Excavations sentence example

excavations
  • He took part in the excavations at Olympia in 1878, became an assistant in the Berlin Museum in 1880, and professor at Berlin (1884) and later at Munich.
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  • Numerous objects had been discovered in the course of excavations, but not one of them could be recognized as more than a few centuries old, while those that were not demonstrably foreign imports were of African type.
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  • Excavations on the site of Ostia were only begun towards the close of the 18th century, and no systematic work was done until 1854, when under Pius IX.
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  • This figure of speech refers, not to a basket or box in which things can be stored, but to the baskets, used in India in excavations, as a means of handing on the earth from one worker to another.
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  • A large number of votive terra-cotta figures, vases and lamps were found in the course of the excavations.
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  • The subsequent discovery of a document written in Babylonian cuneiform at Lachish (Tell el Hesy), and more recently still of another in the excavations at Ta`annek, have established the fact beyond all dispute.
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  • It concluded an alliance with Rome in 308 B.C. The modern village lies higher than the ancient town, and excavations on the site of the latter in 1775 and following years led to the discovery of the baths, a theatre, a basilica and other buildings.
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  • These ancient indications of a Minoan connexion with Sicily have now received interesting confirmation in the numerous discoveries, principally due to the recent excavations of P. Orsi, of arms and painted vases of Late Minoan fabric in Bronze Age tombs of the provinces of Syracuse and Girgenti (Agrigentum) belonging to the late Bronze Age.
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  • His accuracy, which has been called in question by some scholars, has been remarkably vindicated by recent excavations at Athens and elsewhere.
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  • Previous to the extensive excavations referred to above, Crete had been carefully examined and explored by Tournefort, Pococke, Olivier and other travellers, e.g.
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  • Several of the excavations in the limestone, which is extensively quarried, are incorporated in dwelling-houses.
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  • Even Schliemann's first excavations at Hissarlik in the Troad (q.v.) did not excite surprise.
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  • Two Aegean vases were found at Sidon in 1885, and many fragments of Aegean and especially Cypriote pottery have been turned up during recent excavations of sites in Philistia by the Palestine Fund.
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  • She was worshipped, under the form of a conical stone, in an open-air sanctuary of the usual Cypriote type (not unlike those of Mycenaean Greece), the general form of which is known from representations on late gems, and on Roman imperial coins;' its ground plan was discovered by excavations in 1888.2 It suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, and was rebuilt more than once; in Roman times it consisted of an open court, irregularly quadrangular, with porticos and chambers on three sides, and a gateway through them on the east.
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  • Quibell was charged by the Service des Antiquites solely with the excavations in this vast necropolis.
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  • In Canada, means of transport similar to those already described are employed, but the reservoirs for storage often consist of excavations in the soft Erie clay of the oil district, the sides of which are supported by planks.
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  • In 1870 the Greek Archaeological Society undertook a series of excavations in the Outer Ceramicus, which had already been partially explored by various scholars.
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  • Here a series of excavations, carried out by the British School in 1896-1897 under the direction of Cecil Smith, revealed the foundations of an extensive Greek building, the outlines of which correspond with those of a gymnasium; it possessed a large bath or cistern, and was flanked on two sides by water-courses.
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  • At the eastern end of the Acropolis a little circular temple of white marble with a peristyle of 9 Ionic columns was dedicated to Rome and Augustus; its foundations were discovered during the excavations of 1885-1888.
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  • Excavations carried out in 1898-1899 showed that the structure was nearly square; the only portion remaining is the slightly curved front, with three niches between Corinthian pilasters; in the central niche is the statue of Philopappus.
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  • Among its numerous enterprises have been the extensive and costly excavations at Delos and Delphi, which have yielded such remarkable results.
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  • The German Archaeological Institute, founded in 1874, has carried out excavations at Thebes, Lesbos, Paros, Athens and elsewhere; it has also been associated in the great researches at Olympia, Pergamum and Troy, and in many other important undertakings.
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  • The British School, founded in 1886, has been unable, owing to insufficient endowment, to work on similar lines with the French and German institutions; it has, however, carried out extensive excavations at Megalopolis and in Melos, as well as researches at Abae, in Athens (presumed site of the Cynosarges), in Cyprus, at Naucratis and at Sparta.
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  • The history of excavations on the Acropolis is summarized in 1VI.
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  • In the years immediately preceding the war we have to chronicle first a great advance in our knowledge of the beginnings of Egyptian history, owing mainly to the excavations of Prof. Flinders Petrie at Tarkhan 1 and of the German, Prof. Junker (working for Austria), at Tura.
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  • It seems characteristic of the neighbourhood of the gulf; the French excavations at Bandar Bushir "on the Persian coast have revealed exactly similar ware.
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  • Megalithic town walls were naturally common in that stony land, Palestine, and very typical specimens of them were found in the Palestine Exploration Fund's excavations at Bethshemesh (`Ain Shems) directed by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 29 whose work also threw new light on the phenomenon of the appearance in Palestine between the 12th and 10th centuries B.C. of subMycenaean (Greek) pottery, which can only be ascribed to the Philistines, whose historical position as a foreign invading force from the Aegean area (Lycia and Crete-Kaphtor) is now entirely vindicated.
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  • Dr. Reisner, working for Boston, was not held up by the war, but continued his excavations in the Giza pyramid field and in Nubia, making good finds in both places.
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  • It is related that, during the performance of one of his plays, the scaffolding of the wooden stage gave way, in consequence of which the Athenians built a theatre of stone; but recent excavations make it doubtful whether a stone theatre existed in Athens at so early a date.
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  • In 1785 White and Mrs Buchan published a Divine Dictionary, but the sect broke up on the death of its founder in spite of White's attempts 1 In August 1908, during some excavations at Dunkeld, remains were found which are supposed to be those of Alexander Stewart, the "wolf of Badenoch."
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  • That such vast excavations should have been made without attracting attention, and that such an immense number of corpses could have been carried to burial in perfect secrecy is utterly impossible.
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  • In 1901-1902 excavations in the cemetery of Santa Priscilla, near the Cappella Greca, revealed a polygonal chamber.
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  • The date of these walls has not as yet been ascertained, recent excavations, which led to the discovery of a few tombs in which the earliest objects showing Greek influence may go back to the 7th century B.C., not having produced any decisive evidence on the point.
