established here his courts of chancery and exchequer and the great sessions for South Wales.
He was incessantly on his legs in committee, and became a name for an opposition bandog who gave chancellors of the exchequer no peace.
An ardent opponent of Catholic Emancipation, he delivered in 1807 a speech on the subject which helped to give the deathblow to the Grenville administration, upon which he became chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Portland, whom in 1809 he succeeded in the premiership. Notwithstanding that he had the assistance in the cabinet of no statesman of the first rank, he succeeded in retaining office till he was shot by a man named Bellingham, a bankrupt with a grievance, who had vainly applied to him for redress, in the lobby of the House of Commons on the 11th of May 1812.
It is characteristic of the man that the exchequer should be the chief institution created in his reign.
Exchequer bills 9,923,480
His plans were foiled by the courage of Arminius and the inability of the Roman exchequer to pay a larger army.
He acted as private secretary to Mr (afterwards Lord) Goschen, and in 1887, when Goschen became chancellor of the exchequer, was appointed his principal private secretary.
He was succeeded by Lord Russell, and Gladstone, retaining the chancellorship of the exchequer, became for the first time leader of the House of Commons.
The speech of the chancellor of the exchequer, he said, must be answered " on the moment."
The Jacobite Sir William Windham had been made chancellor of the exchequer, important military posts were placed in the hands of the faction, and a new ministry of Jacobites was projected.
The same diet which destroyed the national armaments and depleted the exchequer confirmed the disgraceful peace of Pressburg, concluded between Wladislaus and the emperor Maximilian on the 7th of November 1491, whereby Hungary retroceded all the Austrian conquests of Matthias, together with a long strip of Magyar territory, and paid a war indemnity equivalent to £200,000.
It established the chancellor of the exchequer as the paramount financier of his day, and it was only the first of a long series of similar performances, different, of course, in detail, but alike in their bold outlines and brilliant handling.
The Jews had been expelled from England by Edward I., after a sojourn in the country of rather more than two centuries, during which they had been the licensed and oppressed money-lenders of the realm, and had - through the special exchequer of the Jews - been used by the sovereign as a means of extorting a revenue from his subjects.
The control of foreign policy, public works, the customs and the exchequer are in French hands, while the management of police, the collection of the direct taxes and the administration of justice between natives remain with the native government.
This grant is in lieu of the grants formerly made out of the exchequer grant in aid of local rates, and amounted in1906-1907to £619,489.
of State Papers, Foreign, Scottish, Venetian, vii; Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, xix.
The total grants from the state exchequer for education of all grades in all parts of the empire amounted in 1906 to £8,107,000.
Under the emperors the senate continued to have at least the nominal management of the aerarium, while the emperor had a separate exchequer, called fiscus.
His first speech appears to have been on the 22nd of January 1673, in which he inveighed against the stop of the exchequer, the attack on the Smyrna fleet, the corruption of courtiers with French money, and "the ill ministers about the king."
In 1865 an empty exchequer called for drastic measures, and the volksraad determined to endeavour to meet their liabilities and provide for further contingencies by the issue of notes.
" Any other chancellor of the exchequer would be torn in bits by him."
He now applied himself specially to financial criticism, and was perpetually in conflict with the chancellor of the exchequer, Sir George Cornewall Lewis.
Lord Derby became prime minister, with Disraeli as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons.
When the session of 1873 had come to an end Gladstone took the chancellorship of the exchequer, and, as high authorities contended, vacated his seat by doing so.
Taking both together the receipts into the exchequer on behalf of Coburg were estimated for 1909-1910 at about £ioo,000 and those for Gotha at about £200,000, while the common state expenditure amounted to about the same sum.
The civil list of the reigning duke is fixed at £i 5,000 a year, in addition to half the proceeds of the Gotha domains, after £s000 has been deducted and paid into the state exchequer, and half the net revenue of the Coburg domains.
His father held the offices of comes privatarum and sacrarum largitionum (controller of the emperor's private revenue and the public exchequer) under Odoacer, and subsequently attached himself to Theodoric, by whom he was appointed corrector (governor) of Bruttii and Lucania, and praefectus praetorio.
Asquith, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, as his parliamentary secretary, and continued in that position when his chief succeeded to the premiership. Early in 'giro he was appointed Under-Secretary for India, at a time when Lord Morley's tenure of the Secretaryship of State for India was drawing to a close.
He was succeeded by his sons, Edward (1323-1329), known as "the Liberal," on account of his extravagance, and Aimone, the Peaceful (1329-1343), who strove to repair the harm done to the state's exchequer by his predecessor and proved one of the bestrinces of his line.
The situation in Piedmont was far from promising, the exchequer was empty, the army disorganized, the country despondent and suspicious of the king.
A further derogation from the ideal of democratic austerity was committed by adding 80,000 per annum to the kings civil list (14th May 1877) and by burdening the state exchequer with royal household pensions amounting to 20,000 a year.
" The Jews were unwilling sponges by means of which a large part of the subjects' wealth found its way into the royal exchequer " (Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, ch.
The successful course of the campaign and the large sums which he sent from Italy to the French exchequer served to strengthen his hold over the Directors, and his constructive policy grew more decided.
He wrote, with papal approval, the letter requesting the Italians to occupy the Leonine city, and obtained from the Italians payment of the Peter's pence (5,000,000 lire) remaining in the papal exchequer, as well as 50,000 scudi - the first and only instalment of the Italian allowance (subsequently fixed by the Law of Guarantees, March 21, 1871) ever accepted by the Holy See.
But if Lord Rosebery once more separated himself from the official Liberals, his principal henchmen in the Liberal League were included in the cabinet, Mr Asquith becoming chancellor of the exchequer, Sir Edward Grey foreign secretary, and Mr Haldane war minister.
It had been drained of both wealth and fighting population; the devastated provinces of Elam and Babylonia could yield nothing with which to supply the needs of the imperial exchequer, and it was difficult to find sufficient troops even to garrison the conquered populations.
When, in April 1908, Mr Asquith became premier, and Mr Lloyd George chancellor of the exchequer, the sugar convention The world's trade in cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois at decennial periods from 1840 to 1870, inclusive, and yearly from 1871 to 1901 inclusive, with the percentage of beet sugar and the average price per cwt.
Among Round's works may be mentioned Feudal England (1895); Geoffrey de Mandeville (1892); and Studies on the Red Book of the Exchequer (1898).
