His latest excavation work was at Aegina.
In January 1897 he carried the work of excavation farther.
Above sea-level, excavation has revealed a vast area of 330 acres, girt with a stone and wood rampart 3 m.
In the oldest form of this class of working, where the size of the pillar is equal to the width of the stall or excavation, about 4 of the whole seam will be removed, the remainder being left in the pillars.
Excavation at Nippur in Babylonia has brought to light numerous contract tablets of the 5th century B.C. with Hebrew proper names (Haggai, Hanani, Gedaliah, &c.).
16), and recent excavation has shown how far the cultus of these cities was removed from Mosaic religion and ritual and how long the grosser elements persisted.'
The excavation of Carchemish, lately suspended owing to political uncertainty in Syria, has been very interesting.
The excavation was wider here and Dean could see signs of some earlier passage in the mud at the edge.
It remains for excavation to show whether this hypothesis is or is not correct.
The great excavation of the Osireion at Abydos, begun for the Society (then the Egypt Exploration Fund) by Prof. Edouard Naville, 4 ' but suspended owing to the war, it has not been possible to resume at present, owing to the commitments of the Amarna site and the heavy expense of such work as that at the Osireion, which cannot vet be contemplated.
The true site can be determined, if at all, by excavation only; identifications based on mere outward similarity of names have always been fruitful sources of error.
The New, or Roman, Agora to the north of the Acropolis, perhaps mainly an oil market, was constructed after the year 27 B.C. Its dimensions were practically determined by excavation in 1890-1891.
By abrupt tufa cliffs; but a massive wall found by excavation on the S.W.
The great bronze head of Augustus Caesar, now in the British Museum, is one of the trophies of this excavation, and is very interesting as being either a trophy of war carried off perhaps from Syene, or was actually set up at Meroe by the independent native ruler in honour of the Emperor.
From these structural and palaeontological evidences, geologists suppose that the formation of the cave was carried on simultaneously with the excavation of the valley; that the small streams, flowing down the upper ramifications of the valley, entered the western opening of the cave, and traversing the fissures in the limestone, escaped by the lower openings in the chief valley; and that the rounded pebbles found in the shingle bed were carried in by these streams. It would be only at times of drought that the cave was frequented by animals, a theory which explains the small quantity of animal remains in the shingle.
Except so far as the excavation of the pillar is concerned the site has not been explored, and four small stupas there (already noticed by Hsuan Tsang) have not been opened.
The earth and debris from the excavation of the sites for the houses in this and adjoining streets had been " dumped " in the centre of the drained Nor' Loch.
The latter includes not only the actual excavation of the mineral, but also haulage and hoisting by which it is brought to the surface, timbering and other means of supporting the excavations, and the drainage and ventilation of mines.
40 mineral, and by the possibility of supporting the roof long enough to permit the excavation of the mineral without unnecessary risk or expense.
The caving in of mine workings results from the excavation of large areas supported upon pillars of insufficient size.
He became the servant of Amar Das, helped in the public kitchen, shampooed his master, drew water, brought firewood from the forest, and helped in the excavation of a well which Amar Das was constructing at Goindwal.
Most of the antiquities of Axum still await excavation; those that have been described consist mainly of obelisks, of which about fifty are still standing, while many more are fallen.
He became professor of architecture at Turin, and his most important works were the excavation of Tusculum in 1829 and of the Appian Way in 1848, the results of which he embodied in a number of works published in a costly form by his patroness, the queen of Sardinia.
Of these methods one of the chief is the plan of tubbing, or lining the excavation with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, generally the latter, built up in segments forming rings, which are piled upon each other throughout the whole depth of the water-bearing strata.
Hebrew religious institutions can be understood from the biblical evidence studied in the light of comparative religion; and without going afield to Babylonia, Assyria or Egypt, valuable data are furnished by the cults of Phoenicia, Syria and Arabia, and these in turn can be illustrated from excavation and from modern custom.
In addition to researches at Sicyon, Plataea, Eretria and elsewhere, it has undertaken two works of capital importance - the excavation of the Argive Heraeum and of ancient Corinth.
One mile W.N.W., on the hill above Le Ferriere, remains of an archaic temple, ascribed to Mater Matuta, were discovered by excavation in 1896.
Asian excavation; but small Hittite objects have been sold in Smyrna and Aidin.
