's agent (agens publicus) or royal judge (judex publicus or fiscalis).
As the delegate of the executive power he had the right to military command in the king's name, and to take all the measures necessary for the preservation of the peace, i.e.
Together with the kings and ephors it formed the supreme executive committee of the state, and it exercised also a considerable criminal and political jurisdiction, including the trial of kings; its competence extended to the infliction of a sentence of exile or even of death.
The supreme powers of the nation are vested in three partially independent branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - represented by the president and his cabinet, a national congress of two chambers, and a supreme tribunal.
The executive power of the nation is vested in a president, elected for a term of four years by a direct vote of the electors.
The supreme tribunal has original and appellate jurisdiction, but its power to pass on the constitutionality of federal laws and executive acts seems to fall short of that of the United States Supreme Court.
Limited judicial powers are exercised by chiefs of police, and by certain department commissions, or boards, of an executive character.
The obvious remedy for these evils was to concentrate the executive power, to render the petty chiefs amenable to one tribunal, and to confide the management of the defensive force to one hand.
As early as 1618 a code of laws for the regulation of the mining industry had been drawn up by Philip III., the executive and judicial functions in the mining districts being vested in a provedor, and the fiscal in a treasurer, who received the royal fifths and superintended the weighing of all the gold, rendering a yearly account of all discoveries and produce.
During those critical times the government of the state was strengthened by a new executive magistracy called the balia, which from 1455 began to act independently of the priors or consistory.
He is assisted by an executive committee of four members elected by the provincial council.
Legislative power was vested, nominally, in the volksraad (consisting of twenty-four members),while the president and executive were changed every three months.
But in 1909 an act was passed which placed native affairs in the hands of four district commissioners, gave to the minister for native affairs direct executive authority and created a council for native affairs on which non-official members had seats.
Monroe returned to America in the spring of 1797, and in the following December published a defence of his course in a pamphlet of 500 pages entitled A View of the Conduct of the Executive in the Foreign Affairs of the United States, and printed in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin Bache (1769-1798).
The king is the head of the executive, the supreme commander of the armed forces of the nation, and shares the legislative power with the parliament.
The executive power is vested in a responsible cabinet, consisting of ten ministers, namely, the president of the council, the minister of the interior, of national defence, of education and public worship, of finance, The franchise is " probably the most illiberal in Europe."
Both the chancery and the stadholdership were independent of the diet and responsible to the king alone, being, in fact, his executive instruments.
The executive retorted by dissolving the diet on the 21st of August and levying the taxes by military execution.
The Senate, which exercises the greater part of the executive power, is composed of eighteen members, one half of whom must have studied law or finance, while at least seven of the remainder must belong to the class of merchants.
By the new constitution of the Lutheran Church, published at first in 1870 for the city only, but in 1876 extended to the rest of the Hamburg territory, the parishes or communes are divided into three church-districts, and the general affairs of the whole community are entrusted to a synod of 53 members and to an ecclesiastical council of 9 members which acts as an executive.
At the head of the executive is a provincial administrator, appointed by the Union ministry, who holds office for five years and is assisted by an executive committee of four members elected by the provincial council.
The administrative authority was to be vested in a president, aided by an executive council.
The award caused a strong feeling of resentment among the Boers, and led to the resignation of President Pretorius and his executive.
Sir Theophilus went to Pretoria in January 1877, with an escort of twenty-five mounted police, and entered into conferences with the president and executive as to the state of the country.
The words were but the utterance of an individual Raad member, but they were only a shade less offensive than those used by Kruger in 1892, and they too accurately describe the attitude of the Boer executive.
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
Messrs Sampson and Davies, refusing to appeal to the executive for a reconsideration of their sentence, were retained for over a year.
In 1898, to strengthen his relations with foreign powers, Kruger sent the state secretary, Dr Leyds," to Europe as minister plenipotentiary, his place on the Transvaal executive being taken by Mr Reitz, the ex-president of the Free State.
After July the tactics of the Boer executive were simply directed towards putting off a crisis till the beginning of October, when the grass would be growing on the veld, and meanwhile towards doing all they could in their despatches to put the blame on Great Britain.
But the fact that it was to a large extent a struggle with a nation in arms doubled the numbers of the force that the Transvaal executive was able to draw upon.
It is not too much to suppose that the executive in Pretoria had calculated that the occupation of Durban would inspire the entire Dutch nation with a spirit of unanimity which would eventually wrest South Africa' from the British.
But the departmental executive could not launch the Natal invading force as early as had been anticipated, and it was not until the 9th of October that the ultimatum was presented to Sir (then Mr) Conyngham Greene, the British agent at Pretoria.
The end of the military government was signalled by the assumption (on the 21st of June) by Lord Milner of the title of governor of the Transvaal and by the creation of an executive council.
On their return to South Africa the Boer generals and their colleagues aided to some extent in the work of.resettlement, but the seats offered to the Boers on the executive council were declined.
The executive power is vested by the constitution in a presi dent, two vice-presidents and a cabinet of ministers.
The powers of the executive, direct and implied, are very broad and permit the exercise of much absolute authority.
The states are divided into districts and these into municipios, the executive head of which is a jefe politico.
He evaded the clause in the constitution prohibiting the election of a president for successive terms of office by invariably arranging for the nomination of some adherent of his own as chief of the executive, and then pulling the strings behind this figurehead.