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  • He also pushed his investigations into the great temple of Edfu, visited Elephantine and Philae, cleared the great temple at Abu Simbel of sand (1817), made excavations at Karnak, and opened up the sepulchre of Seti I.
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  • In 1819 he returned to England, and published in the following year an account of his travels and discoveries entitled Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, &c. He also exhibited during 1820-1821 facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I.
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  • Excavations carried out by the marquess of Bute from 188 9 onward furnished for the first time conclusive proof that Cardiff had been a Roman station, and also revealed the sequence of changes which it had subsequently undergone.
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  • The excavations at the Hieron have been recorded as they went on in the Ilpaeroat of the Greek Archaeological Society, especially for 1881-1884 and 1889, and also in the 'E4»u€pis 'ApxatoXoynoi, especially for 1883 and 1885; see also Kavvadias, Les Fouilles d'Epidaure and Tb r03'A?KX iv 'E7rukbpq, eat 9Epa7reta7'CJY Defrasse and Lechat, Epidaure.
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  • Here the excavations of the British school cleared many houses, including a palace of "Mycenaean" type; there is also a town wall.
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  • The place of its performance at Rome was near the site of St Peter's, in the excavations of which several altars and inscriptions commemorative of taurobolia were discovered.
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  • The dotted lines show the course taken by the excavations, which began at the lower part of the plan.
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  • Farther to the north and east the series seems to extend into Siberia, but in this region excavations have been few.
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  • Inscriptions found at Nippur, where extensive excavations were carried on during 1888-1900 by Messrs Peters and Haynes, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, show that Bel of Nippur was in fact regarded as the head of an extensive pantheon.
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  • The excavations at the latter place in 1881 threw great light upon the early history of London.
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  • The historians of the Roman Empire have left us some particulars of the visits of emperors and generals to Britain, but little or nothing about what happened in London, and we should be more ignorant than we are of the condition of Londinium if it had not been that a large number of excavations have been made in various parts of the city which have disclosed a considerable amount of its early history.
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  • Pieces of the wall are to be seen in various parts of the city, and are frequently found when extensive excavations are made for new buildings.
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  • A considerable portion of the old wall was laid bare by the excavations for the new Post Office in St Martin's-le-Grand.
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  • Sir William Tite gave reasons for believing that Bishopsgate Street was not a Roman thoroughfare, and in the excavations at Leadenhall the basilica to which allusion has already been made was found apparently crossing the present thoroughfare of Gracechurch Street.
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  • The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
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  • The latter includes not only the actual excavation of the mineral, but also haulage and hoisting by which it is brought to the surface, timbering and other means of supporting the excavations, and the drainage and ventilation of mines.
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  • When the rocks are concealed by detrital material he looks for outcroppings on steep hillsides, on the crests of hills or ridges, in the beds of streams, in landslides, in the roots of overturned trees, and in wells, quarries, roadcuttings and other excavations.
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  • Open excavations several hundred feet in depth are not uncommon.
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  • Before the bottom of these pits reaches the level of the haulage roads below, a new set of roads will have been driven at a lower level and connected with the excavations above by the shafts.
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  • A fire underground speedily becomes formidable, not only in coal but also in metal mines, on account of the large quantity of timber used to support the excavations.
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  • In 1874 he was sent to Athens by the German government, and concluded an agreement by which the excavations at Olympia were entrusted exclusively to Germany.
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  • During excavations in Broad Street in 1874 many fragments of glass were found.; amongst them were part of a wine-glass, a square scent-bottle and a wine-glass stem containing a spiral thread of white enamel.
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  • The latest to be identified are Bismya, between Nippur and Erech, which recent American excavations have proved to be the site of Udab (also called Adab and Usab) and the neighbouring Fara, the site of the ancient Kisurra.
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  • Excavations in the mounds of Balawat, called Imgur-Bel by the Assyrians, 15 m.
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  • The subsequent excavations of de Sarzec in Tello and its neighbourhood carried the history of the city back to at least 4000 B.C., and a collection of more than 30,000 tablets has been found, which were arranged on shelves in the time of Gudea (c.2700 B.C.).
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  • Andrae subsequently conducted excavations at Qal`at Sherqat, the site of Assur.
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  • In the deepest part of the excavations, however, inscribed clay tablets and fragments of stone vases are still found, though the cuneiform characters upon them are of a very archaic type, and sometimes even retain their primitive pictorial forms.
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  • Under Khammurabi a Samsi-Hadad (or Samsi-Raman) seems to have been vassal-prince at Assur, and the names of several of the high-priests of Assur who succeeded him have been made known to us by the recent German excavations.
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  • The ceramic history of Babylonia and Assyria has unfortunately not yet been traced; at Susa alone has the care demanded by the modern methods of archaeology been as yet expended on examining and separating the pottery found in the excavations, and Susa is not Babylonia.
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  • Skene and George Smith at Jerablus, on the middle Euphrates, led to excavations being undertaken there, in 1878, by the British Museum, and to the discovery of certain Hamathite inscriptions accompanying sculptures, a few of which were brought to London.
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  • The conduct of these excavations, owing to the death of George Smith, devolved on Consul Henderson of Aleppo, and was not satisfactorily carried out.
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  • A great many small objects were found in the excavations at Sinjerli, including carved ivories, seals, toilet-instruments, implements, &c., but these have not been published.
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  • In many parts of the country soils exhibiting such relationships, and known as sedentary soils, are prevalent, the transition from the soil to the rock beneath being plainly visible in sections exposed to view in railway cuttings, quarries and other excavations.
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  • In a tablet attributed to the 14th century B.C. which Sellin found in the course of his excavations at Tell Ta'annuk (the Taanach of the O.T.) a name occurs which may be read Ahi-Yawi (equivalent to Hebrew Ahijah); 6 if the reading be correct, this would show that Yahweh was worshipped in Central Palestine before the Israelite conquest.
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  • Excavations made by the French brought to light some of these columns, which are now in the museums of Tlemcen and Algiers.
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  • Excavations around the cathedral have incontestably proved that Frankfort-on-Main (Trajectum ad Moenum) was a settlement in Roman times and was probably founded in the 1st century of the Christian era.
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  • He and the crown princess took a great interest in art and industry, especially in the royal museums; and the excavations conducted at Olympia and Pergamon with such great results were chiefly due to him.