(2) The well of Jacob, about a mile and a half from Nablus on the way to Jerusalem, which is an excavation of great depth.
Air is then forced into the inclosed space by means of a compressing engine, until the pressure is sufficient to oppose the flow of water into the excavation, and to drive out any that may collect in the bottom of the shaft through a pipe which is carried through the air-sluice to the surface.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
The roof of the excavation is supported as the coal is removed, by packing up the waste material, and by a double row of props, 2 ft.
On the east and west the ravines already mentioned afforded, in the main, a sufficient protection, so that a massive wall was unnecessary, while near the south-eastern angle a breastwork was formed by the excavation of the natural rock, 2 which in later times was honeycombed with tombs.
Surrounded by ancient civilizations where writing had long been known, and enjoying, as excavation has proved, a considerable amount of material culture, Palestine could look back upon a lengthy and stirring history which, however, has rarely left its mark upon our records.
The results of excavation), and with any careful inspection of the narratives themselves.
To the south of the castle is St Robert's chapel, an excavation in the rock constructed into an ecclesiastical edifice in the reign of Richard I.
Of the various temples in which statues by Pheidias, Alcamenes and other great sculptors are known to have been placed, no traces have yet been discovered; excavation has not been possible in a large portion of the lower city, which has always been inhabited.
The future of archaeological study in Mesopotamia depends upon the political conditions, which have not hitherto been considered favourable to the resumption of excavation in that country.
This building, the date of which is not yet finally settled, though its excavator believes it to be of the Old Kingdom like the temple of the Sphinx at Giza, is one of the most remarkable in Egypt, and the completion of its excavation is much to be desired.
As the excavation of the valley proceeded, the level of the stream was lowered and its course diverted; the cave consequently became drier and was far more frequently inhabited by predatory animals.
CATACOMB, a subterranean excavation for the interment of the dead or burial-vault.
In order to lessen the cost of handling the rock-filling, the excavation sometimes takes the form of inclined working-places, parallel to the slope naturally taken by the rock when dumped from above into the working 7 -,, , --,, ?
Steam shovels are not well adapted to deep excavation unless provision is made for the rapid handling of the cars when filled.
One that gives way gradually and fills up the excavation made by removing the coal without scaling off suddenly and falling into the working faces, when practically the whole of the coal maybe removed.
Thick, and filling up the excavation with broken rock and earth from the surface, is now generally adopted in preference to the systems formerly used.
Petrie's excavation of the cemetery behind the temple enclosures revealed burials dating from the fourth dynasty onwards, the most important being mastables of the period from the sixth to the eleventh dynasties; many of these exhibited a peculiar degradation of the contemporary style of sculpture.
This village was brought to light by excavation in 187 4, and its forum and curia are still visible.
25), is to be seen at the south-west corner of the city; it is an enormous excavation in the rock with drains in its sides, at the bottom of which there is now a flourishing orange garden.
In 1901 Professor Furtwangler began a more systematic excavation of the site, and the new discoveries he then made, together with a fresh and complete study of the figures and fragments in Munich, have led to a rearrangement of the whole, which, if not certain in all details, may be regarded as approaching finality.
In soft material the excavation may be performed by mechanical excavators or " steam navvies," while in hard it may be necessary to resort to blasting.
Of Roman Ravenna nothing remains above ground, though a little has been found by excavation, including a mosaic pavement at Classe.
30 Another important excavation in Pales tine in the period preceding the World War was that of Dr. Reisner at Samaria, which is not yet fully published.
The new series of " Creation " and " Deluge " tablets from Nippur, published by Poebel & Langdon, 39 also belong to the realm of the historian and anthropologist rather than to that of the archaeologist, so are merely mentioned here; the excavation in which they were found being now ancient history.
In Egypt the succession to the work of the Deutsch-Orient Gesellschaft, which excavated Babylon and Assur, has fallen to the Egypt Exploration Society, which has taken up the excavation at Tell el Amarna where it was laid down by the Germans at the outbreak of war, after they had recovered from the houseruins several wonderfully fine examples of the art of the period of Akhenaton, now in Berlin.
Two heads of heroes and that of the boar were found before 1880; later excavation, in 1883, showed the plan of the temple, which had six columns at front and back, and thirteen at the sides.