His latest excavation work was at Aegina.
In January 1897 he carried the work of excavation farther.
above sea-level, excavation has revealed a vast area of 330 acres, girt with a stone and wood rampart 3 m.
It remains for excavation to show whether this hypothesis is or is not correct.
Excavation at Nippur in Babylonia has brought to light numerous contract tablets of the 5th century B.C. with Hebrew proper names (Haggai, Hanani, Gedaliah, &c.).
In the oldest form of this class of working, where the size of the pillar is equal to the width of the stall or excavation, about 4 of the whole seam will be removed, the remainder being left in the pillars.
The excavation was wider here and Dean could see signs of some earlier passage in the mud at the edge.
The New, or Roman, Agora to the north of the Acropolis, perhaps mainly an oil market, was constructed after the year 27 B.C. Its dimensions were practically determined by excavation in 1890-1891.
Except so far as the excavation of the pillar is concerned the site has not been explored, and four small stupas there (already noticed by Hsuan Tsang) have not been opened.
Hebrew religious institutions can be understood from the biblical evidence studied in the light of comparative religion; and without going afield to Babylonia, Assyria or Egypt, valuable data are furnished by the cults of Phoenicia, Syria and Arabia, and these in turn can be illustrated from excavation and from modern custom.
by abrupt tufa cliffs; but a massive wall found by excavation on the S.W.
The excavation of Carchemish, lately suspended owing to political uncertainty in Syria, has been very interesting.
16), and recent excavation has shown how far the cultus of these cities was removed from Mosaic religion and ritual and how long the grosser elements persisted.'
One mile W.N.W., on the hill above Le Ferriere, remains of an archaic temple, ascribed to Mater Matuta, were discovered by excavation in 1896.
The true site can be determined, if at all, by excavation only; identifications based on mere outward similarity of names have always been fruitful sources of error.
Two heads of heroes and that of the boar were found before 1880; later excavation, in 1883, showed the plan of the temple, which had six columns at front and back, and thirteen at the sides.
In addition to researches at Sicyon, Plataea, Eretria and elsewhere, it has undertaken two works of capital importance - the excavation of the Argive Heraeum and of ancient Corinth.
Most of the antiquities of Axum still await excavation; those that have been described consist mainly of obelisks, of which about fifty are still standing, while many more are fallen.
The caving in of mine workings results from the excavation of large areas supported upon pillars of insufficient size.
The great excavation of the Osireion at Abydos, begun for the Society (then the Egypt Exploration Fund) by Prof. Edouard Naville, 4 ' but suspended owing to the war, it has not been possible to resume at present, owing to the commitments of the Amarna site and the heavy expense of such work as that at the Osireion, which cannot vet be contemplated.
The great bronze head of Augustus Caesar, now in the British Museum, is one of the trophies of this excavation, and is very interesting as being either a trophy of war carried off perhaps from Syene, or was actually set up at Meroe by the independent native ruler in honour of the Emperor.
He became the servant of Amar Das, helped in the public kitchen, shampooed his master, drew water, brought firewood from the forest, and helped in the excavation of a well which Amar Das was constructing at Goindwal.
From these structural and palaeontological evidences, geologists suppose that the formation of the cave was carried on simultaneously with the excavation of the valley; that the small streams, flowing down the upper ramifications of the valley, entered the western opening of the cave, and traversing the fissures in the limestone, escaped by the lower openings in the chief valley; and that the rounded pebbles found in the shingle bed were carried in by these streams. It would be only at times of drought that the cave was frequented by animals, a theory which explains the small quantity of animal remains in the shingle.
The earth and debris from the excavation of the sites for the houses in this and adjoining streets had been " dumped " in the centre of the drained Nor' Loch.
40 mineral, and by the possibility of supporting the roof long enough to permit the excavation of the mineral without unnecessary risk or expense.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
Air is then forced into the inclosed space by means of a compressing engine, until the pressure is sufficient to oppose the flow of water into the excavation, and to drive out any that may collect in the bottom of the shaft through a pipe which is carried through the air-sluice to the surface.