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  • Excavations had been made previously in some parts of the precinct; for example, the portico of the Athenians was laid bare in 1860.
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  • An immense number of inscriptions have been found in the excavations, and many works of art, including a bronze charioteer, which is one of the most admirable statues preserved from ancient times.
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  • Portions of the pediments of this temple have been found in the excavations; but no sign has been found of the pediments mentioned by Pausanias, representing on the east Apollo and the Muses, and on the west Dionysus and the Thyiades (Bacchantes), and designed by Praxias, the pupil of Calanias.
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  • Provisional accounts of the excavations have appeared during the excavations in the Bulletin de correspondence hellenique.
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  • That it was restored and was in use in Roman time is shown by the fact that both the seven columns still standing and two fallen columns discovered in the excavations, to say nothing of several fragments of others, have a thick coating of Roman stucco laid over the finer Greek.
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  • The excavations brought to light vases and fragments of vases, of nearly every period except the Mycenaean.
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  • The excavations were confined to a small part of the city, but there is little doubt that it was the most important part.
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  • Pausanias asserts that the outer order was Ionic; but excavations have proved that it was Doric. The pedimental groups of the temple represented at the front, the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and, at the back, the battle of Achilles and Telephus.
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  • Early in the 'forties the Frenchman Botta, quickly followed by Sir Henry Layard, began making excavations on the site of ancient Nineveh, the name and fame of which were a tradition having scarcely more than mythical status.
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  • But the excavations that have given us a knowledge of the Mycenaean Age have proved conclusively, not alone that civilization existed in Greece in an early day, but that this civilization was closely linked with the civilization of Egypt.
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  • At the outset on his own account, and later as a representative of the French government, under a Turkish firman, de Sarzec continued excavations at this site, with various intermissions, until his death in 1901, after which the work was continued under the supervision of the Commandant Cros.
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  • The principal excavations were made in two larger mounds, one of which proved to be the site of the temple, E-Ninnu, the shrine of the patron god of Lagash, Nin-girsu or Ninib.
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  • The excavations in the other larger mound resulted in the discovery of the remains of buildings containing objects of all sorts in bronze and stone, dating from the earliest Sumerian period onward, and enabling us to trace the art history of Babylonia to a date some hundreds of years before the time of Gudea.
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  • In this the filling material, preferably sand, is sent down from the surface through a vertical steel pipe mixed with sufficient water to allow it to flow freely through distributing pipes in the levels commanding the excavations to be filled; these are closed at the bottom by screens of boards sufficiently close to retain the packing material while allowing the water to pass by the lower level to the pumping-engine which returns it to the surface.
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  • The ruins, in which Taylor conducted brief excavations, consist of a platform of fine sand enclosed by a sandstone wall, 20 ft.
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  • Calculating from the present rate of deposit of alluvium at the head of that gulf, Eridu should have been founded as early as the seventh millennium B.C. It is mentioned in historical inscriptions from the earliest times onward, as late as the 6th century B.C. From the evidence of Taylor's excavations, it would seem that the site was abandoned about the close of the Babylonian period.
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  • Since that time the ruins have served as quarries for bricks for the building of Nejef, and at the present time little remains but holes in the ground, representing excavations for bricks, with broken fragments of brick and glass strewn over a considerable area.
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  • Dr Schliemann identified them with the graves of Agamemnon, Cassandra, and their companions, which were shown to Pausanias within the walls; and there can be little doubt that they are the graves that gave rise to the tradition, '15 ' xo Based on a plan in Schuchhardt's Schliemann's Excavations.
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  • But even this error benefited science; some well directed excavations at Alaise brought many Roman remains to light, which were subsequently sent to enrich the museum at Besancon.
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  • Here Layard conducted excavations from 1845 to 1847, and again from 1849 to 1851.
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  • The means at his disposal were inadequate, his excavations were incomplete and also unscientific in that his prime object was the discovery of inscriptions and museum objects; but he was wonderfully successful in achieving the results at which he aimed, and the numerous statues, monuments, inscribed stones, bronze objects and the like found by him in the ruins of Calah are among the most precious possessions of the British Museum.
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  • Excavations were also conducted by Hormuzd Rassan in 1852-1854, and again in 1878, and by George Smith in 1873.
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  • But while supplementing in some important respects Layard's excavations, this later work added relatively little to his discoveries whether of objects or of facts.
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  • The galleries are generally carried on in sections of to yds., worked across the beds, and may rise to any height or be sunk below the surrounding level by excavations.
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  • A further interest in Greek archaeology has been awakened in all civilized lands by the excavations of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Epidaurus, Sparta, Olympia, Dodona, Delphi, Delos and of important sites in Crete.
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  • In 1894-1896 Dr Murray directed some excavations in Cyprus undertaken by means of a bequest of £2000 from Miss Emma Tournour Turner.
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  • The objects obtained are described and illustrated in Excavations in Cyprus, published by the trustees of the museum in 1900.
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  • The explorations made by Dr Lehmann in 1909 in the famous ruins of Teotihuacan, near Mexico city throw new light upon certain chronological problems. Like the excavations made by Dr Max Uhle in Peru, they tend to determine the relative antiquity of the different periods of the ancient civilization.
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  • Traces of all these temples, except that of Zeus, or at least dedications coming from them, have been found in the excavations, and another has been added to them, the temple of the Dioscuri.
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  • Apart from the historic interest of the site, as the only Greek colony in Egypt in early times, the chief importance of the excavations lies in the rich finds of early pottery and in the inscriptions upon them, which throw light on the early history of the alphabet.
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  • Excavations at two of the great city gates showed them to have been erected by Sennacherib.
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  • The many hands of Zeus Sabazios turned up in ancient excavations observe a similar gesture.
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  • Near Arqua, on the banks of the small Lago della Costa, is the site of a prehistoric lake village, excavations in which have produced interesting results.
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  • Excavations have revealed one street and the north-west angle of the town walls, while the local museum contains over 2000 inscriptions, besides statues and other antiquities.
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  • In 1889 he undertook excavations in the Bahrein Islands of the Persian Gulf, and found evidence that they had been a primitive home of the Phoenician race.
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  • He has examined not only the more recently found of the royal mummies, but also multitudes of skeletons, &c., which have been brought from the official excavations of the government and from other work.
