Excommunication sentence example
On the 17th of July Innocent formally renewed the sentence of excommunication on the emperor, and declared him deposed from the imperial throne and that of Naples.
Excommunication and interdict (April 17, 1606) were met with defiance.
It provided for the visitation of the clergy by the bishop, and for the power of the clergy to exclude their lay folk from the Holy Communion, subject to appeal to the bishop. Both minor and major excommunication had been in use, and for a long time public penance was required.
It is clear from these illustrations that within the New Testament there is development from spontaneous towards strictly regulated methods; also that the use of excommunication is chiefly for disciplinary and protective rather than punitive purposes.
The use of excommunication as a form of Christian discipline is based on the precept of Christ and on apostolic practice.Advertisement
According to the general supposition, the negotiations which led to the excommunication of Arius and his followers among the presbyters and deacons took place in 318 or 319, but there are good reasons for assigning the outbreak of the controversy to the time following the overthrow of Licinius by Constantine, i.e.
But Alexander too was active; by means of a circular letter he published abroad the excommunication of his presbyter, and the controversy excited more and more general interest.
An attempt was made to prevent the emigration of labourers, and finally the spiritual arm was invoked to secure obedience to these laws by threats of excommunication.
Raymund Rhupen died in 1221; and after the event Bohemund reigned in Antioch and Tripoli till his death, proving himself a determined enemy of the Hospitallers, and thereby incurring excommunication in 1230.
Celestine did not dare so much as to threaten him with excommunication.Advertisement
On the r4th of February Mgr Amette, the new archbishop of Paris, prohibited his diocesans to read or defend the two books, which "attack and deny several fundamental dogmas of Christianity," under pain of excommunication.
Innocent was raised to the Holy See when it was at deadly feud with the emperor Frederick II., who lay under excommunication.
Nothing is said as to the nature and effects of excommunication.
Excommunication still continued to be occasionally used in the spirit of genuine Christian fidelity, as.
Even the hastiest survey of that long and interesting period enables the student to notice a marked development in the theory and practice of excommunication.Advertisement
By means of lighted candles violently dashed to the ground and extinguished the faithful were graphically taught the meaning of the greater excommunication - though in a somewhat misleading way, for it is a fundamental principle of the canon law that disciplina est excommunicatio, non eradicatio.
The first instance, however, of excommunication by "bell, book and candle" is comparatively late (c. 1190) .
In the law of England sentence of excommunication, upon being properly certified by the bishop, was followed by the writ de excommunicato capiendo for the arrest of the offender.
In the churches which consciously shaped their polity at or after the Reformation the principle of excommunication is preserved in the practice of church discipline.
He differentiates decisively between excommunication and anathema.Advertisement
This is called the greater excommunication.
The question whether the power of excommunication rests in the church or in the clergy has been an important one in the history of English and American churches.
And that the censures of admonition and excommunication be in due manner executed, for sinne, convicted, and obstinately stood in.
At the end of June 1802 the pope removed Talleyrand from the ban of excommunication and allowed him to revert to the secular state.
Heimburg's denunciations of the pope were widely circulated, and in spite of the major excommunication he was taken into the service of the archbishop of Mainz and was his representative at the diet of Nuremberg in 1462.Advertisement
The pope replied by ordering Henry under pain of excommunication to put away Anne and restore Catherine, his legal wife, within ten days.
He wished for the complete independence and self-government of the Church, with the right of excommunication to be used against the ungodly.
What he calls heresy, under the sanction of excommunication or that more formal excommunication known as anathema, is heresy.
They were feared, too, as ministers of the taboo and were entitled to pronounce a kind of excommunication for offences against its rules.
The peace decrees of these various synods differed considerably in detail, but in general they were intended fully to protect non-combatants; they forbade, under pain of excommunication, every act of private warfare or violence against ecclesiastical buildings and their environs, and against certain persons, such as clerics, pilgrims, merchants, women and peasants, and against cattle and agricultural implements.