The roof of the excavation is supported as the coal is removed, by packing up the waste material, and by a double row of props, 2 ft.
CATACOMB, a subterranean excavation for the interment of the dead or burial-vault.
He became professor of architecture at Turin, and his most important works were the excavation of Tusculum in 1829 and of the Appian Way in 1848, the results of which he embodied in a number of works published in a costly form by his patroness, the queen of Sardinia.
On the east and west the ravines already mentioned afforded, in the main, a sufficient protection, so that a massive wall was unnecessary, while near the south-eastern angle a breastwork was formed by the excavation of the natural rock, 2 which in later times was honeycombed with tombs.
Surrounded by ancient civilizations where writing had long been known, and enjoying, as excavation has proved, a considerable amount of material culture, Palestine could look back upon a lengthy and stirring history which, however, has rarely left its mark upon our records.
To the south of the castle is St Robert's chapel, an excavation in the rock constructed into an ecclesiastical edifice in the reign of Richard I.
This building, the date of which is not yet finally settled, though its excavator believes it to be of the Old Kingdom like the temple of the Sphinx at Giza, is one of the most remarkable in Egypt, and the completion of its excavation is much to be desired.
As the excavation of the valley proceeded, the level of the stream was lowered and its course diverted; the cave consequently became drier and was far more frequently inhabited by predatory animals.
Of these methods one of the chief is the plan of tubbing, or lining the excavation with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, generally the latter, built up in segments forming rings, which are piled upon each other throughout the whole depth of the water-bearing strata.
Asian excavation; but small Hittite objects have been sold in Smyrna and Aidin.
Petrie's excavation of the cemetery behind the temple enclosures revealed burials dating from the fourth dynasty onwards, the most important being mastables of the period from the sixth to the eleventh dynasties; many of these exhibited a peculiar degradation of the contemporary style of sculpture.
Of the various temples in which statues by Pheidias, Alcamenes and other great sculptors are known to have been placed, no traces have yet been discovered; excavation has not been possible in a large portion of the lower city, which has always been inhabited.
The future of archaeological study in Mesopotamia depends upon the political conditions, which have not hitherto been considered favourable to the resumption of excavation in that country.
The latter includes not only the actual excavation of the mineral, but also haulage and hoisting by which it is brought to the surface, timbering and other means of supporting the excavations, and the drainage and ventilation of mines.
30 Another important excavation in Pales tine in the period preceding the World War was that of Dr. Reisner at Samaria, which is not yet fully published.
the results of excavation), and with any careful inspection of the narratives themselves.
In order to lessen the cost of handling the rock-filling, the excavation sometimes takes the form of inclined working-places, parallel to the slope naturally taken by the rock when dumped from above into the working 7 -,, , --,, ?
Steam shovels are not well adapted to deep excavation unless provision is made for the rapid handling of the cars when filled.
(2) The well of Jacob, about a mile and a half from Nablus on the way to Jerusalem, which is an excavation of great depth.
one that gives way gradually and fills up the excavation made by removing the coal without scaling off suddenly and falling into the working faces, when practically the whole of the coal maybe removed.
thick, and filling up the excavation with broken rock and earth from the surface, is now generally adopted in preference to the systems formerly used.
In 1901 Professor Furtwangler began a more systematic excavation of the site, and the new discoveries he then made, together with a fresh and complete study of the figures and fragments in Munich, have led to a rearrangement of the whole, which, if not certain in all details, may be regarded as approaching finality.
The new series of " Creation " and " Deluge " tablets from Nippur, published by Poebel & Langdon, 39 also belong to the realm of the historian and anthropologist rather than to that of the archaeologist, so are merely mentioned here; the excavation in which they were found being now ancient history.
This village was brought to light by excavation in 187 4, and its forum and curia are still visible.
Of Roman Ravenna nothing remains above ground, though a little has been found by excavation, including a mosaic pavement at Classe.