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  • The pyramid-fields of Memphis and Sakkara, and the necropolis of Meydum, and those of Abydos and Thebes were examined; the great temples of Dendera and Edfu were disinterred; important excavations were carried out at Karnak, Medinet-Habu and Deir el-Bahri; Tanis (the Zoan of the Bible) was partially explored in the Delta; and even Gebel Barkal in the Sudan.
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  • An ancient writer states that the rampart was built of regularly laid sods (the same method which had probably been employed by Hadrian), and excavations in 1891-1893 have verified the statement.
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  • In the plans, though not in the reports, of the excavations, they are shown as built later than the streets.
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  • Excavations made in1884-1885by Schliemann and DOrpfeld over part of the rock on which Tiryns stood have exposed a most interesting building, which offers the most complete example of a palace of the Mycenaean age in Greece.
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  • Further excavations in the lower parts of the city will probably bring to light the dwellings of the citizens who garrisoned the place.
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  • In 1872 he had been appointed secretary to the Archaeological Commission (of Rome), in 1876 vice-director of the Kircherian museum and in 1878 director of excavations.
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  • In ancient times Siphnos was famous for its gold and silver mines, the site of which is still easily recognized by the excavations and refuse-heaps.
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  • These mines are excavations in the alluvial soil, never more than from 20 to 30 ft.
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  • While in early times a mere perpendicular shaft led to these excavations, at a later date stairs were constructed down to the chambers.
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  • Roman remains have often been found in excavations carried out within the existing boundaries, which suggests that the Roman settlement was at least twenty feet below the present surface.
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  • The German excavations were begun in 1875.
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  • Excavations made, especially since 1855, in the ancient necropolis, which lay on a plateau surrounded by valleys at the foot of the hill, and of the town, have yielded important results for the history of the art and manufactures of Praeneste.
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  • In the formation of lawns the ground must be regularly broken up so that it may settle down evenly, any deep excavations that may have to be filled in being very carefully rammed down to prevent subsequent settlement.
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  • Recent excavations have discovered the early temple of Athena Lindia on the Acropolis, and splendid Propylaea and a staircase, resembling those at Athens.
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  • In 1873 and 1875 excavations were carried out under the Austrian government.
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  • The truth behind these legends has been revealed in recent years by the excavations of Dr Evans.
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  • As the excavations at Cnossus are discussed at length in the article Crete, it must suffice here briefly to enumerate the more important.
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  • In 1907 excavations on the south side of the palace showed that the plan was still incomplete, and a southern cryptoporticus, and outside it a large south-west building, probably an official residence, were discovered.
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  • The first excavations showed that this building was on the same general plan and belonged to the same period as the "House of Minos," though somewhat later in actual date (17th century B.C.).
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  • It was a flourishing town, with municipal rights, as excavations (which have brought to light the forum, theatre, baths, &c.) have shown, but appears to have been deserted in the 4th century A.D.
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  • The excavations have provided examples of houses of every description, from the humble dwelling-place of the artisan or proletarian, with only three or four small rooms, to the stately mansions of Sallust, of the Faun, of the Golden Cupids, of the Silver Wedding, of the Vettii, of Pansa, 1 &c. - the last of which is among the most regular in plan, and may be taken as an almost 1 It may be observed that the names given in most cases to the houses are either arbitrary or founded in the first instance upon erroneous inferences.
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  • Of the numerous works of art discovered in the course of the excavations the statues and large works of sculpture, whether in marble or bronze, are inferior to those found at Herculaneum, but some of the bronze statuettes are of exquisite workmanship, while the profusion of ornamental works and objects in bronze and the elegance of their design, as well as the finished beauty of their execution, are such as to excite the utmost admiration - more especially when it is considered that these are the casual results of the examination of a second-rate provincial town, which had, further, been ransacked for valuables (as Herculaneum had not) after the eruption of 79.
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  • Andrae began systematic excavations, which have led to important results.
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  • In the following January Sir Edwin Arnold, the editor of the Daily Telegraph, arranged with Smith that he should go to Nineveh at the expense of that journal, and carry out excavations with a view to finding the missing fragments of the Deluge story.
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  • In 1874 Smith again left England for Nineveh, this time at the expense of the Museum, and continued his excavations at Kouyunjik.
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  • Semitic features were pointed out in the supposed Hyksos names, and Petrie was convinced of their date by his excavations of1905-1906in the eastern Delta.
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  • The Service of Antiquities now boasts a large annual budget and employs a number of European and native officialsa director, curators of the museum, European inspectors and native sub-inspectors of provinces (at Luxor for Upper Egypt and Nubia, at Assiut for Middle Egypt and the Fayum, at Mansura for Lower Egypt, besides a European official in charge of the government excavations at Memphis).
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  • Excavations and explorations are also conducted annually by the agents of universities and museums in England, America and Germany, and by private explorers, concessions being granted generally on the terms that the Egyptian government shall retain half of the antiquities discovered, while the other half remains for the finders.
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  • For further details see also the separate topographical headings (for JJ excavations, &c.), and the general articles on the m various arts and art id...
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  • Here archaic decorative terra-cottas were discovered in excavations carried on by Lord Savile.
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  • Later excavations have been recorded by Ayrton, Abydos, iii.; Maclver, El Amrah and Abydos; and Garstang, El Arabah.
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  • Sir Arthur Evans conducted supplementary excavations at Cnossos in 1912, and the British School reexamined the Kamares Cave, where the typical Middle Minoan polychrome pottery were first found in Crete, in 1913.
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  • During the war only the Greek excavations were continued, and no foreign work has yet begun again (1921).
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  • Classical Period Recent excavations of classical sites in Greece proper have been of minor importance.
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  • The important excavations of the American School at prehistoric sites near Corinth have been mentioned.
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  • The last excavations at Ephesus, Miletus and Pergamon produced (besides inscriptions) little more than architectural remains of Hellenistic and Roman date.
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  • The results of the German excavations at Miletus after the same year were published in 1911..
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  • Annual reports of the excavations were published in the American Journal of Archaeology.
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  • The town was then much larger, as is shown by excavations in the neighbourhood made during the 19th century, and probably met its doom during the Mongol invasion of 1240.
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  • The Museo Civico contains antiquities discovered during excavations near the town (in 1880-1884) in the Picene necropolis, dating from the 8th-4th centuries B.C. The town is the birthplace of the condottiere Niccolo Mauruzzi, and of the learned Francis Philelphus, one of the first disseminators of classical literature, who was born in 1398.