He was elected for the new constituent assembly in ten different departments, and was chosen one of the five members of the Executive Committee.
The executive power is in the hands of a civil commissioner whose residence is at Eshowe.
An executive or viceroy, to be known as the president-general, was to have the veto power over the acts of the Grand Council and the right of appointment of military officers.
The senate, which is the executive power, is composed of sixteen life members, elected by the convent, on presentation by the senate.
Its vice-governor-general exercised all the executive functions of the governor-general and corresponded directly with Brussels.
The island is administered by a governor, assisted by an executive council, a legislative council of 9 nominated members, and a house of assembly of 24 members elected on a limited franchise.
The power of pardon is also vested in the executive authority of the different states, with or without the concurrence of the legislative authority, although in some states there are boards of pardon of which the governor is a member ex officio.
The usual form of pardon in the United States is by deed under seal of the executive.
An embargo on trade with Flanders, voted in 1358 by a general assembly, resulted by 1360 in the full restoration of German privileges in Flanders, but reduced the counter at Bruges to an executive organ of a united town policy.
In December 1820 Lord Dalhousie, governor of Lower Canada, appointed Papineau a member of the executive council; but Papineau, finding himself without real influence on the council, resigned in January 1823.
The government is divided into three independent branches, legislative, executive and judicial, of which through force of circumstances the executive has become the dominating power.
The executive branch consists of a president and two vicepresidents elected for terms of four years, a cabinet of six ministers of state appointed by the president, and various subordinate officials who are under the direct orders of the president.
The vice-presidents cannot be candidates for the presidency during their occupancy of the supreme executive office, nor can the ministers of state, nor the generalin-chief of the army, while in the exercise of their official duties.
Members of Congress are forbidden to accept any employment or benefit from the executive.
No member of the executive branch of the government (president, cabinet minister, prefect, sub-prefect, or governor) can be elected to either chamber, nor can any judge or " fiscal " of the supreme court, nor any member of the ecclesiastical hierarchy from his diocese, province or parish, nor any judge or " fiscal " of superior and first-instance courts from their judicial districts, nor any military officer from the district where he holds a military appointment at the time of election.
The judges are selected by Congress from lists of nominees submitted by the executive.
Questions of jurisdiction between the superior and supreme courts, as well as questions of like character between the supreme court and the executive, are decided by the senate sitting as a court.
It was authorized to plant colonies and to govern them under a very limited supervision of the States-General, such as the approval of its appointment of a governor and of its instructions to him; and its own government was vested in five chambers of directors and an executive board or college of nineteen delegates from those chambers, eight of the nineteen representing the Chamber of Amsterdam.
The Democratic National Convention adopted (August 29, 1864) a resolution (drafted by Vallandigham) declaring the war a failure, and demanding a cessation of hostilities; it nominated M'Clellan for president, and instead of adjourning sine die as usual, remained organized, and subject to be convened at any time and place by the executive national committee.
The executive power is in the emperors hands.
To assist the executive a small committee (Kreisausschuss, Distriktsausschuss, &c.) is elected subject to official approval.
In those parts of Germany which come under the influence of French legislation, the constitution of the towns and that of the rural communes (the so-called Bitrgermeistereiverfassung) is identical, in that the members of the communal executive body are, in the same way as those of the communal assembly, elected to office immediafely by the whole body of municipal electors.
By the Licinian law of 367, which abolished the military tribunes with consular power and enacted that the supreme executive should henceforward be in the hands of the two consuls, a new magistrate was at the same time created who was to be a colleague of the consuls, though with lower rank and lesser powers.
The capitol, which is occupied by the executive and legislative departments, is an elegant and spacious building, erected since 1875.
The Executive Mansion, more commonly called the White House, the official residence of the president, is a two-storey building of Virginia freestone, painted white since 1814 to hide the marks of fire - only the walls were left standing after the capture of the city by the British in that year.
The White House was built in1792-1799from designs by James Hoban, who closely followed the plans of the seats of the dukes of Leinster, near Dublin, and in 1902-1903, when new executive offices and a cabinet room were built and were connected with the White House by an esplanade, many of the original features of Hoban's plan were restored.
The District commissioners are the chief executive officers.
When the Burgesses undertook in May 1769 to declare in vigorous resolutions that the right and power of taxation, direct and indirect, rested with the local assembly, the governor hastily dissolved them, but only to find the same men assembling in the Raleigh tavern in Williamsburg and issuing forth their resolutions in defiance of executive authority.
In place of the former governor, there was to be an executive chosen annually by the Assembly; the old Council was to be followed by a similar body elected by the Assembly; and the judges were likewise to be the creatures of the legislature.
Bossuet and the old-fashioned divines had believed in an elaborate system of checks and balances - popes, councils, bishops, temporal sovereigns each limiting and controlling the other - just as Montesquieu and Alexander Hamilton had believed in a careful separation of the executive from the legislative power.
Returning to Massachusetts, he spoke and wrote in opposition to its ratification, and although not a member of the convention called to pass upon it, he laid before this convention, by request, his reasons for opposing it, among them being that the constitution contained no bill of rights, that the executive would unduly influence the legislative branch of the government, and that the judiciary would be oppressive.
While the success of the new government was the work of many men and many causes, one cannot resist the conviction that the factor of chief importance was the existence, at the head of the executive department, of such a character as Washington.