In Egypt the succession to the work of the Deutsch-Orient Gesellschaft, which excavated Babylon and Assur, has fallen to the Egypt Exploration Society, which has taken up the excavation at Tell el Amarna where it was laid down by the Germans at the outbreak of war, after they had recovered from the houseruins several wonderfully fine examples of the art of the period of Akhenaton, now in Berlin.
The date of its original excavation and final disuse is not clear.
It is by no means unreasonable to suppose that there is a fundamental Canaanite element in this population: the " hewers of wood and drawers of water " often remain undisturbed through successive occupations of a land; and there is a remarkable correspondence of type between many of the modern fellahin and skeletons of ancient inhabitants which have been recovered in the course of excavation.
However profound the influence of Babylonia may have been, excavation has discovered comparatively few specific traces of it.
A better case might be made for Egypt; yet notwithstanding the presence of its colonies, the cult of its gods, the erection of temples or shrines, and the numerous traces of intercourse exposed by excavation, Palestine was Asiatic rather than Egyptian.
Excavation has brought to light figurines of the Egyptian Osiris, Isis, Ptah, Anubis and especially Bes.
Although no goddess is associated with the national god Yahweh, female deities abounded, as is amply shown by the numerous plaques of the great mother-goddess found in course of excavation.
In 1902 it began the excavation of Gezer under the direction of R.
The nest may be simple, or, more frequently, a complex excavation, cells opening off from the entrance or from a main passage.
At Haibak there is a very perfect excavation called the Takht-iRustam (a general name for all incomprehensible constructions amongst the modern inhabitants of Afghan Turkestan), which consists of an annular ditch enclosing a platform, with a small house about 21 ft.
1 In 1909 the excavation of a ruined stupa near Peshawar disclosed a casket, with an inscription of Kanishka, and containing fragments of bones believed to be those of Buddha himself.
Excavation at Nippur is particularly difficult and costly by reason of the inaccessibility of the site, and the dangerous and unsettled condition of the surrounding country, and still more by reason of the immense mass of later debris under which the earlier and more important Babylonian remains are buried.
(Before excavation) H.
(After excavation) O.
Peoples (apparently Iranian) of Hittite connexion from the powerful state of Mitanni (Northern Syria and Mesopotamia) had already left their mark as far south as Jerusalem, as may be inferred from the personal names, 4 and to the intercourse with (apparently) Aegean culture revealed by excavation, the letters add references to mercenaries and bands from Meluhlia (viz.
In soft material the excavation may be performed by mechanical excavators or " steam navvies," while in hard it may be necessary to resort to blasting.
The era of excavation initiated by Dr Schliemann on the grand scale has increased our knowledge of Greek inscriptions beyond anything that was earlier dreamt of.
In it and around it were found the most interesting products of excavation - statuettes and decorative bronzes, many of them bearing dedications to Zeus Naius and Dione, and inscriptions, including many small tablets of lead which contained the questions put to the oracle.
The chief interest of the excavation centres in the smaller antiquities discovered, which have now been transferred from M.
Many other inscribed stones and tablets have been found built into modern buildings, while the excavation of a mound brought to light relics of a stone age.
At some period, long subsequent to its original excavation, and after many large stalactites had grown, it was completely filled with glacial mud charged with acid, whereby the dripstone was eroded into singularly grotesque shapes.
The successful evolution of the Saumur sparkling wine industry is largely due to the fact that the range of limestone hills, at the foot of which the town is situated, afford by excavation illimitable cellarage, easy 1.
In what may be called his fourth and last period, Wagner became anthropologist and archaeologist, occupied himself with the cabinet of skulls in the Gottingen museum collected by Blumenbach and with the excavation of prehistoric remains, corresponded actively with the anthropological societies of Paris and London, and organized, in co-operation with the veteran K.
12 in the Metropolitan Museum of New York, remains the largest series of Cypriote antiquities in the world, the accounts which have been given of its origin are so inadequate, and have provoked so much controversy, 13 that its scientific value is small, and a large part of subsequent excavation has necessarily been directed to solving the problems suggested by its practically isolated specimens.