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  • Near it are a series of curious circular excavations in the chalk, called the Maze, of unknown date or purpose.
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  • A small museum contains the objects found in the excavations of the theatre.
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  • Two of the best marble heads in the Constantinople museum came from Tralles; and both in the excavations conducted for that museum by.
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  • His son, Paul Emile Botta (1802-1870), was a distinguished traveller and Assyrian archaeologist, whose excavations at Khorsabad (1843) were among the first efforts in the line of investigation afterwards pursued by Layard.
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  • Excavations, commenced in the 16th century and continued to the 19th, in the grove of the Dea Dia about 5 m.
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  • Its exact site has been determined by excavations conducted at Kaleh Sherghat since 1903 by the German Oriental Society.
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  • These cisterns are bell-shaped or bottle-shaped excavations, with a narrow circular shaft in the top, hollowed in the rock and lined with cement.
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  • Whatever internal changes ensued between the " Amarna " age and 1000 B.C., they have not left their mark upon the course of culture illustrated by the excavations.
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  • The external evidence does not point to any intervening hiatus, and the archaeological data from the excavations do not reveal any dislocation of earlier conditions; earlier forms have simply developed and the evolution is a progressive one.
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  • The excavations (at Gezer, Megiddo, Jericho, &c.) indicate a persisting gross and cruel idolatry, utterly opposed to the demands of the law and the prophets.'
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  • The numerous objects of bronze and other metals brought to light by the excavations in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, though mostly on a small scale, bear witness to the great skill and artistic power of the people who produced them; while the discovery of some bronze statuettes, shown by inscriptions on them to be not later than 2200 B.C., proves how early was the development of this branch of art among the people of Assyria.
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  • All these facts have been verified and illustrated by the excavations of the American Archaeological Institute and School of Athens, which were carried on from 1892 to 1895.
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  • Rhangabe made tentative excavations on this site, digging a trench along the north and east sides of the second temple.
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  • Of these excavations no trace was to be seen when those of 1892 were begun.
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  • The excavations have shown that the sanctuary, instead of consisting of but one temple with the ruins of the older one above it, contained at least eleven separate buildings, occupying an area of about 975 ft.
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  • On the uppermost terrace, defined by the great Cyclopean supporting wall, exactly as described by Pausanias, the excavations revealed a layer of ashes and charred wood, below which were found numerous objects of earliest date, together with some remains of the walls resting on a polygonal platform - all forming part of the earliest temple.
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  • Though the excavations in the second temple have clearly revealed the outlines of the base upon which the great gold and ivory statue of Hera stood, it is needless to say that no trace of the statue itself has been found.
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  • Finds made in the excavations, however, have shown that the temple also had pedimental groups.
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  • These statues bear the same relation to the sculptor Polyclitus which the Parthenon marbles hold to Pheidias; and the excavations have thus yielded most important material for the illustration of the Argive art of Polyclitus in the 5th century B.C.
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  • The small part of the city, which was investigated at the spot called Gli scavi nuovi (the new excavations) was discovered in the 19th century.
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  • But the text of Pliny the younger, where this account is given, has been subjected to various interpret ations; and from the comparison of other classical testimonies and the study of the excavations it has been concluded that it is impossible to determine the date of the catastrophe, though there are satisfactory arguments to justify the statement that the event took place in the autumn.
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  • First of all Monsignor Bayardi was brought from Rome and commissioned to write about the antiquities which were being collected in the museum at Portici under the care of Camillo Paderni, and when it was recognized that the prelate had not sufficient learning, and by the progress of the excavations other most abundant material was accumulated, about which at once scholars and courtiers were anxious to be informed, Bernardo Tanucci, having become secretary of state in 1755, founded the Accademia Ercolanese, which published the principal works on Herculaneum (Le Pitture ed i bronzi d'Ercolano, 8 vols., 1757, 1792; Dissertationis isagogicae ad Herculanensium voluminum explanationem pars prima, 1797).
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  • Among these was Winckelmann, who in his letters gave ample notices of the excavations and the antiquities which he was able to visit on several occasions.
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  • The excavations, which continued for more than forty years (1738-1780), were executed at first under the immediate direction of Alcubierre (1738-1741), and then with the assistance of the engineers Rorro and Bardet (1741-1745), Carl Weber (1750-1764), and Francesco La Vega.
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  • After the death of Alcubierre (1780) the last-named was appointed director-in-chief of the excavations; but from that time the investigations at Herculaneum were intermitted, and the researches at Pompeii were vigorously carried on.
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  • Resumed in 1827, the excavations at Herculaneum were shortly after suspended, nor were the new attempts made in 1866 with the money bestowed by King Victor Emmanuel attended with success, being impeded by the many dangers arising from the houses built overhead.
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  • Its massive Roman walls still survive, and recent excavations have revealed a town hall and market square, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, and many comfortable houses with mosaics, &c. An inscription shows that under the Roman Empire it was the chef-lieu of the Silures, whose ordo or county council provided for the local government of the district.
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  • The university of Pennsylvania began systematic excavations in 1889 under the directorship of Dr John P. Peters.
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  • Of the history and conditions of Nippur in the Arabic period we learn little from the excavations, but from outside sources it appears that the city was the seat of a Christian bishopric as late as the 12th century A.D.
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  • The excavations at Nippur were the first to reveal to us the extreme antiquity of Babylonian civilization, and, as already stated, they give us the best consecutive record of the development of that civilization, with a continuous occupancy from a period of unknown antiquity, long ante-dating 5000 B.C., onward to the middle ages.
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  • Fisher, Excavations at Nippur (1st part 1905, 2nd part 1906); Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, a monumental edition of the cuneiform texts found at Nippur, with brief introductions and notes of a more general character (1893 foil.).
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  • The then recent work of Cuvier on fossil mammalia encouraged Lartet in excavations which led in 1834 to his first discovery of fossil remains in the neighbourhood of Auch.
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  • He investigated the remains of ancient Athens, visited many places of interest in Peloponnesus, and finally went to Delphi, where he began excavations.
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  • Recent excavations have revealed porticoes, a gateway and other buildings, and also the remains of several colossal early statues, the best preserved of which is now in the museum at Athens.