C. Fremont, Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 1842, published 1845 as Congressional document 28th Congress, 2nd Session, House Executive Document No.
There is no doubt that each of these men, and Bancroft in particular, influenced the policy of the administration, yet the historian James Schouler, who has made a careful study of the Polk papers, is doubtless correct in saying that the president himself was "the framer of the public policy which he carried into so successful execution, and that instead of being led (as many might have imagined) by the more famous statesmen of his administration and party who surrounded him, he in reality led and shaped his own executive course."
The executive was to consist of a minister-secretary of state and of the members of the senate, who were entitled to attend and address the diet and who might be the subject of interpellations.
The executive officers until 1911 were a governor and a Territorial secretary appointed by the President of the United States, and a treasurer, auditor, superintendent of public instruction, adjutant-general, commissioner of public lands and other administrative officials appointed by the governor.
When the Dublin corporation issued a declaration of Protestant ascendancy in 1792, the counter-manifesto of the United Irishmen was drawn up by Emmet; and in 1795 he took the oath of the society in open court, becoming secretary in the same year and a member of the executive in 1797.
Executive and legislative councils were established; and in each of the six districts into which, for administrative and legal purposes, the island was divided, a commissioner was appointed to represent the government.
The executive council consists of the high commissioner, the chief secretary, the king's advocate, the senior officer in charge of the troops, and the receiver-general, with, as " additional " members, two Christians and one Mussulman.
The secretary of state for war is the head of the army council, which comprises the heads of departments and is the chief executive authority.
Administration.-Under the governor-general in council the commander-in-chief (himself a member of the council) is the executive authority.
His great influence on the entire church, his wonderful success in planning, financing, and carrying out necessary ecclesiastical reforms, and the constructive and executive ability he displayed in his diocese, make him one of the foremost Catholic emigrants to the United States.
In Bacon's New Atlantis (1624-29) science is the key to universal happiness; Tommaso Campanella's Civitas Solis (1623) portrays a communistic society, and is largely inspired by the Republic of Plato; James Harrington's Oceana (1656), which had a profound influence upon political thought in America, is a practical treatise rather than a romance, and is founded on the ideas that property, especially in land, is the basis of political power, and that the executive should only be controlled for a short period by the same man or men.
The king is irresponsible, and executive power is vested in him alone.
France and Sweden, moreover, became joint guarantors of the treaty with the emperor, and were entrusted with the carrying out of its provisions, which was practically effected by the executive congress of Ntiremberg in 1650.
This famous body, which consisted of 50 nobles, 25 priests, 25 burgesses, and, very exceptionally, 25 peasants, possessed during the session of the Riksdag not only the supreme executive but also the surpeme judicial and legislative functions.
During the parliamentary recess, however, the executive remained in the hands of the rad, or senate, which was responsible to the Riksdag alone.
Olaus, who is one of the noblest figures in Swedish annals, was of the executive rather than the meditative class.
The supreme powers of government are vested in three distinct branches - legislative, executive and judicial.
The executive is a president who is elected for a term of five years and is ineligible for the next succeeding term.
In case of a vacancy in the presidential office, the minister of interior becomes the " vice-president of the republic " and discharges the duties of the executive office until a successor can be legally elected.
A council of state of 12 members, consisting of the president, 6 members appointed by congress and 5 by the president, has advisory functions, and its approval is required in many executive acts and appointments.
The provinces are administered by intendentes, and the departments by gobernadores, both appointees of the national executive.
This gives the national executive absolute control of all administrative matters in every part of the republic. The police force also is a national organization under the immediate control of the minister of interior, and the public prosecutor in every department is a representative of the national government.
The judges of the higher courts are appointed by the national executive, and those of the minor tribunals by the federal official governing the political division in which they are located.
The executive and legislative powers intervene in the appointments to the higher offices of the Church.
This constitution invested the executive with almost dictatorial powers, and the Conservatives entered upon a long term of office.
In September 1881 the term of office of president Pinto expired, and he was succeeded in the post of chief executive of Chile by President Domingo Santa Maria.
This act was illegal and beyond the attributes of the executive power.
Admiral Montt, as head of the executive power, stanchly refused to allow official influence to be brought to bear in any way in the presidential campaign.
Nowadays the congress has virtually absorbed the executive power, with the result that the cabinet is often changed many times in one year.
Concerning Rome, Gregorovius says that in 1205 "the pope changed the form of the civic government; the executive power lying henceforward in the hand of a single senator or podesta, who, directly or indirectly, was appointed by the pope."
The executive government is carried on under a cabinet composed of seven or eight vizirs (ministers), of whom one, besides holding a portfolio, is vizir azam, prime minister.
National budgets are to be discriminated (r) as budgets passing under parliamentary scrutiny and debate from year to year, and (2) budgets emitted on executive authority.
In the United Kingdom the budget is placed by the executive before the whole House, without any previous examination except by the cabinet, and it is scrutinized by the House sitting as a committee; in the majority of countries, however, the budget undergoes a preliminary examination by a specially selected committee, which has the power to make drastic changes in the proposals of the executive.
In the United States, on the other hand, the budget practically emanates from Congress, for there is no connexion between the executive and the legislative departments.
The estimates prepared by the various executive departments are submitted to the House of Representatives by the secretary of the treasury.