Excavation is permitted under government supervision, and the finds are apportioned in thirds, between the excavator, the landowner (who is usually bought out by the former), and the government.
From Richter's notes of this excavation, Dr P. Herrmann compiled the first scientific account of Graeco-Phoenician and Hellenistic Cyprus.
The beggars' depots are "exclusively devoted to the confinement of persons whom the j udicial authority shall place at the disposal of the government" for that purpose, and these are classified as (a) able-bodied persons who, instead of working for their living, depend upon charity as the Romans, as is shown by an abundance of objects unearthed by excavation, amongst which may be mentioned a fine statue of an athlete (the Diadumenos) in the British Museum.
Several sarcophagi of the kings, and the foundations of the old church, have been found by excavation beneath the cathedral.
- After Wood's superficial explorations, the city remained desolate till 1894, when the Austrian Archaeological Institute obtained a concession for excavation and began systematic work.
Excavation at the south end of the Acropolis led to the discovery of the Altar itself and the rest of its surviving reliefs, which, now restored and mounted in Berlin, form one of the glories of that city.
The societies advised that trilithon 6, 7, with lintel - which had slewed round - and trilithon 56, which was leaning at a dangerous angle, should be examined with a view to replacement with as little excavation as possible; that the monolith and lintel 22 be replaced, and its companion sarsen (21) secured; and that trilithon 57, 58, should be re-erected in its place, which was exactly known.
He died, however, on the 4th of May 1865, of inflammation of the lungs supervening on a severe cold contracted during excavation work at La Palisse, leaving a half-finished book, entitled Reliquiae Aquitanicae, being contributions to the Archaeology and Palaeontology of Perigord and the adjacent provinces of Southern France; this was issued in parts and completed at the expense of Christy's executors, first by Lartet and, after his death in 1870, by Professor Rupert Jones.
It was afterwards resumed at intervals until 1877, when the excavation committee was granted an annual subsidy by the Austrian government.
Each chief valley has a railway connecting a string of mining villages, and converging seaward to the busy ports of Newport, Cardiff and Barry (a town created on a sandy island by the excavation of a great dock to form an outlet for the mines).
In 1860 Garibaldi, when dictator at Naples, proclaimed the museum and the territory devoted to excavation to be the property of the nation, since which time it has been called the National Museum.
In 1892 the excavation was begun for the foundations of a masonry dam across the Croton river, in connexion with the supply of New York.
It is often hidden, sometimes underground, and may only be brought to light by excavation.
The excavation of it was undertaken by Russians about 1894 and it cost Dembre dear; for the Ottoman government, suspicious of foreign designs on the neighbouring harbour of Kekova, proceeded to inhibit all sale of property in the plain and to place Dembre under a minor state of siege.
This was his last fortunate excavation.
Though excavations were carried on near Sparta, on the site of the Amyclaeum in 1890 by Tsountas, and in 1904 by Furtwangler, and at the shrine of Menelaus in Therapne by Ross in 1833 and 1841, and by Kastriotis in 1889 and 1900, yet no organized work was tried in Sparta itself save the partial excavation of the "round building" undertaken in 1892 and 1893 by the American School at Athens; the structure has been since found to be a semicircular retainingwall of good Hellenic work, though partly restored in Roman times.
3 The places have retained their sacred character despite political and religious vicissitudes; they are far older than their present names, and such is the conservatism of the east that it is not surprising when, for example, a sacred tomb at Gezer stands quite close to the site of an ancient holy place, about 3000 years old, the existence of which was first made known in the course of excavation.
The history of the succeeding periods, moreover, has been partially recovered and the study of architecture enriched by the excavation of numerous churches dating from the time of Justinian, when Nubia was first Christianized, down to the late medieval period when Christianity was extirpated by Mahommedanism.
Until excavation gives us more definite data we can only infer from its position on one of the 1 So Appian, Syr.