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  • Besides the excavations of Athens, Delos, Epidaurus and Delphi, the results of which are most important for the 5th century B.C. and later, the exploration of the sites of Olympia, of the Heraeum near Argos, of Naucratis in Egypt, and of various Cretan towns (above all the ancient Gortyn), has revolutionized our knowledge of the archaic alphabets of Greece.
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  • In Crete, at least, the excavations show that the old civilization must have ended in a social and political cataclysm.
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  • The most numerous inscriptions come from the excavations in Carthage, the ancient colony of Sidon.
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  • The ruins, consisting of a theatre, the walls of a town, and some other buildings, had been conjectured to be those of Dodona by Wordsworth in 1832, but the conjecture was changed into ascertained fact by the excavations of Constantin Carapanos.
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  • Casual excavations are mentioned under the Spanish viceroys, but regular exploration only began.
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  • In 1885-86 regular excavations were made, the results of which may be seen in the museum at Cagliari.
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  • Excavations have revealed a Roman burial-place here.
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  • Reports of excavations appear in the Cornpte rendu of the Imperial Archaeological Commission of St Petersburg from 1888 and in its Bulletin.
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  • Loftus conducted excavations at this site in 1854.
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  • The excavations at Senkereh were peculiarly successful in the discovery of inscribed remains, consisting of clay tablets, chiefly contracts, but including also an important mathematical tablet and a number of tablets of a description almost peculiar to Senkereh, exhibiting in basrelief scenes of everyday life.
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  • A catalogue of the collections was published by the Oxford University Press in 1899.15 Since 1878 more than seventy distinct excavations have been made in Cyprus, of which the following are the most important.
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  • In 1881 he began a long series of important surveys and excavations in Egypt, beginning with the pyramids at Giza, and following up his work there by excavations at the great temple at Tanis (1884), and discovering and exploring the long-lost Greek city of Naucratis in the Delta (1885), and the towns of Am and Daphnae (1886), where he found important remains of the time when they were inhabited by the Pharaohs.
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  • Perhaps the most important work which the School has accomplished has been the investigation of the site of Memphis (q.v.) The extent as well as the chronological order of Professor Petrie's excavations may best be shown by a list of his works.
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  • By the older writers it was placed near Cnossus, and is represented on coins of that city, but nothing corresponding to it has been found during the course of the recent excavations, unless the royal palace was meant.
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  • A museum has now been built to contain the antiquities found in the excavations; otherwise Delos is now uninhabited, though during the summer months a few shepherds cross over with their flocks from Myconus or Rheneia.
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  • Excavations were first conducted here by the French Expedition Scientifique en Mesopotamie in 1852, with small result.
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  • In 1879 and 1880 Hormuzd Rassam conducted more extensive, although unsystematic, excavations in this mound, finding a considerable quantity of inscribed tablets and the like, now in the British Museum; but by far the greater part of this ruin still remains unexplored.
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  • Excavations conducted here by Sir Henry Rawlinson in 1854 showed it to be the stage tower or ziggurat, called the "house of the seven divisions of heaven and earth," of E-Zida, the temple of Nebo.
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  • The excavations were carried to a depth of 8 ft.
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  • Notwithstanding the many attempts, both by excavations and speculative writings, to elucidate the history of this unique monument, the archaeological data available are insufficient to decide definitely between the conflicting opinions held with regard to the date of its construction and the purpose for which it was originally intended.
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  • Dr Gowland at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries (Dec. 19, 1901), read a paper on his recent excavations on the site of Stonehenge, in which he came to the conclusion that the structure was a temple dedicated to the worship of the sun, and he assigns its erection to the end of the Neolithic period (2000 to 1800 B.C.), on the ground that no bronze implements or relics were found during his explorations.
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  • Behind these buildings, again, is the Pergamum museum, which houses a unique collection, the result of the excavations at Pergamum.
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  • Since 1887 extensive excavations have been made of the foundations of a huge Roman camp, and many valuable Roman treasures have been unearthed.
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  • His excavations round Rushmore resulted in valuable "finds"; he founded a local museum and published several illustrated volumes.
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  • Excavations carried on in 1891 led to the discovery of the northern portion of the western town wall, which in one section served at the same time as an embankment against floods (it was apparently more conspicuous in the time of P. Cluver, Sicilia, p. 133), of an extensive necropolis, about loon tombs of which have been explored, and of a deposit of votive objects from a temple.
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  • Botta, then French consul at Mosul, discovered the remains of an Assyrian palace and town, at which excavations were conducted by him and Flandin in 1843-1844, and again by Victor Place in 1851-1855.
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  • The objects excavated by Place, together with the objects found by Fresnel's expedition in Babylonia and a part of the results of Rawlinson's excavations at Nineveh, were unfortunately lost in the Tigris, on transport from Bagdad to Basra.
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  • Excavations have only been made casually, though remains of buildings and of roads can be traced, and also an extensive system of underground passages perhaps connected with the defences of the place.
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  • Basingstoke is a town of great antiquity, and excavations have brought to light undoubted traces of Roman occupation.
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  • Vast numbers of specimens have since been added to it both by purchase and from excavations, and it is now unique as a treasure house of Italo-Greek and Roman antiquities, besides containing a fine library and an important collection of pictures.
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  • The excavations, which were begun in 1868, have revealed four different encampments, the earliest of which perhaps dates back to the time of the earliest Roman conquest.
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  • On the Serra Orlando, a mountain not far off, are the extensive remains of an unknown city, the finest in eastern Sicily, but rapidly suffering destruction from the spread of cultivation and unauthorized excavations.
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  • Even the beds of sluggish rivers flowing over porous strata generally become so impermeable that excavations made in their neighbourhood, though freely collecting the subsoil water, receive no FIG.
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  • Generally speaking, in the excavations for the foundations springs are met with; these may be only sufficient to indicate a continuous dampness at certain beds or joints of the rock, but all such places should be connected by relief drains carried to visible points at the back of the dam.
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  • The fact that this valley is a post-Glacial lake-basin was attested by the borings and excavations made for the foundations of the dam.
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  • It is to-day a "Monumento Nacional" of Spain, and has yielded I remarkable discoveries to the skilful excavations of Dr Schulten (1905-1910), who has traced the Celtiberian town, the lines of Scipio and several other Roman camps dating from the Numantine Wars.