The exchequer being drained by the payment of 10,000 pieces of gold to buy off the Gauls who had invaded their territories about 279 B.C., and by the imposition of an annual tribute which was ultimately raised to 80 talents, they were compelled to exact a toll on all the ships which passed the Bosporus - a measure which the Rhodians resented and avenged by a war, wherein the Byzantines were defeated.
The prime minister, Lord Melbourne, submitted to the king a choice of names for the chancellorship of the exchequer and leadership of the House of Commons; but his majesty announced that, having lost the services of Lord Althorp as leader of the House of Commons, he could feel no confidence in the stability of Lord Melbourne's government, and that it was his intention to send for the duke of Wellington.
In February 1852 the Whig government was defeated on a Militia Bill, and Lord John Russell was succeeded by Lord Derby, formerly Lord Stanley, with Mr Disraeli, who now his constant companions were Homer and Dante, and entered office for the first time, as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons.
The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.
The count of the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer or chancellor of the exchequer, for the public treasury and the imperial fisc had come to be identical; while the count of the private estates managed the imperial demesnes and the privy purse.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
The dues were fostered by the growing trade of Hamburg, and in 1861, when they were redeemed (for 427,600) by the nations trading in the Elbe, the exchequer of Hanover was in the yearly receipt of about L45,000 from this source.
Exemption was obtained from these incidences of feudalism by large payments to the Crown in return for charters covenanting that Malta should for ever be administered under the royal exchequer without the intervention of intermediary feudal lords.
Milbourn (1867) the defendant had broken his contract to let a lecture-room to the plaintiff, on discovering that the intended lectures were to maintain that "the character of Christ is defective, and his teaching misleading, and that the Bible is no more inspired than any other book," and the court of exchequer held that the publication of such doctrine was blasphemy, and the contract therefore illegal.
At the end of the 12th century was established the " exchequer of the Jews," which chiefly dealt with suits concerning money-lending, and arranged a " continual flow of money from the Jews to the royal treasury," and a so-called " parliament of the Jews " was summoned in 1241; in 1275 was enacted the statute de Judaismo which, among other things, permitted the Jews to hold land.
The new regent had to deal with an empty exchequer and with a strong opposition to her daughter's marriage with the dauphin.
He held many high offices during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., including a judgeship of the admiralty court (1584), a mastership in chancery (1588), a mastership of the court of requests (1595), chancellor and under treasurer of the exchequer (1606).
In the following month the chancellor of the exchequer produced his second budget.
In 1736 Tucker married Dorothy, the daughter of Edward Barker of East Betchworth, cursitor baron of the exchequer.
Save for the small item of military expenditure Tunisia is no charge to the French exchequer.
As yet the Cassa Ecclesiastica had no right to dispose of the property thus entrusted to it; but in 1862 an act was passed by which it transferred all its real property to the national domain, and was credited with a corresponding amount by the exchequer.
In view of the severe monetary crisis of 1893 he was entrusted by Crispi with the portfolio of finance (December 1893), and in spite of determined opposition dealt energetically and successfully with the deficit of more than £6,000,000 then existing in the exchequer.
Heliodorus, prime minister of Seleucus Philopator, who succeeded Antiochus, arrived at Jerusalem in his progress through Coele-Syria and Phoenicia and declared the treasure confiscate to the royal exchequer.
In April 1294 the younger Bruce had permission to visit Ireland for a year and a half, and as a further mark of Edward's favour a respite of all debts owing by him to the exchequer.
Negotiating in the spirit of a Frederick II., and acting not as a Crusader but as a king of Sicily, he not only wrested a large indemnity from the bey for himself and the new king of France, but also secured a large annual tribute for his Sicilian exchequer.
They came into open conflict at the council of Woodstock (July 1163), when Becket successfully opposed the king's proposal that a land-tax, known as the sheriff's aid, which formed part of that official's salary, should be henceforth paid into the Exchequer.
In May 1762 he was appointed secretary of state, and in October first lord of the admiralty; and in April 1763 he became first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer.
The Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) caused both revenue and expenditure to rise abnormally, while the depression in trade which followed the war adversely affected the exchequer.
The coinage had not only been seriously debased during the closing years of the Tokugawa regime, but large quantities of paper currency had been issued and circulated, both by many of the feudal lords, and by the central government itself, as a temporary expedient for filling an impoverished exchequer.
The queen and Prince Albert wrote to congratulate the chancellor of the exchequer.
The Peelites joined him, and Gladstone resumed office as chancellor of the exchequer.
Lord Palmerston became prime minister, and asked Gladstone to join him as chancellor of the exchequer.
Lord Aberdeen became prime minister, and Gladstone chancellor of the exchequer.
In 1845 a Britton Club was formed, and a sum of £1000 was subscribed and given to Britton, who was subsequently granted a civil list pension by Disraeli, then chancellor of the exchequer.
A period elapsed before the government of Malta again became self-supporting, during which over £600,000 was contributed by the British exchequer in aid of revenue, and for the importation of food-stuffs.
Since the British occupation it was disputed whether the military authorities had the right to alienate for the benefit of the imperial exchequer fortress sites no longer required for defence.
The growing claims of the state on the exchequer of the clergy made his duties responsible, his colleague as agent-general being of little use.
The office of master of the Mint is held by the chancellor of the exchequer for the time being, without salary, but the actual administrative work of the department is entrusted to the deputy master and comptroller.
In 1823 he entered parliament as secretary to the treasury, and in 1827 became chancellor of the exchequer under Lord Goderich; but in consequence of internal differences, arising partly out of a slight put upon Herries, the ministry was broken up, and in 1828 he was appointed master of the mint.
7 1916 he visited London and held a conference with the Chancellor of the Exchequer at the Treasury.
(1783-1870), chief baron of the exchequer; and Sir George Pollock, Bart.
The chief baron's fourth son, Sir Charles Edward Pollock (1823-1897), had a successful career at the bar and in 1873 became a judge, being the last survivor of the old barons of the exchequer; he was thrice married and had issue by each wife.
The president of the Board of Trade was the chief success of the ministry, and when Mr Asquith became premier in 1908 and promoted Mr Lloyd George to the chancellorship of the exchequer, the appointment was well received even in the City of London.
A considerable deficit, of about £16,000,000, was in prospect, and the chancellor of the exchequer aroused misgivings by alluding in a speech to the difficulty he had in deciding what "hen roost" to "rob."