A summary of early results as to these mounds was published by Munro (Lake Dwellings) in 1890, but scientific investigation really began only with the excavation of the terramara at Castellazzo di Fontanellato (province of Parma) in 1889.
Digital Library recent accessions include Digital Archives from Excavation and Fieldwork: Guide to Good Practice 2nd Edition October 2000.. .
This involves the excavation, detailed recording and analysis of neonate remains from large amphora dating to 600BC.
archaeologyhe below-ground archeology carried out in Britain today is of a ' Rescue ' nature where excavation takes place prior to re-development.
Excavation revealed others, together with a number of wooden axletrees.
Excavation of the graves revealed an astonishing world of pagan beliefs.
In 1988 a watching brief was carried out during the excavation of a trench for an electricity cable to light the ticket office.
Excavation on the surface of the cairn, however, exposed more of the passage capstones that had been discovered in 2001.
The excavation proved to be located at the edge of the burial ground with a clearly demarcated line of graves to the south.
In neither of the excavation areas was the base of the archeological deposit reached.
The archeological community is increasingly alarmed as the illegal excavation of antiquities to feed these trade has led to widespread destruction.
Excavation can be done by hand, or you can hire a digger from a local tool hire store.
dolerite stone to the northern edge of excavation, the bowling appears to take shape with a drop in depth of 0.10m.
eschewed the conventional approach to putting together an excavation report.
Much work still to be undertaken, mainly excavation.
The listing should include records of skeletal material uncovered by excavation and subsequently re-buried on the site.
There is a specific provision against treasure hunting, illicit excavation and dealing in antiquities (Article 51 - 52 ).
In addition, small-scale excavation on some of the sites has identified important sites of Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age date.
Despite controversial proposals in the 1980s, the academic case for further large-scale excavation on the southern part of the amphitheater is not overwhelming.
excavation trench examined the major ditch that runs northwards from Rocky Clump.
Looks at the excavation of an Anglo-Saxon village and at a rescue excavation in Worcester.
excavation of a trench for an electricity cable to light the ticket office.
excavation of eighteen round barrows near Shrewton, Wiltshire.
excavation of a Neolithic long cairn of the Cotswold-Severn group.
excavation of the barrow ditch is going quite well but heavy rain showers most days have slowed our progress.
excavation of the large pit that cuts through the hypocaust on its eastern side.
excavation of a fictitious megalithic tomb in Dorset.
fertile sandy loam from excavation for services.
geophysics in the vicinity has revealed other buildings and the excavation has started on the main villa building.
glacial till deposits with granite boulders utilizing hand excavation from within a Greathead shield.
Both were situated east of the extant excavation units prolonging their east-west axis.
You may want to consider asking a local gravedigger who is used to working in graveyards if he could dig the excavation for you.
Similar results were produced by the excavation of an inner ditch terminal at the southern henge.
Excavation would be necessary to find out if any of the platforms date from the early historic or Medieval Periods.
The program provides specialist knowledge in tunnel, surface and underground excavation design, and applied hydrogeology and risk assessment.
large-scale excavation on the southern part of the amphitheater is not overwhelming.
Oh, they did find a jar - containing mementos left by a previous excavation.
The excavation produced one of Orkney's most distinctive archeological discoveries - the Scar whalebone plaque.
The excavation revealed what appeared to be refuse of some sort, containing numerous potsherds, bones, metal pieces and a few coins.
pottery recovered from the excavation was a crude hand-made type believed to date from the Iron Age.
preservative solution is needed to ensure the survival of the bones during excavation.
recovered during excavation.
recovered from the excavation was a crude hand-made type believed to date from the Iron Age.
rescue excavation in Worcester.
revealed in an excavation by Channel 4's Time Team, see page 58.
salvage excavation conditions.
The excavation of trenches for new drainage and underground sewer and gas tanks was observed.
Back on the excavation at the Kloster they had unearthed a skeleton so Sarah and I returned to help excavate it.
Excavation was done in short stages along the 30m section to avoid the danger of further slippage.