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  • One such was discovered in the Gezer excavations, dating about 200 B.C. It was a slab of polished limestone about 6 in.
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  • Many of these votive tablets have been discovered in the course of excavations at Epidaurus.
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  • The work of Labarte is specially valuable, but without proper excavations of the site all attempts to restore the plan of the palace with much accuracy lack a solid foundation.
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  • In the neighbourhood of Rhamnus are the remains of two temples that stood side by side, the larger of which was dedicated to Nemesis, the smaller probably to Themis, of which goddess a fine statue was discovered in its ruins in the course of the excavations of the Greek Archaeological Society in 1890.
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  • His great wealth was left mainly to the two families that he had in Russia and Greece; but a sum was reserved for Hissarlik, where Dorpfeld in 1891 and 1892, by clearing away the debris of the former excavations, exposed the great walls of the sixth stratum which Schliemann had called Lydian, and proved their synchronism with Mycenae, and identity with Mycenaean remains; that is to say, with Homer's Troy, if Troy ever was.
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  • Our knowledge of its topography is derived from the classical writers, the inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzar, and the excavations of the Deutsche Orientgesellschaft, which were begun in 1899.
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  • The German excavations have shown that the Qsar mound represents both the old palace of Nabopolassar, and the new palace adjoining it built by Nebuchadrezzar, the wall of which he boasts of having completed in 15 days.
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  • Excavations were carried out here in 1908, but without throwing any important new light on the monument.
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  • Though excavations were carried on near Sparta, on the site of the Amyclaeum in 1890 by Tsountas, and in 1904 by Furtwangler, and at the shrine of Menelaus in Therapne by Ross in 1833 and 1841, and by Kastriotis in 1889 and 1900, yet no organized work was tried in Sparta itself save the partial excavation of the "round building" undertaken in 1892 and 1893 by the American School at Athens; the structure has been since found to be a semicircular retainingwall of good Hellenic work, though partly restored in Roman times.
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  • In 1904 the British School at Athens began a thorough exploration of Laconia, and in the following year excavations were made at Thalamae, Geronthrae, and Angelona near Monemvasia, while several medieval fortresses were surveyed.
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  • In 1906 excavations began in Sparta itself with results of great value, which have been published in the British School Annual, vol.
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  • In 1888 interesting details as to the Boeotian cult of the Cabeiri were obtained by the excavations of their temple in the neighbourhood of Thebes, conducted by the German archaeological institute.
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  • Primitive Inhabitants.The origin and character of the early inhabitants of the Peninsula are unknown; recent conjectures on the subject, which have been many, are more bold than probable, and we must await the result of further excavations of prehistoric sites and further inquiries into the native inscriptions before we can hope for much certainty.
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  • Dr Wallis Budge visited several of the far southern sites and made some tentative excavations, but no extensive explorations were undertaken until an unexpected event produced a sudden outburst of activity.
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  • The Greek anthology contains thirty-four of his epigrams. From the excavations of the villa at Herculaneum there have been recovered thirtysix treatises attributed to Philodemus, and it has been suggested that the villa was actually owned by him; but this is generally denied.
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  • Excavations were made here in 1890-1892 by Flinders Petrie and Bliss.
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  • Excavations were made in 1899 in one of the ravines in a Sicel necropolis of the third period; explorations in the various Greek cemeteries resulted in the discovery of some fine bronzes, notably a fine bronze lebes, now in the Berlin museum.
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  • In the 1990s, on Gigante's initiative, an abortive attempt was made to reopen the old 18th-century excavations.
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  • During his latter years he turned to research on East Anglian churches - abandoning his accumulated backlog of excavations.
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  • This photograph show the excavations of a public bathhouse in Chichester.
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  • The works involved excavations in Leicester Road to lay a large 1000 mm x 650 mm elliptical culvert to replace the existing defective culvert.
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  • In gardens, their excavations around plant roots may cause excessive dryness of the soil.
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  • Many of our passengers went to visit the excavations at these famous towns buried by the eruption of Mount Etna in 79 AD.
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  • The main results came from a long trench excavated 25 meters east of Clark's original excavations.
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  • In 1960 her team cleared the interior and conducted excavations in and around the basilica.
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  • National Grid intends to commence excavations for the construction of the line itself in mid-late January and construction activities will continue throughout the year.
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  • However, recent archeological excavations show Saxon women are more often buried with pairs of saucer brooches.
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  • The DGLA kindly invited some HADAS members to visit the site to see their exploratory excavations.
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  • The Ham & High reports on the number of basement excavations currently taking place in the posh suburb.
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  • I hate killing them - they are so industrious - but their excavations are taking over my garden!
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  • Excavations in both residential and government towns have revealed a striking paucity of cult buildings.
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  • It has worked with Liverpool John Moores University on survey, excavations and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions on the coast of Liverpool Bay.
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  • Inevitably, the archeologists discovered human remains during their excavations; two British soldiers and one German, distinguishable only by their metal buttons.
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  • Here the conspirators were supposed to have dumped the rubble from the excavations was in full public view!
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  • Excavations during the 1960s discovered a box rampart on top of the main scarp and two outer ditches.
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  • At the site of Megiddo a portion of a commemorative stela of Shishak was found by the Oriental Institute excavations in 1926.
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  • Excavations reveal an intact stratigraphy of 22 vertical meters containing 36 layers from Lower Paleolithic through to Medieval.
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  • A new geophysical survey was conducted around the present excavations using David Staveley's new TR system resistivity surveying machine.
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  • They have in the last fifteen years become much better known through systematic excavations financed by the German empire and through other researches connected therewith, and though many important details are still doubtful, their general development can be traced.
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  • The Horites are to us little more than a name, though the discovery of cave-dwellers of very early date at Gezer in the excavations of1902-1905has enabled us to form some idea as to their probable culture-status and physical character.
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  • A separate department of this ministry under a director-general has the charge of antiquities and fine arts, making archaeological excavations and supervising those undertaken by private persons (permission to foreigners, even to foreign schools, to excavate in Italy is rarely granted), and maintaining the numerous state museums and picture galleries.
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  • Wiegand carried on excavations at Miletus (see articles on these towns).
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  • Schliemann's books (see SCHLIEMANN), summarized by C. Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations (1891); Chr.
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  • Gsell, Fouilles dans la necropole de Vulci (Paris, 1891), for the excavations of 1889 (with copious references to earlier publications).