The discussions on the budget entirely monopolized public attention for the year, and while the measure was defended by Mr Lloyd George in parliament with much suavity, and by Mr Asquith, Sir Edward Grey and Mr Haldane outside the House of Commons with tact and moderation, the feelings of its opponents were exasperated by a series of inflammatory public speeches at Limehouse and elsewhere from the chancellor of the exchequer, who took these opportunities to rouse the passions of the working-classes against the landed classes and the peers.
950 and copies were legally compared and stamped; the Normans removed them to Westminster to the custody of the king's chamberlains at the exchequer; and they were preserved in the crypt of Edward the Confessor, while remaining royal property (9).
Personal references are to be found in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, iii.
He may have owed his election to Cecil's influence, for to Cecil he subsequently attributed his rise to power; but his brotherin-law Sir Walter Mildmay was well known at court and in 1566 became chancellor of the exchequer.
There is no public debt, the annual deficiency being made good by a grant-in-aid from the imperial exchequer.
In 1216 Magna Carta, a copy of which is to be found in the Red Book of the Exchequer, was granted to the Irish by Henry III.
A chancery and exchequer for the counties of Brecknock and Radnor were also established at Brecon Castle, and from 1542 till 1830 the great sessions, and since then the assizes, and at all times the quarter sessions for the county, have been held at Brecon.
Kepler's claims upon the insolvent imperial exchequer amounted by this time to 12,000 florins.
In 1885 he was elected for West Bristol, and the Conservative party having returned to power, became chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons.
After Mr Gladstone's brief Home Rule Ministry in 1886 he entered Lord Salisbury's next Cabinet again as Irish secretary, making way for Lord Randolph Churchill as leader of the House; but troubles with his eyesight compelled him to resign in 1887, and meanwhile Mr Goschen replaced Lord Randolph as chancellor of the exchequer.
From 1888 to 1892 Sir Michael Hicks Beach returned to active work as president of the Board of Trade, and in 1895 - Mr Goschen being transferred to the Admiralty - he again became chancellor of the exchequer.
who was chancellor of the exchequer from 1823 to 1827; as Lord Goderich he became prime minister (and a peculiarly weak one) from August 1827 to January 1828, colonial secretary in 1831 and 1832, lord privy seal (1833-34), president of the Board of Trade (1841-43), and president of the India board (1843-46).
was to marry a Spanish princess, who was to renounce her claims to the Spanish succession if her dowry was paid, which Mazarin knew could not happen at present from the emptiness of the Spanish exchequer.
the Scaccarium Judaeorum was established as a separate branch of the exchequer and used for the purpose of filling the royal coffers.
27 1911), and had previously given occasion for a very firm declaration on the British attitude by Mr. Lloyd George, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, at the Mansion House (July 21 1911).
In 1521 he was appointed treasurer of the exchequer, and in the parliament of 1523 he was elected Speaker.
In June 1778 Wedderburn was promoted to the post of attorney-general, and in the same year he refused the dignity of chief baron of the exchequer because the offer was not accompanied by the promise of a peerage.
He himself became first lord of the treasury and lord privy seal, with the duke of Devonshire (remaining lord president of the council) as leader of the House of Lords; Lord Lansdowne remained foreign secretary, Mr (afterwards Lord) Ritchie took the place of Sir Michael Hicks-Beach (afterwards Lord St Aldwyn) as chancellor of the exchequer, Mr J.
The two chief items of the ministerial parliamentary programme were the extension of the new Education Act to London and Mr Wyndham's Irish Land Purchase Act, by which the British exchequer should advance the capital for enabling the tenants in Ireland to buy out the landlords.
During this critical fortnight the duke had apparently acquiesced in Mr Balfour's compromise, and had co-operated in reconstituting the ministry; his nephew and heir had been made financial secretary to the treasury, while Mr Alfred Lyttelton was appointed colonial secretary, Mr Austen Chamberlain chancellor of the exchequer, Mr Brodrick secretary for India, Mr H.
granted the first charter in 1252-1253, making the town a free borough and granting the burgesses the right to hold it at the ancient fee farm with an increase of 40s., and to choose two bailiffs to answer at the exchequer for the farm.
Additional rewards followed, including the renewal of his exchequer auditorship (though he may have continued to enjoy it since his first appointment) and ten pounds to his pension.
(3) The Apostolic Chamber (Reverends Camera Apostolica) was before the abolition of the temporal power of the papacy the ministry of finance, at once treasury and exchequer, of the popes as heads of the Catholic Church as well as sovereigns of the papal states.
From 1882 to 1885 he was chancellor of the exchequer, and the beer and spirit duty in his budget of the latter year was the occasion of the government's fall.
Becoming prominent among the Whigs, Dowdeswell was made chancellor of the exchequer in 1765 under the marquess of Rockingham, and his short tenure of this position appears to have been a successful one, he being in Lecky's words "a good financier, but nothing more."
Amongst the older partisans of the Angevin house the most influential were Archbishop Theobald, whose good will guaranteed to Henry the support of the Church, and Nigel, bishop of Ely, who presided at the exchequer.
But in Scotland the ordinary judges of the Inner and Outer Houses are called lords ordinary, the junior lord ordinary of the Outer House acts as lord ordinary of the bills, the second junior as lord ordinary on teinds, the third junior as lord ordinary on Exchequer causes.
34,667,673 Minister of finance 6,696,780 Contribution to im perial exchequer.
In 1266 Godfrey became chancellor of the exchequer, succeeding Walter as chancellor of England when, in the same year, the latter was made archbishop of York.
Tithes could also be sued for in equity, especially the equity side of the exchequer.
He made himself conspicuous by his support of Walpole on the question of the excise, and in 1 743 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an administration in which Pelham was prime minister, with the office of chancellor of the exchequer; but rank and influence made his brother, the duke of Newcastle, very powerful in the cabinet, and, in spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional disputes between them, which led to difficulties.
In 1184 and in 1185 he appears as a baron of the exchequer.
The imperial treasury (Reiciisschatzamt), or exchequer, is the head financial office of the empire.
Of the net profits, a dividend of 31/2% is first payable to the shareholders, 20% of the remainder is transferred to the reserve until this has reached a total of 3,000,000, and of the remainder again a quarter is apportioned to the shareholders and three-quarters falls to the imperial exchequer.
At the foundation of the North German Confederation it had been arranged that the imperial exchequer should receive the produce of all customs duties and also of excise.
The Liberals feared that if the e~~IS, government received so large a permanent source of revenue it would be independent of parliament; the Centre, that if the contributions of the states to the imperial exchequer ceased, the central government would be completely independent of the states.