Police duties are carried out under the direction of the royal police presidency, the executive police force comprising a police colonel, with, besides commissaries of criminal investigations, captains, lieutenants, acting-lieutenants, sergeant-majors and a large body of constables (schutzmanner).
In Brussels as elsewhere the burgomaster is the head, but for executive purposes there is a chief commissary (subject, however, to the orders of the burgomaster), with assistant commissaries, and commissaries of divisions and other officers and central and other bureaus, with a body of agents (police constables) in each.
Consisting of forty-two articles, the Instrument placed the legislative power in the hands of "one person, and the people assembled in parliament"; the executive power was left to the lord protector, whose office was to be elective and not hereditary, and a council of state numbering from thirteen to twenty-one members.
He was minister of the interior in the provisional government, and was also a member of the executive committee appointed by the Constituent Assembly, from which Louis Blanc and the extremists were excluded.
He himself escaped to London where he joined the executive of the revolutionary committee of Europe, with Kossuth and Mazzini among his colleagues.
He is advised by an executive council, whose members he nominates.
The executive power in each province is invested in an officer appointed by the government and styled provincial administrator.
The administrator is assisted by an executive committee of four persons elected from among its own members, or otherwise, by the provincial council on the proportional representation principle.
The administrator and any other member of the executive committee, not being a member of the council, has the right to take part in the proceedings of the council, but has not the right to vote.
An Industrial Commission, appointed (under pressure) by President Kruger in 1897 to inquire into a number of grievances affecting the gold industry, had reported in favour of reforms. The recommendations of the commission, if adopted, would have done something towards relieving the tension, but President Kruger and his executive refused to be guided by them.
The effect of the act was to impose upon the judges under severe sanction the duty of protecting personal liberty in the case of criminal charges and of securing speedy trial upon such charges when legally framed; and the improvement of their tenure of office at the revolution, coupled with the veto put by the Bill of Rights on excessive bail, gave the judicature the independence and authority necessary to enable them to keep the executive within the law and to restrain administrative development of the scope or penalties of the criminal law; and this power of the judiciary to control the executive, coupled with the limitations on the right to set up "act of state" as an excuse for infringing individual liberty is the special characteristic of English constitutional law.
In 1788 he was a member of the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution for Maryland, in1788-1792and in 1795 of the House of Delegates (where in 1788 and 1789 he defended the right of slave-owners to manumit their slaves), and in1792-1795of the state executive council.
He even went so far as to side with his colleagues, when serious difficulties arose between the new government and the president of the Cortes, Senor Martos, who was backed by a very imposing commission composed of the most influential conservative members of the last parliament of the Savoyard king, which had suspended its sittings shortly after proclaiming the federal republic. A sharp struggle was carried on for weeks between the executive and this commission, at first presided over by Martos, and, when he resigned, by Salmeron.
The adversaries of the executive were prompted by the captain-general of Madrid, Pavia, who promised the co-operation of the garrison of the capital.
The Cortes were dissolved, and the federal and constituent Cortes of the republic convened, but they only sat during the summer of 1873, long enough to show their absolute incapacity, and to convince the executive that the safest policy was to suspend the session for several months.
Matters got to such a climax of disorder, disturbance and confusion, from the highest to the lowest strata of Spanish society, that the president of the executive, Figueras, deserted his post and fled the country.
Fortunately these officers responded to the call of the executive.
This resignation was not an unfortunate event for the country, as the federal Cortes not only made Castelar chief of the executive, though his partisans were in a minority in the Parliament, but they gave him much liberty to act, as they decided to suspend the sittings of the house until 2nd January 1874.
The monarchical constitution recognized four powers in the state - the executive, moderating, legislative and judicial.
The sovereign exercised his executive power through a cabinet which was responsible to the cortes, and consisted of seven members, representing the ministries of (I) the interior, (2) foreign affairs, (3) finance, (4) justice and worship, (5) war, (6) marine and colonies, (7) public works, industry and commerce.
East of the Cape the royal power was delegated to a viceroy or governor - the distinction was purely titular - whose legislative and executive authority was almost unlimited during his term of office.
He remained in power during five years of unbroken peace (1851-1856), and carried many useful reforms. The most important of these was the so-called Additional Act of the 5th of July 1852, which amended the charter of 1826 by providing for the direct election of deputies, the decentralization of the executive, the creation of representative municipal councils, and the abolition of capital punishment for political offences.
Every executive act must be countersigned by a minister of state, who is held responsible for its character and enforcement, and may be prosecuted before the supreme court for its illegality and effects.
As the prefect has the appointment of subordinate department officials, including the alcaldes, the authority of the national executive reaches every hamlet in the republic, and may easily become autocratic. There are no legislative assemblies in the departments, and their government rests with the national executive and congress.
Consuls in the Ottoman empire, China, Siam and Korea have extensive judicial and executive powers.
The churchwardens, who are representative officers of the parishes, are also executive officers of the bishops in all matters touching the decency and order of the churches and of the churchyards, and they are responsible to the bishops for the due discharge of their duties; but the abolition of church rates has relieved the churchwardens of the most onerous part of their duties, which was connected with the stewardship of the church funds of their parishes.
He began his political life at the age of 15 as a keen Radical, but subsequently became a convinced Socialist, a member of the I.L.P. and a member of the National Executive of the Labour party.