The result of this disobedience was excommunication by Lucius III.
This act of ordaining ministers, probably after the Genevan order - which they certainly used from May 1568 - and their excommunication of certain deserters from their " church " (so Grindal), clearly mark the fact that this body of some 200 persons had now deliberately taken up a position outside the national church, as being themselves a " church " in a truer sense than any parish church, inasmuch as they conformed to the primitive pattern.
It refers not to an accusation, but to sin actually committed (after baptism); and it denotes the setting of the sinner free from the guilt of the sin, or from its ecclesiastical penalty (excommunication), or from both.
On hearing from Rome, Cyril at once held a synod and drew up a doctrinal formula for Nestorius to sign, and also twelve anathemas covering the various points of the Nestorian dogmatic. Nestorius, instead of yielding to the combined pressure of his two great rivals, merely replied by a counter excommunication.
By the king's desire he undertook the vindication of the practices of confirmation, absolution, private baptism and lay excommunication; he urged, but in vain, the reinforcement of an ancient canon, "that schismatics are not to be heard against bishops"; and in opposition to the Puritans' demand for certain alterations in doctrine and discipline, he besought the king that care might be taken for a praying clergy; and that, till men of learning and sufficiency could be found, godly homilies might be read and their number increased.
After a visit to England on business in connexion with the cotton trade, which was not successful and brought on him excommunication from his caste, he was appointed in 1874 to administer a native state in Kathiawar during the minority of the chief; and there he died in August 1875.
In 1178 he became archbishop of Lund, but very unwillingly, only the threat of excommunication from the holy see finally inducing him to accept the pallium.
Just before Ignatius was experiencing the call to conversion, Luther had begun his revolt against the Roman Church by burning the papal bull of excommunication on the 10th of December 1520.
In a convocation held at Oxford under Archbishop Arundel in 1408 it was enacted " that no man hereafter by his own authority translate any text of the Scripture into English or any other tongue, by way of a book, booklet, or tract; and that no man read any such book, booklet, or tract, now lately composed in the time of John Wycliffe or since, or hereafter to be set forth in part or in whole, publicly or privately, upon pain of greater excommunication, until the said translation be approved by the ordinary of the place, or, if the case so require, by the council provincial.
Sentence of excommunication was passed on Friedrich in April 1871, but he refused to acknowledge it and was upheld by the Bavarian government.
Even after his excommunication (May 12, 1497) he continued to exercise the functions of his office, under the shelter of the secular arm.
It was not till the 15th of June 1520 that his new theology was condemned by the bull Exsurge, and Luther himself threatened with excommunication - a penalty which was only enforced owing to his refusal to submit, on the 3rd of January 1521.
They turned from him and decided that the pope should be asked to judge Henry; that if, within a year, the sentence of excommunication were not removed, the king should lose his crown; and that in the meantime he should live in retirement.
Luther had confronted the cardinal legate Cajetan, had passed through his famous controversy at Leipzig with Johann Eck, and was about to burn the bull of excommunication.
The penalty of excommunication ipso facto is only maintained for reading books written by heretics or apostates in defence of heresy, or books condemned by name under pain of excommunication by pontifical letters (not by decrees of the Index).
In August 1087 he held a synod at Benevento, which renewed the excommunication of Guibert; banned Archbishop Hugo of Lyons and Abbot Richard of Marseilles as schismatics; and confirmed the prohibition of lay investiture.
Its lords took advantage of the excommunication of the emperor Frederick II.
Heedless of the excommunication they backed him, and the preaching friars proclaimed his to be a holy war.
Their excommunication by Rome does not trouble them at all.
On the 10th of May the brethren wrecked the monasteries of Perth, after a sermon by Knox,and the revolution was launched, the six or seven preachers already threatening the backward members of their party with excommunication.
Neglect as well as mob violence left the ecclesiastical buildings in a ruinous condition, but the authority of the preachers, with their power of boycotting (excommunication), became a theocracy.