The increased expenditure on the navy after 1897 again caused the contributions required from the states to exceed the grants to them from the imperial exchequer.
Miquel, as minister of finance, succeeded indeed in carrying a reform by which the proceeds of the tax on land and buildings were transferred to the local government authorities, and the loss to the state exchequer made up by increased taxation of larger incomes and industry.
In 1833 the government of Earl Grey conferred upon him the office known as yeoman usher of the exchequer, to which were attached apartments in Palace Yard, where he died on the 7th of April 1836.
It was then agreed that the two states should form a Customs Union for the next ten years; the customs were to be paid to the common exchequer; all sums required in addition to this to meet the expenses to be provided as to 30% by Hungary and as to 70% by Austria.
At the same time arrangements were made between Austria and Hungary to pay off about 80 million of exchequer bills which had been issued on the security of the government salt-works, and were therefore called " salinenscheine."
Loans were needed for military and other purposes, and paragraph 14 itself declares that it cannot be employed for the contraction of any lasting burden upon the exchequer, nor for any sale of state patrimony.
It is administered by a company whose headquarters are in Paris, and no part of its revenue reaches the Egyptian exchequer (see SUEZ CANAL).
The convention left the permanent rate of interest on the debt, as fixed by the Law of Liquidation, unchanged, but to afford temporary relief to the Egyptian exchequer a reduction of 5% on the interest of the debt was granted for two years, on condition that if at the end of that period payment, including the arrears of the two years, was not resumed in full, another international commission was to be appointed to examine into the whole financial situation.
the diminished kingdom and its depleted exchequer; while the agricultural depression induced by the enormous fall in the price of corn all over Europe caused fresh demands upon the state, and added Io,000,000 rix-dollars to the national debt before 1835.
His father, Sir James Dalrymple, Bart., of Hailes, in the county of Haddington, auditor-general of the exchequer of Scotland, was a grandson of James, first Viscount Stair; and his mother, Lady Christian Hamilton, was a daughter of Thomas, 6th earl of Haddington.
25 and his mastery of statistical detail and argument made his appointment as chancellor of the exchequer part of the natural order of things when in December 1905 Mr Balfour resigned and Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (q.v.) became prime minister.
During Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership, Mr Asquith gradually rose in political importance, and in 1907 the prime minister's ill-health resulted in much of the leadership in the Commons devolving on the chancellor of the exchequer.
As the latter was staying at Biarritz, the unprecedented course was followed of Mr Asquith journeying there for the purpose, and on the 8th he resigned the chancellorship of the exchequer and kissed hands as prime minister.
Lloyd George, chancellor of the exchequer (transferred from the Board of Trade); Mr R.
He became chamberlain of the exchequer, and from May 1559 to April 1564 he was ambassador in France.
This feature was so stoutly opposed that the bill did not pass, although the chancellor of the exchequer had provided the necessary funds.
Thomas Wilson, in the epistle prefixed to his translation of the Olynthiacs of Demosthenes (1570), has a long and most interesting eulogy of Cheke; and Thomas Nash, in To the Gentlemen Students, prefixed to Robert Greene's Menaphon (1589), calls him "the Exchequer of eloquence, Sir Ihon Cheke, a man of men, supernaturally traded in all tongues."
Cassini, the great comet of 1680 after its perihelion passage; and having returned to England, he married in 1682 Mary, daughter of Mr Tooke, auditor of the exchequer, with whom he lived harmoniously for fifty-five years.
But both the indigo and opium trades are declining industries, which mean a serious loss to the Indian exchequer.
In the execution of this plan, Hastings removed the exchequer from Murshidabad to Calcutta, and for the first time appointed European officers, under the now familiar title of collectors, to superintend the revenue collections and preside in the civil courts.
The sum total expended upon the buildings amounted to half a million of money, and the yearly charges of the establishment were a heavy burden on the exchequer.
In 18 3 a select committee of the House of Commons went into the whole subject of secondary punishment and reported that, as the difficulties in the way of an effective classification of prisoners were insurmountable, they were strongly in favour of the confinement of prisoners in separate cells, recommending that the whole of the prisons should be altered accordingly and the expense borne by the public exchequer.
It had exercised some supervision through its inspectors, had forbidden cells to be used until duly certified as fit, and had threatened to withhold exchequer contributions from prisons of which unfavourable reports were received.
Crime, with the many facilities offered for rapid locomotion to those who committed it, had ceased to be merely local, and the whole state rather than individual communities ought to be taxed; prison charges should be borne by the public exchequer and not by local rates.
The local monarchy of the manorial lords was fast giving way to a central power which maintained its laws, the circuits of its judges, the fiscal claims of its exchequer, the police interference of its civil officers all through the country, and, by prevailing over the franchises of manorial lords, gave shape to a vast dominion of legal equality and legal protection, in which the forces of commercial exchange, of contract, of social intercourse, found a ready and welcome sphere of action.
Burnett, Introduction to the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1878-1901).
A friend of Harley, the duke of Shrewsbury, was first appointed to office, and subsequently the great body of the Whigs were displaced by Tories, Harley being made chancellor of the exchequer and Henry St John secretary of state.
The latter feeling ultimately triumphed; he condescended to accept in the dying days of Grenville's cabinet, and to retain through the "lutestring" administration of Lord Rockingham - "pretty summer wear," as Townshend styled it, "but it will never stand the winter" - the highly paid position of paymaster-general, refusing to identify himself more closely with its fortunes as chancellor of the exchequer.
The chancellor took the place of the justiciar in council, the treasurer in the exchequer, while the two offshoots from the curia regis, the common pleas and the exchequer, received chiefs of their own.
Separate charges, assigned for distinct purposes, have been taken into the national exchequer and come to form a part of the general revenue.
In every part of the country many of the ministers were miserably poor; there were many stipends, even of important parishes, not exceeding £40 a year; and it was not till after many debates in the assembly and appeals to the government that an act was obtained in 1810 which made up the poorer livings to £150 a year by a grant from the public exchequer.
The exchequer pays to 190 poor parishes and 42 Highland churches, from church property in the hands of the crown, £17,040.
of his History of the Exchequer (London, 1711).
At the same time, however, their dealings were nominally under the supervision of the Jews' exchequer, and a number of regulations were enforced, partly with the view of protecting borrowers and partly that the king might know how much his Jews could afford to pay.