For caverns that contain breccias and speleothems, the excavation and mapping has to take into account the vagaries of speleothem deposition.
Despite a history of cultivation, trial excavation showed that archeological stratigraphy survived below ground.
Careful excavation is needed to sort out such complex stratigraphy.
Gigante died in November 2001 but his campaign for renewed excavation, far from dying with him, gathered strength.
The removal of a rotting tree stump may also allow for excavation within the ' shrine ' building.
The latter provide the excavation equipment in return for which all the finds are considered theirs by right.
Set in the wall of the adjacent almshouses is the carved tympanum of the church which was uncovered during the excavation.
uncovered by excavation by Exeter Archeology in 1976-8.
uncovered during an excavation is called a ' context ' and given a unique context number.
uncovered in the excavation running longitudinally across six frames.
But the progress of exploration and excavation may render this subject to further modification.
The systematic excavation of these, begun in 1900, has yielded some notable finds, especially of valuable runic inscriptions (F.
The recent exploration and excavation of early sites in Crete have entirely revolutionized our knowledge of its Early, remote past, and afforded the most astonishing E Middle evidence of the existence of a highly advanced and Late civilization going far back behind the historic period.
Finally in 1900 all scepticism in the learned world was set at rest by his discovery in the palace of Cnossus of whole archives consisting of clay tablets inscribed both in the pictographic (hieroglyphic) and linear forms of the Minoan script (Evans, " Palace of Knossos," Reports of Excavation, 1900-1905; Scripta Minoa, vol.
The richest grave of all was explored at Vaphio in Laconia in 1889, and yielded, besides many gems and miscellaneous goldsmiths' work, two golden goblets chased with scenes of bull-hunting, and certain broken vases painted in a large bold style which remained an enigma till the excavation of Cnossus.
The excavation of the outlying cemetery revealed the unique " Street of the Tombs " and brought to light a great number of sepulchral monuments, many of which remain in situ.
Immediately west of the Erechtheum is the Pandroseum or temenos of Pandrosos, the daughter of Cecrops, the excavation of which has revealed no traces of the temple (va6s) seen here by Pausanias (i.
One of the most perfect examples of early Christian pictorial decoration, the socalled " Dispute with the Doctors," in the catacomb of Calixtus, the " antique style of beauty " of which is noticed by Kugler, has thus suffered irreparable mutilation, the whole of the lower part of the picture having been destroyed by the excavation of a fresh grave-recess (Bottari, vol.
The modifications required to strengthen the crumbling walls to support the roof and to facilitate the excavation of loculi, involved so much labour that, as a rule, after a few attempts, the idea of utilizing an old quarry for burial purposes was abandoned.
The function of alimentation is closely associated with that of locomotion, somewhat as in the burrowing earthworm; in the excavation of its burrows the sand is passed through the body, and any nutrient matter that may adhere to it is extracted during its passage through the intestine, the exhausted sand being finally ejected through the vent at the orifice of the burrow and appearing at low tide as a worm casting.
This site is in process of excavation by Professor J.
It is impossible without further excavation to reconcile the remains - mainly of substructions - with the elaborate description of his villa given by Pliny (cf.
(1898), 4.93 The wine of Fundi is spoken of by ancient writers, though the ager Caecubus, the coast plain round the Lago di Fundi, was even more renowned, and Horace frequently praises its wine; and though Pliny the Elder speaks as if its production had almost entirely ceased in his day (attributing this to neglect, but even more to the excavation works of Nero's projected canal from the lacus Avernus to Ostia), Martial mentions it often, and it is spoken of in the inscription of a wine-dealer of the time of Hadrian, together with Falernian and Setian wines (Corpus inscript.
The site of the ancient city is among rapidly shifting sandhills, and the lack of stone in the neighbourhood has led to its buildings being used as a quarry even by the inhabitants of Terranova, so that nothing is now visible above ground but a small part of the wall of the temple of Athena and a few foundations of houses; portions of the city wall have been traced by excavation, and the necropolis has been carefully explored (see J.
was discovered; and by excavation conducted under Constantine's auspices, the Holy Sepulchre, " contrary to all expectation " as Eusebius naively says, was discovered also (see Jerusalem; and Sepulchre, The Holy).