The executive officials serve for a term of two years.
The power of the royal officials who constituted the executive government of Bohemia was greatly curtailed, and though the chief representative of the sovereign in Prague continued to bear the ancient title of supreme burgrave, he was instructed to conform in all matters to the orders of the central government of Vienna.
The constitution under which Michigan is now governed was first adopted in 1850, when it was felt that the powers which the first one, that of 1835, conferred upon the executive and the legislature were too unrestricted.
The national executive appoints and removes the prefects of the departments and the sub-prefects of the provinces, and the prefects appoint the gobiernadores of the districts.
General Caceres secured the nomination of the vicepresident Borgono as chief of the executive for the unexpired portion of the term of the late president Bermudez.
The colony is administered by a governor, executive council and legislative council.
The executive council consists of the holders of certain offices and of such other members as the crown may nominate.
At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a constitution, composed of a general council or legislative assembly and a credenza or executive; and during the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of water-way on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta - so that, on the one hand, the city grew in power and selfreliance, while, on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D'Este and Da Romano began to emerge and to divide the Paduan district between them.
The individualistic principle was shown in the jealousy of the towns toward the central government, and in the establishment of legislative supremacy over the executive and the judiciary.
His death in October 1633 put an end to the RussoPolish War (1632-33), withdrawing the strongest prop from an executive feeble enough even when supported by all the weight of his authority.
Already (1887) the government had voluntarily made a great step in advance by divesting itself of the right to imprison or fine editors by executive order.
A new law, passed by both houses and confirmed by the emperor, took from the executive all power over journals, except in cases of lse majest, and nothing now remains of the former arbitrary system except that any periodical having a political complexion is required to deposit security varying from 175 to 1000 yen.
The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, with the executive power vested in the grand-duke, while the legislative authority is shared by him with a representative assembly (Landtag) consisting of two chambers.
The executive consists of four departments of state - those of the interior, of foreign affairs and of the grand-ducal house, of fina-nce, and of justice, ecclesiastical affairs and education.
He was made adjutant-general to Colonel Mason, military governor, and as such was executive officer in the administration of 'local government till peace came in the autumn of 1848 and the province was ceded to the United States.
The most important buildings are the executive's residence.
There is an executive council, now comprising eleven members with the governor as president.
An executive council was established in 1881, and the franchise was extended in 1883.
For the first time the elected members were placed in a majority; they were given three seats in the executive council; in local questions the government had to make every effort to carry the majority by persuasion.
Strickland, who had been elected while an undergraduate on the cry of equality of rights for Maltese and English, and Mizzi, the leader of the anti-English agitation, were, as soon as elected, given seats in the executive council to co-operate with the government; but their aims were irreconcilable.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
But he was spared the necessity of coming to blows, for the leaders, finding the government in the hands of the national executive, had peaceably submitted to General Ovando.
The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia prevented him from winning the military laurels he so ardently desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had unrivalled opportunities of learning diplomacy, in which science he speedily became a past-master.
Although reunited with the " province " of Pennsylvania in 1693, the so-called " territories " or " lower counties " secured a separate legislature in 1704, and a separate executive council in 1710; the governor of Pennsylvania, however, was the chief executive until 1776.
One of the peculiarities of the government was that in addition to the regular executive, legislative and judicial departments there was a privy council without whose approval the governor's power was little more than nominal.
The Texan Declaration of Independence, adopted in November 1835, was accompanied by a provisional constitution; and with the Declaration of Independence of March 1836 there were adopted an executive ordinance and a constitution.
The executive department consists of a governor, lieutenantgovernor, secretary of state, comptroller of public accounts, treasurer, commissioner of the general land office, and attorney-general.
His functions are rather more extensive than those of the average American executive.
He was accused later of having taken part in the massacres of September, but was able to prove that at that time he had been sent by the provisional executive council to Normandy to oversee a requisition of 60,000 men.
The central executive and administrative authority is vested in a governor, a lieutenant-governor, an executive council, several boards and a few other officers.
Members of boards of regents or trustees of state institutions are for the most part elected by the General Assembly; railway commissioners are elected by the state electors; while in the case of the few appointments left for the governor, the recommendation or approval of the executive council, a branch of the legislature, or of some board, is usually required.
He, however, is himself a member of the executive council as well as of some important boards or commissions, and it is in such capacity that he often has the greatest opportunity to exert power and influence.
His salary is $5000 per annum (with $600 for house rent and $800 as a member of the executive council).
The executive council, composed of the governor, secretary of state, auditor of state and treasurer of state, all elected by the people for a term of two years, has extensive powers.
He was immediately elected a member of the municipal council of Philadelphia, becoming its chairman; and was chosen president of the Supreme Executive Council (the chief executive officer) of Pennsylvania, and was re-elected in 1786 and 1787, serving from October 1785 to October 1788.
The lieutenant-governor is aided by an executive and a legislative council, and advised by a native regulation board.
Another almost equally exceptional feature is the persistence of the colonial executive council, consisting of members chosen to represent divisions of the state, who assist the governor in his executive functions.
The General Court was the legislature and the electorate; the governor and assistants were the executive and the judiciary.
During the earl of Bellomont's administration, New York was again united with Massachusetts under the same executive (1697-1701).