By means of the grist tax (which he had proposed in 1865, but which the Menabrea cabinet had passed in 1868), and by other fiscal expedients necessitated by the almost desperate condition of the national exchequer, he succeeded, before his fall from power in 1873, in placing Italian finance upon a sound footing, in spite of fierce attacks and persistent misrepresentation.
The Caps succeeded in transferring L250,000 from the pockets of the rich to the empty exchequer, reducing the national debt by L575,179, and establishing some sort of equilibrium between revenue and expenditure.
The shahs visit to Europe in the same year cost the exchequer about 180,000.
In the United Kingdom the chancellor of the exchequer, usually in April, lays before the House of Commons a statement of the actual results of revenue and expenditure in the past finance year (now ending March 31), showing how far his estimates have been realized, and what surplus or deficit there has been in the income as compared with the expenditure.
The chancellor of the exchequer has to take parliament into confidence on his estimates, both as regards revenue and expenditure; and these estimates are prepared by the various departments of the administration.
The chancellor of the exchequer thus was said to "open his budget" when he made his annual statement.
1169), bishop of Ely, head of the exchequer in the reigns of Henry I.
and Henry II., was brought into the exchequer in early life (1130).
(1154) Nigel was summoned to reorganize the exchequer.
He was the only surviving minister of Henry I., and his knowledge of the exchequer business was unrivalled.
It is to the work of his son Richard, the Dialogus de Scaccario, that we are indebted for our knowledge of the procedure of the exchequer as it was left by Nigel.
Its cost to the British exchequer during this period was f 16,000,000.
Burgers, a man totally unfitted to govern a country distracted by factions, harassed by wars with natives, and with an almost depleted exchequer.
Under the Court of Exchequer Scotland Act 1856 (19 & 20 V.
In January 1828 he was made chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Wellington; like his leader he disliked Roman Catholic emancipation, which he voted against in 1828.
In the domain of finance Goulburn's chief achievements were to reduce the rate of interest on part of the national debt, and to allow any one to sell beer upon payment of a small annual fee, a complete change of policy with regard to the drink traffic. Leaving office with Wellington in November 1830, Goulburn was home secretary under Sir Robert Peel for four months in 1835, and when this statesman returned to office in September 1841 he became chancellor of the exchequer for the second time.
The account from the ist of November 1361 to 1362 shows Simon of Bradstede, clerk of the works, then expending £1773, of which boo was received by the hands of William of Wykeham at the exchequer, and that from 1369 shows Bernard Cokles, clerk of the works, expending £2306.
On the 16th of April 1359 the king gave Wykeham a pension of £ 20 a year from the exchequer until he could obtain peaceful possession of Pulham.
He added to his civil offices during the year that of clerk (o f /iciu y n cirogra „ jie) of the exchequer on the 24th of October.
a day from the exchequer "notwithstanding that he is living in the household."
Parliament demanded that laymen only should be chancellor, treasurer, privy seal and chamberlain of the exchequer.
In March 1718 he became chancellor of the exchequer.
Urswick's kinsman, Sir Thomas Urswick, was a Yorkist partisan, who was recorder of London and chief baron of the exchequer.
His father, a keen Tory, was a baron of the Scottish court of exchequer, and his mother was connected by marriage with Lord Melville.
This speech was so successful that when Perceval formed his government in 1809, he proposed to this young man of five-and-twenty to take the chancellorship of the exchequer.
In this combination the chancellorship of the exchequer was first offered to Lord Palmerston, who accepted it, but this appointment was frustrated by the king's intrigue with Herries, and Palmerston was content to remain secretary-at-war with a seat in the cabinet, which he now entered for the first time.
In the 17th and 18th centuries English scholarship was enriched by such monuments of research as William Dugdale's Monasticon, Thomas Madox's History of the Exchequer, Wilkins's Concilia, and Thomas Rymer's Foedera.
The sources of revenue of the council are the exchequer contribution, income from property and fees, and rates.
The sums so paid in respect of the duties last above mentioned, and in respect of the estate duty and spirits and beer additional duties, are distributed among the several counties in proportion to the share which the Local Government Board certify to have been received by each county during the financial year ending the 31st March 1888, out of the grants theretofore made out of the exchequer in aid of local rates.
The payments so made out of " the local taxation account " to a county council are paid to the county fund, and carried to a separate account called " the Exchequer contribution account."
a week from " the exchequer contribution account " already mentioned, and the remaining expenses are defrayed out of the county rate.
The salaries of the medical officer of health and inspectors of nuisances are, as to one moiety thereof, paid out of " the exchequer contribution account " by the county council, if they are appointed in accordance with the requirements of the Local Government Board as to qualification, appointment, duties, salary and tenure of office.
In view of the failing health of the duke of Portland he told his colleague, Spencer Perceval, chancellor of the exchequer, that a new prime minister must be found, that he must be in the House of Commons, that the choice lay between them, adding that he might not be prepared to serve as subordinate.
The draft on the exchequer was intercepted by the queen's death.
No doubt, in theory, this duty, being levied on the import only and not on the home production of corn, took from the tax-payer a shilling on every quarter of grain produced at home which did not go into the exchequer.
Downing Street, separating these from the Treasury, contains the official residences of the First Lord of the Treasury and the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
In the civil war of Stephen's reign the county suffered severely; the great Roll of the Exchequer of 1165 proves the shire receipts had depreciated in value to two-thirds of the assessment for the Danegeld.
He became not merely Chancellor of the Exchequer, but also leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister concentrating his energies on the work of the War Cabinet (see English History), the supreme directing authority, of which Cabinet Mr. Law was also a member, though he was not expected to give regular attendance.
As Chancellor of the Exchequer Mr. Law had to find the money to meet this gigantic cost.
The title of the issue was National War Bonds, and it combined the advantages of short-term securities, such as Exchequer bonds, and three sorts of longer-dated securities for seven and ten years.
He also appointed another select committee to consider how to control expenditure, the chairman of which, Mr. Herbert Samuel, told him that his fault as a Chancellor of the Exchequer was that he was " too amiable."
1919 the arrangement by which Mr. Law led the House of Commons was continued, as the Prime Minister would be much away at the Peace Conferences; but he was relieved of the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, which was transferred to Mr. Austen Chamberlain, he himself taking the sinecure office of Lord Privy Seal.
(4) A much more important difference, if the decision of the Irish court of exchequer chamber upheld in the House of Lords, where the peers were equally divided, correctly stated the English canon law (Reg.