By " Presbyterianism " we are here to understand, not the Presbyterian form of church government - the kirk whose motto is Nec tamen consumebatur - but the pretensions of preachers to dominate the state by the mythical " power of the keys," by excommunication with civil penalties and by the fiercest religious intolerance.
An act abolished civil penalties upon sentences of excommunication, and thus broke the terrible weapon which the preachers had wielded so long.
The struggle ended in 1297 by an agreement between the two parties as to their common rights, and when the pope raised the excommunication incurred by the count, Saisset absolved him in the refectory of the Dominican monastery in Pamiers (1300).
On his return Frederick defeated the pontificals, and in 1230 peace was made at San Germano and the excommunication withdrawn.
The pope espoused the cause of Ingeborg; but Philip did not submit until 1200, when, interdict having been added to excommunication, he consented to a separation from Agnes.
Alexander fulminated with excommunication and interdict against the party of Manfred, but in vain; nor could he enlist the kings of England and Norway in a crusade against the Hohenstaufen.
This led to his excommunication and brought the interdict upon France, and did more to weaken him than any other act of his.
Sankara also founded four Maths, or convents, for Brahmans; the chief one being that of Sringeri in Mysore, the spiritual head (Guru) of which wields considerable power, even that of excommunication, over the Saivas of southern India.
The famous May laws (1873) were a determined attempt to bring the literary education, appointment and dis cipline of the clergy under state control, and to regulate the use of such spiritual penalties as deprivation and excommunication.
The terrible power of excommunication is claimed for the church; but the council of the realm also is called to use the power given them by God to put down all religion but the reformed, and to further the aims and carry out the sentences AA.
Threatened with excommunication by the Rabbis of Jerusalem, Sabbatai returned to Smyrna (autumn of 1665).
Tyrrell's criticism of this document appeared in The Times on the 30th of September and the 1st of October, and led to his virtual excommunication from the Church.
Warned by this that Amsterdam was hardly a safe place of residence for him any longer, Spinoza had already left the city before the sentence of excommunication was pronounced.
He drew up a protest against the decree of excommunication, but otherwise it left him unmoved.
The five years which followed the excommunication must have been devoted to concentrated thought and study.
Having recanted his heresies, he was readmitted after an excommunication of fifteen years, but was soon excommunicated a second time.
When the excommunication is removed, the symbol of reconciliation is the handing to the penitent of a burning taper.
His attempts to strengthen the monarchy and fill the treasury at the expense of the Church resulted in his excommunication by Pope Honorius III., and Portugal remained under interdict until Alphonso II.
With Sciarra Colonna, Nogaret surprised Boniface at Anagni, on the 7th of September 1303, as the latter was about to pronounce the sentence of excommunication against the king.
In 1317, in execution of a bull of Clement V., the royal vicariate in Italy had been conferred by John on Robert of Anjou, and this appointment was renewed in 1322 and 1324, with threats of excommunication against any one who should seize the vicariate of Italy without the authorization of the pope.
The document was received with universal applause, and Sarpi was immediately made canonist and theological counsellor to the republic. When in the following April the last hopes of accommodation were dispelled by Paul's excommunication of the Venetians and his attempt to lay their dominions under an interdict, Sarpi entered with the utmost energy into the controversy.
The most memorable acts of his pontificate were those arising out of the contumacy of the French king, Robert, who was ultimately brought to submission by the rigorous infliction of a sentence of excommunication.
The sentence was passed by the lay members of the Curia Regis alone, the bishops having been forbidden to sit, and threatened with excommunication if they did so, by the accused primate.
Archbishop Langton, who on assuming possession of his see had shown at once that he was a patriotic English statesman, and not the mere delegate of the pope, besought his master to hold back, and, when he refused, threatened to renew the excommunication which had so lately been removed.