During three periods, 1701-1702, in February 1715, and from April to August 1757 the affairs of the colony were administered by the Executive Council.
It contains the executive offices of the government and those of five cabinet ministers (interior, foreign affairs, treasury, war and justice), the senate chamber, the general archives, national museum, observatory and meteorological bureau.
The Bermudas are a British crown colony, with a governor resident at Hamilton, who is assisted by an executive council of 6 members appointed by the crown, a legislative council of 9 similarly appointed, and a representative assembly of 36 members, of whom four are returned by each of nine parishes.
In the manufacturing branches are required skill, and efficient and economical work, both executive and administrative; in the storekeeping part, good arrangement, great care, thorough knowledge of all warlike stores, both in their active and passive state, and scrupulous exactness in the custody, issue and receipt of stores.
He favoured a strong executive holding during good behaviour, an aristocratic senate appointed by the president for life, and the restriction of the suffrage to freeholders.
The cantonal constitution dates mainly from 1885, but since 1904 the election of the executive council of five members is made by a direct vote of the people.
Town (or township) government in New York somewhat resembles that of New England; the chief executive officer of the town is a supervisor, who represents his town in the county " board of supervisors."
In 1787 a second university act was passed which restored to Columbia College the substance of its original charter and made the University of the State of New York an exclusively executive body with authority to incorporate new colleges and academies and to exercise over them the right of visitation.
The English executive, consisting of a governor and council, was much like the Dutch, but Nicolls, by his conciliatory spirit, made his administration more agreeable than Stuyvesant's.
Executive administration is conducted on the principle of English responsible or parliamentary government.
His capacity soon attracted attention, and in 1847 he was made receivergeneral with a seat in the executive council, an office soon exchanged for the more important one of commissioner of Crown-lands.
Of the powerful literary executive which gathered about Counts Porro and Confalonieri, Pellico was the able secretary - the management of the Conciliatore, which appeared in 1818 as the organ of the association, resting largely upon him.
This official is assisted by an executive committee of four members elected by the provincial council.
Executive authority was entrusted to a president elected by the burghers from a list submitted by the volksraad.
The president was to be assisted by an executive council, was to hold office for five years and was eligible for re-election.
He became vice-president of the volksraad in 1893 and a member of the executive council of the state in 1896.
There was in the Orange Colony a considerable body of opinion that the party system of government should be avoided, and that the executive should consist of three members elected by the single representative chamber it was desired to obtain, and three members nominated by the governor - in short, what was desired was a restoration as far as possible of the old Free State constitution.
His policy of gaining time had received a severe blow in the failure of his executive officer to realize it, and that officer, though his unpursued troops quickly regained their moral, had himself completely lost confidence.
The officers of the executive department are the governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, attorney-general, treasurer, auditor and superintendent of public instruction, each of whom is elected for a term of four years.
He made it not only nationally prominent, but instrumental in shaping the course of legislative and executive action by introducing into the work of the Commission an entirely new spirit and new methods.
Mr Roosevelt entered the presidency definitely committed to two principles which profoundly affected his course as chief executive of the United States.
The volume of his letters and his writings in books, articles for the press and speeches and official messages, is enormous, and yet this work was done in the midst of the executive labours of a long political career.
The executive consists of a responsible ministry (Gesammt Ministerium), with the six departments of justice, finance, home affairs, war, public worship and education, and foreign affairs.
A governor-general holds the superior administrative and executive authority, and is assisted by a council of five members, partly of a legislative and partly of an advisory character, but with no share in the executive work of the government.
The governor-general not only has supreme executive authority, but can of his own accord pass laws and regulations, except in so far as these, from their nature, belong of right to the home government, and as he is bound by the constitutional principles on which, according to the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India, passed by the king and StatesGeneral in 1854, the Dutch East Indies must be governed.
But at that date the city obtained its independence, and is now ruled by a town council of 41 members, and an executive of 5 members, the election in each case being made direct by the citizens, and the term of office being 4 years.
The legislature or Grand Conseil (now composed of loo members) is elected (in the proportion of 1 member for every l000 inhabitants or fraction over 500) for 3 years by a direct popular vote, subject (since 1892) to the principles of proportional representation, while the executive or conseil d'etat (7 members) is elected (no proportional representation) by a popular vote for 3 years.
In the charter of 1387 we hear only of the conseil general (composed of all male heads of families) which acted as the legislature, and elected annually the executive of 4 syndics; no, doubt this form of rule existed earlier than 1387.
It set up a conseil representatif or legislature of 250 members, which named the conseil d'etat or executive, while it was itself elected by a limited class, for the electoral qualification was the annual payment of direct taxes to the amount of 20 Swiss livres or about 23 shillings.
Besides bestowing on the city a government distinct from that of the canton, it set up for the latter a grand conseil or legislature, and a conseil d'etat or executive of 13 members, both elected for the term of 4 years.
The Girondists, who had a majority in the Convention, controlled the executive council and filled the ministry, believed themselves invincible.
According to Semitic ideas the declaration of law is quite a distinct function from the enforcing of it, and the royal executive came into no collision with the purely declaratory functions of the priests.
The framers of the constitution were largely influenced by the American and French constitutions, and the American principle of the division and balance of the legislative, executive and judicial powers was followed.