The exchequer chamber, in 1837, declared it to have " become part of the common law of the land " (Alstan v.
In 1905 he resigned office, and was appointed chief justice of the exchequer division of the High Court of the province of Ontario.
But this blot upon the English name was at last removed by Montague in 1694, when he was appointed chancellor of the exchequer.
But disinterested advice was difficult to obtain, and in spite of the unquestionable desire of the young ruler to do the best for the country, wild extravagance both in action and expenditure resulted, leaving the sultan with depleted exchequer and the confidence of his people impaired.
The justiciar, chancellor and treasurer sat with certain other members of the council as the court of exchequer, not only to receive and audit the accounts of the royal revenue, but to give legal decisions on all questions connected with finance.
Twice in every year the sheriffs and other royal officials came up to the exchequer court, which originally sat at Winchester, with their bags of money and their sheaves of accounts.
In this way the exchequer grew into a law court of primary importance, instead of remaining merely a court of receipt.
Under the superintendence of the Curia Regis and the exchequer, the sheriff still remained the kings factotum in local affairs.
He gave charters of a very liberal character to many places, and in especial to London, where the citizens were allowed to choose their own sheriff, and to deal directly with the exchequer in matters of revenue.
Such a grant was exceptionalthough Lincoln also seems to have been granted the privilege of dealing directly with the exchequer.
He handed over the exchequer to Nigel, bishop of Ely, the nephew of the old justiciar Roger of Salisbury, and the heir of his traditions.
customs-revenue on imports and exports, which soon became more valuable to the royal exchequer than the old feudal taxes on land.
The more land the church acquired, the less feudal taxation came into the royal exchequer.
The commons were conciliated by a promise that the wool which the royal officers had seized should be paid for, when a balance was forthcoming in the exchequer.
He Arch imprisoned some of them, and wished to try his late chancellor, Archbishop Stratford, for embezzlement, in the court of the exchequer.
The only point on which they were agreed was that it would be highly desirable to strip the Church of most of her endowments, in order to fill the exchequer of the state.
The drain of money to meet this combination of foreign war and domestic rebellion was more than the kings exchequer could meet.
could not only reward his adherents with it, so as to Personal create a whole new court noblesse, but had enough ruleof over to fill his exchequer for many years, and to Edward enable him to dispense with parliamentary grants of ~ money for an unexampled period.
Another device of Edward for filling his exchequer was a very stringent enforcement of justice; small infractions of the laws being made the excuse for exorbitant fines.
The true monument of his ability was that he left England Character tamed and orderly, with an obedient people and a full of Henrys exchequer, though he had taken.
His master turned the lesson to account a few years later; but Henrys wholesale destruction of religious houses was carried out not in the interests of learning, but mainly in those of the royal exchequer.
The case was argued in the court of exchequer, and was there decided in favor of the crown.
When parliament met in 1610 the whole subject was discussed, and it was conclusively shown that, if the barons of the exchequer had been right in any sense, it was only in that narrow technical sense which is of no value at all.
The new ministry, under the nominal headship of the valetudinarian duke of Portland, included Perceval as chancellor of the exchequer, Canning as foreign secretary and Castlereagh as secretary for war and the colonies.
In January 1823 Vansittart was succeeded as chancellor of the exchequer by Robinson (afterwards Lord Goderich), and Huskisson became president of the Board of Trade.
He would have been astonished to hear that, before the end of the century, his office had to deal with more than 3,000,000,000 postal packets a year, and that the net profit which it paid into the exchequer was to be more than double what it received in 1839.
Baring, the chancellor of the exchequer, endeavoured to terminate this deficiency by a general increase of taxation, but this device proved a disastrous fai]ure.
The occasion deserves to be recollected as one on which a prime minister, who was not also chancellor of the exchequer, has himself proposed the budget of the year.
In the new ministry Lord Aberdee,n became first lord of the treasury, Gladstone chancellor of the exchequer, Lord John Russell foreign ministerthough he was almost immediately replaced in the foreign office by Lord Clarendon, and himself assumed the presidency of the council.
Lord John Russell agreed to accept office as foreign minister; Gladstone consented to take the chancellorship of the exchequer.
Gladstone signalized his return to the exchequer by Glad- introducing a series of budgets which excited keen ~ opposition at the time, but in the result largely added to the prosperity of the country.
The Liberals, who complained that their leaders were pursuing a Conservative policy, could at least console themselves by the reflection that, the chancellor of the exchequer was introducing satisfactory budgets.
A period of exception.al prosperity, which largely increased the revenue, enabled a chancellor of the exchequer to boast that the country had drunk itself out of the Alabama difficulty.
Lowe, who had incurred unpopularity by his fiscal measures, and especially by an abortive suggestion for the taxation of matches, was transferred from the exchequer to the home office, and Gladstone himself assumed the duties of chancellor of the exchequer.
The budget, which Childers brought forward as chancellor of the exchequer, was attacked by the Conservative party; and an amendment proposed by Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, condemning an increase in the duties on spirits and beer, was adopted by a small majority.
The most picturesque appointment was that of Lord Randolph Churchill, who was made chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons.
Though he again failed to obtain the co-operation of the Liberal Unionists, one of the more prominent of themGoschen accepted the seals of the Exchequer.
Harcourt, as chancellor of the exchequer, availed himself of the opportunity, which a large addition to the navy invited, to reconstruct the death duties.
The first need of a government is finance; the earliest organized machinery for exerting its will is the exchequer; and the earliest great record in English history is Domesday Book.
It is followed by a series of exchequer records, called the Pipe Rolls, which begin in the reign of Henry I., and dating from that of Henry II.
is the Dialogus de scaccario, which explains in none too lucid language the intricate working of the exchequer system.
So national courts of law are added to the national exchequer, and by the end of the lath century legal records become an even more important source of history than financial documents.
The judicial system is described by Glanvill at the end of the 12th, and by Bracton and Fleta in the I3th century (for the exchequer ~see the Testa de Nevill and the Red Book of the Exchequer).
During that period the Curia Regis threw off three offshootsthe courts of exchequer, kings bench and common pleas; and records of their judicial proceedings survive in the Plea Rolls and Year Books, some of which have been edited for the Rolls series, the Selden and other societies.
For Ireland, besides the state papers, there are the Calendars of Patents and of Fiants, and for Scotland the Exchequer Rolls and Registers of the Privy Council and of the Great Seal, both extending to many volumes.