This backfill had inclusions of charcoal flecks and gravel and sherds of medieval pottery (Appendix E) were recovered during excavation.
More of Salisbury Plain 's fascinating history was revealed in an excavation by Channel 4's Time Team, see page 58.
Earlier in the 1990s, a trial excavation of a recorded saltern mound at Coombes yielded rather disappointing results.
Most of Pat 's discoveries were made in the 1980s under very difficult salvage excavation conditions.
The sequence was uncovered by excavation by Exeter Archeology in 1976-8.
Each layer, structure or deposit uncovered during an excavation is called a ' context ' and given a unique context number.
A large interior timber was uncovered in the excavation running longitudinally across six frames.
Continued excavation of small passage straight ahead at very end.
Traces remain of the circuit wall, and of a sanctuary with copious terra-cotta offerings; the large necropolis yields constant loot to illicit excavation.
The museums of Athens have steadily grown in importance with the progress of excavation.
C. Butler of Princeton University undertook the task of excavation.
Sometimes they are closed in and kept free of water by compressed air so that excavation work can be carried on inside them (fig.
Mariette's excavation of the Serapeum at Memphis revealed the tombs of over sixty animals, ranging from the time of Amenophis III.
He went the same year to Carchemish on the Euphrates, as assistant in the British Museum's excavation of that ancient Hittite site.
It was an octostyle, pseudo-dipteral temple of highly ornate Ionic order, built on older foundations by Hermogenes of Alabanda at the end of the 3rd century B.C. The platform has been greatly overgrown since the excavation, but many bases, capitals, and other architectural members are visible.
He took out patents for lamps to burn oil of tar, for the propulsion of ships at sea, for facilitating excavation, mining and sinking, for rotary steam-engines and for other purposes; and so early as 1843 he was an advocate of the employment of steam and the screw propeller in warships.
More especially since the middle of the 19th century the decipherment of Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions and systematic excavation in Palestine and other parts of the East have supplied a multitude of new facts bearing more or less directly on the Old Testament.
The site was excavated in 1884-1886 by the Egypt Exploration Fund, and a supplementary excavation was made by the British School at Athens in 1899.
It lies on the western side of the canal on the low, narrow, treeless and desolate strip of land which separates the Mediterranean from Lake Menzala, the land at this point being raised and its area increased by the draining of part of the lake and by the excavation of the inner harbour.
Remains of Roman baths and of a theatre have been discovered in the course of excavation (Notizie degli scavi, 1877, 235; 1881, 205; 1882, 289), and the town was probably a municipium.
11), cities which, as excavation has shown, belong to the time of Rameses II.
That the religious life of Israel as portrayed therein dates from this remote period cannot be maintained against the results of excavation or against the later history, nor can we picture a united people in the desert when subsequent vicissitudes represent the union as the work of many years, and show that it lasted for a short time only under David and Solomon.
In Scotland excavation has been more active, in particular at the forts of Birrens, Newstead near Melrose, Lyne near Peebles, Ardoch between Stirling and Perth, and Castle Cary, Rough Castle and Bar Hill on the wall of Pius.
Excavation has hardly begun.
Excavation in Mesopotamia may in time cast some light on the questions whether the Semites really reached Babylonia by way of Mesopotamia,' when, and whom they found there, and whether they partly settled there by the way.
The Tibetan diggers collected together at the mines chiefly during the winter, when the frost assisted to bind the loose alluvial soil and render excavation easy.
The excavation of the site was carried out by the American School of Athens (1890-1895).
Peasants still find numerous antiquities, and the site would certainly repay more thorough excavation.
The excavation will now be filled up about two-thirds perhaps; and if so the tree may have a thorough good watering, sufficient to settle the soil closely about its roots.