The 72nd canon ordains that " no minister or ministers shall, without licence and direction of the bishop under hand and seal, appoint or keep any solemn fasts, either publicly or in any private houses, other than such as by law are or by public authority shall be appointed, nor shall be wittingly present at any of them under pain of suspension for the first fault, of excommunication for the second, and of deposition from the ministry for the third."
He pronounced excommunication and deposition against King George Podiebrad on the 23rd of December 1466 for refusal to enforce the Basel agreement against the Utraquists, and prevailed on Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, to declare war against him on the 31st of March 1468.
Excommunication " and " penance " thus came to be temporal ecclesiastical sanctions of the moral law.
The pope, Paschal, reaffirmed strongly the rule of investiture, and passed sentence of excommunication against all who had infringed the law, except Henry.
In 1106 Anselm crossed to England, with power from the pope to remove the sentence of excommunication from the illegally invested churchmen.
He is known as having succeeded in obtaining the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches, which had been separated since the excommunication of Acacius in 484.
In 1301 and 1302 the arrest of Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, by the officers of the king, and the citation of this cleric before the kings tribunal for the crime of lse-majest, revived the conflict and led Boniface to send an order to free Saisset, and to put forward a claim to reform the kingdom under the threat of excommunication.
A Roman synod in 43 o found Nestorius heretical and decreed his excommunication unless he should recant.
Much as he mingled with society, and with persons of importance in church and state, his single interference in political matters was in 1593, when his persuasions induced the pope, Clement VIII., to withdraw the excommunication and anathema of Henry IV.
Meanwhile the crusade was postponed again and again; until under a threat of excommunication, after the fall of Damietta in 1221, Frederick definitely undertook by a treaty made at San Germano in 1225 to set out in August 1227 or to submit to this penalty.
But as his warnings had been disregarded, he issued a document after the emperor's retreat from Brescia, teeming with complaints against Frederick, and followed it up by an open alliance with the Lombards, and by the excommunication of the emperor on the 10th of March 1239.
Hither he summoned a general council, which met in June 1245; but although Frederick sent his justiciar, Thaddeus of Suessa, to represent him, and expressed his willingness to treat, sentence of excommunication and deposition was pronounced against him.
The source of all the evil was, he declared, the excessive wealth of the church, which, in retaliation for the sentence of excommunication, he threatened to confiscate.
This time he was stripped of all his possessions excepting the city of Rimini and a neighbouring castle, but the sentence of excommunication was withdrawn.
So strong was this feeling in some places that it was contended that the discipline of excommunication, if exercised at all, should be exercised only by the secular power.
It seems doubtful if the governor exceeded his legal right in refusing to allow Pereira to proceed; 1 in this attitude he remained firm even when Xavier, if the Jesuit biographers may be trusted, exhibited the brief by which he held the rank of papal nuncio, and threatened Ataide with excommunication.
This famous charter, which was amplified, under the influence of the clergy, in 1231, when its articles were placed under the guardianship of the archbishop of Esztergom (who was authorized to punish their violation by the king with excommunication), is generally regarded as the foundation of Hungarian constitutional liberty, though like Magna Carta it purported only to confirm immemorial rights; and as such it was expressly ratified as a whole in the coronation oaths of all the Habsburg kings from Ferdinand to Leopold I.
On the other hand, he exhibits a decided tendency to the world-ennui and melancholy which was one of the earlier symptoms of the movement, and he has experimented in French verse in a manner which would have led to his excommunication by the typical performers of the 18th century.
The result of their report was that all pilgrimage thither from the province of Bohemia was prohibited by the archbishop on pain of excommunication, while Huss, with the full sanction of his superior, gave to the world his first published writing, entitled De Omni Sanguine Christi Glorificato, in which he declaimed in no measured terms against forged miracles and ecclesiastical greed, urging Christians at the same time to desist from looking for sensible signs of Christ's presence, but rather to seek Him in His enduring word.
In a theocracy excommunication is necessarily both a civil and a religious penalty.
In Scotland three degrees of church censure are recognized - admonition, suspension from sealing ordinances (which may be called temporary excommunication), and excommunication properly so-called.