C(okayne)'s Complete Peerage; Jeayes's Descriptive Catalogue of the Charters and Muniments at Berkeley Castle (1892); Dictionary of National Biography; Transactions of Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 3 vols., viii., xlv., et passim; The Red Book of the Exchequer, Chronicles of Roger of Wendover, Matthew Paris, Adam of Murimuth, Robert of Gloucester, Henry of Huntingdon, &c. (Rolls Series); British Museum Charters, &c. (0.
Young William Pitt, then only in his twenty-fifth year, had been chancellor of the exchequer in Lord Shelburne's short ministry, and had refused to enter the coalition government from an honourable repugnance to join Lord North.
Addington consented, and after some delay caused by the king's illness, and by the reluctance of several of Pitt's followers to serve under him, became first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer in March 1801.
So far he d i d well; and when in 1852 he took office as chancellor of the exchequer in Lord Derby's first administration, the prospect was a smiling one for a man who, striving against difficulties and prejudices almost too formidable for imagination in these days, had attained to a place where he could fancy them all giving way.
His first budget was a quaint failure, and was thrown out by a coalition of Liberals and Peelites which he believed was formed against Mr Disraeli more than against the chancellor of the exchequer.
In 1893 a representative delegation of business men pressed its adoption on the chancellor of the exchequer (Sir W.
The royal bailiffs were to answer at the exchequer for rents of assize and all the perquisites which they made in their offices, and apparently the duty of enforcing this provision was entrusted to the justices.
In 1854 he carried, almost without opposition, a most important and complicated act consolidating all existing shipping laws, but in 1855 resigned, with his Peelite colleagues, upon the appointment of Mr Roebuck's Sevastopol inquiry committee, declining the offer of the chancellorship. of the Exchequer pressed upon him by Lord Palmerston.
Justice.-The Supreme Court of Judicature is constituted as follows: the court of appeal, which consists of the lord chancellor, the lord chief justice, and the master of the rolls and the chief baron of the exchequer as ex-officio members, and two lords justices of appeal; and the high court of justice which includes (1) the chancery division, composed of the lord chancellor, the master of the rolls and two justices, (2) the king's bench division composed of the lord chief justice, the chief baron of the exchequer and eight justices, and (3) the land commissions with two judicial commissioners.
At the first vacancy the title and rank of chief baron of the exchequer will be abolished and the office reduced to a puisne judgeship. By the County Officers and Courts (Ireland) Act 1877, it was provided that the chairmen of quarter sessions should be called " county court judges and chairmen of quarter sessions " and that their number should be reduced to twenty-one, which was to include the recorders of Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Londonderry and Galway.
(2) Before the passing of the act grants were made from the imperial exchequer to the grand juries in aid of the maintenance of lunatics and to boards of guardians for medical and educational purposes and for salaries under the Public Health (Ireland) Act.
This latter, indeed, appears to have been concocted by Gerald, an ardent champion of the English cause in Ireland, from genuine letters of Pope Alexander III., still preserved in the Black Book of the Exchequer, which do no more than commend King Henry for reducing the Irish to order and extirpating tantae abominationis spurcitiam, and exhort the Irish bishops and chiefs to be faithful to the king to whom they had sworn allegiance.'
MacMurrough Kavanagh, in Irish eyes the representative of King Dermod, received an annual pension from the exchequer.
When Sir Stephen Rice (1637-1715), chief baron of the Irish exchequer, went to London in 1688 to urge the Catholic claims on James II., the hostile populace escorted him in mock state with potatoes stuck on poles.
The royal exchequer, which was being painfully elaborated in the chambre des corn ptes, and the treasury of the crown lands at the Louvre, together barely sufficed to meet the expenses of this more complicated and costly machinery.
The two adversaries had each the same scheme of government: each wanted to take charge of Charles VI., who was intermittently insane, and to exclude his rival from the pillage of the royal exchequer; but this rivalry of desires brought them into opposition on all the great questions of the daythe war with England, the Great Schism and the imperial election.
and financial administration modelled on the French parlement and exchequer.
au of one-sixtieth of the salary, it- made hereditary offices which had hitherto been held only for life; and the millions which it daily poured into the royal exchequer removed the necessity for seeking more regular and better distributed resources.
The American war had finally exhausted the exchequer, and, in order to replenish it, he would have needed to inspire confidence in the minds of capitalists; but the resumption in 2778 of the plan of provincial assemblies charged with remodelling the various imposts, and his corn pterendu in which he exhibited the monarchy paying its pensioners for their inactivity as it had never paid its agents for their zeal, aroused a fresh outburst of anger.
N~eF~ The exchequer was empty; it was necessary to comply.
Though spasmodic efforts were made to promote agriculture and open up communications the Sudan continued to be a constant drain on the Egyptian exchequer.
But Mr Ritchie, the chancellor of the exchequer, having a surplus in prospect and taxation to take off, carried the cabinet in favour of again remitting this tax on corn.
1863) accordingly became the new chancellor of the exchequer; he was already in the cabinet as postmaster-general, having previously made his mark as civil lord of the admiralty (1895-1900), and financial secretary to the treasury (1900-1902).
The Greek cities were allowed to retain their own institutions and government on condition of paying taxes and dues to the Lydian monarch, and the proceeds of their commerce thus flowed into the imperial exchequer.
Before this event, however, Richard had been appointed a baron of the exchequer, his great industry and exceptional abilities as an accountant being recognized by giving him a special seat at the exchequer table, and from 1168 until his death he frequently acted as one of the itinerant justices.
The bishoprics of Brandenburg, Havelberg and Lebus were secularized; their administration was entrusted to members of the elector's family; and their revenues formed a welcome addition to his impoverished exchequer.
This privilege was contested by Queen Elizabeth, but when the case was taken before the court of the exchequer it was decided in favour of Sir Philip's heir, Sir Edward Hoby.
barons of the exchequer to enquire whether Saier de Rochford, escheator in co.
He is best known for his time serving successive chancellors of the Exchequer at HM Treasury.
chancellor of the exchequer under Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin.
The Chapel had long been used as a secure store by the Exchequer and it contained many ancient relics, including old coinage dies.
Myth one - Compulsion would be more expensive than voluntarism and would cost the exchequer lost revenue or cost jobs.
Land values would fund the exchequer and today's taxes would be lifted or substantially abated.
Any such shifts in funding have to be match funded from the national exchequer.
It is, then, common sense to collect public Land Rent to fund the needs of the public exchequer.
The government has well over a trillion pounds of transactions flowing through its central exchequer accounts each year.