2 Excavation alone can supplement the scanty information which the present evidence furnishes.
The chief building is the Great Palace, the so-called "House of Minos," the excavation of which by Arthur Evans dates from 1900: a number of rooms lying round the central paved court, oriented north and south, have been identified, among them being the throne-room with some wellpreserved wall paintings and a small bathroom attached, in the north-west quarter a larger bathroom and a shrine, and residential chambers in the south and east.
By the end of 1908 the excavation of this smaller palace was practically completed.
One object of special interest found in the course of excavation is a black steatite vessel in the form of a bull's head.
The work of excavation in the palace has been complicated by the necessity of propping up walls, floors and staircases.
In more modern times there has been the same excavation of shallow pits, and sluicing, sifting and sorting, by hand labour, the only machinery used being chain pumps made of earthen bowls to remove the water from the deeper pits.
Masonry of well-dressed stones has also been here discovered in course of excavation.
cattle-market, but, no buildings of interest being discovered around it, the excavation was filled up again, and this part of the city has not been since examined.
This has in fact been confirmed by excavation in Palestine.
Mehemet Ali began by deepening the canals of Lower Egypt by this amount, a gigantic and futile task; for as they had been laid out on no scientific principles, the deep channels became filled with mud during the first flood, and all the excavation had to be done over again, year after year.
The era of scientific excavation began with Flinders Petries work at Tanis in 1883.
The procedure in scientific excavation is directed to collecting and interpreting all the information that can he obtained from the excavation as to the history and nature of the site explored, be it town, temple, house, cemetery or individual grave, wasting no evidence that results from it touching the endless problems which scientific archaeology affordswhether in regard to arts and crafts, manners and customs, language, history or beliefs.
The absence of scientific excavation in Egypt was deplored by the Scottish archaeologist Alexander Henry Rhind (1833-1863), as early as 1862.
This, however, seems greatly in excess of probability, and several Egyptogists familiar with excavation are willing to accept Meyers figures on archaeological grounds.
The Prehistoric Age.One of the most striking features of recent Egyptology is the way in which the earliest ages of the civilization, before the conventional Egyptian style was formed, have been illustrated by the results of excavation.
The excavation of the rock temple of Abu Simbel and the completion of the great hail of Karnak were his greatest achievements in architecture.
In 1801 he undertook, largely at his own expense, the excavation of the skeletons of two mastodons in Ulster and Orange counties, New York, and in 1802 he established at Philadelphia Peale's Museum.
This new and unexpected knowledge, and modern improvements in the science of excavation, have led to the reexploration of several old sites.
Tiryns was dug again by the German Institute (until 1914), Phylakopi in Melos (1912) and the Kamares Cave in Crete (1913) by the British School at Athens, who also began in 1920 a further excavation on the acropolis of Mycenae.
At Goritsa, the ancient Corcyra, in 1911, the Greek Archaeological Society discovered an early archaic temple of Artemis, the excavation of which was continued until 1914 by Doerpfeld at the expense of the former Emperor of Germany.
The French had lately renewed their arrangements for the excavation of Colophon, but no results had been obtained up to 1921 on the site.
The excavation of Miletus was completed in 1914.
The coming of this nation here as in Rhodes put an end to the work of others, and the American excavation has been continued by the Italian Government on a larger scale and with the protection of a military force.
Of the actual condition of the land during the period of Roman rule in Britain, we have yet to learn the details by excavation.
In process of time the whole of these deposits might be denuded from the area, and there might even remain no trace of the younger formations on which the valleys began and which guided their excavation.
He also set on foot movements for excavation and the collection of works of art in Greece, with excellent results.
Behind them lie picturesque gardens which contain the ruins, the plan of which is difficult to trace, though the outlines of some portions, as the chapter-house, have been made clear by excavation.
Carapanos made a systematic excavation of the whole site to a considerable depth.
25), is to be seen at the south-west corner of the city; it is an enormous excavation in the rock with drains in its sides, at the bottom of which there is now a flourishing orange garden.
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