The pope followed with a counter excommunication, far more formidable, releasing the kings subjects from their oaths of allegiance.
In reply the pope prepared a bull of excommunication against those who should infringe the prerogatives of the Holy See in this matter.
The fundamental principle of ecclesiastical jurisdiction with its sanction " of excommunication will be found in Christ's words in Matt.
The penalties which the spiritual court could inflict, in the period between the edict of Milan and c. 854, were properly excommunication whether generally or as exclusion from the sacraments for a term of months or years or till the day of death and (in the case of clerics) suspension or deposition.
The elders are the first or oldest teachers of congregations, for which there is no regular bishop. They have charge of the meetings of such congregations, and participate in excommunication proceedings, besides which they preach, exhort, baptize, and may, when needed, take the offices of the deacons.
For a time, indeed, the Order lay under papal sentence of excommunication; but the transference of his seat to Marienburg at this time (1308) gave the grand master a basis from which he was able to make easy terms with the pope.
The support given to him by the national church in spite of his excommunication must have been of great importance in that age, and was probably due to the example of Lamberton.
No formal excommunication of Origen appears to have been decreed; it was considered sufficient to have him degraded to the position of a layman.
An English translation of the Theses, with brief life of Erastus (based on Melchior Adam's account), was issued in 1659, entitled The Nullity of Church Censures; it was reprinted as A Treatise of Excommunication (1682), and, as revised by Robert Lee, D.D., in 1844.
On those who refused to submit to their decisions they had the power of inflicting severe penalties, of which excommunication from society was the most dreaded.
He sailed back to Otranto in order to recover his health, but the new pope, Gregory IX., launched in hot anger the bolt of excommunication, in the belief that Frederick was malingering once more.
The Franciscans gave him no encouragement to remain; and the provincial threatened him with excommunication if he persisted.
In it he deals with ecclesiastical jurisdiction, penances, indulgences, crusades and pilgrimages, vows, excommunication, the pope and the council, marriage and divorce.
The bishops denounced sentence of excommunication against all transgressors, and soon after Howel himself went to Rome attended by the archbishop of St David's, the bishops of Bangor and St Asaph and thirteen other personages.
And the Holy Office, on the 7th of March, pronounced the major excommunication against him.
Throughout these years he declined to remove the sentence of excommunication which he had passed upon Michael, and after his death, when the new patriarch Josephus gave absolution to the emperor, the quarrel was carried on between the "Arsenites" and the "Josephists."
Far firmer is the tone of his later letter to the same archbishop, where he contends from historical evidence that the papal judgment is not infallible, and encourages his brother prelate not to fear excommunication in a righteous cause, for it is not in the power even of the successor of Peter "to separate an innocent priest from the love of Christ."
The friar's sermons against ecclesiastical corruption, and especially against the pope, resulted in his excommunication by the latter, in consequence of which he lost much of his influence and immorality spread once more.
The penalties in the canon law included, in addition to restitution, penance, fines and excommunication; and right of asylum was denied to the culprit.
Shortly afterwards the threatened bull of excommunication was launched against him, and Fra Mariano was in Rome stimulating the pope's wrath.
But in July Savonarola's friends were again in power and did their best to have his excommunication removed.
Apparently, if a proper case could be made out, an ecclesiastical court might still sentence a layman to excommunication for heresy, but by no other means could his opinions be brought under censure.
This was the commencement of the excommunication or secession of the Montanists in Asia Minor.
It was before him that the Reformer appeared at the diet of Augsburg; and it was he who, in 1519, helped in drawing up the bull of excommunication against Luther.
This decree, as soon as it was published in Prague (March 9, 1410), led to much popular agitation, and provoked an appeal by Huss to the pope's better informed judgment; the archbishop, however, resolutely insisted on carrying out his instructions, and in the following July caused to be publicly burned, in the courtyard of his own palace, upwards of 200 volumes of the writings of Wycliffe, while he pronounced solemn sentence of excommunication against Huss and certain of his friends, who had in the meantime again protested and appealed to the new pope (John XXIII.).