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  • Gardiner and Cowley of the earliest Semitic script in the hieroglyphic signs found in Sinai.33 Since the war a new British school of archaeology in Jerusalem has been founded under the direction of Prof. Garstang, who has begun for the Palestine Exploration Fund excavations at Ascalon, which have resulted in the discovery of interesting late buildings 34 and this year (1921) in that of a statue of Herod the Great.
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  • Apart from the province of Constantine, Algeria is less rich in Roman remains than Tunisia; mention must, however, be made of the excavations of Victor Waille at Cherchel, where were found fine statues in the Greek style of the time of King Juba II.; of P. Gavault at Tigzirt (Rusuccuru), and finally of those of Stephane Gsell at Tipasa (basilica of St Salsa) and throughout the district of Setif and at Khamissa (Thuburticum Numidarum).
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  • In Etruscan and Roman times the Maremma was a populous and fertile coast plain, with considerable towns situated on the hills - Populonia, Russellae, Cosa, &c., and was drained by a complete system of subterranean canals which were brought to light by the excavations made in connexion with the railways passing through the district.
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  • He became successively superintendent of the architectural school of the Royal Academy of Venice, inspector of antiquities under the Ministry of Public Instruction, commissioner for the monuments of Rome, and, in especial, director of the excavations in the Roman Forum and on the Palatine Hill, begun in 1899 (see 23.591 et seq.).
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  • The shore, moreover, according to the accurate studies of the engineer Michele Ruggiero, director of the excavations, was not altered by the causes adduced by Beule (p. 125), but by a simpler event.
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  • Professor de Petra (in the same work) has also published the official notices upon the antiquities unearthed in the sumptuous villa, giving the plan executed by Weber and recovered by chance by the director of excavations, Michele Ruggiero.
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  • The excavations (1847-1864) revealed a form of culture hitherto unknown, and accordingly the name Hallstatt has been applied to objects of like form and decoration since found in Styria, Carniola, Bosnia (at Glasinatz and Jezerin), Epirus, north Italy, France, Spain and Britain (see Celt).
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  • According to Professor Ridgeway, however, the Turkish crescent, like that seen on modern horse-trappings, has nothing to do with the new moon, but is the result of the baseto-base conjunction of two claw or tusk amulets, an example of which has been brought to light during the excavations of the site of the temple of Artemis Orthia at Sparta (see Athenaeum, March 21, 1908).
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  • In this summary I want to concentrate mainly on the excavations in the roundhouse interior.
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  • Here the conspirators were supposed to have dumped the rubble from the excavations was in full public view !
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  • To find out more about some of the archeological features we will undertake survey plans of some sites, together with small-scale excavations.
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  • The new excavations gave the possibility to determine the stratigraphy of the cultural deposits of the ancient monument.
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  • A new geophysical survey was conducted around the present excavations using David Staveley 's new TR system resistivity surveying machine.
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  • Amazingly, this skull was unearthed during the excavations for the GCR line near Brush Works.
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  • Some techniques for trial excavations in waterlogged peat are also presented.
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  • Excavations in Ireland have produced toy wooden boats that date from Viking times as well as handmade boats that have been associated with the 1600s.
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  • Excavations of king's tombs from the Shang Dynasty reveal that they were buried with everything they needed for their journey in the afterlife, including many servants.
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  • These are immense artificial excavations of unknown date.
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  • The many important objects found in these excavations are preserved in the local museum.
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  • Inscriptions found by the recent excavations seem to prove that it must be identified as the shrine of the local goddess Aphaea, identified by Pausanias with Britomartis and Dictynna.
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  • The excavations have laid bare several other buildings, including an altar, early propylaea, houses for the priests and remains of an earlier temple.
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  • Their approximate form was only arrived at by excavations made during the later years of the 19th century.
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  • Bliss and fully described in his Excavations in Jerusalem in 1894-1897.
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  • There are no ruins of any importance on the site of either Ialysus or Camirus, but excavations at the latter place have produced valuable and interesting results in the way of ancient vases and other antiquities, which are now in the British Museum.
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  • Excavations under the auspices of Harvard University began here in 1908.
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  • During the excavations on Chatham Hill after 1758 a number of tumuli containing human remains, pottery, coins, &c., suggestive of an ancient settlement, were found.
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  • These materials, imperfect as they are, when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty.
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  • After studying at the Ecole Normale Superieure he was sent to the French school at Athens in 1853, directed some excavations in Chios, and wrote an historical account of the island.
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  • The recent excavations by the British School on the site of the Dictaean temple at Palaikastro bear out this conclusion, and an archaic marble head of Apollo found at Eleutherna shows that classical tradition was not at fault in recording the existence of a very early school of Greek sculpture in the island, illustrated by the names of Dipoenos and Scyllis.
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  • During the excavations on the Acropolis at Athens, terminated in 1888, many potsherds of the Mycenaean style were found; but Olympia had yielded either none, or such as had not been recognized before being thrown away, and the temple site at Delphi produced nothing distinctively Aegean.
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  • Numerous and costly excavations have been carried out by the Greek government and by native and foreign scientific societies, while accidental discoveries have been frequently made during the building of the modern town.
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  • The native archaeologists of the present day hold a recognized position in the scientific world; the patriotic sentiment of former times, which prompted their zeal but occasionally warped their judgment, has been merged in devotion to science for its own sake, and the supervision of excavations, as well as the control of the art-collections, is now in highly competent hands.
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  • Such in fact have been brought to light by the modern excavations on the Acropolis (1885-1889).
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  • In 1892 Dorpfeld began a series of excavations in the district between the Acropolis and the Pnyx with the object of determining the situation of the buildings described by Pausanias as existing in the neighbourhood of the Agora, and more especially the position of the Enneacrunus fountain.
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  • The excavations revealed a main road of surprisingly narrow dimensions winding up from the Agora to the Acropolis.
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  • Little was known of the buildings on the Acropolis in the pre-Persian period before the great excavations of 1885-1888, which rank among the most surprising achievements of modern research.
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  • The entire area of the summit was now thoroughly explored, the excavations being carried down to the surface of the rock, which on the southern side was found to slope outwards to a depth of about 45 ft.
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  • In 1896 excavations with the object of exploring the whole northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis were begun by Kavvadias.
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  • See "The German Excavations at Jericho," Pal.
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