The disagreement gained momentum and eventually the bishop of Carlisle and the royal exchequer were called upon to resolve the matter.
Regular parliaments were being held, taxation was coming in and the booty taken from England filled the empty exchequer.
exchequer funds either wholly or in part, must follow the guidelines laid down by the HEFCE.
exchequer costs of the program under a number of scenarios.
EXCHEQUER serviceS 4 exchequer serviceS 4 Exchequer services cover the following functions.
exchequer roll of 1494.
exchequer in the form of LVT.
faced the threat of legal action and demands for it to return hundreds of millions of pounds to the Exchequer.
sheriff of each county made in the Exchequer.
Article continues Lloyd George, the welsh wizard, served at the Exchequer from 1908 to 1915.
this way was the parent of the court of exchequer (curia regis ad scaccarium).
"Not only the court of exchequer, whose functions were in a peculiar manner connected with royal authority, but the counties palatine of Chester, Lancaster and Durham, the court of great session in Wales, the universities, the city of London, the Cinque Ports and other places silently assumed extraordinary jurisdiction similar to that exercised in the court of chancery."
edited for the Record Commission Parliamentary Writs (London, 1827-1834); Rotuli curiae regis (London, 1835); The antient kalendars and inventories of the treasury of his majesty's exchequer (London, 1836); and Documents and records illustrating the history of Scotland (London, 1837), which contains an elaborate introduction.
At the coronation in April 1661 Cooper had been made a peer, as Baron Ashley of Wimborne St Giles, in express recognition of his services at the Restoration; and on the meeting of the new parliament in May he was appointed chancellor of the exchequer and under-treasurer, aided no doubt by his connexion with Southampton.
So far from advising the "Stop of the Exchequer," he opposed this bad measure; the reasons which he left with the king for his opposition are extant.
It was at the opening of parliament that Shaftesbury made his celebrated "delenda est Carthago" speech against Holland, in which he urged the Second Dutch War, on the ground of the necessity of destroying so formidable a commercial rival to England, excused the Stop of the Exchequer which he had opposed, and vindicated the Declaration of Indulgence.
and his successor, in place of the justiciar - who had presided over all causes vice regis- separate heads were established in the three branches into which the curia regis as a judicial body had been divided: justices of common pleas, justices of the king's bench and barons of the exchequer.
He remained, nevertheless, a Liberal; and after the franchise question had been settled by what Lowe considered Disraeli's betrayal, and he had been elected the first member for London University, he accepted office again in the Gladstone Cabinet of 1868 as chancellor of the exchequer.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer described the terms as " very liberal but not more liberal than they should be under the circumstances," and stated that Mr Scudamore had estimated that £6,000,000 was the maximum price which the government would have to pay, and that the Postmaster-General would obtain from the telegraphs a net annual revenue of £203,000 at least.
Sella, minister of finance, notwithstanding the sorry plight of the Italian exchequer, readily granted the means for the reform.
But partly from lack of firm financial administration, partly through the increase of military and naval expenditure (which in 1887 amounted to 9,000,000 for the army, while special efforts were made to strengthen the navy), and principally through the constant drain of railway construction and public works, the demands upon the exchequer grew largely to exceed the normal increase of revenue, and necessitated the contraction of new debts.
c. 43) swine fever in Great Britain was, from the 1st of November in that year, dealt with by the Board of Agriculture in the same way as pleuro-pneumonia, the slaughter of infected swine being carried out under directions from the central authority, and compensation allowed from the imperial exchequer.
In April 12 9 4 the younger Bruce had permission to visit Ireland for a year and a half, and as a further mark of Edward's favour a respite of all debts owing by him to the exchequer.
This scholar in a brochure published in 1852 produced evidence from the exchequer accounts and the court rolls of the manor of Wakefield showing that a "Robyn Hod" and a "Robertus Hood" were living in this reign.
the Quakers addressed him (see above) with some hope on account of his known friendship for William Penn, and the king not long afterwards directed a stay of proceedings in all matters pending in the exchequer against Quakers on the ground of nonattendance at the national worship. In 1687 came his declaration for liberty of conscience, and, after the Revolution of 1688, the Toleration Act 1689 put an end to the persecution of Quakers (along with other Dissenters) for non-attendance at church.
It contains the Exchequer and Audit, Inland Revenue, Probate, Registrar-General's and other offices, and one wing houses King's College.
The government was henceforth to be in the hands of a redo nieustajaca, or permanent council of thirty-six members, eighteen senators and eighteen deputies, elected biennially by the sejm in secret ballot, subdivided into the five departments of foreign affairs, police, war, justice and the exchequer, whose principal members and assistants, as well as all other public functionaries, were to have fixed salaries.
in England, and may be partly explained by a desire to replenish his impoverished exchequer with the wealth of the Church (see Brandenburg).
de Montfort; how he served as steward at the coronation of Eleanor, queen of Henry III., is described in the Exchequer Red Book.
In 1372 he was one of the auditors of exchequer, and in 1373 a clerk of audit in the king's household.
The head official of the English Jews prior to their expulsion bore the title of Presbyter judaeorum; opinions differ as to whether this officer was ecclesiastical or had merely the secular duty of supervising the exchequer of the Jews (see further The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, x.
Parliament was prorogued in April 1671, not assembling again till February 1673,and on the 2nd of January 167 2 was announced the " stop of the exchequer," or national bankruptcy, one of the most blameworthy and unscrupulous acts of the reign, by which the payments from the exchequer ceased, and large numbers of persons who had lent to the government were thus ruined.
c. 56) provision is made for bringing before the court of session persons and proceedings before inferior courts and public officers - which is analogous to the powers to issue habeas corpus in such cases out of the English court of exchequer (now the revenue side of the king's bench division).
Almost the first acts of Bolingbroke's ephemeral premiership were to order him a thousand pounds from the exchequer and despatch him the most flattering invitations.
At the Restoration in 1660 Hale was very graciously received by Charles II., and in the same year was appointed chief baron of the exchequer, and accepted, with extreme reluctance, the honour of knighthood.
But Gladstone was not content with these great alterations, which involved a loss of nearly 1,200,000 a year to the exchequer; he voluntarily undertook to sacrifice another million on what he called a supple.mental measure of customs reform.
Records of the audit of the annual accounts of the sheriff of each county made in the Exchequer.
Article continues Lloyd George, the Welsh wizard, served at the Exchequer from 1908 to 1915.
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