A popular demonstration, in which the papal bulls had been paraded through the streets with circumstances of peculiar ignominy and finally burnt, led to intervention by Wenceslaus on behalf of public order; three young men, for having openly asserted the unlawfulness of the papal indulgence after silence had been enjoined, were sentenced to death (June 1412); the excommunication against Huss was renewed, and the interdict again laid on all places which should give him shelter - a measure which now began to be more strictly regarded by the clergy, so that in the following December Huss had no alternative but to yield to the express wish of the king by temporarily withdrawing from Prague.
The history of the practice of excommunication may be traced through (1) pagan analogues, (2) Hebrew custom, (3) primitive Christian practice, (4) medieval and monastic usage, (5) modern survivals in existing Christian churches.
There is also a lighter form of excommunication which "devotes" the goods of an offender, but only separates him from the congregation.
The major excommunication (herem) excluded from the Temple as well as the synagogue and from all association with the faithful.
If it be the same it indicates that the excommunication had not been final; the offender had been received back.
But the excommunication was on all hands regarded as being "medicinal" in its character.
Oeotokos, and bade Nestorius retract his erroneous teaching, on pain of instant excommunication, at the same time entrusting the execution of this decision to the patriarch of Alexandria.
His excommunication by the presbytery of London, in 1830, for publishing his doctrines regarding the humanity of Jesus Christ, and the condemnation of these opinions by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in the following year, were secondary episodes which only affected the main issue of his career in so far as they tended still further to isolate him from the sympathy of the church; but the "irregularities" connected with the manifestation of the "gifts" gradually estranged the majority of his own congregation, and on the complaint of the trustees to the presbytery of London, whose authority they had formerly rejected, he was declared unfit to remain the minister of the National Scotch Church of Regent Square.
The Decretum forbade their alienation to lay proprietors, denounced excommunication against those who refused to pay, and based the right of the Church upon scriptural precedents.6 The decretals contained provisions as to what was and what was not tithable property, as to those privileged from payment, as to sale or hypothecation to laymen, as to priority over state taxes, &c. 7 Various questions which arose later were settled by Boniface VIII.
And when the excommunication of Dellinger and other anti-infallibilist divines (1871) led to the formation of an independent Old Catholic Church (see OLD Catholics) Bavaria, Switzerland and other countries gave it a warm welcome.
The generous and enlightened policy of the imperial administration asked nothing of the people of Gaul but military service and the payment of the tax; in return it freed individuals from patronal domination, the people from oligarchic greed or Druidic excommunication, and every one in general from material anxiety.
The words "blasphemous" and "excommunication" came up, so I'm thinking the Pope did not ask for a rain check just because he could not fit her in his schedule.
Mary I, a devout Catholic, sought to restore England's Catholicism after Henry VIII's excommunication and break with the church.
He therefore made alliance with Venice and Genoa, fulminated a new excommunication against Frederick, and convoked a council at Rome to ratify his ban in 1241.
Gradually, however, doubtless by way of commutation of excommunication and of penance, temporal penalties were added, as scourging, banishment, seclusion in a monastery, fines.
In some sense the king's writ of significavit was discretionary; but its issue could be enforced by excommunication or interdict.
C. 127 (see Excommunication).
The bishops, particularly St Irenaeus of Lyons, declared themselves in favour of the usage of Rome, but refused to associate themselves with the excommunication pronounced by Victor against their Asiatic colleagues.
He was, however, restrained from actually proceeding to enforce the decree of excommunication, owing to the remonstrance of Irenaeus and the bishops of Gaul.
The bishops are chosen from the teachers; they are itinerant, conduct marriage and funeral services, and are present at communions, at ordinations, when deacons are chosen or elected, and at trials for the excommunication of members.
Both major and minor kinds of excommunication are recognized by the Talmud.
See Excommunication; Penance.