The president of the republic enjoys such executive power as is expressly assigned to him by the constitution, and he has his own office - the president's bureau - presided over by a permanent official, to conduct such matters as fall within his competence and to facilitate communication with the rest of the executive.
After the 10th of August he was again given charge of the finances in the provisional executive council, though with but indifferent success.
It is in this reign, too, that we meet with the first rokosz, or insurrection of the nobility against the executive.
During Sigismund's reign, moreover, the Crown recovered many of the prerogatives of which it had been deprived during the reign of his feeble predecessor, Alexander, who, to say nothing of the curtailments of the prerogative, had been forced to accept the statute nihil novi (1505) which gave the sejm and the senate an equal voice with the Crown in all executive matters.
The determination to limit still further the power of the executive was at the bottom of this fatal parsimony, with the inevitable consequence that, while the king and the senate were powerless, every great noble or lord-marcher was free to do what he chose in his own domains, so long as he flattered his "little brothers," the szlachta.
We have already seen how the ambition of the oligarchs and the lawlessness of the szlachta had reduced the executive to impotence, and rendered anything like rational government impossible.
The liberum veto seems to have been originally devised to cut short interminable debates in times of acute crisis, but it was generally used either by highly placed criminals, anxious to avoid an inquiry into their misdeeds,' or by malcontents, desirous of embarrassing the executive.
It provided for a president-general appointed by the crown, who should have supreme executive authority over all the colonies, and for a grand council, elected triennially by the several provincial assemblies, and to have such "rights, liberties and privileges as are held and exercised by and in the House of Commons of Great Britain"; the president-general and grand council were to be "an inferior distinct branch of the British legislature, united and incorporated with it."
The chief executive authority is vested in a governor elected bypopular vote for a term of four years.
Other executive officers are a treasurer, elected by joint ballot of the General Assembly for a term of two years, a comptroller elected by popular vote for a similar term, and an attorney-general elected by popular vote for four years.
Under the royal government the Church of England was established, the people acquired a strong control of their branch of the legislature and they were governed more by statute law and less by executive ordinance.
Under the direction of the ministry of war that official exercised nearly all the executive power.
From August 1775 until the summer of 1777 he was the president of the council, which had then become to a greater extent than formerly an executive as well as a legislative body.
The president and three vice-presidents constitute the executive.
The executive is composed of a governor, a lieutenant-governor, a treasurer, an auditor of public accounts, a register of the land office, a commissioner of agriculture, labour, and statistics, a secretary of state, an attorney-general and a superintendent of public instruction.
In 1768 he was a delegate to the provincial convention which was called to meet in Boston, and conducted the prosecution of Captain Thomas Preston and his men for their share in the famous " Boston Massacre of the 5th of March 1770., He served in the Massachusetts General Court in 1773-1774, in the Provincial Congress in 177 4-1775, and in the Continental Congress in 1 7741778, and was speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1777, a member of the executive council in 1779, a member of the committee which drafted the constitution of 1780, attorney-general of the state from 1777 to 1790, and a judge of the state supreme court from 1790 to 1804.
Practically it is a Federal Republic with centralized executive powers.
Although the authority of the president is carefully defined and limited by the Constitution, the exercise of dictatorial powers has been so common that the executive may be considered practically supreme and irresponsible.
Two ordinary congressional sessions are held each year - April 1 to May 31 and September 16 to December 15 - and a permanent committee of 29 members (14 senators and 15 deputies) sits during recess, with the power to confirm executive appointments, to give assent to a mobilization of the national guard, fo convene extra legislative sessions, to administer oaths, and to report at the next session on matters requiring congressional action.
Elections are generally indirect, like those for the national executive, and official terms correspond closely to those of similar offices in the national organization.
By a law of the 9th of December 1904, promulgated by an executive decree of the 25th of March 1905, the gold standard was adopted, and the silver peso, 9027 fine and containing 24.438 grammes of pure silver, was made the monetary unit with a valuation of .75 grammes of gold.
She also lectured on English literature for the university extension movement, and in 1909 was elected to the executive committee of the N.U.W.S.S.
In the early spring regulations were proposed, and on April 13th were carried, which were intended to restrict the executive and especially the parliamentary powers of the president.
The funds of the college, arising from lands and the fees of students, are managed solely by the provost and seven senior fellows, who form a board, to which and to the academic council the whole government of the university, both in its executive and its legislative branches, is committed.
During the War of 1812 he was of special service to the executive government and the citizens of the town when the American troops captured York and burned the public buildings.
On the urgent recommendation of Lieut.- Governor Gore he was appointed to the executive council of Upper Canada in 1815.
A man of great force of character and much ability, of keen ambitions and unusual shrewdness, though not remarkable for breadth of mind, he attained to great influence in the executive government and was soon the leading spirit in that dominant group known in Upper Canadian history as the Family Compact.
Adverse criticism and a suggestion from the colonial office that he should cease from active participation in political affairs led to his resignation from the executive council, but he declined to give up his seat in the legislative council.
In1785-1788he was speaker of the Pennsylvania general assembly (then consisting of only one house); he was a member of the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787, and president of the state supreme executive council (or chief executive officer of the state) in 1788-1790.
In each there was a governor, with minor executive officers, a legislature, and a judiciary; and although the Crown retained the power of altering the charter, and the British parliament could (in strict legal view) legislate over the head of the colonial legislature so as to abrogate statutes passed by the latter, still in practice each colony was allowed to manage its own affairs and to enact the laws it desired.
Each has its own documentary constitution; its legislature of two elective houses; its executive, consisting of a governor and other officials; its judiciary, whose decisions are final, except in cases involving Federal law; its system of local government and local taxation; its revenue, system of taxation, and debts; its body of private civil and criminal law and procedure; its rules of citizenship, which may admit persons to be voters in state and national elections under conditions differing from those prevailing in other states.
Comparing the old constitutions with the new ones, it may be said that the note of those enacted in the first thirty or forty years of the republic was their jealousy of executive power and their careful safeguarding of the rights of the citizen; that of the second period, from 1820 to the Civil War (186165), the democratization of the suffrage and of institutions generally; that of the third period (since the war to the present day), a disposition to limit the powers and check the action of the legislature, and to commit power to the hands of the whole people voting at the polls.
Except as a stepping-stone to a seat in Congress or a high executive post, the place is not one which excites the ambition of aspir-ing men.
Not less important than his directly executive work is the influence which the governor exerts upon state legislation through his possession (in all the states but one) of a Veto power.
Executive councils advising the governor, but not chosen by him, existed under the first constitutions of all the original thirteen states.
In New York the council of appointment advised the governor only in regard to appointing officers; and in Georgia there was no executive council after 1789.
True executive councils have now disappeared except in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire.
Three of the original thirteen have their judges elected by the legislatures, and in five others, together with Maine and Mississippi among the newer states, they are appointed by the governor, subject to the approval of the executive council, the Senate, or (in Connecticut) the General Assembly.
The selectmen, who receive no regular salary, but may charge for expenses actually incurred, form a sort of directory or executive committee, which manages the ordinary administrative and financial business under such instructions as may have been given by the town meeting.
As the chief executive officer, he preserves the public peace.
Nothing has done more to give cohesion to the American Federal system than the direct action of the Federal executive and judiciary.
Following what was then deemed a fundamental maxim of political science, they divided the government into three departments, the legislative, the executive and the judicial, and sought to keep each of these as far as possible detached from and independent of the other two.
For the consideration of some classes of business the Senate goes into executive or secret session, although what is done at this session usually leaks out, and finds its way to the public through the press.
Foreign governments often complain of this power of the Senate, because it prevents them from being able to rely upon the carrying out of arrangments they have made with the executive; but as the president is not responsible to Congress and is irremovable (except by impeachment) during his term of office, there would be objections to giving him an.
With this the action of the executive ceases, and the matter passes into the hands of Congress.
There is no legal limitation to his re-eligibility any number of times; but tradition, dating from the refusal of George Washington to be rioniinated for a third term, has virtually established the rule that no person shall be president for more than two continuous terms, If the president dies, the vice-president steps into his place; and if the latter also dies in office, the succession passes to the secretary of state.f The president receives a salary of $75,000 a year, besides $25,000 a year for travelling expenses, and has an official residence called the Executive Mansion, or more familiarly the White House.
Treaties require the approval of two-thirds of the Senate, and the foreign affairs committee of that body is usually kept informed of the negotiations which are being conducted by the executive.
The power to declare war formally belongs to Congress; but the executive may, without an act of Congress, virtually engage in hostilities and thus bring about a state of war, as happened in 184546, when war broke out with Mexico.
The domestic executive authority of the president in time of peace is small, because by far the larger part of law and administration belongs to the state and local governments, while the Federal administration is regulated by statutes which leave little discretion to the executive.
The members of the presidents party in the House also demand a share in the bestowal of offices as a price for their co-operation in those matters wherein the executive may find it necessary to have legislative aid.
But when foreign affairs reach a critical stage, or when disorders within the Union require Federal intervention, immense responsibility is then thrown on one who is both commander-inchief of the army and the head of the civil executive.
The attorney-general is the legal adviser of the president, public prosecutor and standing counsel for the United States, and also has general oversight of the Federal judicial administration, especially of the prosecuting officers called district attorneys and of the executive court officers called marshals.
The tribunal does not enter any conflict with the legislature or executive.
The legislature and the executive are independent and disjoin.ed.
The executive does not depend upon the General legislature, but holds its powers by a direct commis- charaeterof sion from the people.
There may be a difficulty in fixing responsibility upon any person, or small group of persons; because cases may arise in which the executive, being unable to act without the concurrence of the legislature, can hardly be blamed for failing to act, while yet it is unable to relieve itself by resigning; while on.
For the executive departments the Annual Reports of each and numerous executive documents are useful.
In 1882 the wealthy manufacturer and philanthropist Samuel Morley began to take an interest in the affairs of the Hall, and in 1884 he joined the executive committee.
This was to increase the influence of the diet and its secret committees in the solution of purely diplomatic questions, which should have been left entirely to the executive, thus weakening the central government and at the same time facilitating the interference of foreign Powers in Sweden's domestic affairs.
The chief executive authority is vested in the sovereign, as is the supreme command g p of the military and naval forces.
He holds office for five years, and his powers are strictly limited, as in the case of the sovereign, all executive acts being done on the advice of his cabinet, the members of which hold office only so long as they retain the confidence of the people as expressed by their representatives in parliament.
In 1860 he became a member of the executive council of Massachusetts, and from 1863 to 1873 was a republican member of the national House of Representatives.